Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: poem

30 Spectra of Mahmoud Darwish: Argumentative Approach in the Poem "Identity Card"

Authors: Haitham Sarhan

Abstract:

The experience of Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry represents one of the leading Arabic creative experiences because of its cultural specificity which is linked to the question of Palestine and its people. The poet Mahmoud Darwish does not stop there, but also reaches out to the whole of the cosmic and openness of the universal human experience. His poetry is rooted in a creative period, and was able to surpass its time. Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry contains diverse metaphors and worlds of genres, which overextends from direct romance to the lattice resistance and further stretches to the imaginary world and to the grand narratives. The poem "Identity Card" was published in his collections "Olive Leaves" and was issued in 1963. This collection highlighted the poems which included a revolutionary position, and formed a 'manifesto' and the statement of the Palestinian resistance, which represented the league of poets of Palestine. This poem has contributed along with other poems in creating a flame of resistance and increased it in the hearts of the Palestinian people. It also exercised considerable influence in the Arab world through what has been wrought from emotional responses and revolutionary impact which still remains. Moreover, this poem has succeeded with other resistance poems and postmodern poets like Nizar Qabbani in bringing modern poetry and culturally transmitted it among the Arab peoples and the masses. In spite of the fact that the poet Mahmoud Darwish exceeded this poem creatively through his other great works, "Identity Card" still has a great effect on peoples past memory’s and present. This need to hear this poem in Mahmoud Darwish’s poetic readings reflects peoples frustration and anger. It is safe to say that it is enticing people to this present day. This revolutionary poem had and still has a magical effect on Arab world.

Keywords: Arab contemporary poetry, identity, memory, argumentation

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29 Indecisiveness in 'The Road Not Taken' by Robert Frost: An Expressive Critical Analysis

Authors: Kurt S. Candilas

Abstract:

This expressive critical study is an effort to bring in light new interpretation of Robert Frost poem 'The Road Not Taken' as a reflection of his indecisiveness in life. Specifically, it aims at examining Frost’s inner being, emphasizing his own self and experiences in the poem or text. The study employs the qualitative research design which made use of discourse analysis using the critical theory of expressivism as the main guide. In acquiring the data of the study, the art of historiography is used such as autobiographical and/or biographical notes, sources documents, and web information. In executing the methods involved in this study, it is observed that the poem shows a naturalist implicatures, expressing Frost’s strong feelings and emotions being devoid of free will and a narrow bit of confusions and ambiguities with his indecisions in life.

Keywords: The Road Not Taken, expressivism, indecisiveness, naturalist implicatures

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28 Poetics of the Connecting ha’: A Textual Study in the Poetry of Al-Husari Al-Qayrawani

Authors: Mahmoud al-Ashiriy

Abstract:

This paper begins from the idea that the real history of literature is the history of its style. And since the rhyme –as known- is not merely the last letter, that have received a lot of analysis and investigation, but it is a collection of other values in addition to its different markings. This paper will explore the work of the connecting ha’ and its effectiveness in shaping the text of poetry, since it establishes vocal rhythms in addition to its role in indicating references through the pronoun, vertically through the poem through the sequence of its verses, also horizontally through what environs the one verse of sentences. If the scientific formation of prosody stopped at the possibilities and prohibitions; literary criticism and poetry studies should explore what is above the rule of aesthetic horizon of poetic effectiveness that varies from a text to another, a poet to another, a literary period to another, or from a poetic taste to another. Then the paper will explore this poetic essence in the texts of the famous Andalusian Poet Al-Husari Al-Qayrawani through his well-known Daliyya (a poem that its verses end with the letter D), and the role of the connecting ha’ in fulfilling its text and the accomplishment of its poetics, departing from this to the diwan (the big collection of poems) also as a higher text that surpasses the text/poem, and through what it represents of effectiveness the work of the phenomenon in accomplishing the poetics of the poem of Al-Husari Al-Qayrawani who is one of the pillars of Arabic poetics in Andalusia.

Keywords: Al-Husari Al-Qayrawni, poetics, rhyme, stylistics, science of the text

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27 A Mimetic Textuality in Robert Frost's 'Nothing Gold Can Stay'

Authors: Kurt S. Candilas

Abstract:

This study is a critical analysis of the work of Robert Frost, 'Nothing Gold Can Stay'. It subjects the literary piece into a qualitative analysis using the critical theory of mimesis. In effect, this study is proposed to find out and shed light on the mimetic feature of the poem’s textuality. Generally, it aims to analyze the poem’s deeper meaning in the context of the reality of life from birth to death. For the most part, this critical analysis discerns, investigates, and highlights the features which present the imitation of life in detail and from a deeper view. Based on the result of analysis, it shows that Frost has portrayed the cycle of life from birth to midst life as about proving oneself to others as far as achievements and accomplishments are concerned; secondly, at some point of one’s life, successes and achievements are just one’s perfect signature of living. As Frost discloses his poem, his message of the reality of life from birth to death is clear enough, that nothing is going to last forever.

Keywords: Nothing Gold Can Stay, mimesis, birth, death

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26 Strategies of Translation: Unlocking the Secret of 'Locksley Hall'

Authors: Raja Lahiani

Abstract:

'Locksley Hall' is a poem that Lord Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892) published in 1842. It is believed to be his first attempt to face as a poet some of the most painful of his experiences, as it is a study of his rising out of sickness into health, conquering his selfish sorrow by faith and hope. So far, in Victorian scholarship as in modern criticism, 'Locksley Hall' has been studied and approached as a canonical Victorian English poem. The aim of this project is to prove that some strategies of translation were used in this poem in such a way as to guarantee its assimilation into the English canon and hence efface to a large extent its Arabic roots. In its relationship with its source text, 'Locksley Hall' is at the same time mimetic and imitative. As part of the terminology used in translation studies, ‘imitation’ means almost the exact opposite of what it means in ordinary English. By adopting an imitative procedure, a translator would do something totally different from the original author, wandering far and freely from the words and sense of the original text. An imitation is thus aimed at an audience which wants the work of the particular translator rather than the work of the original poet. Hallam Tennyson, the poet’s biographer, asserts that 'Locksley Hall' is a simple invention of place, incidents, and people, though he notes that he remembers the poet claiming that Sir William Jones’ prose translation of the Mu‘allaqat (pre-Islamic poems) gave him the idea of the poem. A comparative work would prove that 'Locksley Hall' mirrors a great deal of Tennyson’s biography and hence is not a simple invention of details as asserted by his biographer. It would be challenging to prove that 'Locksley Hall' shares so many details with the Mu‘allaqat, as declared by Tennyson himself, that it needs to be studied as an imitation of the Mu‘allaqat of Imru’ al-Qays and ‘Antara in addition to its being a poem in its own right. Thus, the main aim of this work is to unveil the imitative and mimetic strategies used by Tennyson in his composition of 'Locksley Hall.' It is equally important that this project researches the acculturating assimilative tools used by the poet to root his poem in its Victorian English literary, cultural and spatiotemporal settings. This work adopts a comparative methodology. Comparison is done at different levels. The poem will be contextualized in its Victorian English literary framework. Alien details related to structure, socio-spatial setting, imagery and sound effects shall be compared to Arabic poems from the Mu‘allaqat collection. This would determine whether the poem is a translation, an adaption, an imitation or a genuine work. The ultimate objective of the project is to unveil in this canonical poem a new dimension that has for long been either marginalized or ignored. By proving that 'Locksley Hall' is an imitation of classical Arabic poetry, the project aspires to consolidate its literary value and open up new gates of accessing it.

Keywords: comparative literature, imitation, Locksley Hall, Lord Alfred Tennyson, translation, Victorian poetry

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25 Thai Prosody Problems with First-Year Students

Authors: Jiraporn Adchariyaprasit

Abstract:

Thai language is difficult in all four language skills, especially reading. The first year students may have different abilities in reading, so a teacher is required to find out a student’s reading level so that the teacher can help and support them till they can develop and resolve each problem themselves. This research is aimed to study the prosody problem among Thai students and will be focused on first year Thai students in the second semester. A total of 58 students were involved in this study. Four obstacles were found: 1) Interpretation from what they read and write; 2) Incorrectness Pronunciation of Prosody; 3) Incorrectness in Rhythm of the Poem; Incorrectness of the Thai Poem Pronunciation.

Keywords: pronunciation, prosody, interpretation, Thai language

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24 Poem and Novel Translations from Arabic to Turkish Done between the Years of 1980-2015

Authors: Gürkan Dağbaşı

Abstract:

Translation is a vitally important activity like as the expression the thought and emotions of humanbeing, providing reciprocal cultural transfer, shaping future by establishing a connection with the past, and like as being exist in an other language. Translation is also an important instrument providing cross-cultural coalescence between nations. Although the first translations from Arabic to Turkish was restricted to only religious texts, over time, the importance of translation was found out via translations of works about literature. Later on, some literature genres like novel and poems were also translated from Arabic to Turkish. Works of many men of Arabic literature were translated to Turkish, including Nejib Mahfuz, owner of Nobel Prize, Tawfiq al-Hakim, Adonis, Gibran Khalil Gibran and etc. In this study, novels and poems translated from Arabic to Turkish between 1980-2015 years are examined.

Keywords: poem, novel, Arabic, translation

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23 The Structure of Asadi's Poem and Human Psyche in Garshasb-Nameh Based on Jung's Perspective

Authors: Shirin Ghasemi

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The structure of Asadi’s poem in Garshasb-Nameh coordinates with the structure of human psyche based on Jung’s perspective. The poetic stories of Asadi in Garshasb-Nameh is contrasted to human psyche according to Jung’s view in psychology which indicated the similarity of poetic structure of stories of Garshasb-Nameh to analytical psychology of Jung. In fact, by studying the stories of this collection the reader travels with him and finds it consistent with the human psyche. To demonstrate this, the story of Jamshid marriage with Kuhrang’s daughter and the story of Garshasb marriage with King’s daughter are selected. These two stories illustrate the poetic structure and the human psyche based on Jung’s analytical psychology perspective.

Keywords: Asadi Tusi, Garshasb-Nameh, Jung, analytical psychology

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22 Metamorphosis in Nature through Adéquation: An Ecocritical Reading of Charles Tomlinson's Poetry

Authors: Zahra Barzegar, Reza Deedari, Behzad Pourgharib

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This study examines how metamorphosis in nature is depicted in Charles Tomlinson's poetry through Lawrence Buell's mimesis and referential strategy of adéquation. This study aims to answer the questions that what is the relationship between Tomlinson's selected poems and nature, and how does Tomlinson's poetry bring the reader close to the natural environment. Adéquation is a way that brings the reader close to nature, not by imitating nature but by referring to it imaginatively and creating a stylized image. Using figurative language, namely imagery, metaphor, and analogy, adéquation creates a stylized image of metamorphosis in a nature scene that acts as a middle way between the reader and nature. This paper proves that adéquation reinvents the metamorphosis in natural occurrences in Charles Tomlinson's selected poems. Thus, a reader whose imagination is addressed achieves closeness with nature and a caring outlook toward natural happenings. This article confirms that Tomlinson's poems are potential enough to represent metamorphosis in nature through adéquation. Therefore, the reader understands nature beyond the poem as the poem presents a gist of nature through adéquation.

Keywords: adéquation, metamorphosis, nature, referentiality

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21 The Theme 'Leyli and Majnun', the Ancient Legend of the East in the Cognominal Symphonic Poem of Great Composer Gara Garayev on Specific and Non–Specific Content

Authors: Vusala Amirbayova

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The science of modern musicology, based on the achievements of a number of neighboring science fields, has more deeply penetrated into the sphere of artistic content of the art of music and developed a new scientific methodology, methods and approaches for a comprehensive study of the problem. In this regard, a new theory developed by the famous Russian musician-scientist, professor V. Kholopova – the specific and non – specific content of music – draws the attention with its different philosophical foundation and covering historical periods of the art of composing. The scientist related her theory to the art of European composer’s creativity, and did not include musical professionalism and especially, folklore creativity existing in other continent in her circle of interest. The researcher made an effort to explain triad (the world of ideas, emotions and subjects) which is included in the general content of music in the example of composers’ works belonging to different periods and cultures. In this respect, the artistic content of works has been deeply and comprehensively analyzed new philosophical basis. The theme ‘Leyli and Majnun’ was developed by many poets as one of the ancient legends of the East, and each artist was able to give a unique artistic interpretation of the work. This literary source was successfully developed in cognominal opera of great U. Hajibeyli in Azerbaijani music and its embodiment with symphonic means required great skill and courage from Gara Garayev. Unlike opera, as there is the opportunity to show the plot of ‘Leyli and Majnun’ in the symphonic poem, the composer achieved to reflect the main purpose of its idea convincingly with pure musical means, and created a great work with tragic spirit having a great emotional impact. Though the artistic content and form of ‘Leyli and Majnun’ symphonic poem have been sufficiently analyzed by music theorists until now, in our opinion, it is for the first time that the work is considered from the point of specific music content. Therefore, we will make an effort to penetrate into a specific layer of its artistic content after firstly reviewing the poem with traditional methods in the general plan. The use of both national fret – intonations and the system of major – minor by G. Garayev is based on well-tempered root. The composer, widely using national fret – intonations and model harmonic means on this ground, achieved to express the spirit and content of the poem. It perfectly embodies the grandeur and immortality of divine love, and the struggle of powerful human personality with the forces of despotism. Gara Garayev said about this work: “My most sublime goal and desire is to explain the literary issue that love endures to all obstacles and overcomes even death”. The music of ‘Leyli and Majnun’ symphonic poem is rich with deep desires and sharp contradictions. G.Garayev reflected these wonderful ideas about the power of music in his book ‘Articles, schools and sayings’: “Music is the decoration of life and a powerful source of inspiration”.

Keywords: content, music, symphonic, theory

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20 From Oral to Written: Translating the Dawot (Epic Poem), Revitalizing Appreciation for Indigenous Literature

Authors: Genevieve Jorolan-Quintero

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The recording as well as the preservation of indigenous literature is an important task as it deals with a significant heritage of pre-colonial culture. The beliefs and traditions of a people are reflected in their oral narratives, such as the folk epic, which must be written down to insure their preservation. The epic poem for instance, known as dawot among the Mandaya, one of the indigenous communities in the southern region of the Philippines, narrates the customs, the ways of life, and the adventures of an ancient people. Nabayra, an expert on Philippine folkloric studies, stresses that still extant after centuries of unknown origin, the dawot was handed down to the magdadawot (bard) by word of mouth, forming the greatest bulk of Mandaya oral tradition. Unhampered by modern means of communication to distract her/him, the magdadawot has a sharp memory of the intricacies of the ancient art of chanting the panayday (verses) of the epic poem. The dawot has several hullubaton (episodes), each of which takes several nights to chant . The language used in these oral traditions is archaic Mandaya, no longer spoken or clearly understood by the present generation. There is urgency to the task of recording and writing down what remain of the epic poem since the singers and storytellers who have retained the memory and the skill of chanting and narrating the dawot and other forms of oral tradition in their original forms are getting fewer. The few who are gifted and skilled to transmit these ancient arts and wisdom are old and dying. Unlike the other Philippine epics (i.e. the Darangen, the Ulahingan, the Hinilawod, etc.), the Mandaya epic is yet to be recognized and given its rightful place among the recorded epics in Philippine Folk Literature. The general aim of this study was to put together and preserve an intangible heritage, the Mandaya hullubaton (episodes of the dawot), in order to preserve and promote appreciation for the oral traditions and cultural legacy of the Mandaya. It was able to record, transcribe, and translate four hullubaton of the folk epic into two languages, Visayan and English to insure understanding of their contents and significance among non-Mandaya audiences. Evident in the contents of the episodes are the cultural practices, ideals, life values, and traditions of the ancient Mandaya. While the conquests and adventures of the Mandaya heroes Lumungtad, Dilam, and Gambong highlight heroic virtues, the role of the Mandaya matriarch in family affairs is likewise stressed. The recording and the translation of the hullubaton and the dawot into commonly spoken languages will not only promote knowledge and understanding about their culture, but will also stimulate in the members of this cultural community a sense of pride for their literature and culture. Knowledge about indigenous cultural system and philosophy derived from their oral literature will serve as a springboard to further comparative researches dealing with indigenous mores and belief systems among the different tribes in the Philippines, in Asia, in Africa, and other countries in the world.

Keywords: Dawot, epic poem, Mandaya, Philippine folk literature

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19 A Fine String between Weaving the Text and Patching It: Reading beyond the Hidden Symbols and Antithetical Relationships in the Classical and Modern Arabic Poetry

Authors: Rima Abu Jaber-Bransi, Rawya Jarjoura Burbara

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This study reveals the extension and continuity between the classical Arabic poetry and modern Arabic poetry through investigation of its ambiguity, symbolism, and antithetical relationships. The significance of this study lies in its exploration and discovering of a new method of reading classical and modern Arabic poetry. The study deals with the Fatimid poetry and discovers a new method to read it. It also deals with the relationship between the apparent and the hidden meanings of words through focusing on how the paradoxical antithetical relationships change the meaning of the whole poem and give it a different dimension through the use of Oxymorons. In our unprecedented research on Oxymoron, we found out that the words in modern Arabic poetry are used in unusual combinations that convey apparent and hidden meanings. In some cases, the poet introduces an image with a symbol of a certain thing, but the reader soon discovers that the symbol includes its opposite, too. The question is: How does the reader find that hidden harmony in that apparent disharmony? The first and most important conclusion of this study is that the Fatimid poetry was written for two types of readers: religious readers who know the religious symbols and the hidden secret meanings behind the words, and ordinary readers who understand the apparent literal meaning of the words. Consequently, the interpretation of the poem is subject to the type of reading. In Fatimid poetry we found out that the hunting-journey is a journey of hidden esoteric knowledge; the Horse is al-Naqib, a religious rank of the investigator and missionary; the Lion is Ali Ibn Abi Talib. The words black and white, day and night, bird, death and murder have different meanings and indications. Our study points out the importance of reading certain poems in certain periods in two different ways: the first depends on a doctrinal interpretation that transforms the external apparent (ẓāher) meanings into internal inner hidden esoteric (bāṭen) ones; the second depends on the interpretation of antithetical relationships between the words in order to reveal meanings that the poet hid for a reader who participates in the processes of creativity. The second conclusion is that the classical poem employed symbols, oxymora and antonymous and antithetical forms to create two poetic texts in one mold and form. We can conclude that this study is pioneering in showing the constant paradoxical relationship between the apparent and the hidden meanings in classical and modern Arabic poetry.

Keywords: apparent, symbol, hidden, antithetical, oxymoron, Sophism, Fatimid poetry

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18 Substitutional Inference in Poetry: Word Choice Substitutions Craft Multiple Meanings by Inference

Authors: J. Marie Hicks

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The art of the poetic conjoins meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm. Perhaps the reader might read this opening sentence as 'The art of the poetic combines meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm,' which holds a similar message, but is not quite the same. The reader understands that these factors are combined in this literary form, but to gain a sense of the conjoining of these factors, the reader is forced to consider that these aspects of poetry are not simply combined, but actually adjoin, abut, skirt, or touch in the poetic form. This alternative word choice is an example of substitutional inference. Poetry is, ostensibly, a literary form where language is used precisely or creatively to evoke specific images or emotions for the reader. Often, the reader can predict a coming rhyme or descriptive word choice in a poem, based on previous rhyming pattern or earlier imagery in the poem. However, there are instances when the poet uses an unexpected word choice to create multiple meanings and connections. In these cases, the reader is presented with an unusual phrase or image, requiring that they think about what that image is meant to suggest, and their mind also suggests the word they expected, creating a second, overlying image or meaning. This is what is meant by the term 'substitutional inference.' This is different than simply using a double entendre, a word or phrase that has two meanings, often one complementary and the other disparaging, or one that is innocuous and the other suggestive. In substitutional inference, the poet utilizes an unanticipated word that is either visually or phonetically similar to the expected word, provoking the reader to work to understand the poetic phrase as written, while unconsciously incorporating the meaning of the line as anticipated. In other words, by virtue of a word substitution, an inference of the logical word choice is imparted to the reader, while they are seeking to rationalize the word that was actually used. There is a substitutional inference of meaning created by the alternate word choice. For example, Louise Bogan, 4th Poet Laureate of the United States, used substitutional inference in the form of homonyms, malapropisms, and other unusual word choices in a number of her poems, lending depth and greater complexity, while actively engaging her readers intellectually with her poetry. Substitutional inference not only adds complexity to the potential interpretations of Bogan’s poetry, as well as the poetry of others, but provided a method for writers to infuse additional meanings into their work, thus expressing more information in a compact format. Additionally, this nuancing enriches the poetic experience for the reader, who can enjoy the poem superficially as written, or on a deeper level exploring gradations of meaning.

Keywords: poetic inference, poetic word play, substitutional inference, word substitution

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17 Augusto De Campos Translator: The Role of Translation in Brazilian Concrete Poetry Project

Authors: Juliana C. Salvadori, Jose Carlos Felix

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This paper aims at discussing the role literary translation has played in Brazilian Concrete Poetry Movement – an aesthetic, critical and pedagogical project which conceived translation as poiesis, i.e., as both creative and critic work in which the potency (dynamic) of literary work is unfolded in the interpretive and critic act (energeia) the translating practice demands. We argue that translation, for concrete poets, is conceived within the framework provided by the reinterpretation –or deglutition– of Oswald de Andrade’s anthropophagy – a carefully selected feast from which the poets pick and model their Paideuma. As a case study, we propose to approach and analyze two of Augusto de Campos’s long-term translation projects: the translation of Emily Dickinson’s and E. E. Cummings’s works to Brazilian readers. Augusto de Campos is a renowned poet, translator, critic and one of the founding members of Brazilian Concrete Poetry movement. Since the 1950s he has produced a consistent body of translated poetry from English-speaking poets in which the translator has explored creative translation processes – transcreation, as concrete poets have named it. Campos’s translation project regarding E. E. Cummings’s poetry comprehends a span of forty years: it begins in 1956 with 10 poems and unfolds in 4 works – 20 poem(a)s, 40 poem(a)s, Poem(a)s, re-edited in 2011. His translations of Dickinson’s poetry are published in two works: O Anticrítico (1986), in which he translated 10 poems, and Emily Dickinson Não sou Ninguém (2008), in which the poet-translator added 35 more translated poems. Both projects feature bilingual editions: contrary to common sense, Campos translations aim at being read as such: the target readers, to fully enjoy the experience, must be proficient readers of English and, also, acquainted with the poets in translation – Campos expects us to perform translation criticism, as Antoine Berman has proposed, by assessing the choices he, as both translator and poet, has presented in order to privilege aesthetic information (verse lines, word games, etc.). To readers not proficient in English, his translations play a pedagogycal role of educating and preparing them to read both the target poet works as well as concrete poetry works – the detailed essays and prefaces in which the translator emphasizes the selection of works translated and strategies adopted enlighten his project as translator: for Cummings, it has led to the oblieraton of the more traditional and lyrical/romantic examples of his poetry while highlighting the more experimental aspects and poems; for Dickinson, his project has highligthed the more hermetic traits of her poems. To the domestic canons of both poets in Brazilian literary system, we analyze Campos’ contribution in this work.

Keywords: translation criticism, Augusto de Campos, E. E. Cummings, Emily Dickinson

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16 A Text-Oriented Study on Treatises and the End of the Struggles in Silius

Authors: Arianna Sacerdoti

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This paper is original and fills, to our best Knowledge, a gap in secondary literature. It analyzes the presence of treatises in Silius Italicus’ Punica and what happens in the plot when a struggle ends. As a result, we will understand if treatises are stipulated or broken, and which narrative devices go with the presence of treatises and the end of the battles. Methodology will be text-oriented, and all the passages will be presented in the Latin language and discussed. In concluding, it is important to understand – in a poem based on war – the role of treatises and the end of battles in Silius Italicus.

Keywords: Flavian Epic, Silius Italicus, Punica, treatises

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15 Uni … Mihi ('to Me Only'): Patterns of Uniqueness in Statius' Thebaid and Silius' Punica

Authors: Arianna Sacerdoti

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There is a rich and frequent representation of uniqueness in Statius’ poem called Thebaid. This topos interweave with a psychoanalytical study about groups and individual but is also a literary device. This paper will analyze all the passages in the 'Thebaid' referred to uniqueness and exceptionality. Antigone, Adrastus and other characters are, in fact, often characterized as the only ones to behave in a specific way or to do something. Also, the insomniac characters are often the only ones who do not sleep. The material of such a tòpos is very rich throughout the 'Thebaid'. The methodology will be text-oriented. Conclusions will enlighten Statius’ specific use of this tòpos, as related to his models, and will be interdisciplinary. In concluding, this is a study linking philology and psychoanalysis and focused on a topic which deserves a specific analysis.

Keywords: statius, Silius Italicus, uniqueness, epic

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14 Hope in the Ruins of 'Ozymandias': Reimagining Temporal Horizons in Felicia Hemans 'the Image in Lava'

Authors: Lauren Schuldt Wilson

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Felicia Hemans’ memorializing of the unwritten lives of women and the consequent allowance for marginalized voices to remember and be remembered has been considered by many critics in terms of ekphrasis and elegy, terms which privilege the question of whether Hemans’ poeticizing can represent lost voices of history or only her poetic expression. Amy Gates, Brian Elliott, and others point out Hemans’ acknowledgement of the self-projection necessary for imaginatively filling the absences of unrecorded histories. Yet, few have examined the complex temporal positioning Hemans inscribes in these moments of self-projection and imaginative historicizing. In poems like ‘The Image in Lava,’ Hemans maps not only a lost past, but also a lost potential future onto the image of a dead infant in its mother’s arms, the discovery and consideration of which moves the imagined viewer to recover and incorporate the ‘hope’ encapsulated in the figure of the infant into a reevaluation of national time embodied by the ‘relics / Left by the pomps of old.’ By examining Hemans’ acknowledgement and response to Percy Bysshe Shelley’s ‘Ozymandias,’ this essay explores how Hemans’ depictions of imaginative historicizing open new horizons of possibility and reevaluate temporal value structures by imagining previously undiscovered or unexplored potentialities of the past. Where Shelley’s poem mocks the futility of national power and time, this essay outlines Hemans’ suggestion of alternative threads of identity and temporal meaning-making which, regardless of historical veracity, exist outside of and against the structures Shelley challenges. Counter to previous readings of Hemans’ poem as celebration of either recovered or poetically constructed maternal love, this essay argues that Hemans offers a meditation on sites of reproduction—both of personal reproductive futurity and of national reproduction of power. This meditation culminates in Hemans’ gesturing towards a method of historicism by which the imagined viewer reinvigorates the sterile, ‘shattered visage’ of national time by forming temporal identity through the imagining of trans-historical hope inscribed on the infant body of the universal, individual subject rather than the broken monument of the king.

Keywords: futurity, national temporalities, reproduction, revisionary histories

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13 The Stereotypical Images of Marginalized Women in the Poetry of Rita Dove

Authors: Wafaa Kamal Isaac

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This paper attempts to shed light upon the stereotypical images of marginalized black women as shown through the poetry of Rita Dove. Meanwhile, it explores how stereotypical images held by the society and public perceptions perpetuate the marginalization of black women. Dove is considered one of the most fundamental African-American poets who devoted her writings to explore the problem of identity that confronted marginalized women in America. Besides tackling the issue of black women’s stereotypical images, this paper focuses upon the psychological damage which the black women had suffered from due to their stripped identity. In ‘Thomas and Beulah’, Dove reflects the black woman’s longing for her homeland in order to make up for her lost identity. This poem represents atavistic feelings deal with certain recurrent images, both aural and visual, like the image of Beulah who represents the African-American woman who searches for an identity, as she is being denied and humiliated one in the newly founded society. In an attempt to protest against the stereotypical mule image that had been imposed upon black women in America, Dove in ‘On the Bus with Rosa Parks’ tries to ignite the beaten spirits to struggle for their own rights by revitalizing the rebellious nature and strong determination of the historical figure ‘Rosa Parks’ that sparked the Civil Rights Movement. In ‘Daystar’, Dove proves that black women are subjected to double-edged oppression; firstly, in terms of race as a black woman in an unjust white society that violates her rights due to her black origins and secondly, in terms of gender as a member of the female sex that is meant to exist only to serve man’s needs. Similarly, in the ‘Adolescence’ series, Dove focuses on the double marginalization which the black women had experienced. It concludes that the marginalization of black women has resulted from the domination of the masculine world and the oppression of the white world. Moreover, Dove’s ‘Beauty and the Beast’ investigates the African-American women’s problem of estrangement and identity crisis in America. It also sheds light upon the psychological consequences that resulted from the violation of marginalized women’s identity. Furthermore, this poem shows the black women’s self-debasement, helplessness, and double consciousness that emanate from the sense of uprootedness. Finally, this paper finds out that the negative, debased and inferior stereotypical image held by the society did not only contribute to the marginalization of black women but also silenced and muted their voices.

Keywords: stereotypical images, marginalized women, Rita Dove, identity

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12 Clinical Outcomes and Symptom Management in Pediatric Patients Following Eczema Action Plans: A Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Karla Lebedoff, Susan Walsh, Michelle Bain

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Eczema is a chronic atopy condition requiring long-term daily management in children. Written action plans for other chronic atopic conditions, such as asthma and food allergies, are widely recommended and distributed to pediatric patients' parents and caregivers, seeking to improve clinical outcomes and become empowered to manage the patient's ever-changing symptoms. Written action plans for eczema, referred to as "asthma of the skin," are not routinely used in practice. Parents of children suffering from eczema rarely receive a written action plan to follow, and commendations supporting eczema action plans are inconsistent. Pediatric patients between birth and 18 years old who were followed for eczema at an urban Midwest community hospital were eligible to participate in this quality improvement project. At the initial visit, parents received instructions on individualized eczema action plans for their child and completed two validated surveys: Health Confidence Score (HCS) and Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM). Pre- and post-survey responses were collected, and clinical symptom presentation at follow-up were outcome determinants. Project implementation was guided by Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Step-up Framework and the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle. This project measured clinical outcomes and parent confidence in self-management of their child's eczema symptoms with the responses from 26 participant surveys. Pre-survey responses were collected from 36 participants, though ten were lost to follow-up. Average POEM scores improved by 53%, while average HCS scores remained unchanged. Of seven completed in-person follow-up visits, six clinical progress notes documented improvement. Individualized eczema action plans can be seamlessly incorporated into primary and specialty care visits for pediatric patients suffering from eczema. Following a patient-specific eczema action plan may lessen the daily physical and mental burdens of uncontrolled eczema for children and parents, managing symptoms that chronically flare and recede. Furthermore, incorporating eczema action plans into practice potentially reduces the likely underestimated $5.3 billion economic disease burden of eczema on the U.S. healthcare system.

Keywords: atopic dermatitis, eczema action plan, eczema symptom management, pediatric eczema

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11 Nazik Al-Malaika and Nostalgic approach

Authors: sulmaz Mozaffari

Abstract:

Nostalgia is one of the hot-debated issues in critical psychology which has been translated as the yearning or gloom in Persian. It is defined as the regret of the sweet past and the contrast of the present with the past. The feeling of alienation and being remote from the home, remembering death, the regret of childhood and youth, separation of the beloved, remembering the glorious era of history, desire for the ancient times, and the hope for Utopia are considered as its components. Nazik Al-Malaika, a contemporary poet of Arabic literature, has depicted some shapes and dimensions of sympathy, regret and anguish in her poems. Utilizing a nostalgic approach to the past, this paper has reflected upon love, memories of childhood and youth and hope for Utopia "and also aimed at explaining each one's manifestations through a comparative perspective.

Keywords: Nazik al-malaika, poem, nostalgia, personal memory, collective memory

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10 A Comparative Study of Milton’s Paradise Lost and the Quran in Islam

Authors: Najmeh Dehghanitafti

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Paradise Lost, John Milton's epic poem of theology and cosmology, gained substantial critical attention in the twentieth century. Milton's illustration of Satan and Eve and his allusions to the Bible can be an interesting source of criticism for the scholars who try to analyze Milton's works in terms of religious studies. Therefore, various studies of Paradise Lost try to investigate this epic in terms of religions beyond Christianity. Paradise Lost's comparison with religious books such as the Qur’an in Islam in terms of character illustration created multiple translations of this epic into Arabic. Accordingly, this paper aims to compare Miltonic Satan versus Quranic Iblis based on Inani’s translation of Paradise Lost into Arabic. This study also tries to investigate Miltonic and Quranic view of Eve to find out the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam in terms of feminism.

Keywords: Eve, feminism, Iblis, Paradise Lost, Satan, The Quran

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9 From Victim to Ethical Agent: Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol as Post-Traumatic Writing

Authors: Mona Salah El-Din Hassanein

Abstract:

Faced with a sudden, unexpected, and overwhelming event, the individual's normal cognitive processing may cease to function, trapping the psyche in "speechless terror", while images, feelings and sensations are experienced with emotional intensity. Unable to master such situation, the individual becomes a trauma victim who will be susceptible to traumatic recollections like intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and repetitive re-living of the primal event in a way that blurs the distinction between past and present, and forecloses the future. Trauma is timeless, repetitious, and contagious; a trauma observer could fall prey to "secondary victimhood". Central to the process of healing the psychic wounds in the aftermath of trauma is verbalizing the traumatic experience (i.e., putting it into words) – an act which provides a chance for assimilation, testimony, and reevaluation. In light of this paradigm, this paper proposes a reading of Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol, written shortly after his release from prison, as a post-traumatic text which traces the disruptive effects of the traumatic experience of Wilde's imprisonment for homosexual offences and the ensuing reversal of fortune he endured. Post-traumatic writing demonstrates the process of "working through" a trauma which may lead to the possibility of ethical agency in the form of a "survivor mission". This paper draws on fundamental concepts and key insights in literary trauma theory which is characterized by interdisciplinarity, combining the perspectives of different fields like critical theory, psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, history, and social studies. Of particular relevance to this paper are the concepts of "vicarious traumatization" and "survivor mission", as The Ballad of Reading Gaol was written in response to Wilde's own prison trauma and the indirect traumatization he experienced as a result of witnessing the execution of a fellow prisoner whose story forms the narrative base of the poem. The Ballad displays Wilde's sense of mission which leads him to recognize the social as well as ethical implications of personal tragedy. Through a close textual analysis of The Ballad of Reading Gaol within the framework of literary trauma theory, the paper aims to: (a) demonstrate how the poem's thematic concerns, structure and rhetorical figures reflect the structure of trauma; (b) highlight Wilde's attempts to come to terms with the effects of the cataclysmic experience which transformed him into a social outcast; and (c) show how Wilde manages to transcend the victim status and assumes the role of ethical agent to voice a critique of the Victorian penal system and the standards of morality underlying the cruelties practiced against wrong doers and to solicit social action.

Keywords: ballad of reading of reading, post-traumatic writing, trauma theory, Wilde

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8 Ancient Latin Language and Haiku Poetry: A Case Study between Teaching and Translation Studies

Authors: Arianna Sacerdoti

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The translation of Haiku Poetry into Latin is fundamentally experimental in nature. One of the first seminal books containing such translations, alongside translations into different modern languages, 'A Piedi Scalzi', was written by Tartamella in 2016. The results of a text-oriented study of this book will be commented upon and analyzed. The author Arianna Sacerdoti made similar translations with high school student. Such an experiment garners interest across a diverse range of disciplines such as teaching, translation studies, and classics reception studies. The methodology employed is text-oriented as the Haiku poem translations will be commented on by considering their relationship with the original. The results of this investigation, conducted within the field of experimental teaching, are expected to confirm the usefulness of this approach to the teaching of Latin and its potential to actively involve students in identifying the diachronic differences between the world of classical antiquity and the contemporary one.

Keywords: ancient latin, Haiku, translation studies, reception of classics

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7 The National Idea and Selthindentification of Nation is the Foundation of the Society’s Development

Authors: K. Aisultanova, O. Abdimanuly

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The article is told about the factors influencing the formation of the national idea and national identity. Paying attention to the idea and purpose of 'Eternal county', historical dates and examples are given. The structure of the idea 'The eternal country' by ancient Turks is discussed and the history of the legend prevalent among the Kazakh people, the image of the mythical historical figures are analyzed. Al-Farabi’s philosophical work 'Honest city', Zhysip Balasagun’s poem 'Happy Knowledge' are told, the opinions of scholars researching the nation's history, literature, and culture are given. As international experience shows, the idea of a new stage in the development of the country's great national society and the state for the purpose of political, social, economic, cultural, spiritual, and the other efforts are consolidated. The idea of the national, ethnic, religious, cultural and other communities united by a group of people sharing a collective memory, goals, ideas and dreams and , world view, a complex set of beliefs and values are expressed.

Keywords: independence, historical process, national idea, the national ideology, society, state

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6 Variations of Metaphors: Wittgenstein's Contribution to Literary Studies

Authors: Dorit Lemberger

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Wittgenstein directly used the term "metaphor" only infrequently and with reservations, but his writings include a number of metaphors that have become imprinted in the philosophical memory of Western thought. For example, the ladder in his book Tractatus, or in Philosophical investigations - the ancient city, the beetle in a box, the fly in the fly-bottle, and the duck-rabbit. In light of Wittgenstein's stressing, throughout his investigations, that the only language that exists is ordinary language, and that there is no "second-order" language, the question should be asked: How do these metaphors function, specifically, and in general, how are we to relate to language use that exceeds the normal? Wittgenstein did not disregard such phenomena, but he proposed viewing them in a different way, that would enable understanding them as uses in ordinary language, without necessarily exceeding such language. Two important terms that he coined in this context are "secondary sense" and "experience of meaning". Each denotes language use as reflective of a subjective element characteristic of the speaker, such as intent, experience, or emphasis of a certain aspect. More recent Wittgenstein scholars added the term "quasi-metaphor", that refers to his discussion of the possibility of aesthetic judgment. This paper will examine how, according to Wittgenstein, these terms function without exceeding ordinary language, and will illustrate how they can be applied, in an analysis of the poem "Butterfly" by Nelly Sachs.

Keywords: metaphor, quasi-metaphor, secondary sense, experience of meaning

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5 The Arabic Literary Text, between Proficiency and Pedagogy

Authors: Abdul Rahman M. Chamseddine, Mahmoud El-ashiri

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In the field of language teaching, communication skills are essential for the learner to achieve, however, these skills, in general, might not support the comprehension of some texts of literary or artistic nature like poetry. Understanding sentences and expressions is not enough to understand a poem; other skills are needed in order to understand the special structure of a text which literary meaning is inapprehensible even when the lingual meaning is well comprehended. And then there is the need for many other components that surpass one text to other similar texts that can be understood through solid traditions, which do not form an obstacle in the face of change and progress. This is not exclusive to texts that are classified as a literary but it is also the same with some daily short phrases and indicatively charged expressions that can be classified as literary or bear a taste of literary nature.. it can be found in Newpapers’ titles, TV news reports, and maybe football commentaries… the need to understand this special lingual use – described as literary – is highly important to understand this discourse that can be generally classified as very far from literature. This work will try to explore the role of the literary text in the language class and the way it is being covered or dealt with throughout all levels of acquiring proficiency. It will also attempt to survery the position of the literary text in some of the most important books for teaching Arabic around the world. The same way grammar is needed to understand the language, another (literary) grammar is also needed for understanding literature.

Keywords: language teaching, Arabic, literature, pedagogy, language proficiency

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4 The Different Essence of Death in the Elegies of Shelley's Adonais and Lord Tennyson's In Memoriam

Authors: Sulistyaningtyas

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The topic about death and dying is interesting to discuss since it is strongly related to every individual life. As represented in its title, Adonais: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats is a mournful poem written in 1821 by Percy Bysshe Shelley to mourn the loss of young poet John Keats. To compare, In Memoriam A.H.H. is an elegy written in 1850 about the death of Lord Tennyson’s dearest friend, Arthur Henry Hallam. Although both elegies were written to grieve the authors’ loved ones, their grief affects differently to the psychological being of the narrators. Thus, this research aims to examine the essence of death in affecting the narrators psychologically. By using psychoanalytic criticism, this research reveals the different essence of death in the two elegies as the result of the analysis. Moreover, these two elegies also portray the concept of the afterlife, immortality, and the figure of God. In Adonais, the grief of the narrator to Keats leads him to question the very purpose of life. The loss of his favorite poet which makes him feel sorrowful and mad along his 55 stanzas brings him to a higher psychological level to understand himself. He even sees himself as a Christ-like figure, which shows the idea that God is imaginable. Different from Adonais, the narrator of In Memoriam finds something more spiritual by doing his passionate mourning to Hallam. Through some contemplation in his 133 cantos, in the end, he is convinced that the dear one now dwells with a great Spirit who controls the world. He believes that all of the creation in the universe has to follow one law which is set by God. Hence, it can be concluded that death might bring different consequence to the psyche of every living creature.

Keywords: elegy, comparative study, psychoanalytic criticism, the essence of death

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3 Spoken Rhetoric in Arabic Heritage

Authors: Ihab Al-Mokrani

Abstract:

The Arabic heritage has two types of spoken rhetoric: the first type which al-Jaahiz calls “the rhetoric of the sign,” which means body language, and the rhetoric of silence which is of no less importance than the rhetoric of the sign, the speaker’s appearance and movements, etc. The second type is the spoken performance of utterances which bears written rhetoric arts like metaphor, simile, metonymy, etc. Rationale of the study: First: in spite of the factual existence of rhetorical phenomena in the Arabic heritage, there has been no contemporary study handling the spoken rhetoric in the Arabic heritage. Second: Arabic Civilization is originally a spoken one. Comparing the Arabic culture and civilization, from one side, to the Greek, roman or Pharaonic cultures and civilizations, from the other side, shows that the latter cultures and civilizations started and flourished written while the former started among illiterate people who had no interest in writing until recently. That sort of difference on the part of the Arabic culture and civilization created a rhetoric different from rhetoric in the other cultures and civilizations. Third: the spoken nature of the Arabic civilization influenced the Arabic rhetoric in the sense that specific rhetorical arts have been introduced matching that spoken nature. One of these arts is the art of concision which compensates for the absence of writing’s means of preserving the text. In addition, this interprets why many of the definitions of the Arabic rhetoric were defining rhetoric as the art of concision. Also, this interprets the fact that the literary genres known in the Arabic culture were limited by the available narrow space like poetry, anecdotes, and stories, while the literary genres in the Greek culture were of wide space as epics and drama. This is not of any contrast to the fact that some Arabic poetry would exceed 100 lines of poetry as Arabic poetry was based on the line organic unity, which means that every line could stand alone with a full meaning that is not dependent on the rest of the poem; and that last aspect has never happened in any culture other than the Arabic culture.

Keywords: Arabic rhetoric, spoken rhetoric, Arabic heritage, culture

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2 Induced Affectivity and Impact on Creativity: Personal Growth and Perceived Adjustment when Narrating an Intense Emotional Experience

Authors: S. Da Costa, D. Páez, F. Sánchez

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We examine the causal role of positive affect on creativity, the association of creativity or innovation in the ideation phase with functional emotional regulation, successful adjustment to stress and dispositional emotional creativity, as well as the predictive role of creativity for positive emotions and social adjustment. The study examines the effects of modification of positive affect on creativity. Participants write three poems, narrate an infatuation episode, answer a scale of personal growth after this episode and perform a creativity task, answer a flow scale after creativity task and fill a dispositional emotional creativity scale. High and low positive effect was induced by asking subjects to write three poems about high and low positive connotation stimuli. In a neutral condition, tasks were performed without previous affect induction. Subjects on the condition of high positive affect report more positive and less negative emotions, more personal growth (effect size r = .24) and their last poem was rated as more original by judges (effect size r = .33). Mediational analysis showed that positive emotions explain the influence of the manipulation on personal growth - positive affect correlates r = .33 to personal growth. The emotional creativity scale correlated to creativity scores of the creative task (r = .14), to the creativity of the narration of the infatuation episode (r = .21). Emotional creativity was also associated, during performing the creativity task, with flow (r = .27) and with affect balance (r = .26). The mediational analysis showed that emotional creativity predicts flow through positive affect. Results suggest that innovation in the phase of ideation is associated with a positive affect balance and satisfactory performance, as well as dispositional emotional creativity is adaptive.

Keywords: affectivity, creativity, induction, innovation, psychological factors

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1 Need for Contemporization of Craft for Sustenance: A Study on Solapur Wall Hanging

Authors: Reena Aggarwal

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Wall art is a manifestation of the human mind and an absorbing form of cultural expression. Solapur wall hanging making art reflects cultural values, regional sensibilities, beliefs, and identity and helps to preserve the many different communities. The tango of warp and weft in many ways than one tells the story of civilization itself. Solapur wall hanging is a poem in multicolor, written with the warp and weft having long, rich, and complex history with indigenous design vocabularies made by the Padmasali communities. The wall-hanging weaving of Solapur has remained unaltered for years, from being very basic and monochrome having landscapes and portraits catering only to the local market, thereby becoming a potential family income generation tool. The study focuses on the need for contemporization of the Solapur wall hanging and also deliberates on the fact that wherever the culture of native people has been aided by intervention, in nearly every case, the quality of their craft has began to be enhanced. The study also found the underlying reason for diminishing sales to a declining market, low sales, lack of innovation in design, and product development. Keeping in mind that the artisans of Solapur have heroically always hold on to their ancient beliefs and practices, which give them strength and identity, and a sense of pride, an intervention program was developed with an objective of widening the market and help artisans have a sustaining income which include urban consumers and create designs suitable for the urban market. The process of defining and measuring the advantages of design intervention was achieved by using qualitative research methods. An ethnographic research methodology was adopted, which includes six months of close interface with artisans from ten families engaged in making of wall hanging in Solapur. Design solutions were proposed in terms of product diversification and design extensions of the existing product line for increased variety. A collection of contemporary wall arts (wall decor) and room dividers were designed and developed.

Keywords: wall hanging, Solapur, contemporization, traditional, sustainable

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