Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3459

Search results for: stem cell differentiation

3459 Preparation of Natural Polymeric Scaffold with Desired Pore Morphology for Stem Cell Differentiation

Authors: Mojdeh Mohseni


In the context of tissue engineering, the effect of microtopography as afforded by scaffold morphology is an important design parameter. Since the morphology of pores can effect on cell behavior, in this study, porous Chitosan (CHIT) - Gelatin (GEL)- Alginate (ALG) scaffolds with microtubule orientation structure were manufactured by unidirectional freeze-drying method and the effect of pore morphology on differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) was investigated. This study showed that, the provided scaffold with natural polymer had good properties for cell behavior and the pores with highest orientation rate have produced appropriate substrate for the differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: Chitosan, gelatin, Alginate, pore morphology, stem cell differentiation

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3458 Nanowire Substrate to Control Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Ainur Sharip, Jose E. Perez, Nouf Alsharif, Aldo I. M. Bandeas, Enzo D. Fabrizio, Timothy Ravasi, Jasmeen S. Merzaban, Jürgen Kosel


Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes or adipocytes. Differentiation is influenced by biochemical and biophysical stimuli provided by the microenvironment of the cell. Thus, altering the mechanical characteristics of a cell culture scaffold can directly influence a cell’s microenvironment and lead to stem cell differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on densely packed, vertically aligned magnetic iron nanowires (NWs) and the effect of NWs on the cell cytoskeleton rearrangement and differentiation were studied. An electrochemical deposition method was employed to fabricate NWs into nanoporous alumina templates, followed by a partial release to reveal the NW array. This created a cell growth substrate with free-standing NWs. The Fe NWs possessed a length of 2-3 µm, with each NW having a diameter of 33 nm on average. Mechanical stimuli generated by the physical movement of these iron NWs, in response to a magnetic field, can stimulate osteogenic differentiation. Induction of osteogenesis was estimated using an osteogenic marker, osteopontin, and a reduction of stem cell markers, CD73 and CD105. MSCs were grown on the NWs, and fluorescent microscopy was employed to monitor the expression of markers. A magnetic field with an intensity of 250 mT and a frequency of 0.1 Hz was applied for 12 hours/day over a period of one week and two weeks. The magnetically activated substrate enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of the MSCs compared to the culture conditions without magnetic field. Quantification of the osteopontin signal revealed approximately a seven-fold increase in the expression of this protein after two weeks of culture. Immunostaining staining against CD73 and CD105 revealed the expression of antibodies at the earlier time point (two days) and a considerable reduction after one-week exposure to a magnetic field. Overall, these results demonstrate the application of a magnetic NW substrate in stimulating the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. This method significantly decreases the time needed to induce osteogenic differentiation compared to commercial biochemical methods, such as osteogenic differentiation kits, that usually require more than two weeks. Contact-free stimulation of MSC differentiation using a magnetic field has potential uses in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and bone formation therapies.

Keywords: cell substrate, magnetic nanowire, mesenchymal stem cell, stem cell differentiation

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3457 Up-Regulation of SCUBE2 Expression in Co-Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Hirowati Ali, Aisyah Ellyanti, Dewi Rusnita, Septelia Inawati Wanandi


Stem cell has been known for its potency to be differentiated in many cells. Recently stem cell has been used for many treatment of degenerative medicine. It is still controversy whether stem cell can be used for therapy or these cells can activate cancer stem cell. SCUBE2 is a novel secreted and membrane-anchored protein which has been reported to its role in better prognosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our study aims to observe whether stem cell can up-regulate SCUBE2 gene in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We used in vitro study using MCF-7 cell treated with stem cell derived from placenta Wharton's jelly which has been known for its stemness and widely used. Our results showed that MCF-7 cell line grows up rapidly in 6-well culture dish. Stem cell was cultured in 6-well dish. After 50%-60% MCF-7 confluence, we co-cultured these cells with stem cells for 24 hours and 48 hours. We hypothesize SCUBE2 gene which is previously known for its higher expression in better prognosis of breast cancer, is up-regulated after stem cells addition in MCF7 culture dishes.

Keywords: breast cancer cells, inhibition of cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells, SCUBE2

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3456 Osteogenesis in Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Human Turbinate

Authors: A. Reum Son, Jin Seon Kwon, Seung Hun Park, Hai Bang Lee, Moon Suk Kim


These days, stem cell therapy is focused on for promising source of treatment in clinical human disease. As a supporter of stem cells, in situ-forming hydrogels with growth factors and cells appear to be a promising approach in tissue engineering. To examine osteogenic differentiation of hTMSCs which is one of mesenchymal stem cells in vivo in an injectable hydrogel, we use a methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone blockcopolymer (MPEG-PCL) solution with osteogenic factors. We synthesized MPEG-PCL hydrogel and measured viscosity to check sol-gel transition. In order to demonstrate osteogenic ability of hTMSCs, we conducted in vitro osteogenesis experiment. Then, to confirm the cell cytotoxicity, we performed WST-1 with hTMSCs and MPEG-PCL. As the result of in vitro experiment, we implanted cell and hydrogel mixture into animal model and checked degree of osteogenesis with histological analysis and amount of expression genes. Through these experimental data, MPEG-PCL hydrogel has sol-gel transition in temperature change and is biocompatible with stem cells. In histological analysis and gene expression, hTMSCs are very good source of osteogenesis with hydrogel and will use it to tissue engineering as important treatment method. hTMSCs could be a good adult stem cell source for usability of isolation and high proliferation. When hTMSCs are used as cell therapy method with in situ-formed hydrogel, they may provide various benefits like a noninvasive alternative for bone tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: injectable hydrogel, stem cell, osteogenic differentiation, tissue engineering

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3455 Role of Nano Gelatin and Hydrogel Based Scaffolds in Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Husain S. Yawer, Vasim Raja Panwar, Nidhi Priya


The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the role of nano-gelatin and Bioengineered Scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Tooth decay and early fall have each been one of the most prevailing dental disorders which cause physical and emotional suffering and compromise the patient's quality of life. The design of novel scaffolding materials will be based on mimicking the architecture of natural dental extracellular matrix which may provide as in vivo environments for proper cell growth. This methodology will involve the combination of nano-fibred gelatin as well as biodegradable hydrogel based tooth scaffold. We have measured and optimized the Dental Pulp Stem Cells growth profile in cultures carried out on collagen-coated plastic surface, however, for tissue regeneration study, we aim to develop an enhanced microenvironment for stem cell growth and dental tissue regeneration. We believe biomimetic cell adhesion and scaffolds might provide a near in vivo growth environment for proper growth and differentiation of human DPSCs, which further help in dentin/pulp tissue regeneration.

Keywords: nano-gelatin, stem cells, dental pulp, scaffold

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3454 The Using of Hybrid Superparamagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄)- Graphene Oxide Functionalized Surface with Collagen, to Target the Cancer Stem Cell

Authors: Ahmed Khalaf Reyad Raslan


Cancer stem cells (CSCs) describe a class of pluripotent cancer cells that behave analogously to normal stem cells in their ability to differentiate into the spectrum of cell types observed in tumors. The de-differentiation processes, such as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), are known to enhance cellular plasticity. Here, we demonstrate a new hypothesis to use hybrid superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄)- graphene oxide functionalized surface with Collagen to target the cancer stem cell as an early detection tool for cancer. We think that with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the new hybrid system would be possible to track the cancer stem cells.

Keywords: hydrogel, alginate, reduced graphene oxide, collagen

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3453 Stem Cell Fate Decision Depending on TiO2 Nanotubular Geometry

Authors: Jung Park, Anca Mazare, Klaus Von Der Mark, Patrik Schmuki


In clinical application of TiO2 implants on tooth and hip replacement, migration, adhesion and differentiation of neighboring mesenchymal stem cells onto implant surfaces are critical steps for successful bone regeneration. In a recent decade, accumulated attention has been paid on nanoscale electrochemical surface modifications on TiO2 layer for improving bone-TiO2 surface integration. We generated, on titanium surfaces, self-assembled layers of vertically oriented TiO2 nanotubes with defined diameters between 15 and 100 nm and here we show that mesenchymal stem cells finely sense TiO2 nanotubular geometry and quickly decide their cell fate either to differentiation into osteoblasts or to programmed cell death (apoptosis) on TiO2 nanotube layers. These cell fate decisions are critically dependent on nanotube size differences (15-100nm in diameters) of TiO2 nanotubes sensing by integrin clustering. We further demonstrate that nanoscale topography-sensing is feasible not only in mesenchymal stem cells but rather seems as generalized nanoscale microenvironment-cell interaction mechanism in several cell types composing bone tissue network including osteoblasts, osteoclast, endothelial cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Additionally we discuss the synergistic effect of simultaneous stimulation by nanotube-bound growth factor and nanoscale topographic cues on enhanced bone regeneration.

Keywords: TiO2 nanotube, stem cell fate decision, nano-scale microenvironment, bone regeneration

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3452 Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Potential Source for Cell Therapy in Liver Disorders

Authors: Laila Montaser, Hala Gabr, Maha El-Bassuony, Gehan Tawfeek


Orthotropic liver transplantation (OLT) is the final procedure of both end stage and metabolic liver diseases. Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative for OLT, but the sources of hepatocytes are limited. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells and are a potential alternative source for hepatocytes. The MSCs from bone marrow are a promising target population as they are capable of differentiating along multiple lineages and, at least in vitro, have significant expansion capability. MSCs from bone marrow may have the potential to differentiate in vitro and in vivo into hepatocytes. Our study examined whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are stem cells originated from human bone marrow, are able to differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. Our aim was to investigate the differentiation potential of BM-MSCs into hepatocyte-like cells. Adult stem cell therapy could solve the problem of degenerative disorders, including liver disease.

Keywords: bone marrow, differentiation, hepatocyte, stem cells

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3451 Role of Interleukin 6 on Cell Differentiations in Stem Cells Isolated from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth

Authors: Nunthawan Nowwarote, Waleerat Sukarawan, Prasit Pavasant, Thanaphum Osathanon


Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine, regulating various biological responses in several tissues. A Recent study shows that IL-6 plays a role in stemness maintenance in stem cells isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). However, the role of IL-6 on cell differentiation in SHEDs remains unknown. The present study investigated the effect of IL-6 on SHEDs differentiation. Cells were isolated from dental pulp tissues of human deciduous teeth. Flow cytometry was used to determined mesenchymal stem cell marker expression, and the multipotential differentiation (osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic lineage ) was also determined. The mRNA was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the phenotypes were confirmed by chemical and immunofluorescence staining. Results demonstrated that SHEDs expressed CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 but not CD45. Further, the up-regulation of osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic marker genes was observed upon maintaining cells in osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic induction medium, respectively. The addition of IL-6 induced osteogenic by up-regulated osteogenic marker gene also increased in vitro mineralization. Under neurogenic medium supplement with IL-6, up-regulated neurogenic marker. Whereas, an addition of IL-6 attenuated adipogenic differentiation by SHEDs. In conclusion, this evidence implies that IL-6 may participate in cells differentiation ability of SHEDs.

Keywords: SHEDs, IL-6, cell differentiations, dental pulp

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3450 Preparation of POMA Nanofibers by Electrospinning and Its Applications in Tissue Engineering

Authors: Lu-Chen Yeh‚ Jui-Ming Yeh


In this manuscript, we produced neat electrospun poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) fibers and utilized it for applying the growth of neural stem cells. The transparency and morphology of as-prepared POMA fibers were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. It was found to have no adverse effects on the long-term proliferation of the neural stem cells (NSCs), retained the ability to self-renew, and exhibit multi-potentiality. Results of immunofluorescence staining studies confirmed that POMA electrospun fibers could provide a great environment for NSCs and enhance its differentiation.

Keywords: electrospun, polyaniline, neural stem cell, differentiation

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3449 Ageing Gingiva: A New Hope for Autologous Stem Cell Therapy

Authors: Ankush M. Dewle, Suditi Bhattacharya, Prachi R. Abhang, Savita Datar, Ajay J. Jog, Rupesh K. Srivastava, Geetanjali Tomar


Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from ageing gingival tissues, in order to suggest their potential role in autologous stem cell therapy for old individuals. Methods: MSCs were isolated from gingival tissues of young (18-45 years) and old (above 45 years) donors by enzymatic digestion. MSCs were analysed for cfu-f, surface marker expression by flow-cytometry and multilineage differentiation potential. The angiogenic potential was compared in a chick embryo yolk sac membrane model. The aging and differentiation markers including SA-β-galactosidase and p21 respectively were analysed by staining and flow-cytometry analysis. Additionally, osteogenic markers such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) were measured by flow-cytometry and RT-qPCR was performed for quantification of osteogenic gene expression. Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were also quantitated. Results: Gingival MSCs (GMSCs) from both the age groups were similar in their morphology and displayed cfu-f. They had similar expression of MSC surface markers and p21, comparable rate of proliferation and differentiated to all the four lineages. GMSCs from young donors had a higher adipogenic differentiation potential as compared to the old GMSCs. Moreover, these cells did not display a significant difference in ALP activity probably due to comparable expression of GR, VDR, and osteogenic genes. Conclusions: Ageing of GMSCs occurs at a much slower rate than stem cells from other sources. Thus we suggest GMSCs as an excellent candidate for autologous stem cell therapy in degenerative diseases of elderly individuals. Clinical Significance: GMSCs could help overcome the setbacks in clinical implementation of autologous stem cell therapy for regenerative medicine in all age group of patient.

Keywords: bone regeneration, cell therapy, senescence, stem cell

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3448 Isolation and Expansion of Human Periosteum-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Defined Serum-Free Culture Medium

Authors: Ainur Mukhambetova, Miras Karzhauov, Vyacheslav Ogay


Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity to be differentiated into several cell lineages and are a promising source for cell therapy and tissue engineering. However, currently most MSCs culturing protocols use media supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS), which limits their application in clinic due to the possibility of zoonotic infections, contamination and immunological reactions. Consequently, formulating effective serum free culture medium becomes one of the important problems in contemporary cell biotechnology. Objectives: The aim of this study was to define an optimal serum-free medium for culturing of periosteum derived MSCs. Materials and methods: The MSCs were extracted from human periosteum and transferred to the culture flasks pretreated with CELLstart™. Immunophenotypic characterization, proliferation and in vitro differentiation of cells grown on STEM PRO® MSC SFM were compared to the cells cultured in the standard FBS containing media. Chromosome analysis and flow cytometry were also performed. Results: We have shown that cells were grown on STEM PRO® MSC SFM retained all the morphological, immunophenotypic (CD73, CD90, CD105, vimentin and Stro-1) and cell differentiation characteristics specific to MSCs. Chromosome analysis indicated no anomalies in the chromosome structure. Flow cytometry showed a high expression of cell adhesion molecules CD44 (98,8%), CD90 (97,4%), CD105 (99,1%). In addition, we have shown that cell is grown on STEM PRO® MSC SFM have higher proliferation capacity compared to cell expanded on standard FBS containing the medium. Conclusion: We have shown that STEM PRO® MSC SFM is optimal for culturing periosteum derived human MSCs which subsequently can be safely used in cell therapy.

Keywords: cell technologies, periosteum-derived MSCs, regenerative medicine, serum-free medium

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3447 Role of Micro-Patterning on Stem Cell-Material Interaction Modulation and Cell Fate

Authors: Lay Poh Tan, Chor Yong Tay, Haiyang Yu


Micro-contact printing is a form of soft lithography that uses the relief patterns on a master polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp to form patterns of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of ink on the surface of a substrate through conformal contact technique. Here, we adopt this method to print proteins of different dimensions on our biodegradable polymer substrates. We started off with printing 20-500 μm scale lanes of fibronectin to engineer the shape of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs). After 8 hours of culture, the hMSCs adopted elongated shapes, and upon analysis of the gene expressions, genes commonly associated with myogenesis (GATA-4, MyoD1, cTnT and β-MHC) and neurogenesis (NeuroD, Nestin, GFAP, and MAP2) were up-regulated but gene expression associated to osteogenesis (ALPL, RUNX2, and SPARC) were either down modulated or remained at the nominal level. This is the first evidence that cellular morphology control via micropatterning could be used to modulate stem cell fate without external biochemical stimuli. We further our studies to modulate the focal adhesion (FA) instead of the macro shape of cells. Micro-contact printed islands of different smaller dimensions were investigated. We successfully regulated the FAs into dense FAs and elongated FAs by micropatterning. Additionally, the combined effects of hard (40.4 kPa), and intermediate (10.6 kPa) PA gel and FAs patterning on hMSCs differentiation were studied. Results showed that FA and matrix compliance plays an important role in hMSCs differentiation, and there is a cross-talk between different physical stimulants and the significance of these stimuli can only be realized if they are combined at the optimum level.

Keywords: micro-contact printing, polymer substrate, cell-material interaction, stem cell differentiation

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3446 The Influence of Alginate Microspheres Modified with DAT on the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of ASCs

Authors: Shin-Yi Mao, Jiashing Yu


Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has received lots of attention as biological scaffolds recently. DAT that extracted from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipose tissues holds great promise as a xenogeneic biomaterial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In our study, 2-D DATsol film was fabricated to enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs in vitro. DAT was also used to modify alginate for improvement of cell adhesion. Alginate microspheres modified with DAT were prepared by Nisco. These microspheres could provide a highly supportive 3-D environment for ASCs. In our works, ASCs were immobilized in alginate microspheres modified with DAT to promoted cell adhesion and adipogenic differentiation. Accordingly, we hypothesize that tissue regeneration in vivo could be promoted with the aid of modified microspheres in future.

Keywords: adipose stem cells, decellularize adipose tissue, Alginate, microcarries

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3445 Umbilical Cord-Derived Cells in Corneal Epithelial Regeneration

Authors: Hasan Mahmud Reza


Extensive studies of the human umbilical cord, both basic and translational, over the last three decades have unveiled a plethora of information. The cord lining harbors at least two phenotypically different multipotent stem cells: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord lining epithelial stem cells (CLECs). These cells exhibit a mixed genetic profiling of both embryonic and adult stem cells, hence display a broader stem features than cells from other sources. We have observed that umbilical cord-derived cells are immunologically privileged and non-tumorigenic by animal study. These cells are ethically acceptable, thus provides a significant advantage over other stem cells. The high proliferative capacity, viability, differentiation potential, and superior harvest of these cells have made them better candidates in comparison to contemporary adult stem cells. Following 30 replication cycles, these cells have been observed to retain their stemness, with their phenotype and karyotype intact. Transplantation of bioengineered CLEC sheets in limbal stem cell-deficient rabbit eyes resulted in regeneration of clear cornea with phenotypic expression of the normal cornea-specific epithelial cytokeratin markers. The striking features of low immunogenicity protecting self along with co-transplanted allografts from rejection largely define the transplantation potential of umbilical cord-derived stem cells.

Keywords: cord lining epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell, regenerative medicine, umbilical cord

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3444 Linking Metabolism, Pluripotency and Epigenetic Changes during Early Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells

Authors: Arieh Moussaieff, Bénédicte Elena-Herrmann, Yaakov Nahmias, Daniel Aberdam


Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells is a slow process, marked by the gradual loss of pluripotency factors over days in culture. While the first few days of differentiation show minor changes in the cellular transcriptome, intracellular signaling pathways remain largely unknown. Recently, several groups demonstrated that the metabolism of pluripotent mouse and human cells is different from that of somatic cells, showing a marked increase in glycolysis previously identified in cancer as the Warburg effect. Here, we sought to identify the earliest metabolic changes induced at the first hours of differentiation. High-resolution NMR analysis identified 35 metabolites and a distinct, gradual transition in metabolism during early differentiation. Metabolic and transcriptional analyses showed the induction of glycolysis toward acetate and acetyl-coA in pluripotent cells, and an increase in cholesterol biosynthesis during early differentiation. Importantly, this metabolic pathway regulated differentiation of human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Acetate delayed differentiation preventing differentiation-induced histone de-acetylation in a dose-dependent manner. Glycolytic inhibitors upstream of acetate caused differentiation of pluripotent cells, while those downstream delayed differentiation. Our data suggests that a rapid loss of glycolysis in early differentiation down-regulates acetate and acetyl-coA production, causing a loss of histone acetylation and concomitant loss of pluripotency. It demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells utilize a novel metabolism pathway to maintain pluripotency through acetate/acetyl-coA and highlights the important role metabolism plays in pluripotency and early differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: pluripotency, metabolomics, epigenetics, acetyl-coA

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3443 Modeling of Oxygen Supply Profiles in Stirred-Tank Aggregated Stem Cells Cultivation Process

Authors: Vytautas Galvanauskas, Vykantas Grincas, Rimvydas Simutis


This paper investigates a possible practical solution for reasonable oxygen supply during the pluripotent stem cells expansion processes, where the stem cells propagate as aggregates in stirred-suspension bioreactors. Low glucose and low oxygen concentrations are preferred for efficient proliferation of pluripotent stem cells. However, strong oxygen limitation, especially inside of cell aggregates, can lead to cell starvation and death. In this research, the oxygen concentration profile inside of stem cell aggregates in a stem cell expansion process was predicted using a modified oxygen diffusion model. This profile can be realized during the stem cells cultivation process by manipulating the oxygen concentration in inlet gas or inlet gas flow. The proposed approach is relatively simple and may be attractive for installation in a real pluripotent stem cell expansion processes.

Keywords: aggregated stem cells, dissolved oxygen profiles, modeling, stirred-tank, 3D expansion

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3442 Epigenomic Analysis of Lgr5+ Stem Cells in Gastrointestinal Tract

Authors: Hyo-Min Kim, Seokjin Ham, Mi-Joung Yoo, Minseon Kim, Tae-Young Roh


The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of most animals, including murine, is highly compartmentalized epithelia which also provide distinct different functions of its own tissue. Nevertheless, these epithelia share certain characteristics that enhance immune responses to infections and maintain the barrier function of the intestine. GI tract epithelia also undergo regeneration not only in homeostatic conditions but also in a response to the damage. A full turnover of the murine gastrointestinal epithelium occurs every 4-5 day, a process that is regulated and maintained by a minor population of Lgr5+ adult stem cell that commonly conserved in the bottom of crypts through GI tract. Maintenance of the stem cell is somehow regulated by epigenetic factors according to recent studies. Chromatin vacancy, remodelers, histone variants and histone modifiers could affect adult stem cell fate. In this study, Lgr5-EGFP reporter mouse was used to take advantage of exploring the epigenetic dynamics among Lgr5 positive mutual stem cell in GI tract. Cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), gene expression levels, chromatin accessibility changes and histone modifications were analyzed. Some notable chromatin structural related epigenetic variants were detected. To identify the overall cell-cell interaction inside the stem cell niche, an extensive genome-wide analysis should be also followed. According to the results, nevertheless, we expected a broader understanding of cellular niche maintaining stem cells and epigenetic barriers through conserved stem cell in GI tract. We expect that our study could provide more evidence of adult stem cell plasticity and more chances to understand each stem cell that takes parts in certain organs.

Keywords: adult stem cell, epigenetics, LGR5 stem cell, gastrointestinal tract

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3441 Piled Critical Size Bone-Biomimetic and Biominerizable Nanocomposites: Formation of Bioreactor-Induced Stem Cell Gradients under Perfusion and Compression

Authors: W. Baumgartner, M. Welti, N. Hild, S. C. Hess, W. J. Stark, G. Meier Bürgisser, P. Giovanoli, J. Buschmann


Perfusion bioreactors are used to solve problems in tissue engineering in terms of sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply. Such problems especially occur in critical size grafts because vascularization is often too slow after implantation ending up in necrotic cores. Biominerizable and biocompatible nanocomposite materials are attractive and suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering because they offer mineral components in organic carriers – mimicking natural bone tissue. In addition, human adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) can potentially be used to increase bone healing as they are capable of differentiating towards osteoblasts or endothelial cells among others. In the present study, electrospun nanocomposite disks of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (PLGA/a-CaP) were seeded with human ASCs and eight disks were stacked in a bioreactor running with normal culture medium (no differentiation supplements). Under continuous perfusion and uniaxial cyclic compression, load-displacement curves as a function of time were assessed. Stiffness and energy dissipation were recorded. Moreover, stem cell densities in the layers of the piled scaffold were determined as well as their morphologies and differentiation status (endothelial cell differentiation, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis). While the stiffness of the cell free constructs increased over time caused by the transformation of the a-CaP nanoparticles into flake-like apatite, ASC-seeded constructs showed a constant stiffness. Stem cell density gradients were histologically determined with a linear increase in the flow direction from the bottom to the top of the 3.5 mm high pile (r2 > 0.95). Cell morphology was influenced by the flow rate, with stem cells getting more roundish at higher flow rates. Less than 1 % osteogenesis was found upon osteopontin immunostaining at the end of the experiment (9 days), while no endothelial cell differentiation and no chondrogenesis was triggered under these conditions. All ASCs had mainly remained in their original pluripotent status within this time frame. In summary, we have fabricated a critical size bone graft based on a biominerizable bone-biomimetic nanocomposite with preserved stiffness when seeded with human ASCs. The special feature of this bone graft was that ASC densities inside the piled construct varied with a linear gradient, which is a good starting point for tissue engineering interfaces such as bone-cartilage where the bone tissue is cell rich while the cartilage exhibits low cell densities. As such, this tissue-engineered graft may act as a bone-cartilage interface after the corresponding differentiation of the ASCs.

Keywords: bioreactor, bone, cartilage, nanocomposite, stem cell gradient

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3440 Plasma Treatment in Conjunction with EGM-2 Medium Can Enhance Endothelial and Osteogenic Marker Expressions of Bone Marrow MSCs

Authors: Chih-Hsin Lin, Shyh-Yuan Lee, Yuan-Min Lin


For many tissue engineering applications, an important goal is to create functional tissues in-vitro, and such tissues to be viable, they have to be vascularized. Endothelial cells (EC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are promising candidates for vascularization. However, both of them have limited expansion capacity and autologous cells currently do not exist for either ECs or EPCs. Therefore, we use bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a source material for ECs. Growth supplements are commonly used to induce MSC differentiation, and further improvements in differentiation conditions can be made by modifying the cell's growth environment. An example is pre-treatment of the growth dish with gas plasma, in order to modify the surface functional groups of the material that the cells are seeded on. In this work, we compare the effects of different gas plasmas on the growth and differentiation of MSCs. We treat the dish with different plasmas (CO2, N2, and O2) and then induce MSC differentiation with endothelial growth medium-2 (EGM-2). We find that EGM-2 by itself upregulates EC marker CD31 mRNA expression, but not VEGFR2, CD34, or vWF. However, these additional EC marker expressions were increased for cells seeded on plasma treated substrates. Specifically, for EC markers, we found that N2 plasma treatment upregulated CD31 and VEGFR-2 mRNA expressions; CO2 plasma treatment upregulated CD34 and vWF mRNA expressions. The osteogenic markers ALP and osteopontin mRNA expressions were markedly enhanced on all plasma-treated dishes. We also found that plasma treatment in conjunction with EGM-2 growth medium can enhance MSCs differentiation into endothelial-like cells and osteogenic-like cells. Our work shows that the effect of the growth medium (EGM-2) on MSCs differentiation is influenced by the plasma modified surface chemistry of the substrate. In conclusion, plasma surface modification can enhance EGM-2 effectiveness and induced both endothelial and osteogenic differentiation. Our findings provide a method to enhance EGM-2 based cell differentiation, with consequences for tissue engineering and stem cell biology applications.

Keywords: endothelial differentiation, EGM-2, osteogenesis, plasma treatment, surface modification

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3439 Isolation, Characterization and Myogenic Differentiation of Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Fatma Y. Meligy


Objectives: The objectives of this study aimed to isolate and characterize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovial membrane. Then to assess the potentiality of myogenic differentiation of these isolated MSCs. Methods: The MSCs were isolated from synovial membrane by digestion method. Three adult rats were used. The 5 -azacytidine was added to the cultured cells for one day. The isolated cells and treated cells are assessed using immunoflouresence, flowcytometry, PCR and real time PCR. Results: The isolated stem cells showed morphological aspect of stem cells they showed strong positivity to CD44 and CD90 in immunoflouresence while in CD34 and CD45 showed negative reaction. The treated cells with 5-azacytidine was shown to have positive reaction for desmin. Flowcytometric analysis showed that synovial MSCs had strong positive percentage for CD44(%98)and CD90 (%97) and low percentage for CD34 & CD45 while the treated cells showed positive percentage for myogenic marker myogenin (85%). As regard the PCR and Real time PCR, the treated cells showed positive reaction to the desmin primer. Conclusion: The adult MSCs were isolated successfully from synovial membrane and characterized with stem cell markers. The isolated cells could be differentiated in vitro into myogenic cells. These differentiated cells could be used in auto-replacement of diseased or traumatized muscle cells as a regenerative therapy for muscle disorders and trauma.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, synovial membrane, myogenic differentiation

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3438 Plasma Engineered Nanorough Substrates for Stem Cells in vitro Culture

Authors: Melanie Macgregor-Ramiasa, Isabel Hopp, Patricia Murray, Krasimir Vasilev


Stem cells based therapies are one of the greatest promises of new-age medicine due to their potential to help curing most dreaded conditions such as cancer, diabetes and even auto-immune disease. However, establishing suitable in vitro culture materials allowing to control the fate of stem cells remain a challenge. Amongst the factor influencing stem cell behavior, substrate chemistry and nanotopogaphy are particularly critical. In this work, we used plasma assisted surface modification methods to produce model substrates with tailored nanotopography and controlled chemistry. Three different sizes of gold nanoparticles were bound to amine rich plasma polymer layers to produce homogeneous and gradient surface nanotopographies. The outer chemistry of the substrate was kept constant for all substrates by depositing a thin layer of our patented biocompatible polyoxazoline plasma polymer on top of the nanofeatures. For the first time, protein adsorption and stem cell behaviour (mouse kidney stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells) were evaluated on nanorough plasma deposited polyoxazoline thin films. Compared to other nitrogen rich coatings, polyoxazoline plasma polymer supports the covalent binding of proteins. Moderate surface nanoroughness, in both size and density, triggers cell proliferation. In association with polyoxazoline coating, cell proliferation is further enhanced on nanorough substrates. Results are discussed in term of substrates wetting properties. These findings provide valuable insights on the mechanisms governing the interactions between stem cells and their growth support.

Keywords: nanotopography, stem cells, differentiation, plasma polymer, oxazoline, gold nanoparticles

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3437 Derivation of Human NK Cells from T Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Xenogeneic Serum-Free and Feeder Cell-Free Culture System

Authors: Aliya Sekenova, Vyacheslav Ogay


The derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by direct reprogramming opens wide perspectives in the regenerative medicine. It means the possibility to develop the personal and, consequently, any immunologically compatible cells for applications in cell-based therapy. The purpose of our study was to develop the technology for the production of NK cells from T cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (TiPSCs) for subsequent application in adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Methods: In this study iPSCs were derived from peripheral blood T cells using Sendai virus vectors expressing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. Pluripotent characteristics of TiPSCs were examined and confirmed with alkaline phosphatase staining, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. For NK cell differentiation, embryoid bodies (EB) formed from (TiPSCs) were cultured in xenogeneic serum-free medium containing human serum, IL-3, IL-7, IL-15, SCF, FLT3L without using M210-B4 and AFT-024 stromal feeder cells. After differentiation, NK cells were characterized with immunofluorescence analysis, flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assay. Results: Here, we for the first time demonstrate that TiPSCs can effectively differentiate into functionally active NK cells without M210-B4 and AFT-024 xenogeneic stroma cells. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis showed that EB-derived cells can differentiate into a homogeneous population of NK cell expressing high levels of CD56, CD45 and CD16 specific markers. Moreover, these cells significantly express killing activation receptors such as NKp44 and NKp46. In the comparative analysis, we observed that NK cells derived using feeder-free culture system have more high killing activity against K-562 tumor cells, than NK cells derived by feeder-dependent method. Thus, we think that our obtained data will be useful for the development of large-scale production of NK cells for translation into cancer immunotherapy.

Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells, NK cells, T cells, cell diffentiation, feeder cell-free culture system

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3436 Growth and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V and Novel Beta Titanium Alloy Ti36Nb6Ta

Authors: Eva Filová, Jana Daňková, Věra Sovková, Matej Daniel


Titanium alloys are biocompatible metals that are widely used in clinical practice as load bearing implants. The chemical modification may influence cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation as well as stiffness of the material. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion, growth and differentiation of pig mesenchymal stem cells on the novel beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta compared to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Discs of Ti36Nb6Ta and Ti6Al4V alloy were sterilized by ethanol, put in 48-well plates, and seeded by pig mesenchymal stem cells at the density of 60×103/cm2 and cultured in Minimum essential medium (Sigma) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and penicillin/streptomycin. Cell viability was evaluated using MTS assay (CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay;Promega), cell proliferation using Quant-iT™ ds DNA Assay Kit (Life Technologies). Cells were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibody beta-actin, and secondary antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488 and subsequently the spread area of cells was measured. Cell differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase assay using p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as a substrate; the reaction was stopped by NaOH, and the absorbance was measured at 405 nm. Osteocalcin, specific bone marker was stained immunohistochemically and subsequently visualized using confocal microscopy; the fluorescence intensity was analyzed and quantified. Moreover, gene expression of osteogenic markers osteocalcin and type I collagen was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). For statistical evaluation, One-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls Method was used. For qRT-PCR, the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn's Multiple Comparison Test were used. The absorbance in MTS assay was significantly higher on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V compared to beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta on days 7 and 14. Mesenchymal stem cells were well spread on both alloys, but no difference in spread area was found. No differences in alkaline phosphatase assay, fluorescence intensity of osteocalcin as well as the expression of type I collagen, and osteocalcin genes were observed. Higher expression of type I collagen compared to osteocalcin was observed for cells on both alloys. Both beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V Ti36Nb6Ta supported mesenchymal stem cellsˈ adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Novel beta titanium alloys Ti36Nb6Ta is a promising material for bone implantation. The project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation: grant No. 16-14758S, the Grant Agency of the Charles University, grant No. 1246314 and by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports NPU I: LO1309.

Keywords: beta titanium, cell growth, mesenchymal stem cells, titanium alloy, implant

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3435 The Inhibitory Effect of Weissella koreensis 521 Isolated from Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation

Authors: Kyungbae Pi, Kibeom Lee, Yongil Kim, Eun-Jung Lee


Abnormal adipocyte growth, in terms of increased cell numbers and increased cell differentiation, is considered to be a major pathological feature of obesity. Thus, the inhibition of preadipocyte mitogenesis and differentiation could help prevent and suppress obesity. The aim of this study was to assess whether extracts from Weissella koreensis 521 cells isolated from kimchi could exert anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells (fat cells). Differentiating 3T3-L1 cells were treated with W. koreensis 521 cell extracts (W. koreensis 521_CE), and cell viability was assessed by MTT assays. At concentrations below 0.2 mg/ml, W. koreensis 521_CE did not exert any cytotoxic effect in 3T3-L1 cells. However, treatment with W. koreensis 521_CE significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation, as assessed by morphological analysis and Oil Red O staining of fat. W. koreensis 521_CE treatment (0.2 mg/ml) also reduced lipid accumulation by 24% in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings collectively indicate that Weissella koreensis 521 may help prevent obesity.

Keywords: Weissella koreensis 521, 3T3-L1 cells, adipocyte differentiation, obesity

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3434 Biological Optimization following BM-MSC Seeding of Partially Demineralized and Partially Demineralized Laser-Perforated Structural Bone Allografts Implanted in Critical Femoral Defects

Authors: S. AliReza Mirghasemi, Zameer Hussain, Mohammad Saleh Sadeghi, Narges Rahimi Gabaran, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad


Background: Despite promising results have shown by osteogenic cell-based demineralized bone matrix composites, they need to be optimized for grafts that act as structural frameworks in load-bearing defects. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells seeding on partially demineralized laser-perforated structural allografts that have been implanted in critical femoral defects. Materials and Methods: P3 stem cells were used for graft seeding. Laser perforation in four rows of three holes was achieved. Cell-seeded grafts were incubated for one hour until they were planted into the defect. We used four types of grafts: partially demineralized only (Donly), partially demineralized stem cell seeded (DST), partially demineralized laser-perforated (DLP), and partially demineralized laser-perforated stem cell seeded (DLPST). histologic and histomorphometric analysis were performed at 12 weeks. Results: Partially demineralized laser-perforated had the highest woven bone formation within graft limits, stem cell seeded demineralized laser-perforated remained intact, and the difference between partially demineralized only and partially demineralized stem cell seeded was insignificant. At interface, partially demineralized laser-perforated and partially demineralized only had comparable osteogenesis, but partially demineralized stem cell seeded was inferior. The interface in stem cell seeded demineralized laser-perforated was almost replaced by distinct endochondral osteogenesis with higher angiogenesis in the vicinity. Partially demineralized stem cell seeded and stem cell seeded demineralized laser-perforated graft surfaces had extra vessel-ingrowth-like porosities, a sign of delayed resorption. Conclusion: This demonstrates that simple cell-based composites are not optimal and necessitates the supplementation of synergistic stipulations and surface changes.

Keywords: structural bone allograft, partial demineralization, laser perforation, mesenchymal stem cell

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3433 BSYJ Promoting Homing and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells at the Retina of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Model Mice Induced by Sodium Iodate

Authors: Lina Liang, Kai Xu, Jing Zhang


Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major leading cause of visual impairment and blindness with no cure currently established. Cell replacement is discussed as a potential therapy for AMD. Besides intravitreal injection and subretinal injection, intravenous administration has been explored as an alternative route. This study is to observe the effect of BSYJ, a traditional Chinese medicine on the homing and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted via tail vein injection in an age-related macular degeneration mouse model. Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were injected with 40 mg/kg NaIO₃ to induce age-related macular degeneration model. At the second day after NaIO₃ injection, 1×10⁷ GFP labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GFP-MSCs) were transplanted via tali vein injection into the experimental mice. Then the mice were randomly divided into two groups, gavaged with either BSYJ solution (BSYJ group, n=12) or distilled water (DW group, n=12). 12 age-matched healthy C57BL/6J mice were fed regularly as normal control. At day 7, day 14, and day 28 after treatment, retina flat mounting was used to detect the homing of mesenchymal stem cells at the retina. Double-labeling immunofluorescence was used to determine the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Results: At 7, 14, 28 days after treatment, the numbers of GFP-MSCs detected by retina flatmount were 10.2 ± 2.5, 14.5 ± 3.4 and 18.7 ± 5.8, respectively in the distilled water group, while 15.7 ± 3.8, 32.3 ± 3.5 and 77.3 ± 6.4 in BSYJ group, the differences between the two groups were significant (p < 0.05). At 28 days after treatment, it was shown by double staining immunofluorescence that there were more GFP positive cells in the retina of BSYJ group than that of the DW group, but none of the cells expressed RPE specific genes such as RPE65 and CRALBP, or photoreceptor genes such as recoverin and rhodopsin either in BSYJ group or DW group. However, GFAP positive cells were found among the cells labeled with GFP, and the double labeling cells were much more in the BSYJ group than the distilled water group. Conclusion: BSYJ could promote homing of mesenchymal stem cells at the retina of age-related macular degeneration model mice induced by NaIO₃, and the differentiation towards to glial cells. Acknowledgement: National Natural Foundation of China (No: 81473736, 81674033,81973912).

Keywords: BSYJ, differentiation, homing, mesenchymal stem cells

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3432 Properties of Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Long-Term Cryopreservation

Authors: Jienny Lee, In-Soo Cho, Sang-Ho Cha


Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated using preclinical approaches for tissue regeneration. Porcine MSCs (pMSCs) are capable of growing and attaching to plastic with a fibroblast-like morphology and then differentiating into bone, adipose, and cartilage tissues in vitro. This study was conducted to investigate the proliferating abilities, differentiation potentials, and multipotency of miniature pig adipose tissue-derived MSCs (mpAD-MSCs) with or without long-term cryopreservation, considering that cryostorage has the potential for use in clinical applications. After confirming the characteristics of the mpAD-MSCs, we examined the effect of long-term cryopreservation (> 2 years) on expression of cell surface markers (CD34, CD90 and CD105), proliferating abilities (cumulative population doubling level, doubling time, colony-forming unit, and MTT assay) and differentiation potentials into mesodermal cell lineages. As a result, the expression of cell surface markers is similar between thawed and fresh mpAD-MSCs. However, long-term cryopreservation significantly lowered the differentiation potentials (adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic) of mpAD-MSCs. When compared with fresh mpAD-MSCs, thawed mpAD-MSCs exhibited lower expression of mesodermal cell lineage-related genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g2, lipoprotein lipase, collagen Type II alpha 1, osteonectin, and osteocalcin. Interestingly, long-term cryostoraged mpAD-MSCs exhibited significantly higher cell viability than the fresh mpAD-MSCs. Long-term cryopreservation induced a 30% increase in the cell viability of mpAD-MSCs when compared with the fresh mpAD-MSCs at 5 days after thawing. However, long-term cryopreservation significantly lowered expression of stemness markers such as Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog. Furthermore, long-term cryopreservation negatively affected expression of senescence-associated genes such as telomerase reverse transcriptase and heat shock protein 90 of mpAD-MSCs when compared with the fresh mpAD-MSCs. The results from this study might be important for the successful application of MSCs in clinical trials after long-term cryopreservation.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, cryopreservation, stemness, senescence

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3431 The Generation of Insulin Producing Cells from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by miR-375 and Anti-miR-9

Authors: Arefeh Jafarian, Mohammad Taghikani, Saied Abroun, Amir Allahverdi, Masoud Soleimani


Introduction: The miRNAs have key roles in control of pancreatic islet development and insulin secretion. In this regards, current study investigated the pancreatic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) by up-regulation of miR-375 and down-regulation of miR-9 by lentiviruses containing miR-375 and anti-miR-9. Findings: After 21 days of induction, islet-like clusters containing insulin producing cells (IPCs) were confirmed by dithizone (DTZ) staining. The IPCs and β cell specific related genes and proteins were detected using qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence on days 7, 14 and 21 of differentiation. Glucose challenge test was performed at different concentrations of glucose as well as extracellular and intracellular insulin and C-peptide were assayed using ELISA kit. In derived IPCs by miR-375 alone are capable to express insulin and other endocrine specific transcription factors, the cells lack the machinery to respond to glucose. The differentiated hMSCs by miR-375 and anti-miR-9 lentiviruses could secrete insulin and c-peptide in a glucose-regulated manner. Conclusion: It was found that over-expression of miR-375 led to a reduction in levels of Mtpn protein in derived IPCs, while treatment with anti-miR-9 following miR-375 over-expression had synergistic effects on MSCs differentiation and insulin secretion in a glucose-regulated manner. The researchers reported that silencing of miR-9 increased OC-2 protein in IPCs that may contribute to the observed glucose-regulated insulin secretion. These findings highlight miRNAs functions in stem cells differentiation and suggest that they could be used as therapeutic tools for gene-based therapy in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes, differentiation, MSCs, insulin producing cells, miR-375, miR-9

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3430 Biocompatible Beta Titanium Alloy Ti36Nb6Ta as a Suitable Material for Bone Regeneration

Authors: Vera Lukasova, Eva Filova, Jana Dankova, Vera Sovkova, Matej Daniel, Michala Rampichova


Proper bone implants should promote fast adhesion of cells, stimulate cell differentiation and support the formation of bone tissue. Nowadays titanium is used as a biocompatible material capable of bone tissue integration. This study was focused on comparison of bioactive properties of two titanium alloys - beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta and standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. The advantage of beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta is mainly that this material does not contain adverse elements like vanadium or aluminium. Titanium alloys were sterilized in ethanol, placed into 48 well plates and seeded with porcine mesenchymal stem cells. Cells were cultivated for 14 days in standard growth cultivation media with osteogenic supplements. Cell metabolic activity was quantified using MTS assay (Promega). Cell adhesion on day 1 and cell proliferation on further days were verified immunohistochemically using beta-actin monoclonal antibody and secondary antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488. Differentiation of cells was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase assay. Additionally, gene expression of collagen I was measured by qRT-PCR. Porcine mesenchymal stem cells adhered and spread well on beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta on day 1. During the 14 days’ time period the cells were spread confluently on the surface of the beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta. The metabolic activity of cells increased during the whole cultivation period. In comparison to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V, we did not observe any differences. Moreover, the expression of collagen I gene revealed no statistical differences between both titanium alloys. Therefore, a beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta promotes cell adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and collagen I expression equally to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. Thus, beta titanium is a suitable material that provides sufficient biocompatible properties. This project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation: grant No. 16-14758S.

Keywords: beta titanium alloy, biocompatibility, differentiation, mesenchymal stem cells

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