Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: MWNTs

10 Decoration of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by CdS Nanoparticles Using Magnetron Sputtering Method

Authors: Z. Ghorannevis, E. Akbarnejad, B. Aghazadeh, M. Ghoranneviss


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified with semiconductor nanocrystalline particles may find wide applications due to their unique properties. Here Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were successfully grown on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) via a magnetron sputtering method for the first time. The CdS/MWNTs sample was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopies (SEM/TEM) and four point probe. The obtained images show clearly the decoration of the MWNTs by the CdS nanoparticles, and the XRD measurements indicate the CdS structure as hexagonal type. Moreover, the physical properties of the CdS/MWNTs were compared with the physical properties of the CdS nanoparticles grown on the silicon. Electrical measurements of CdS and CdS/MWNTs reveal that CdS/MWNTs has lower resistivity than the CdS sample which may be due to the higher carrier concentrations.

Keywords: CdS, MWNTs, HRTEM, magnetron sputtering

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9 The Effect of Interfacial Chemistry on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites Containing Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Grafted Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Prajakta Katti, Suryasarathi Bose, S. Kumar


In this work, carboxyl functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (a-MWNTs) covalently grafted with hydroxylated functionalized poly (ether ether ketone), HPEEK, which is miscible with the pre-polymer (epoxy) through the esterification reaction. The functionalized MWNTs were systematically characterized using spectroscopic techniques. The epoxy composites containing a-MWNTs and HPEEK grafted multiwall carbon nanotubes (HPEEK-g-MWNTs) were formulated using mechanical stirring coupled with a bath sonicator to improve the dispersion property of the nanoparticles and were subsequently cured at 80 ̊C and post cured at 180 ̊C. With the addition of 0.5 wt% of HPEEK-g-MWNTs, an impressive 44% enhancement in the storage modulus, 22% increase in tensile strength and 38% increase in fracture toughness was observed with respect to neat epoxy. In addition to these mechanical properties, the epoxy composites displayed significant enhancement in the hardness without reducing thermal stability. These improved properties were attributed to the tailored interface between HPEEK-MWNTs and epoxy matrix.

Keywords: epoxy, MWNTs, HPEEK-g-MWNTs, tensile properties, nanoindentation, fracture toughness

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8 Fabrication of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes Paper Electrode for Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Tze-Sian Pui, Aung Than, Song-Wei Loo, Yuan-Li Hoe


A paper-based electrode devised from an array of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) has been successfully developed for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The PDDA/MWNTs electrodes were fabricated by allowing PDDA to absorb onto the surface of carboxylated MWNTs, followed by drop-casting the resulting mixture onto a paper. Cyclic voltammetry performed using 5 mM [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/⁴⁻ as the redox marker showed that the PDDA/MWNTs electrode has higher redox activity compared to non-functionalized carboxylated MWNT electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry was conducted with DA concentration ranging from 2 µM to 500 µM in the presence of 1 mM AA. The distinctive potential of 0.156 and -0.068 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) measured on the surface of the PDDA/MWNTs electrode revealed that both DA and AA were oxidized. The detection limit of DA was estimated to be 0.8 µM. This nanocomposite paper-based electrode has great potential for future applications in bioanalysis and biomedicine.

Keywords: dopamine, differential pulse voltammetry, paper sensor, carbon nanotube

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7 Impact of Locally Synthesized Carbon Nanotubes against Some Local Clinical Bacterial Isolates

Authors: Abdul Matin, Muazzama Akhtar, Shahid Nisar, Saddaf Mazzar, Umer Rashid


Antibiotic resistance is an increasing concern worldwide now a day. Neisseria gonorrhea and Staphylococcus aureus are known to cause major human sexually transmitted and respiratory diseases respectively. Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline and its application in various fields especially in medical sciences is gigantic. In the present study, we synthesized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using acid oxidation method and solubilized MWNTs were with length predominantly >500 nm and diameters ranging from 40 to 50 nm. The locally synthesized MWNTs were used against gram positive and negative bacteria to determine their impact on bacterial growth. Clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhea (isolate: 4C-11) and Staphylococcus aureus (isolate: 38541) were obtained from local hospital and normally cultured in LB broth at 37°C. Both clinical strains can be obtained on request from University of Gujarat. Spectophometric assay was performed to determine the impact of MWNTs on bacterial growth in vitro. To determine the effect of MWTNs on test organisms, various concentration of MWNTs were used and recorded observation on various time intervals to understand the growth inhibition pattern. Our results demonstrated that MWNTs exhibited toxic effects to Staphylococcus aureus while showed very limited growth inhibition to Neisseria gonorrhea, which suggests the resistant potential of Neisseria against nanoparticles. Our results clearly demonstrate the gradual decrease in bacterial numbers with passage of time when compared with control. Maximum bacterial inhibition was observed at maximum concentration (50 µg/ml). Our future work will include further characterization and mode of action of our locally synthesized MWNTs. In conclusion, we investigated and reported for the first time the inhibitory potential of locally synthesized MWNTs on local clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhea.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, multi walled carbon nanotubes, Neisseria gonorrhea, spectrophotometer assay, Staphylococcus aureus

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6 Effect of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Fuel Cell Membrane Performance

Authors: Rabindranath Jana, Biswajit Maity, Keka Rana


The most promising clean energy source is the fuel cell, since it does not generate toxic gases and other hazardous compounds. Again the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is more user-friendly as it is easy to be miniaturized and suited as energy source for automobiles as well as domestic applications and portable devices. And unlike the hydrogen used for some fuel cells, methanol is a liquid that is easy to store and transport in conventional tanks. The most important part of a fuel cell is its membrane. Till now, an overall efficiency for a methanol fuel cell is reported to be about 20 ~ 25%. The lower efficiency of the cell may be due to the critical factors, e.g. slow reaction kinetics at the anode and methanol crossover. The oxidation of methanol is composed of a series of successive reactions creating formaldehyde and formic acid as intermediates that contribute to slow reaction rates and decreased cell voltage. Currently, the investigation of new anode catalysts to improve oxidation reaction rates is an active area of research as it applies to the methanol fuel cell. Surprisingly, there are very limited reports on nanostructured membranes, which are rather simple to manufacture with different tuneable compositions and are expected to allow only the proton permeation but not the methanol due to their molecular sizing effects and affinity to the membrane surface. We have developed a nanostructured fuel cell membrane from polydimethyl siloxane rubber (PDMS), ethylene methyl co-acrylate (EMA) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The effect of incorporating different proportions of f-MWNTs in polymer membrane has been studied. The introduction of f-MWNTs in polymer matrix modified the polymer structure, and therefore the properties of the device. The proton conductivity, measured by an AC impedance technique using open-frame and two-electrode cell and methanol permeability of the membranes was found to be dependent on the f-MWNTs loading. The proton conductivity of the membranes increases with increase in concentration of f-MWNTs concentration due to increased content of conductive materials. Measured methanol permeabilities at 60oC were found to be dependant on loading of f-MWNTs. The methanol permeability decreased from 1.5 x 10-6 cm²/s for pure film to 0.8 x 10-7 cm²/s for a membrane containing 0.5wt % f-MWNTs. This is due to increasing proportion of f-MWNTs, the matrix becomes more compact. From DSC melting curves it is clear that the polymer matrix with f-MWNTs is thermally stable. FT-IR studies show good interaction between EMA and f-MWNTs. XRD analysis shows good crystalline behavior of the prepared membranes. Significant cost savings can be achieved when using the blended films which contain less expensive polymers.

Keywords: fuel cell membrane, polydimethyl siloxane rubber, carbon nanotubes, proton conductivity, methanol permeability

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5 Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials

Authors: Bashir Ahmmad, Kensaku Kanomata, Fumihiko Hirose


The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water/alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, repectively. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental conditions were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, WNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 were tested.

Keywords: photocatalysis, carbon materials, alcohol reforming, hydrogen production, titanium oxide

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4 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Nucleating Agents

Authors: Rabindranath Jana, Plabani Basu, Keka Rana


Nucleating agents are widely used to modify the properties of various polymers. The rate of crystallization and the size of the crystals have a strong impact on mechanical and optical properties of a polymer. The addition of nucleating agents to the semi-crystalline polymers provides a surface on which the crystal growth can start easily. As a consequence, fast crystal formation will result in many small crystal domains so that the cycle times for injection molding may be reduced. Moreover, the mechanical properties e.g., modulus, tensile strength, heat distortion temperature and hardness may increase. In the present work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as nucleating agents for the crystallization of poly (e-caprolactone)diol (PCL). Thus nanocomposites of PCL filled with MWNTs were prepared by solution blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests were carried out to study the effect of CNTs on on-isothermal crystallization of PCL. The polarizing optical microscopy (POM), and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were used to study the morphology and crystal structure of PCL and its nanocomposites. It is found that MWNTs act as effective nucleating agents that significantly shorten the induction period of crystallization and however, decrease the crystallization rate of PCL, exhibiting a remarkable decrease in the Avrami exponent n, surface folding energy σe and crystallization activation energy ΔE. The carbon-based fillers act as templates for hard block chains of PCL to form an ordered structure on the surface of nanoparticles during the induction period, bringing about some increase in equilibrium temperature. The melting process of PCL and its nanocomposites are also studied; the nanocomposites exhibit two melting peaks at higher crystallization temperature which mainly refer to the melting of the crystals with different crystal sizes however, PCL shows only one melting temperature.

Keywords: poly(e-caprolactone)diol, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, composite materials, nonisothermal crystallization, crystal structure, nucleation

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3 Immiscible Polymer Blends with Controlled Nanoparticle Location for Excellent Microwave Absorption: A Compartmentalized Approach

Authors: Sourav Biswas, Goutam Prasanna Kar, Suryasarathi Bose


In order to obtain better materials, control in the precise location of nanoparticles is indispensable. It was shown here that ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, possessing different characteristics (electrical/magnetic dipoles), in the blend structure can result in excellent microwave absorption. This is manifested from a high reflection loss of ca. -67 dB for the best blend structure designed here. To attenuate electromagnetic radiations, the key parameters i.e. high electrical conductivity and large dielectric/magnetic loss are targeted here using a conducting inclusion [multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs]; ferroelectric nanostructured material with associated relaxations in the GHz frequency [barium titanate, BT]; and a loss ferromagnetic nanoparticles [nickel ferrite, NF]. In this study, bi-continuous structures were designed using 50/50 (by wt) blends of polycarbonate (PC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The MWNTs was modified using an electron acceptor molecule; a derivative of perylenediimide, which facilitates π-π stacking with the nanotubes and stimulates efficient charge transport in the blends. The nanoscopic materials have specific affinity towards the PVDF phase. Hence, by introducing surface-active groups, ordered arrangement can be tailored. To accomplish this, both BT and NF was first hydroxylated followed by introducing amine-terminal groups on the surface. The latter facilitated in nucleophilic substitution reaction with PC and resulted in their precise location. In this study, we have shown for the first time that by compartmentalized approach, superior EM attenuation can be achieved. For instance, when the nanoparticles were localized exclusively in the PVDF phase or in both the phases, the minimum reflection loss was ca. -18 dB (for MWNT/BT mixture) and -29 dB (for MWNT/NF mixture), and the shielding was primarily through reflection. Interestingly, by adopting the compartmentalized approach where in, the lossy materials were in the PC phase and the conducting inclusion (MWNT) in PVDF, an outstanding reflection loss of ca. -57 dB (for BT and MWNT combination) and -67 dB (for NF and MWNT combination) was noted and the shielding was primarily through absorption. Thus, the approach demonstrates that nanoscopic structuring in the blends can be achieved under macroscopic processing conditions and this strategy can further be explored to design microwave absorbers.

Keywords: barium titanate, EMI shielding, MWNTs, nickel ferrite

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2 Study of Self-Assembled Photocatalyst by Metal-Terpyridine Interactions in Polymer Network

Authors: Dong-Cheol Jeong, Jookyung Lee, Yu Hyeon Ro, Changsik Song


The design and synthesis of photo-active polymeric systems are important in regard to solar energy harvesting and utilization. In this study, we synthesized photo-active polymer, thin films, and polymer gel via iterative self-assembly using reversible metal-terpyridine (M-tpy) interactions. The photocurrent generated in the polymeric thin films with Zn(II) was much higher than those of other films. Apparent diffusion rate constant (kapp) was measured for the electron hopping process via potential-step chronoamperometry. As a result, the kapp for the polymeric thin films with Zn(II) was almost two times larger than those with other metal ions. We found that the anodic photocurrents increased with the inclusion of the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) layer. Inclusion of MWNTs can provide efficient electron transfer pathways. In addition, polymer gel based on interactions between terpyridine and metal ions was shown the photocatalytic activity. Interestingly, in the Mg-terpyridine gel, the reaction rate of benzylamine to imine photo-oxidative coupling was faster than Fe-terpyridine gel because the Mg-terpyridine gel has two steps electron transfer pathway but Fe-terpyridine gel has three steps electron transfer pathway.

Keywords: terpyridine, photocatalyst, self-assebly, metal-ligand

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1 Preliminary Studies of MWCNT/PVDF Polymer Composites

Authors: Esther Lorrayne M. Pereira, Adriana Souza M. Batista, Fabíola A. S. Ribeiro, Adelina P. Santos, Clascídia A. Furtado, Luiz O. Faria


The combination of multi–walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polymers offers an attractive route to reinforce the macromolecular compounds as well as the introduction of new properties based on morphological modifications or electronic interactions between the two constituents. As they are only a few nanometers in dimension, it offers ultra-large interfacial area per volume between the nano-element and polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the use of MWCNTs as a rough material in different applications has been largely limited by their poor processability, insolubility, and infusibility. Studies concerning the nanofiller reinforced polymer composites are justified in an attempt to overcome these limitations. This work presents one preliminary study of MWCNTs dispersion into the PVDF homopolymer. For preparation, the composite components were diluted in n,n-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with mechanical agitation assistance. After complete dilution, followed by slow evaporation of the solvent at 60°C, the samples were dried. Films of about 80 μm were obtained. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the nanocomposites. The appearance of absorption bands in the FTIR spectra of nanofilled samples, when compared to the spectrum of pristine PVDF samples, are discussed and compared with the UV-Vis measurements.

Keywords: composites materials, FTIR, MWNTs, PVDF, UV-vis

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