Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Jeremiah Balogun

23 Development of a Fuzzy Logic Based Model for Monitoring Child Pornography

Authors: Mariam Ismail, Kazeem Rufai, Jeremiah Balogun

Abstract:

A study was conducted to apply fuzzy logic to the development of a monitoring model for child pornography based on associated risk factors, which can be used by forensic experts or integrated into forensic systems for the early detection of child pornographic activities. A number of methods were adopted in the study, which includes an extensive review of related works was done in order to identify the factors that are associated with child pornography following which they were validated by an expert sex psychologist and guidance counselor, and relevant data was collected. Fuzzy membership functions were used to fuzzify the associated variables identified alongside the risk of the occurrence of child pornography based on the inference rules that were provided by the experts consulted, and the fuzzy logic expert system was simulated using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox available in the MATLAB Software Release 2016. The results of the study showed that there were 4 categories of risk factors required for assessing the risk of a suspect committing child pornography offenses. The results of the study showed that 2 and 3 triangular membership functions were used to formulate the risk factors based on the 2 and 3 number of labels assigned, respectively. The results of the study showed that 5 fuzzy logic models were formulated such that the first 4 was used to assess the impact of each category on child pornography while the last one takes the 4 outputs from the 4 fuzzy logic models as inputs required for assessing the risk of child pornography. The following conclusion was made; there were factors that were related to personal traits, social traits, history of child pornography crimes, and self-regulatory deficiency traits by the suspects required for the assessment of the risk of child pornography crimes committed by a suspect. Using the values of the identified risk factors selected for this study, the risk of child pornography can be easily assessed from their values in order to determine the likelihood of a suspect perpetuating the crime.

Keywords: fuzzy, membership functions, pornography, risk factors

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22 An Exploration of the Provision of Government-Subsidised Housing without Title Deeds: A Recipient’s Interpretation of Security of Tenure

Authors: Maléne Maria Magdalena Campbell, Jeremiah Mholo

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Low-income households earning less than 3,500 ZAR (about 175 GBP) per month can apply to the South African government, through the National Housing Subsidy, for fully subsidised houses. An objective of this subsidy is to enable low-income households’ participation in the formal housing market; however, the beneficiaries received houses without title deeds. As such, if the beneficiaries did not have a secured tenure at the time of their death then surviving family may face possible eviction. Therefore, an aim of this research was to determine how these beneficiaries interpret tenure security. The research focused on government subsidised housing in the Dithlake settlement of a rural hamlet named Koffiefontein, in the Letsemeng Local Municipality of South Africa. Quantitative data on the beneficiaries were collected from the local municipality, while qualitative data were collected from a sample of 45 beneficiaries.

Keywords: low-income families, subsidised housing, titling, housing market

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
21 On the Estimation of Crime Rate in the Southwest of Nigeria: Principal Component Analysis Approach

Authors: Kayode Balogun, Femi Ayoola

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Crime is at alarming rate in this part of world and there are many factors that are contributing to this antisocietal behaviour both among the youths and old. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to reduce the dimensionality and to really know those variables that were crime prone in the study region. Data were collected on twenty-eight crime variables from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) databank for a period of fifteen years, while retaining as much of the information as possible. We use PCA in this study to know the number of major variables and contributors to the crime in the Southwest Nigeria. The results of our analysis revealed that there were eight principal variables have been retained using the Scree plot and Loading plot which implies an eight-equation solution will be appropriate for the data. The eight components explained 93.81% of the total variation in the data set. We also found that the highest and commonly committed crimes in the Southwestern Nigeria were: Assault, Grievous Harm and Wounding, theft/stealing, burglary, house breaking, false pretence, unlawful arms possession and breach of public peace.

Keywords: crime rates, data, Southwest Nigeria, principal component analysis, variables

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20 Relationship between Finger Print Pattern and Gender among Adolescents of Igala Ethnic Group, Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Paul Idoko Ukanu, Sunday Abba, Balogun Sadiya

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The study of the finger prints patterns among the Igala ethnic groups was done in order to see their association gender. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 602 subjects participated in this study, 322 females and 280 males, which were mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 13-19 years. The subjects fingerprint pattern was obtained by allowing them place the tip of each finger on the stamp pad, which is then imprinted on the questionnaire, this was done for both the left and right hand. Female had higher arch, whorl and loop finger print pattern in most of the right fingers than the males, the differences were statistically significant for the right index, right ring finger and right little finger, but were statistically insignificant for right thumb and right middle finger as p = 0.207 and 0.726, respectively. The result also revealed that males had higher arch finger print pattern in the right index and right little finger than the females, which was statistically significant (p = 0.001), and also a high whorl finger print pattern than the females in the right middle and ring finger.

Keywords: arch, loop, whorl, fingers

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
19 Spatial Distribution of Socio-Economic Factors in Kogi State, Nigeria: Development Issues and Implication(s)

Authors: Yahya A. Sadiq, Grace F. Balogun, Olufemi J. Anjorin

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This study analyzed the spatial distribution of socio-economic factors in Kogi state with a view to examining its implications on the development of the state. Consequently, questionnaires were administered on both the selected individual respondents (784) in the state and on the administrative offices (local council offices, 21) to solicit relevant information on the spatial distribution of socio-economic factors in their areas. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using percentages. The study revealed commerce/trade, education, and health care, etc. as the major socio-economic factors in the state but with marked variation/imbalance in their spatial distribution across the study area. The rural-based local government areas have far less of such important facilities. Conclusively, it was recommended that there is need for socio-economic transformation of living conditions of people in the study area especially by positively redistributing local political power and the resources that are abound in the state will be felt by everybody including the commoners.

Keywords: development, local government areas (LGAs), spatial distribution, socio-economic factors

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18 Modelling and Simulation of a Commercial Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Obiora E. Anisiji, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie

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This paper developed a mathematical model of a commercial biogas plant for urban area clean energy requirement. It identified biodegradable waste materials like domestic/city refuse as economically viable alternative source of energy. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analyses were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500 m3 power gas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of bio gas production is essentially a function of the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: energy and mass conservation, specific growth rate, thermophilic bacteria, temperature, rate of bio gas production

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17 Integrated Process Modelling of a Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Obiora E. Anisiji, Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie

Abstract:

This work developed a mathematical model of a biogas plant from a mechanistic point of view, for urban area clean energy requirement. It aimed at integrating thermodynamics; which deals with the direction in which a process occurs and Biochemical kinetics; which gives the understanding of the rates of biochemical reaction. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analysis were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500m3 biogas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of biogas production is essentially a function of enthalpy ratio, the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas plant, biogas production, bio-reactor, energy, fermentation, rate of production, temperature, therm

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16 The Influence of Strategic Networks and Logistics Integration on Company Performance among Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Jeremiah Madzimure

Abstract:

In order to stay competitive in business and improve performance, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) need to make use of business networking and logistics integration. Strategic networking and logistics integration in business companies have become critical as they allow supplier partnering, exchange of vital information/ access to valuable resources allowing innovation, gaining access to additional resources, sharing risks and costs which is required for enhancing company performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of strategic networks and logistics integration on company performance: the case of small and medium enterprises in South Africa. A quantitative research design was adopted in this study, and 137 SMEs owners and managers completed and returned the survey questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted using the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS), version 24.0 to assess psychometric properties of the measurement scales. Path modelling techniques were used to test the proposed hypothesis. Three research hypotheses were postulated. The results indicate that strategic networks had a positive and significant influence on logistics integration and company performance. As well logistics integration had a strong positive and significant influence on company performance. This study provides a useful model for analysing the relationship between strategic networks and logistics integration on company performance. Moreover, the findings of the study provide useful insights into how SMEs should benefit from business networking and logistics integration so as to improve their performance. The implications of the study are discussed, and finally, limitations and recommendations are indicated.

Keywords: strategic networking, logistics integration, company performance, SMEs

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15 Lime Based Products as a Maintainable Option for Repair And Restoration of Historic Buildings in India

Authors: Adedayo Jeremiah Adeyekun, Samuel Oluwagbemiga Ishola

Abstract:

This research aims to study the use of traditional building materials for the repair and refurbishment of historic buildings in India and to provide an authentic treatment of historical buildings that will be highly considered by taking into consideration the new standards of rehabilitating process. This can be proven to be an effective solution over modern impervious material due to its compatibility with traditional building methods and materials. For example, their elastoplastic properties allow accommodating movement due to settlement or moisture/temperature changes without cracking. The use of lime also enhances workability, water retention and bond characteristics. Lime is considered to be a natural, traditional material, but it is also sustainable and energy-efficient, with production powered by biomass and emissions up to 25% less than cementitious materials. However, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the impact of lime‐based materials on the energy efficiency and thermal properties of traditional buildings and structures. Although lime mortars, renders and plasters were largely superseded by cement-based products in the first half of the 20th century, lime has a long and proven track record dating back to ancient times. This was used by the Egyptians in 4000BC to construct the pyramids. This doesn't mean that lime is an outdated technology, nor is it difficult to be used as a material. In fact, lime has a growing place in modern construction, with increasing numbers of designers choosing to use lime-based products because of their special properties. To carry out this research, some historic buildings will be surveyed and information will be derived from the textbooks and journals related to Architectural restoration.

Keywords: lime, materials, historic, buildings, sustainability

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14 Grammatical Forms and Functions in Selected Political Interviews of Nigerian Presidential Aspirants in 2015 General Election

Authors: Temitope Abiodun Balogun

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Political interviews are one of the ways by which political office-seekers in Nigeria sell themselves to the electorates. Extant studies have examined the discourse of political interviews from conversational, philosophical, rhetorical, stylistic and pragmatic perspectives with insufficient attention paid to grammatical forms and communicative intentions of the interviews granted by the two presidential aspirants in the 2015 Nigerian general election. This study fills this scholarly gap to unmask their grammatical forms and communicative styles, intention and credibility. The paper adopts Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar, specifically interpersonal function coupled with Searle’s Model of Speech Acts Theory as a theoretical framework. A total of six interviews granted by the two presidential aspirants in media serve as the source of data. It is discovered that, in most cases, politicians’ communicative intention is to “pull-down” their political opponents. While declarative and interrogatives are simple, direct and straightforward, the intention is to condemn, lambast and castigate their opponents. This communicative style does not allow the general populace to decipher the political manifestoes of the political aspirants and the party they represent. The paper recommends that before Nigeria can boast of any sustainable growth and development, there is the need for her political office-seekers to adopt effective communication strategies and styles to unveil their intention and manifestoes so that electorates can evaluate their performance after their tenure of office.

Keywords: general election, grammatical forms and function, political interviews, presidential aspirants

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13 Proximate Composition, Colour and Sensory Properties of Akara egbe Prepared from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: Samson A. Oyeyinka, Taiwo Tijani, Adewumi T. Oyeyinka, Mutiat A. Balogun, Fausat L. Kolawole, John K. Joseph

Abstract:

Bambara groundnut is an underutilised leguminous crop that has a similar composition to cowpea. Hence, it could be used in making traditional snack usually produced from cowpea paste. In this study, akara egbe, a traditional snack was prepared from Bambara groundnut flour or paste. Cowpea was included as the reference sample. The proximate composition and functional properties of the flours were studies as well as the proximate composition and sensory properties of the resulting akara egbe. Protein and carbohydrate were the main components of Bambara groundnut and cowpea grains. Ash, fat and fiber contents were low. Bambara groundnut flour had higher protein content (23.71%) than cowpea (19.47%). In terms of functional properties, the oil absorption capacity (0.75 g oil/g flour) of Bambara groundnut flour was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than that of the cowpea (0.92 g oil/g flour), whereas, Cowpea flour absorbed more water (1.59 g water/g flour) than Bambara groundnut flour (1.12 g/g). The packed bulk density (0.92 g/mL) of Bambara groundnut was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than cowpea flour (0.82 g/mL). Akara egbe prepared from Bambara groundnut flour showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher protein content (23.41%) than the sample made from Bambara groundnut paste (19.35%). Akara egbe prepared from cowpea paste had higher ratings in aroma, colour, taste, crunchiness and overall acceptability than those made from cowpea flour or Bambara groundnut paste or flour. Bambara groundnut can produce akara egbe with comparable nutritional and sensory properties to that made from cowpea.

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, Cowpea, Snack, Sensory properties

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12 Vertical Structure and Frequencies of Deep Convection during Active Periods of the West African Monsoon Season

Authors: Balogun R. Ayodeji, Adefisan E. Adesanya, Adeyewa Z. Debo, E. C. Okogbue

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Deep convective systems during active periods of the West African monsoon season have not been properly investigated over better temporal and spatial resolution in West Africa. Deep convective systems are investigated over seven climatic zones of the West African sub-region, which are; west-coast rainforest, dry rainforest, Nigeria-Cameroon rainforest, Nigeria savannah, Central African and South Sudan (CASS) Savannah, Sudano-Sahel, and Sahel, using data from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) database. The vertical structure of the convective systems indicated by the presence of at least one 40 dBZ and reaching (attaining) at least 1km in the atmosphere showed strong core (highest frequency (%)) of reflectivity values around 2 km which is below the freezing level (4-5km) for all the zones. Echoes are detected above the 15km altitude much more frequently in the rainforest and Savannah zones than the Sudano and Sahel zones during active periods in March-May (MAM), whereas during active periods in June-September (JJAS) the savannahs, Sudano and Sahel zones convections tend to reach higher altitude more frequently than the rainforest zones. The percentage frequencies of deep convection indicated that the occurrences of the systems are within the range of 2.3-2.8% during both March-May (MAM) and June-September (JJAS) active periods in the rainforest and savannah zones. On the contrary, the percentage frequencies were found to be less than 2% in the Sudano and Sahel zones, except during the active-JJAS period in the Sudano zone.

Keywords: active periods, convective system, frequency, reflectivity

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11 Predictors of Ante-Natal Care and Health Facility Delivery Services Utilization in a Rural Area in Plateau State

Authors: Lilian A. Okeke, I. Okeke, N. Waziri, S. Balogun, P. Nguku, O. Fawole

Abstract:

Background: Access to ante-natal care services promotes safe motherhood and delivery with improved maternal and neonatal outcome. We conducted this study to identify factors influencing the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and health delivery services. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study. Households were numbered and a one in three sample was selected using a systematic sampling method. One hundred and ninety eight women who were either pregnant or had previous deliveries were interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics, and reasons for non-utilization of ANC and health delivery services. We performed univariate and bivariate analysis using Epi info version 3.5.3. Results: The age of respondents ranged from (17-55 years) with a median age of 29 years. One hundred and ninety two (97%) utilized antenatal care services. Ninety three (47.9%) attended ANC at second trimester. More than half (58.6%) had ≥ 4 visits to ANC. One hundred and thirty one (66.2%) had their last delivery at home by a traditional birth attendant. Factors associated with ANC and health facility delivery services utilization were: age group 45-55 (OR 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00-0.16) and > 55 years (OR 0.03; 95% CI: 0.00-0.60), wife’s educational status (OR 3.17; 95% CI: 1.66-8.30), husband’s permission (OR 11.8; 95% CI 2.19-63.62), and distance ≥ 5km (OR 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16-0.60). Conclusion: ANC services were well utilized. Most women did not book early and had their last delivery at home. Predictors of ANC use and health facility delivery were age, wife’s educational status, husband's permission and long distance from health facility. A one-day health sensitization of the benefits of ANC utilization and the dangers of delivering at home was implemented.

Keywords: ante natal care, health facility, delivery services, rural area, Plateau state

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10 Effects of Aerodynamic on Suspended Cables Using Non-Linear Finite Element Approach

Authors: Justin Nwabanne, Sam Omenyi, Jeremiah Chukwuneke

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This work presents structural nonlinear static analysis of a horizontal taut cable using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method. The FEA was performed analytically to determine the tensions at each nodal point and subsequently, performed based on finite element displacement method computationally using the FEA software, ANSYS 14.0 to determine their behaviour under the influence of aerodynamic forces imposed on the cable. The convergence procedure is adapted into the method to prevent excessive displacements through the computations. The work compared the two FEA cases by examining the effectiveness of the analytical model in describing the response with few degrees of freedom and the ability of the nonlinear finite element procedure adopted to capture the complex features of cable dynamics with reference to the aerodynamic external influence. Results obtained from this work explain that the analytic FEM results without aerodynamic influence show a parabolic response with an optimum deflection at nodal points 12 and 13 with the cable weight at nodes 12 and 13 having the value -1.002936N while for the cable tension shows an optimum deflection value for nodes 12 and 13 at -189396.97kg/km. The maximum displacement for the cable system was obtained from ANSYS 14.0 as 4483.83 mm for X, Y and Z components of displacements at node number 2 while the maximum displacement obtained is 4218.75mm for all the directional components. The dynamic behaviour of a taut cable investigated has application in a typical power transmission line. Aerodynamic influences on the cables were considered using FEA approach by employing ANSYS 14.0 showed a complex modal behaviour as expected.

Keywords: aerodynamics, cable tension and weight, finite element analysis, nodal, non-linear model, optimum deflection, suspended cable, transmission line

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9 Studies on the Physico-Chemical Parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Mshelia, J. K. Balogun, J. Auta, N. O. Bankole

Abstract:

Studies on some aspects of the physico-chemical parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria was carried out from January to December, 2011. The aim was to investigate some of the physico-chemical parameters relevant to life and health of fish in the water body. Six (6) sampling sites were selected at random which covered Northern (Faku and Awuru), middle (Old Gbajibo and Shankade) and southern zones (New Gbajibo and Jebba dam} of Jebba Lake. Sampling was carried out for the period of 12 Months. The Physico-chemical parameters that were considered were water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, water transparency, phosphate and nitrate. They were all measured using standard methods. The results showed that water temperature values ranged between 26.06 ± 0.15a in Jebba lake site to 27.34 ± 0.12b in Shankade sampling site, depth varied from 8.08m to 31.64m, water current was between 20.10.62 cm/sec and 26.46 cm/sec, Secchi disc transparency ranged from0.46±0.01 m in New Gbajibo, while the highest mean value was 0.53 ± 0.04 m in Jebba dam., pH varied from 6.49 ± 0.01 and 7.59,5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.The dissolved oxygen varied between 5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.,The mean conductivity value was highest in Faku and Jebba with 128.8 ± 0.32 and 128.8 ± 0.42homs/cm) respectively, Alkalinity ranged 43.00±0.02 to33.30±0.32 mg/l., The nitrate-nitrogen range (2.37 ± 0.08 – 6.40 ± 0.50mg/l)., The mean values of phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) recorded varied between 0.18 ± 0.00 mg/l in Faku to 0.47 + 0.10 mg/l in Old Gbajibo.The highest mean value for total dissolved solids was 57.88 ± 0.28 mg/l in Shankade, while the lowest mean value of 39.17 ± 0.42 mg/l was recorded in Faku. Free CO2 ranged from 1.75 mg/l to 2.94 mg/l, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was between 4.25 mg/l and 5.41 mg/l and nitrate-nitrogen concentration was between 2.37 mg/l and 6.40 mg/l. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between these parameters in relation to stations. Generally, the physico-chemical characteristics of Lake Jebba were within the productive values for aquatic systems, and strongly indicate that the lake is unpolluted.

Keywords: Jebba Lake, water quality, secchi disc, DO meter, sampling sites, physico-chemical parameters

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8 Raw Japanese Quail Egg Produces Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Gastro-Protective Effects in Rats

Authors: Sani Ismaila, Shafiu Yau, Abubakar Salisu, Buhari Salisu, Sharifat Balogun, Mustapha Abubakar, Biobaku Khalid, Agaie Bello

Abstract:

Over the years, Japanese quail egg has been in use in the management of diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of raw Quail egg (yolk + albumin) in rats. Pain was assessed in rats by recording the latent period and writing reflex, anti-inflammatory effect was determined using both motility and compression test, while the gastro-protective effects were assessed by observing the histology of the stomach after diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers and subsequent treatment with the quail egg, Rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups; Groups I: were the control non-treated (NT), Group II were treated with Tramadol 50 mg/kg/Os (TMD) or Indomethacin (IND) 5mg/kg/Os (positive control for the writhing reflex determination), while group III and IV were treated with 3 and 6g/kg of raw quail egg respectively). Groups treated with quail egg in both doses showed a significant increase in the latent period (p <0 .05) when compared to the control NT, but lower than the group treated with tramadol at 20mins interval (p<0.05). Writing reflexes decrease in groups II, III, and IV compared to the NT group (p < 0.05). While motility increases significantly (p < 0.05) in groups II, compared to I (p<0.05). Control non-treated rats showed a quicker and extensive response to compression using the Vanier calliper on the inflamed paw compared to groups II-IV (p < 0.05). Histological studies of the stomach revealed sloughing of the epithelia, cellular infiltration with micro abscesses in the non-treated, while groups treated concurrently with quail egg showed proliferation of the glandular epithelia and goblet cells, and those treated 30 minutes before diclofenac administration showed proliferation of glands and thickening of the squamous epithelia. This study showed that quail egg has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective potentials and can be used as adjuvant treatment whenever COX-2 enzymes inhibitors are indicated.

Keywords: analgesia, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective effect, japanese quail egg

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7 The Current Status and Abundance of the Genus Citharinus in Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Mshelia, J. K Balogun, J. Auta, N. O. Bankole

Abstract:

The current status and abundance of the genus Citharinus was carried out in Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria from January to December, 2011. The aim was to determine the extent of exploitation of the genus Citharinus in Jebba Lake so as to advice the government of Nigeria on how to overcome difficulties in terms of the sustainability of the said fish in the Lake. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. A total of 2,389 of the genus Citharinus were caught during the sampling period. Only two species of the genus Citharinus were caught with 1,220 in number and 430.68kg total weight of Citharinus citharus and 1,169 in number and 418.56kg total weight of Citharinus latus). The current total yield estimated for the genus Citharinus in Jebba Lake in the six (6) sampling sites was calculated and pooled together to be 849.24kg. A day’s catch was calculated to be 35.38kg. The monthly and annual yields of the genus Citharinus were calculated to 1061.55 equivalents to 1 ton and 12 metric tonnes respectively. For the fecundity, June, July and August were discovered as the spawning period for the genus Citharinus and out of total experimental gillnet catch of 2, 389, only 244 (10.21%)of Citharinus citharus and 231 (9.67%) of Citharinus latus were in sexually mature stage. Out of these numbers, 113 (46.31%) were males and 121 (53.69%) were females of Citharinus citharus and 112 (48.48) were males and 119 (51.52) were females of Citharinus latus. The youngest mature males in either of the two had a standard length of 31.5 with a weight of 800.5gWhilethe youngest spawning females were having the standard length of 29.5 cm with a weight of 1,3oo.5g.It was also discovered that females started maturing earlier than the males at the standard length for females and males to be 18.0cm and 19.5cm respectively. Their fecundity ranged from 15,000 to 16, 500 eggs. The sex ratio of 1172 that were males and 1217 that were females was 1 male to 1.0383 females which was equivalent to 1:1 sex ratio of male to female. It was concluded that Jebba Lake had suffered seriously over exploitation of the genus Citharinus and proper management have to be enforced on the lake otherwise the threat of fish being extent may arise.

Keywords: Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria, Citharinus citharus, Citharinus latus, fecundity, sex ratio

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6 Impact of Environmental Pollution on Oxidative Stress Indices in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Araromi River in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Arojojoye Oluwatosin Adetola, Nwaechefu Olajumoke Olufunlayo, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Jeremiah Moyinoluwalogo Afolabi, Asaolu Racheal Oluwabukola

Abstract:

The effects of man’s activities on the environment include depletion of natural resources alongside pollution of water bodies. Petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has compromised the aquatic environment with grave consequences on the entire ecosystem. In this study, we assessed the environmental safety of Araromi River, located in an oil-producing area in Ondo State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria by determining the levels of heavy metals (copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and some biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and reduced glutathione) in Clarias gariepinus (350-400g) from the river using standard methods. Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm in the same geographical location as the reference site (Ilesannmi fishery) was used as a control. Water samples from both sites were also analysed for some physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and bacterial contamination. Our findings show a significant increase in malondialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) as well as alterations in antioxidant status in the organs of Clarias gariepinus from Araromi River compared with control. A significant increase in bacterial contaminants, heavy metal pollutants, and particulate matter deposits were also observed in the water sample from Araromi River compared with control. In conclusion, high levels of indicators of environmental pollution observed in the water sample from Araromi River coupled with induction of oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus from the river show that Araromi River is polluted; therefore, consumption of fishes and other aquatic organisms from the river may be unsafe for the people in that community.

Keywords: Araromi River, Clarias gariepinus, environmental pollution, heavy metals, oxidative stress

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5 Trade Policy Incentives and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Dele Balogun

Abstract:

This paper analyzes, using descriptive statistics and econometrics data which span the period 1981 to 2014 to gauge the effects of trade policy incentives on economic growth in Nigeria. It argues that the provided incentives penalize economic growth during pre-trade liberalization eras, but stimulated a rapid increase in total factor productivity during the post-liberalization period of 2000 to 2014. The trend analysis shows that Nigeria maintained high tariff walls in economic regulation eras which became low in post liberalization era. The protections were in favor of infant industries, which were mainly appendages of multinationals but against imports of competing food and finished consumer products. The trade openness index confirms the undue exposure of Nigeria’s economy to the vagaries of international market shocks; while banking sector recapitalization and new listing of telecommunications companies deepened the financial markets in post-liberalization era. The structure of economic incentives was biased in favor of construction, trade and services, but against the real sector despite protectionist policies. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) estimates show that the Nigerian economy suffered stagnation in pre-liberalization eras, but experienced rapid growth rates in post-liberalization eras. The regression results relating trade policy incentives to TFP growth rate yielded a significant but negative intercept suggesting that a non-interventionist policy could be detrimental to economic progress, while protective tariff which limits imports of competing products could spur productivity gains in domestic import substitutes beyond factor growth with market liberalization. The main constraint to the effectiveness of trade policy incentives is the failure of benefiting industries to leverage on the domestic factor endowments of the nation. This paper concludes that there is the need to review the current economic transformation strategies urgently with a view to provide policymakers with a better understanding of the most viable options that could make for rapid success.

Keywords: economic growth, macroeconomic incentives, total factor productivity, trade policies

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4 A Review of the Future of Sustainable Urban Water Supply in South Africa

Authors: Jeremiah Mutamba

Abstract:

Water is a critical resource for sustainable economic growth and social development. It enables societies to thrive and influences every urban center’s future. Thus, water must always be available in the right quantity and quality. However, in South Africa - a known physically water scarce nation – the future of sustainable urban supply of water may be in jeopardy. The country facing a water crisis influenced by insufficient infrastructure investment and maintenance, recurrent droughts and climate variation, human induced water quality deterioration, as well as growing lack of technical capacity in water institutions, particularly local municipalities. Aside of the eight metropolitan municipalities for the country, most municipalities struggle with provision of reliable water to their citizens. These municipalities contend with having now capable engineers, aging infrastructure with concomitant high system water losses (of 30% and upwards), coupled with growing water demand from expanding industries and population growth. Also, a significant portion (44%) of national water treatment plants are in critically poor condition, requiring urgent rehabilitation. Municipalities also struggle to raise funding to instate projects. All these factors militate against sustainable urban water supply in the country. Urgent mitigation measures are required. This paper seeks to review the extent of the current water supply challenges in South Africa’s urban centers, including searching for practical and cost-effective measures. The study followed a qualitative approach, combining desktop literature research, interviews with key sector stakeholders, and a workshop. Phenomenological data analysis technique was used to study and examine interview data and secondary desktop data. Preliminary findings established the building of technical or engineering capacity, reversal of the high physical water losses, rehabilitation of poor condition and dysfunctional water treatment works, diversification of water resource mix, and water scarcity awareness programs as possible practical solutions. Other proposed solutions include the use of performance-based or value-based contracting to fund initiatives to reduce high system water losses. Out-come based arrangements for revenue increasing water loss reduction projects were considered more practical in funding-stressed local municipalities. If proactively implemented in an integrated manner, these proposed solutions are likely to ensure sustainable urban water supply in South African urban centers in the future.

Keywords: sustainable, water scarcity, water supply, South Africa

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3 Diurnal Circle of Rainfall and Convective Properties over West and Central Africa

Authors: Balogun R. Ayodeji, Adefisan E. Adesanya, Adeyewa Z. Debo, E. C. Okogbue

Abstract:

The need to investigate diurnal weather circles in West Africa is coined in the fact that complex interactions often results from diurnal weather patterns. This study investigates diurnal circles of wind, rainfall and convective properties using six (6) hour interval data from the ERA-Interim and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The seven distinct zones, used in this work and classified as rainforest (west-coast, dry, Nigeria-Cameroon), Savannah (Nigeria, and Central Africa and South Sudan (CASS)), Sudano-Sahel, and Sahel, were clearly indicated by the rainfall pattern in each zones. Results showed that the land‐ocean warming contrast was more strongly sensitive to seasonal cycle and has been very weak during March-May (MAM) but clearly spelt out during June-September (JJAS). Dipoles of wind convergence/divergence and wet/dry precipitation, between CASS and Nigeria Savannah zones, were identified in morning and evening hours of MAM, whereas distinct night and day anomaly, in the same location of CASS, were found to be consistent during the JJAS season. Diurnal variation of convective properties showed that stratiform precipitation, due to the extremely low occurrence of flashcount climatology, was dominant during morning hours for both MAM and JJAS than other periods of the day. On the other hand, diurnal variation of the system sizes showed that small system sizes were most dominant during the day time periods for both MAM and JJAS, whereas larger system sizes were frequent during the evening, night, and morning hours. The locations of flashcount and system sizes agreed with earlier results that morning and day-time hours were dominated by stratiform precipitation and small system sizes respectively. Most results clearly showed that the eastern locations of Sudano and Sahel were consistently dry because rainfall and precipitation features were predominantly few. System sizes greater than or equal to 800 km² were found in the western axis of the Sudano and Sahel zones, whereas the eastern axis, particularly in the Sahel zone, had minimal occurrences of small/large system sizes. From the results of locations of extreme systems, flashcount greater than 275 in one single system was never observed during the morning (6Z) diurnal, whereas, the evening (18Z) diurnal had the most frequent cases (at least 8) of flashcount exceeding 275 in one single system. Results presented had shown the importance of diurnal variation in understanding precipitation, flashcount, system sizes patterns at diurnal scales, and understanding land-ocean contrast, precipitation, and wind field anomaly at diurnal scales.

Keywords: convective properties, diurnal circle, flashcount, system sizes

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2 On Panel Data Analysis of Factors on Economic Advances in Some African Countries

Authors: Ayoola Femi J., Kayode Balogun

Abstract:

In some African Countries, increase in Gross Domestic Products (GDP) has not translated to real development as expected by common-man in his household. For decades, a lot of contests on economic growth and development has been a nagging issues. The focus of this study is to analysing the effects of economic determinants/factors on economic advances in some African Countries by employing panel data analysis. The yearly (1990-2013) data were obtained from the world economic outlook database of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), for probing the effects of these variables on growth rate in some selected African countries which include: Nigeria, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cape-Verde, Cameroun, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic Of Congo, Cote di’ Voire, Egypt, Equatorial-Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, and Uganda. The effects of 6 macroeconomic variables on GDP were critically examined. We used 37 Countries GDP as our dependent variable and 6 independent variables used in this study include: Total Investment (totinv), Inflation (inf), Population (popl), current account balance (cab), volume of imports of goods and services (vimgs), and volume of exports of goods and services (vexgs). The results of our analysis shows that total investment, population and volume of exports of goods and services strongly affect the economic growth. We noticed that population of these selected countries positively affect the GDP while total investment and volume of exports negatively affect GDP. On the contrary, inflation, current account balance and volume of imports of goods and services’ contribution to the GDP are insignificant. The results of our analysis shows that total investment, population and volume of exports of goods and services strongly affect the economic growth. We noticed that population of these selected countries positively affect the GDP while total investment and volume of exports negatively affect GDP. On the contrary, inflation, current account balance and volume of imports of goods and services’ contribution to the GDP are insignificant. The results of this study would be useful for individual African governments for developing a suitable and appropriate economic policies and strategies. It will also help investors to understand the economic nature and viability of Africa as a continent as well as its individual countries.

Keywords: African countries, economic growth and development, gross domestic products, static panel data models

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1 Climate Change Implications on Occupational Health and Productivity in Tropical Countries: Study Results from India

Authors: Vidhya Venugopal, Jeremiah Chinnadurai, Rebekah A. I. Lucas, Tord Kjellstrom, Bruno Lemke

Abstract:

Introduction: The effects of climate change (CC) are largely discussed across the globe in terms of impacts on the environment and the general population, but the impacts on workers remain largely unexplored. The predicted rise in temperatures and heat events in the CC scenario have health implications on millions of workers in physically exerting jobs. The current health and productivity risks associated with heat exposures are characterized, future risk estimates as temperature rises and recommendations towards developing protective and preventive occupational health and safety guidelines for India are discussed. Methodology: Cross-sectional studies were conducted in several occupational sectors with workers engaged in moderate to heavy labor (n=1580). Quantitative data on heat exposures (WBGT°C), physiological heat strain indicators viz., Core temperature (CBT), Urine specific gravity (USG), Sweat rate (SwR) and qualitative data on heat-related health symptoms and productivity losses were collected. Data were analyzed for associations between heat exposures, health and productivity outcomes related to heat stress. Findings: Heat conditions exceeded the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for safe manual work in 66% of the workers across several sectors (Avg.WBGT of 28.7°C±3.1°C). Widespread concerns about heat-related health outcomes (86%) were prevalent among workers exposed to high TLVs, with excessive sweating, fatigue and tiredness being commonly reported by workers. The heat stress indicators, core temperature (14%), Sweat rate (8%) and USG (9%), were above normal levels in the study population. A significant association was found between rise in Core Temperatures and WBGT exposures (p=0.000179) Elevated USG and SwR in the worker population indicate moderate dehydration, with potential risks of developing heat-related illnesses. In a steel industry with high heat exposures, an alarming 9% prevalence of kidney/urogenital anomalies was observed in a young workforce. Heat exposures above TLVs were associated with significantly increased odds of various adverse health outcomes (OR=2.43, 95% CI 1.88 to 3.13, p-value = <0.0001) and productivity losses (OR=1.79, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.4, p-value = 0.0002). Rough estimates for the number of workers who would be subjected to higher than TLV levels in the various RCP scenarios are RCP2.6 =79%, RCP4.5 & RCP6 = 81% and at RCP 8.5 = 85%. Rising temperatures due to CC has the capacity to further reduce already compromised health and productivity by subjecting the workers to increased heat exposures in the RCP scenarios are of concern for the country’s occupational health and economy. Conclusion: The findings of this study clearly identify that health protection from hot weather will become increasingly necessary in the Indian subcontinent and understanding the various adaptation techniques needs urgent attention. Further research with a multi-targeted approach to develop strategies for implementing interventions to protect the millions of workers is imperative. Approaches to include health aspects of climate change within sectoral and climate change specific policies should be encouraged, via a number of mechanisms, such as the “Health in All Policies” approach to avert adverse health and productivity consequences as climate change proceeds.

Keywords: heat stress, occupational health, productivity loss, heat strain, adverse health outcomes

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