Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5534

Search results for: supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs)

5534 Experimental Investigation of Cementitious Materials in Low Strength Range for Sustainability and Affordability

Authors: Mulubrhan Berihu, Supratic Gupta, Adisu Demmewoz

Abstract:

Due to the design versatility, availability, and cost-efficiency, concrete is continuing to be the most used construction material on earth. However, the production of Portland cement, the primary component of concrete mix, is causing to have a serious effect on environmental and economic impacts. This shows there is a need to study using of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The most commonly used supplementary cementitious materials are wastes and the use of these industrial waste products has technical, economic and environmental benefits besides the reduction of CO2 emission from cement production. This paper aims to document the effect on the strength property of concrete due to the use of low cement by maximizing supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash. The amount of cement content was below 250 kg/m3 and in all the mixes, the quantity powder (cement + fly ash) is almost kept at about 500 kg. According to this seven different cement content (250 kg/m3, 195 kg/m3, 150 kg/m3, 125 kg/m3, 100 kg/m3, 85 kg/m3, 70 kg/m3) with different amount of replacement of SCMs was conducted. The mix proportion was prepared by keeping the water content constant and varying the cement content, SCMs and water to binder ratio. Based on the different mix proportions of pozzolana (Fly ash), a range of mix designs was formulated. The test results showed that using up to 85 kg/m3 of cement is possible for plain concrete works like hollow block concrete to achieve 9.8 Mpa and the experimental results indicate that strength is a function of w/b.

Keywords: efficiency factor, cement content, compressive strength, mix proportion, w/c ratio, water permeability, SCMs

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5533 The Effect of Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans on the Quality of Passive Oxide Film Developed on Steel Reinforcement Bars

Authors: M.S. Ashraf, Raja Rizwan Hussain, A. M. Alhozaimy

Abstract:

The effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) with concrete pore solution on the protective properties of the oxide films that form on reinforcing steel bars has been experimentally investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel Scan. The tests were conducted on oxide films grown in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions that included different representative amounts of NaOH and KOH. In addition to that, commonly used supplementary cementitious materials (natural pozzolan and fly ash) were also added. The results of electrochemical tests show that supplementary cementitious materials do have an effect on the protective properties of the passive oxide film. In particular, natural pozzolans has been shown to have a highly positive influence on the film quality. Fly ash also increases the protective qualities of the passive film.

Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), passive film, EIS, Tafel scan, rebar, concrete, simulated concrete pore solution (SPS)

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5532 Damage in Cementitious Materials Exposed to Sodium Chloride Solution and Thermal Cycling: The Effect of Using Supplementary Cementitious Materials

Authors: Fadi Althoey, Yaghoob Farnam

Abstract:

Sodium chloride (NaCl) can interact with the tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and its hydrates in concrete matrix. This interaction can result in formation of a harmful chemical phase as the temperature changes. It is thought that this chemical phase is embroiled in the premature concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This work examines the potential formation of the harmful chemical phase in various pastes prepared by using different types of ordinary portland cement (OPC) and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The quantification of the chemical phase was done by using a low temperature differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that the chemical phase formation can be reduced by using Type V cement (low content of C3A). The use of SCMs showed different behaviors on the formation of the chemical phase. Slag and Class F fly ash can reduce the chemical phase by the dilution of cement whereas silica fume can reduce the amount of the chemical phase by dilution and pozzolanic activates. Interestingly, the use of Class C fly ash has a negative effect on concrete exposed to NaCl through increasing the formation of the chemical phase.

Keywords: concrete, damage, chemcial phase, NaCl, SCMs

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5531 The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on the Quality of Passive Oxide Film Developed on Steel Reinforcement Bars in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution

Authors: M. S. Ashraf, Raja Rizwan Hussain, A. M. Alhozaimy, A. I. Al-Negheimish

Abstract:

The effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) with concrete pore solution on the protective properties of the oxide films that form on reinforcing steel bars has been experimentally investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel Scan. The tests were conducted on oxide films grown in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions that included different representative amounts of NaOH and KOH which are the compounds commonly observed in ordinary portland cement concrete pore solution. In addition to that, commonly used mineral admixtures (silica fume, natural pozzolan and fly ash) were also added to the simulated concrete pore solution. The results of electrochemical tests show that supplementary cementitious materials do have an effect on the protective properties of the passive oxide film. In particular, silica fume has been shown to have a negative influence on the film quality though it has positive effect on the concrete properties. Fly ash and natural pozzolan increase the protective qualities of the passive film. The research data in this area is very limited in the past and needed further investigation.

Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), passive film, EIS, Tafel scan, rebar, concrete, simulated concrete pore solution (SPS)

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5530 Alkali Silica Reaction Mitigation and Prevention Measures for Arkansas Local Aggregates

Authors: Amin Kamal Akhnoukh, Lois Zaki Kamel, Magued Mourad Barsoum

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to mitigate and prevent the alkali silica reactivity (ASR) in highway construction projects. ASR is a deleterious reaction initiated when the silica content of the aggregate reacts with alkali hydroxides in cement in the presence of relatively high moisture content. The ASR results in the formation of an expansive white colored gel-like material which forms the destructive tensile stresses inside hardened concrete. In this research, different types of local aggregates available in the State of Arkansas were mixed and mortar bars were poured according to the ASTM specifications. Mortar bars expansion was measured versus time and aggregates with potential ASR problems were detected. Different types of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) were used in remixing mortar bars with highly reactive aggregates. Length changes for remixed bars proved that different types of SCMs can be successfully used in reducing the expansive effect of ASR. SCMs percentage by weight is highly dependent on the SCM type. The result of this study will help avoiding future losses due to ASR cracking in construction project and reduce the maintenance, repair, and replacement budgets required for highways network.

Keywords: alkali silica reaction, aggregates, misture, cracks, Mortar Bar Test, supplementary cementitious materials

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5529 Experimental Study on Strength Development of Low Cement Concrete Using Mix Design for Both Binary and Ternary Mixes

Authors: Mulubrhan Berihu, Supratic Gupta, Zena Gebriel

Abstract:

Due to the design versatility, availability, and cost efficiency, concrete is continuing to be the most used construction material on earth. However, the production of Portland cement, the primary component of concrete mix is causing to have a serious effect on environmental and economic impacts. This shows there is a need to study using of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The most commonly used supplementary cementitious materials are wastes and the use of these industrial waste products has technical, economical and environmental benefits besides the reduction of CO2 emission from cement production. The study aims to document the effect on strength property of concrete due to use of low cement by maximizing supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash or marble powder. Based on the different mix proportion of pozzolana and marble powder a range of mix design was formulated. The first part of the project is to study the strength of low cement concrete using fly ash replacement experimentally. The test results showed that using up to 85 kg/m3 of cement is possible for plain concrete works like hollow block concrete to achieve 9.8 Mpa and the experimental results indicates that strength is a function of w/b. In the second part a new set of mix design has been carried out with fly ash and marble powder to study the strength of both binary and ternary mixes. In this experimental study, three groups of mix design (c+FA, c+FA+m and c+m), four sets of mixes for each group were taken up. Experimental results show that c+FA has maintained the best strength and impermeability whereas c+m obtained less compressive strength, poorer permeability and split tensile strength. c+FA shows a big difference in gaining of compressive strength from 7 days to 28 days compression strength compared to others and this obviously shows the slow rate of hydration of fly ash concrete. As the w/b ratio increases the strength decreases significantly. At the same time higher permeability has been seen in the specimens which were tested for three hours than one hour.

Keywords: efficiency factor, cement content, compressive strength, mix proportion, w/c ratio, water permeability, SCMs

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5528 Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Silica Fume

Authors: Jisong Zhang, Yinghua Zhao

Abstract:

The present study investigated the mechanical properties and microstructure of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) containing supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as fly ash (FA) and silica fume (SF), and to verify the synergistic effect in the ternary system. On the basis of 30% fly ash replacement, the incorporation of either 10% SF or 20% SF show a better performance compared to the reference sample. The efficiency factor (k-value) was calculated as a synergistic effect to predict the compressive strength of UHPC with these SCMs. The SEM of micrographs and pore volume from BJH method indicate a high correlation with compressive strength. Further, an artificial neural networks model was constructed for prediction of the compressive strength of UHPC containing these SCMs.

Keywords: artificial neural network, fly ash, mechanical properties, ultra-high performance concrete

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5527 Analyzing the Effect of Biomass and Cementitious Materials on Air Content in Concrete

Authors: Mohammed Albahttiti, Eliana Aguilar

Abstract:

A push for sustainability in the concrete industry is increasing. Cow manure itself is becoming a problem and having the potential solution to use it in concrete as a cementitious replacement would be an ideal solution. For cow manure ash to become a well-rounded substitute, it would have to meet the right criteria to progress in becoming a more popular idea in the concrete industry. This investigation primarily focuses on how the replacement of cow manure ash affects the air content and air void distribution in concrete. In order to assess these parameters, the Super Air Meter (SAM) was used to test concrete in this research. In addition, multiple additional tests were performed, which included the slump test, temperature, and compression test. The strength results of the manure ash in concrete were promising. The manure showed compression strength results that are similar to that of the other supplementary cementitious materials tested. On the other hand, concrete samples made with cow manure ash showed 2% air content loss and an increasing SAM number proportional to cow manure content starting at 0.38 and increasing to 0.8. In conclusion, while the use of cow manure results in loss of air content, it results in compressive strengths similar to other supplementary cementitious materials.

Keywords: air content, biomass ash, cow manure ash, super air meter, supplementary cementitious materials

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5526 Using Different Methods of Nanofabrication as a New Way to Activate Cement Replacement Materials in Concrete Industry

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami, Parisa Hayati

Abstract:

One of the most important industries and building operations causing carbon dioxide emission is the cement and concrete related industries so that cement production (including direct fuel for mining and transporting raw material) consumes approximately 6 million Btus per metric-ton, and releases about 1 metric-ton of CO2. Reducing the consumption of cement with simultaneous utilizing waste materials as cement replacement is preferred for reasons of environmental protection. Blended cements consist of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), such as fly ash, silica fume, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), limestone, natural pozzolans, etc. these materials should be chemically activated to show effective cementitious properties. The present review article reports three different methods of nanofabrication that were used for activation of two types of SCMs.

Keywords: nanofabrication, cement replacement materials, activation, concrete

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5525 The Effects of SCMs on the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Fibre Cement Plates

Authors: Ceren Ince, Berkay Zafer Erdem, Shahram Derogar, Nabi Yuzer

Abstract:

Fibre cement plates, often used in construction, generally are made using quartz as an inert material, cement as a binder and cellulose as a fibre. This paper first of all investigates the mechanical properties and durability of fibre cement plates when quartz is both partly and fully replaced with diatomite. Diatomite does not only have lower density compared to quartz but also has high pozzolanic activity. The main objective of this paper is the investigation of the effects of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) on the short and long term mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using diatomite. Supplementary cementing materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slug (GGBS) and fly ash (FA) are used in this study. 10, 20, 30 and 40% of GGBS and FA are used as partial replacement materials to cement. Short and long term mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strengths as well as capillary absorption, sorptivity characteristics and mass were investigated. Consistency and setting time at each replacement levels of SCMs were also recorded. The effects of using supplementary cementing materials on the carbonation and sulphate resistance of fibre cement plates were then experimented. The results, first of all, show that the use of diatomite as a full or partial replacement to quartz resulted in a systematic decrease in total mass of the fibre cement plates. The reduction of mass was largely due to the lower density and finer particle size of diatomite compared to quartz. The use of diatomite did not only reduce the mass of these plates but also increased the compressive strength significantly as a result of its high pozzolanic activity. The replacement levels of both GGBS and FA resulted in a systematic decrease in short term compressive strength with increasing replacement levels. This was essentially expected as the total heat of hydration is much lower in GGBS and FA than that of cement. Long term results however, indicated that the compressive strength of fibre cement plates prepared using both GGBS and FA increases with time and hence the compressive strength of plates prepared using SCMs is either equivalent or more than the compressive strength of plates prepared using cement alone. Durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using SCMs were enhanced significantly. Measurements of capillary absorption and sopritivty characteristics were also indicated that the plates prepared using SCMs has much lower permeability compared to plates prepared cement alone. Much higher resistance to carbonation and sulphate attach were observed with plates prepared using SCMs. The results presented in this paper show that the use of SCMs does not only support the production of more sustainable construction materials but also enhances the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates.

Keywords: diatomite, fibre, strength, supplementary cementing material

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5524 Investigation on Strength Properties of Concrete Using Industrial Waste as Supplementary Cementitious Material

Authors: Ravi Prasad Darapureddi

Abstract:

The use of industrial waste in making concrete reduce the consumption of natural resources and pollution of the environment. These materials possess problems of disposal and health hazards. An attempt has been made to use paper and thermal industrial wastes such as lime sludge and flyash. Present investigation is aimed at the utilization of Lime Sludge and Flyash as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) and influence of these materials on strength properties of concrete. Thermal industry waste fly ash is mixed with lime sludge and used as a replacement to cement at different proportions to obtain the strength properties and compared with ordinary concrete prepared without any additives. Grade of concrete prepared was M₂₅ designed according to Indian standard method. Cement has been replaced by paper industry waste and fly ash in different proportions such as 0% (normal concrete), 10%, 20%, and 30% by weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength were assessed. Test results indicated that the use of lime sludge and Fly ash in concrete had improved the properties of concrete. Better results were observed at 20% replacement of cement with these additives.

Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials, lime sludge, fly ash, strength properties

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5523 Effect of Pulverised Burnt Clay Waste Fineness on the Compressive Strength of Concrete

Authors: Emmanuel Onaivi Ajayi, Adewumi John Babafemi

Abstract:

The use of supplementary cementitious materials as partial replacement for cement is steadily increasing in the construction industry. Concrete produced with these materials has shown significant improvement in durability compared to conventional concrete. However, blended cement concretes produced using these supplementary materials typically gain compressive strength at later ages beyond the 28-day, and this does not favour its use when early age strength is required. Improving the fineness of the supplementary materials could be a way to improving the strength performance of its blended cement concrete. In this paper, the effect of pulverised burnt clay waste fineness on the compressive strength of concrete has been investigated. Two different fineness of pulverised burnt clay waste classified as coarse and fine portions were obtained by sieving the original pulverised burnt clay waste portion through sieve sizes No. 100 (150 µm) and No. 200 (75 µm), respectively. Pulverised burnt clay waste dosages of 0% (control), 10% and 20% by weight of binder were used in producing the concrete mixtures. It is found that the compressive strength of the concrete depends on the fineness and proportion of pulverised burnt clay waste. The result shows improvement in compressive strength at all curing ages with the fine portion pulverised burnt clay waste having the highest strength and improved early age compressive strength.

Keywords: pulverized burnt clay waste, supplementary cementitious materials, compressive strength, pozzolans, fineness

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5522 Application of Biomass Ashes as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in the Cement Mortar Production

Authors: S. Šupić, M. Malešev, V. Radonjanin, M. Radeka, M. Laban

Abstract:

The production of low cost and environmentally friendly products represents an important step for developing countries. Biomass is one of the largest renewable energy sources, and Serbia is among the top European countries in terms of the amount of available and unused biomass. Substituting cement with the ashes obtained by the combustion of biomass would reduce the negative impact of concrete industry on the environment and would provide a waste valorization by the reuse of this type of by-product in mortars and concretes manufacture. The study contains data on physical properties, chemical characteristics and pozzolanic properties of obtained biomass ashes: wheat straw ash and mixture of wheat and soya straw ash in Serbia, which were, later, used as supplementary cementitious materials in preparation of mortars. Experimental research of influence of biomass ashes on physical and mechanical properties of cement mortars was conducted. The results indicate that the biomass ashes can be successfully used in mortars as substitutes of cement without compromising their physical and mechanical performances.

Keywords: biomass, ash, cementitious material, mortar

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
5521 Effects of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Early Age Thermal Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Maryam Ghareh Chaei, Masuzyo Chilwesa, Ali Akbarnezhad, Arnaud Castel, Redmond Lloyd, Stephen Foster

Abstract:

Cement hydration is an exothermic chemical reaction generally leading to a rise in concrete’s temperature. This internal heating of concrete may, in turn, lead to a temperature difference between the hotter interior and the cooler exterior of concrete and thus differential thermal stresses in early ages which could be particularly significant in mass concrete. Such differential thermal stresses result in early age thermal cracking of concrete when exceeding the concrete’s tensile strength. The extent of temperature rise and thus early age differential thermal stresses is generally a function of hydration heat intensity, thermal properties of concrete and size of the concrete element. Both hydration heat intensity and thermal properties of concrete may vary considerably with variations in the type cementitious materials and other constituents. With this in mind, partial replacement of cement with supplementary cementitious materials including fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag has been investigated widely as an effective strategy to moderate the heat generation rate and thus reduce the risk of early age thermal cracking of concrete. However, there is currently a lack of adequate literature on effect of partial replacement of cement with fly ash and/or ground granulated blast furnace slag on the thermal properties of concrete. This paper presents the results of an experimental conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of varying percentages of fly ash (up to 60%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (up to 50%) on the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of early age cement paste. The water to cementitious materials ratio is kept 0.45 for all the paste samples. The results of the experimental studies were used in a numerical analysis performed using Comsol Multiphysics to highlight the effects of variations in the thermal properties of concrete, due to variations in the type of aggregate and content of supplemenraty cementitious materials, on the risk of early age cracking of a concrete raft.

Keywords: thermal diffusivity, early age thermal cracking, concrete, supplementary cementitious materials

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5520 The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concretes

Authors: Akram Salah Eddine Belaidi, Said Kenai, El-Hadj Kadri, Benchaâ Benabed, Hamza Soualhi

Abstract:

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was developed in the middle of the 1980’s in Japan. SCC flows alone under its dead weight and consolidates itself without any entry of additional compaction energy and without segregation. As an integral part of a SCC, self-compacting mortars (SCM) may serve as a basis for the mix design of concrete since the measurement of the rheological properties of SCCs. This paper discusses the effect of using natural pozzolana (PZ) and marble powder (MP) in two alternative systems ratios PZ/MP = 1 and 1/3 of the performance of the SCC. A total of 11 SCC’s were prepared having a constant water-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.40 and total cementitious materials content of 475 kg/m3. Then, the fresh properties of the mortars were tested for mini-slump flow diameter and mini-V-funnel flow time for SCMs and Slumps flow test, L-Box height ratio, V-Funnel flow time and sieve stability for SCC. Moreover, the development in the compressive strength was determined at 3, 7, 28, 56, and 90 days. Test results have shown that using of ternary blends improved the fresh properties of the mixtures. The compressive strength of SCC at 90 days with 30% of PZ and MP was similar to those of ordinary concrete use in situ.

Keywords: self-compacting mortar, self-compacting concrete, natural pozzolana, marble powder, rheology, compressive strength

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5519 Using Recycled Wastes (Glass Powder) as Partially Replacement for Cement

Authors: Passant Youssef, Ahmed El-Tair, Amr El-Nemr

Abstract:

Lately, with the environmental changes, enthusiasts trigger to stop the contamination of environment. Thus, various efforts were exerted for innovating environmental friendly concrete to sustain as a ‘Green Building’ material. Green building materials consider the cement industry as one of the most sources of air pollutant with high rate of carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Several methods were developed to extensively reduce the influence of cement industry on environment. These methods such as using supplementary cementitious material or improving the cement manufacturing process are still under investigation. However, with the presence of recycled wastes from construction and finishing materials, the use of supplementary cementitious materials seems to provide an economic solution. Furthermore, it improves the mechanical properties of cement paste, in addition to; it modulates the workability and durability of concrete. In this paper, the glass powder was considered to be used as partial replacement of cement. This study provided the mechanical influence for using the glass powder as partial replacement of cement. In addition, it examines the microstructure of cement mortar using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The cement in concrete is replaced by waste glass powder in steps of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight of cement and its effects on compressive and flexure strength were determined after 7 and 28 days. It was found that the 5% glass powder replacement increased the 7 days compressive strength by 20.5%, however, there was no increase in compressive strength after 28 days; which means that the glass powder did not react in the cement mortar due to its amorphous nature on the long run, and it can act as fine aggregate better that cement replacement. As well as, the 5% and 10% glass powder replacement increased the 28 days flexural strength by 46.9%. SEM micrographs showed very dense matrix for the optimum specimen compared to control specimen as well; some glass particles were clearly observed. High counts of silica were optimized from XRD while amorphous materials such as calcium silicate cannot be directly detected.

Keywords: supplementary materials, glass powder, concrete, cementitious materials

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5518 Reuse of Refractory Brick Wastes (RBW) as a Supplementary Cementitious Materials in a High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: B. Safi, B. Amrane, M. Saidi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the reuse of refractory brick wastes (RBW) as a supplementary cementitious materials (by a total replacement of silica fume) to produce a high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (HPFRC). This work presents an experimental study on the formulation and physico-mechanical characterization of ultra high performance fiber reinforced concretes based on three types of refractory brick wastes. These have been retrieved from the manufacturing unit of float glass MFG (Mediterranean Float Glass) after their use in the oven basin (ie d. they are considered waste unit). Three compositions of concrete (HPFRC) were established based on three types of refractory brick wastes (finely crushed), with the dosage of each type of bricks is kept constant, similar the dosage of silica fume used for the control concrete. While all the other components and the water/binder ratio are maintained constant with the same quantity of the superplasticizer. The performance of HPFRC, were evaluated by determining the essential characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete.

Keywords: refractory bricks, concrete, fiber, fluidity, compressive strength, tensile strength

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5517 XRD and Image Analysis of Low Carbon Type Recycled Cement Using Waste Cementitious Powder

Authors: Hyeonuk Shin, Hun Song, Yongsik Chu, Jongkyu Lee, Dongcheon Park

Abstract:

Although much current research has been devoted to reusing concrete in the form of recycled aggregate, insufficient attention has been given to researching the utilization of waste concrete powder, which constitutes 20 % or more of waste concrete and therefore the majority of waste cementitious powder is currently being discarded or buried in landfills. This study consists of foundational research for the purpose of reusing waste cementitious powder in the form of recycled cement that can answer the need for low carbon green growth. Progressing beyond the conventional practice of using the waste cementitious powder as inert filler material, this study contributes to the aim of manufacturing high value added materials that exploits the chemical properties of the waste cementitious powder, by presenting a pre-treatment method for the material and an optimal method of proportioning the mix of materials to develop a low carbon type of recycled cement.

Keywords: Low carbon type cement, Waste cementitious powder, Waste recycling

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5516 Development of Impervious Concrete Using Micro Silica and GGBS as Cement Replacement Materials

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Akram, Saim Raza, Hamza Hanif Chauhan

Abstract:

This paper describes the aim of research to evaluate the performance of ordinary Portland concretes containing cement replacement materials in both binary and ternary system. Blocks of concrete were prepared to have a constant water-binder ratio of 0.30. The test variables included the type and the amount of the supplementary cementious materials (SCMs) such as class of Silica Fume (SF) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Portland cement was replaced with Silica Fume (SF) upto 7.5% and GGBS up to a level of 50%. Then physical properties are assessed from the compressive strength and permeability tests.

Keywords: silica fume, GGBS, compressive strength, permeability

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5515 Characteristics of Different Volumes of Waste Cellular Concrete Powder-Cement Paste for Sustainable Construction

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes

Abstract:

Cellular concrete powder (CCP) is not used widely as supplementary cementitious material, but in the literature, its efficiency is proved when it used as a replacement of cement in concrete mixtures. In this study, different amounts of raw CCP (CCP as a waste material without any industrial modification) will be used to investigate the characteristics of cement pastes and the effects of CCP on the properties of the cement pastes. It is an attempt to produce green binder paste, which is useful for sustainable construction applications. The fresh and hardened properties of a number of CCP blended cement paste will be tested in different life periods, and the optimized CCP volume will be reported with more significant investigations on durability properties. Different replacing of mass percentage (low and high) of the cement mass will be conducted (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%). The consistency, flexural strength, and compressive strength will be the base indicator for the further properties' investigations. The CCP replacement until 50% have been tested until 7 days, and the initial results showed a linear relationship between strength and the percentage of the replacement; that is an optimistic indicator for further replacement percentages of waste CCP.

Keywords: cellular concrete powder, supplementary cementitious material, sustainable construction, green concrete

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5514 A Novel Cold Asphalt Concrete Mixture for Heavily Trafficked Binder Course

Authors: Anmar Dulaimi, Hassan Al Nageim, Felicite Ruddock, Linda Seton

Abstract:

Cold bituminous asphalt mixture (CBEM) provide a sustainable, cost effective and energy efficiency alternative to traditional hot mixtures. However, these mixtures have a comparatively low initial strength and as it is considered as evolutionary materials, mainly in the early life where the initial cohesion is low and builds up slowly. On the other hand, asphalt concrete is, by far, the most common mixtures in use as binder course and base in road pavement in the UK having a continuous grade offer a good aggregate interlock results in this material having very good load-spreading properties as well as a high resistance to permanent deformation. This study aims at developing a novel fast curing cold asphalt concrete binder course mixtures by using Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a replacement to conventional mineral filler (0%-100%) while new by-product material (LJMU-A2) was used as a supplementary cementitious material. With this purpose, cold asphalt concrete binder course mixtures with cationic emulsions were studied by means of stiffness modulus whereas water sensitivity was approved by assessing the stiffness modulus ratio before and after sample conditioning. The results indicate that a substantial enhancement in the stiffness modulus and a considerable improvement of water sensitivity resistance by adding of LJMU-A2 to the cold asphalt mixtures as a supplementary cementitious material. Moreover, the addition of LJMU-A2 to those mixtures leads to stiffness modulus after 2- day curing comparable to those obtained with Portland cement after 7-day curing.

Keywords: cold mix asphalt, binder course, cement, stiffness modulus, water sensitivity

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5513 Analysis of the Recovery of Burnility Index and Reduction of CO2 for Cement Manufacturing Utilizing Waste Cementitious Powder as Alternative Raw Material of Limestone

Authors: Kwon Eunhee, Park Dongcheon, Jung Jaemin

Abstract:

In countries around the world, environmental regulations are being strengthened, and Korea is no exception to this trend, which means that environment pollution and the environmental load have recently become a significant issue. For this reason, in this study limestone was replaced with cementitious powder to reduce the volume of construction waste as well as the emission of carbon dioxide caused by Tal-carbonate reaction. The research found that cementitious powder can be used as a substitute for limestone. However, the mix proportions of fine aggregate and powder included in the cementitious powder appear to have a great effect on substitution. Thus, future research should focus on developing a technology that can effectively separate and discharge fine aggregate and powder in the cementitious powder.

Keywords: waste cementitious powder, fine aggregate powder, CO2 emission, decarbonation reaction, calcining process

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5512 Ingenious Use of Hypo Sludge in M25 Concrete

Authors: Abhinandan Singh Gill

Abstract:

Paper mill sludge is one of the major economic and environmental problems for paper and board industry, million tonnes quantity of sludge is produced in the world. It is essential to dispose these wastes safely without affecting health of human being, environment, fertile land; sources of water bodies, economy as it adversely affect the strength, durability and other properties of building materials based on them. Moreover, in developing countries like India where there is low availability of non-renewable resources and large need of building material like cement therefore it is essential to develop eco-efficient utilization of paper sludge. Primarily in functional terms paper sludge comprises of cellulose fibers, calcium carbonate, china clay, low silica, residual chemical bonds with water. The material is sticky and full of moisture content which is hard to dry. The manufacturing of paper usually produce loads of solid waste. These paper fibers are recycled in paper mills to limited number of times till they become weak to produce high quality paper. Thereafter, these left out small and weak pieces called as low quality paper fibers are detached out to become paper sludge. The material is by-product of de-inking and re-pulping of paper. This hypo sludge includes all kinds of inks, dyes, coating etc inscribed on the paper. This paper presents an overview of the published work on the use of hypo sludge in M25 concrete formulations as a supplementary cementitious material exploring its properties such as compressive strength, splitting and parameters like modulus of elasticity, density, applications and most importantly investigation of low cost concrete by using hypo sludge are presented.

Keywords: concrete, sludge waste, hypo sludge, supplementary cementitious material

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5511 Torsional Behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Materials– a Review

Authors: Sifatullah Bahij, Safiullah Omary, Francoise Feugeas, Amanullah Faqiri

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) is commonly used material in the construction sector, due to its low-cost and durability, and allowed the architectures and designers to construct structural members with different shapes and finishing. Usually, RC members are designed to sustain service loads efficiently without any destruction. However, because of the faults in the design phase, overloading, materials deficiencies, and environmental effects, most of the structural elements will require maintenance and repairing over their lifetime. Therefore, strengthening and repair of the deteriorated and/or existing RC structures are much important to extend their life cycle. Various techniques are existing to retrofit and strengthen RC structural elements such as steel plate bonding, external pre-stressing, section enlargement, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) wrapping, etc. Although these configurations can successfully improve the load bearing capacity of the beams, they are still prone to corrosion damage which results in failure of the strengthened elements. Therefore, many researchers used fiber reinforced cementitious materials due to its low-cost, corrosion resistance, and result in improvement of the tensile and fatigue behaviors. Various types of cementitious materials have been used to strengthen or repair structural elements. This paper has summarized to accumulate data regarding on previously published research papers concerning the torsional behaviors of RC beams strengthened by various types of cementitious materials.

Keywords: reinforced concrete beams, strengthening techniques, cementitious materials, torsional strength, twisting angle

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5510 Early-Age Cracking of Low Carbon Concrete Incorporating Ferronickel Slag as Supplementary Cementitious Material

Authors: Mohammad Khan, Arnaud Castel

Abstract:

Concrete viscoelastic properties such as shrinkage, creep, and associated relaxation are important in assessing the risk of cracking during the first few days after placement. This paper investigates the early-age mechanical and viscoelastic properties, restrained shrinkage-induced cracking and time to cracking of concrete incorporating ferronickel slag (FNS) as supplementary cementitious material. Compressive strength, indirect tensile strength and elastic modulus were measured. Tensile creep and drying shrinkage was measured on dog-bone shaped specimens. Restrained shrinkage induced stresses and concrete cracking age were assessed by using the ring test. Results revealed that early-age strength development of FNS blended concrete is lower than that of the corresponding ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. FNS blended concrete showed significantly higher tensile creep. The risk of early-age cracking for the restrained specimens depends on the development of concrete tensile stress considering both restrained shrinkage and tensile creep and the development of the tensile strength. FNS blended concrete showed only 20% reduction in time to cracking compared to reference OPC concrete, and this reduction is significantly lower compared to fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag blended concretes at similar replacement level.

Keywords: ferronickel slag, restraint shrinkage, tensile creep, time to cracking

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5509 Effect of Temperature on the Properties of Cement Paste Modified with Nanoparticles

Authors: Karine Pimenta Teixeira, Jessica Flores, Isadora PerdigãO Rocha, Leticia De Sá Carneiro, Mahsa Kamali, Ali Ghahremaninezhad

Abstract:

The advent of nanotechnology has enabled innovative solutions towards improving the behavior of infrastructure materials. Nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize the construction industry by improving the performance and durability of construction materials, as well as imparting new functionalities to these materials. Due to variability in the environmental temperature during mixing and curing of cementitious materials in practice, it is important to understand how curing temperature influences the behavior of cementitious materials. In addition, high temperature curing is relevant in applications such as oil well cement and precast industry. Knowledge of the influence of temperature on the performance of cementitious materials modified with nanoparticles is important in the nanoengineering of cementitious materials in applications such as oil well cement and precast industry. This presentation aims to investigate the influence of temperature on the hydration, mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials modified with TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that temperature improved the early hydration. The cement pastes cured at high temperatures showed an increase in the compressive strength at early age but the strength gain decreased at late ages. The electrical resistivity of the cement pastes cured at high temperatures was shown to decrease more noticeably at late ages compared to that of the room temperature cured cement paste. SEM examination indicated that hydration product was more uniformly distributed in the microstructure of the cement paste cured at room temperature compared to the cement pastes cured at high temperature.

Keywords: cement paste, nanoparticles, temperature, hydration

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5508 Microanalysis of a New Cementitious System Containing High Calcium Fly Ash and Waste Material by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Authors: Anmar Dulaimi, Hassan Al Nageim, Felicite Ruddock, Linda Seton

Abstract:

Fast-curing cold bituminous emulsion mixture (CBEM) including active filler from high calcium fly ash (HCFA) and waste material (LJMU-A2) has been developed in this study. This will overcome the difficulties related with the use of hot mix asphalt such as greenhouse gases emissions and problems in keeping the temperature when transporting long distance. The aim of this study is to employ petrographic examinations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for characterizing the hydrates microstructure, in a new binary blended cement filler (BBCF) system. The new BBCF has been used as a replacement to traditional mineral filler in cold bituminous emulsion mixtures (CBEMs), comprises supplementary cementitious materials containing high calcium fly ash (HCFA) and a waste material (LJMU-A2). SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of hydrates after varying curing ages within the BBCF. The accelerated activation of HCFA by LJMU-A2 within the BBCF was revealed and as a consequence early and later stiffness was developed in novel CBEM.

Keywords: cold bituminous emulsion mixtures, indirect tensile stiffness modulus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high calcium fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
5507 Manufacturing of Nano Zeolite by Planetary Ball Mill and Investigation of the Effects on Concrete

Authors: Kourosh Kosari

Abstract:

This study is engineering the properties of concrete containing natural nano zeolite as supplementary cementitious material in the blended Portland-cement based binder in amounts of 5,7 and 10% by mass. Crashing of clinoptilolite zeolite is performed by means of planetary ball mill. Two types of concrete along with water to cementitious material ratio (W/(C + P)) in 0.45 and 0.4 at the ages of 7, 28 and 90 days and were compared with each other. The effect of these additives on mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strength) and durability has been investigated by Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT) at the ages 28 and 90 days. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that nanoparticles of natural clinoptilolite could improve quality of concrete. As a result of the tests, decrease in penetration of chloride ion and increase electrical resistivity significantly that are appropriate option for controlling of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures but increase of mechanical characteristics is not considerable.

Keywords: ball mill, durability, mechanical properties, nano zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
5506 Durability of a Cementitious Matrix Based on Treated Sediments

Authors: Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Amine Safhi, Nor-Edine Abriak

Abstract:

Significant volumes of sediment are annually dredged in France and all over the world. These materials may, in fact, be used beneficially as supplementary cementitious material. This paper studies the durability of a new cement matrix based on marine dredged sediment of Dunkirk-Harbor (north of France). Several techniques are used to characterize the raw sediment such as physical properties, chemical analyses, and mineralogy. The XRD analysis revealed quartz, calcite, kaolinite as main mineral phases. In order to eliminate organic matter and activate some of those minerals, the sediment is calcined at a temperature of 850°C for 1h. Moreover, four blended mortars were formulated by mixing a portland cement (CEM I 52,5 N) and the calcined sediment as partial cement substitute (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Reference mortars, based on the blended cement, were then prepared. This re-use cannot be substantiating and efficient without a durability study. In this purpose, the following tests, mercury porosity, accessible water porosity, chloride permeability, freezing and thawing, external sulfate attack, alkali aggregates reaction, compressive and bending strength tests were conducted on those mortars. The results of most of those tests evidenced the fact that the mortar that contains 10% of the treated sediment is efficient and durable as the reference mortar itself. That would infer that the presence of these calcined sediment improves mortar general behavior.

Keywords: sediment, characterization, calcination, substitution, durability

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5505 Sustainability of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Rashad Al Araj, Adil K. Tamimi

Abstract:

Concrete, despite being one of the most produced materials in the world, still has weaknesses and drawbacks. Significant concern of the cementitious materials in structural applications is their quasi-brittle behavior, which causes the material to crack and lose its durability. One of the very recently proposed mitigations for this problem is the implementation of nanotechnology in the concrete mix by adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to it. CNTs can enhance the critical mechanical properties of concrete as a structural material. Thus, this paper demonstrates a state-of-the-art review of reinforcing concrete with CNTs, emphasizing on the structural performance. It also goes over the properties of CNTs alone, the present methods and costs associated with producing them, the possible special applications of concretes reinforced with CNTs, the key challenges and drawbacks that this new technology still encounters, and the most reliable practices and methodologies to produce CNT-reinforced concrete in the lab. This work has shown that the addition of CNTs to the concrete mix in percentages as low as 0.25% weight of cement could increase the flexural strength and toughness of concrete by more than 45% and 25%, respectively, and enhance other durability-related properties, given that an effective dispersion of CNTs in the cementitious mix is achieved. Since nano reinforcement for cementitious materials is a new technology, many challenges have to be tackled before it becomes practiced at the mass level.

Keywords: sustainability, carbon nano tube, microsilica, concrete

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