Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: pitting

36 Gear Wear Product Analysis as Applied for Tribological Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui


This paper describes an experimental investigation on a pair of gears in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back-to-back spur gear test rig was used. The test samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs was assessed with the utilization of the statistical design of the experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: tribology, spur gear wear, predictive maintenance, wear particle analysis

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35 Wear Particle Analysis from used Gear Lubricants for Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui


This particular work describes an experimental investigation on gear wear in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back to back spur gear test rig and a grease lubricated worm gear rig were used. The tests samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs were assessed with utilization of statistical design of experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics from both cases exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: predictive maintenance, worm gear, spur gear, wear debris analysis, problem diagnostic

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34 The Effect of Molybdate on Corrosion Behaviour of AISI 316Ti Stainless Steel in Chloride Environment

Authors: Viera Zatkalíková, Lenka Markovičová, Aneta Tor-Swiatek


The effect of molybdate addition to chloride environment on resistance of AISI 316Ti stainless steel to pitting corrosion was studied. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests were performed in 1 M and 0.1 M chloride acidified solutions with various additions of sodium molybdate at room temperature. The presented results compare the effect of molybdate anions on quality of passive film (expressed by the pitting potential) in both chloride solutions. The pitting potential increases with the increase inhibitor concentration. The inhibitive effect of molybdate ions is stronger in chloride solution of lower aggressiveness (0.1M).

Keywords: AISI 316Ti steel, molybdate inhibitor, pitting corrosion, pitting potential, potentiodynamic polarisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
33 Wear Diagnosis of Diesel Engine Helical Gear

Authors: Surjit Angra, Gajanan Rane, Vinod Kumar, Sushma Rani


This paper presents metallurgical investigation of failed helical gear of diesel engine gear box used in a car. The failure had occurred near the bottomland of the tooth spacing. The failed surface was studied under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and also visually investigated. The images produced through SEM at various magnifications were studied. Detailed metallurgical study indicates that failure was due to foreign material inclusion which is a casting defect. Further study also revealed pitting, spalling and inter-granular fracture as the causes of gear failure.

Keywords: helical gear, scanning electron microscope, casting defect, pitting

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32 A Study of the Weld Properties of Inconel 625 Based on Nb Content

Authors: JongWon Han, NoHoon Kim, HyoIk Ahn, HaeWoo Lee


In this study, shielded metal arc welding was performed as a function of Nb content at 2.24 wt%, 3.25 wt%, and 4.26 wt%. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and showed the development of a columnar dendrite structure in the specimen having the least Nb content. From the hardness test, the hardness value was confirmed to reduce with decreasing Nb content. From electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the largest grain size was found in the specimen with Nb content of 2.24 wt%. The potentiodynamic polarization test was carried out to determine the pitting corrosion resistance; there was no significant difference in the pitting corrosion resistance with increasing Nb content. To evaluate the degree of sensitization to intergranular corrosion, the Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiodynamic Reactivation(DL-EPR test) was conducted. A similar degree of sensitization was found in two specimens except with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%, while a relatively high degree of sensitization was found in the specimen with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%.

Keywords: inconel 625, Nb content, potentiodynamic test, DL-EPR test

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31 Axial, Bending Interaction Diagrams of Reinforced Concrete Columns Exposed to Chloride Attack

Authors: Rita Greco, Giuseppe Carlo Marano


Chloride induced reinforcement corrosion is widely accepted to be the most frequent mechanism causing premature degradation of reinforced concrete members, whose economic and social consequences are growing up continuously. Prevention of these phenomena has a great importance in structural design, and modern Codes and Standard impose prescriptions concerning design details and concrete mix proportion for structures exposed to different external aggressive conditions, grouped in environmental classes. This paper focuses on reinforced concrete columns load carrying capacity degradation over time due to chloride induced steel pitting corrosion. The structural element is considered to be exposed to marine environment and the effects of corrosion are described by the time degradation of the axial-bending interaction diagram. Because chlorides ingress and consequent pitting corrosion propagation are both time-dependent mechanisms, the study adopts a time-variant predictive approach to evaluate the residual strength of corroded reinforced concrete columns at different lifetimes. Corrosion initiation and propagation process is modelled by taking into account all the parameters, such as external environmental conditions, concrete mix proportion, concrete cover and so on, which influence the time evolution of the corrosion phenomenon and its effects on the residual strength of RC columns.

Keywords: pitting corrosion, strength deterioration, diffusion coefficient, surface chloride concentration, concrete structures, marine environment

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30 Root Cause Analysis of a Catastrophically Failed Output Pin Bush Coupling of a Raw Material Conveyor Belt

Authors: Kaushal Kishore, Suman Mukhopadhyay, Susovan Das, Manashi Adhikary, Sandip Bhattacharyya


In integrated steel plants, conveyor belts are widely used for transferring raw materials from one location to another. An output pin bush coupling attached with a conveyor transferring iron ore fines and fluxes failed after two years of service life. This led to an operational delay of approximately 15 hours. This study is focused on failure analysis of the coupling and recommending counter-measures to prevent any such failures in the future. Investigation consisted of careful visual observation, checking of operating parameters, stress calculation and analysis, macro and micro-fractography, material characterizations like chemical and metallurgical analysis and tensile and impact testings. The fracture occurred from an unusually sharp double step. There were multiple corrosion pits near the step that aggravated the situation. Inner contact surface of the coupling revealed differential abrasion that created a macroscopic difference in the height of the component. This pointed towards misalignment of the coupling beyond a threshold limit. In addition to these design and installation issues, material of the coupling did not meet the quality standards. These were made up of grey cast iron having graphite morphology intermediate between random distribution (Type A) and rosette pattern (Type B). This manifested as a marked reduction in impact toughness and tensile strength of the component. These findings corroborated well with the brittle mode of fracture that might have occurred during minor impact loading while loading of conveyor belt with raw materials from height. Simulated study was conducted to examine the effect of corrosion pits on tensile and impact toughness of grey cast iron. It was observed that pitting marginally reduced tensile strength and ductility. However, there was marked (up to 45%) reduction in impact toughness due to pitting. Thus, it became evident that failure of the coupling occurred due to combination of factors like inferior material, misalignment, poor step design and corrosion pitting. Recommendation for life enhancement of coupling included the use of tougher SG 500/7 grade, incorporation of proper fillet radius for the step, correction of alignment and application of corrosion resistant organic coating to prevent pitting.

Keywords: brittle fracture, cast iron, coupling, double step, pitting, simulated impact tests

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29 Corrosion Properties of Friction Welded Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys; Duralumin and AA6063

Authors: Sori Won, Bosung Seo, Kwangsuk Park, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


With the increased needs for lightweight materials in automobile industry, the usage of aluminum alloys becomes prevailed as components and car bodies due to their comparative specific strength. These parts composed of different aluminum alloys should be connected each other, where welding technologies are commonly applied. Among various welding methods, friction welding method as a solid state welding gets to be popular in joining aluminum alloys as it does not produce a defect such as blowhole that is often formed during typical welding processes. Once two metals are joined, corrosion would become an issue due to different electrochemical potentials. In this study, we investigated variations of corrosion properties when Duralumin and AA6063 were joined by friction welding. From the polarization test, it was found that the potential of the welded was placed between those of two original metals, which could be explained by a concept of mixed potential. Pitting is a common form as a result of the corrosion of aluminum alloys when they are exposed to 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. However, when two different aluminum alloys (Duralumin and AA6063) were joined, pitting corrosion occurred severely and uniformly in Duralumin while there were a few pits around precipitates in AA6063, indicating that AA6063 was cathodically protected.

Keywords: corrosion properties, friction welding, dissimilar Al alloys, polarization test

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28 Corrosion Control of Carbon Steel Surface by Phosphonic Acid Nano-Layers

Authors: T. Abohalkuma, J. Telegdi


Preparation, characterization, and application of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) formed by fluorophosphonic and undecenyl phosphonic acids on carbon steel surfaces as anticorrosive nanocoatings were demonstrated. The anticorrosive efficacy of these SAM layers was followed by atomic force microscopy, as the change in the surface morphology caused by layer deposition and corrosion processes was monitored. The corrosion process was determined by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization, whereas the surface wettability of the carbon steel samples was tested with the use of static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Results showed that both chemicals produced good protection against corrosion as they performed as anodic inhibitors, especially with increasing the time of layer formation, which results in a more compact molecular film. According to the atomic force microscope (AFM) images, the fluoro-phosphonic acid self-assembled molecular layer can control the general as well as the pitting corrosion, but the SAM layers of the undecenyl-phosphonic acid cannot inhibit the pitting corrosion. The AFM and the contact angle measurements confirmed the results achieved by electrochemical measurements.

Keywords: nanolayers, corrosion, phosphonic acids, coatings

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27 Vehicle Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Based on Cepstrum Analysis

Authors: Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenová


Research on damage of gears and gear pairs using vibration signals remains very attractive, because vibration signals from a gear pair are complex in nature and not easy to interpret. Predicting gear pair defects by analyzing changes in vibration signal of gears pairs in operation is a very reliable method. Therefore, a suitable vibration signal processing technique is necessary to extract defect information generally obscured by the noise from dynamic factors of other gear pairs. This article presents the value of cepstrum analysis in vehicle gearbox fault diagnosis. Cepstrum represents the overall power content of a whole family of harmonics and sidebands when more than one family of sidebands is present at the same time. The concept for the measurement and analysis involved in using the technique are briefly outlined. Cepstrum analysis is used for detection of an artificial pitting defect in a vehicle gearbox loaded with different speeds and torques. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as the internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of the output joint shafts. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a gear of the fifth speed on the secondary shaft. Also, a method for fault diagnosis of gear faults is presented based on order cepstrum. The procedure is illustrated with the experimental vibration data of the vehicle gearbox. The results show the effectiveness of cepstrum analysis in detection and diagnosis of the gear condition.

Keywords: cepstrum analysis, fault diagnosis, gearbox, vibration signals

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26 Electrochemical Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of Structural Materials for Oil and Gas Applications in Simulated Deep-Sea Well Environments

Authors: Turin Datta, Kisor K. Sahu


Structural materials used in today’s oil and gas exploration and drilling of both onshore and offshore oil and gas wells must possess superior tensile properties, excellent resistance to corrosive degradation that includes general, localized (pitting and crevice) and environment assisted cracking such as stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement. The High Pressure and High Temperature (HPHT) wells are typically operated at temperature and pressure that can exceed 300-3500F and 10,000psi (69MPa) respectively which necessitates the use of exotic materials in these exotic sources of natural resources. This research investigation is focussed on the evaluation of tensile properties and corrosion behavior of AISI 4140 High-Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA) possessing tempered martensitic microstructure and Duplex 2205 Stainless Steel (DSS) having austenitic and ferritic phase. The selection of this two alloys are primarily based on economic considerations as 4140 HSLA is cheaper when compared to DSS 2205. Due to the harsh aggressive chemical species encountered in deep oil and gas wells like chloride ions (Cl-), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) along with other mineral organic acids, DSS 2205, having a dual-phase microstructure can mitigate the degradation resulting from the presence of both chloride ions (Cl-) and hydrogen simultaneously. Tensile properties evaluation indicates a ductile failure of DSS 2205 whereas 4140 HSLA exhibit quasi-cleavage fracture due to the phenomenon of ‘tempered martensitic embrittlement’. From the potentiodynamic polarization testing, it is observed that DSS 2205 has higher corrosion resistance than 4140 HSLA; the former exhibits passivity signifying resistance to localized corrosion while the latter exhibits active dissolution in all the environmental parameters space that was tested. From the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) evaluation, it is understood that stable pits appear in DSS 2205 only when the temperature exceeds the critical pitting temperature (CPT). SEM observation of the corroded 4140 HSLA specimen tested in aqueous 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution reveals intergranular cracking which appears due to the adsorption and diffusion of hydrogen during polarization, thus, causing hydrogen-induced cracking/hydrogen embrittlement. General corrosion testing of DSS 2205 in acidic brine (pH~3.0) solution at ambient temperature using coupons indicate no weight loss even after three months whereas the corrosion rate of AISI 4140 HSLA is significantly higher after one month of testing.

Keywords: DSS 2205, polarization, pitting, SEM

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25 Multiaxial Fatigue in Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubricated Contacts with Asperities and Slip

Authors: Carl-Magnus Everitt, Bo Alfredsson


Contact mechanics and tribology have been combined with fundamental fatigue and fracture mechanics to form the asperity mechanism which supplies an explanation for the surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue damage, called pitting or spalling. The cracks causing the pits initiates at one surface point and thereafter they slowly grow into the material before chipping of a material piece to form the pit. In the current study, the lubrication aspects on fatigue initiation are simulated by passing a single asperity through a thermal elastohydrodynamic lubricated, TEHL, contact. The physics of the lubricant was described with Reynolds equation and the lubricants pressure-viscosity relation was modeled by Roelands equation, formulated to include temperature dependence. A pressure dependent shear limit was incorporated. To capture the full phenomena of the sliding contact the temperature field was resolved through the incorporation of the energy flow. The heat was mainly generated due to shearing of the lubricant and from dry friction where metal contact occurred. The heat was then transported, and conducted, away by the solids and the lubricant. The fatigue damage caused by the asperities was evaluated through Findley’s fatigue criterion. The results show that asperities, in the size of surface roughness found in applications, may cause surface initiated fatigue damage and crack initiation. The simulations also show that the asperities broke through the lubricant in the inlet, causing metal to metal contact with high friction. When the asperities thereafter moved through the contact, the sliding provided the asperities with lubricant releasing the metal contact. The release of metal contact was possible due to the high viscosity the lubricant obtained from the high pressure. The metal contact in the inlet caused higher friction which increased the risk of fatigue damage. Since the metal contact occurred in the inlet it increased the fatigue risk more for asperities subjected to negative slip than positive slip. Therefore the fatigue evaluations showed that the asperities subjected to negative slip yielded higher fatigue stresses than the asperities subjected to positive slip of equal magnitude. This is one explanation for why pitting is more common in the dedendum than the addendum on pinion gear teeth. The simulations produced further validation for the asperity mechanism by showing that asperities cause surface initiated fatigue and crack initiation.

Keywords: fatigue, rolling, sliding, thermal elastohydrodynamic

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24 Investigation of Biocorrosion in Brass by Arthrobacter sulfureus in Neutral Medium

Authors: Ramachandran Manivannan, B. Sakthi Swaroop, Selvam Noyel Victoria


Microbial corrosion of brass gauze by the aerobic film forming bacteria Arthrobacter sulfurous in neutral media was investigated using gravimetric studies. Maximum weight loss of 166.98 mg was observed for a period of 28 days of exposure to the bacterial medium as against the weight loss of 13.69 mg for control. The optical density studies for the bacterial culture was found to show attainment of stationary phase in 48 h. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the samples shows the presence of pitting corrosion. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the samples showed increased oxygen and phosphorus content in the sample due to bacterial activity.

Keywords: Arthrobacter sulfureus, biocorrosion, brass, neutral medium

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23 Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Medium Using an Aromatic Hydrazide Derivative

Authors: Preethi Kumari P., Shetty Prakasha, Rao Suma A.


Mild steel has been widely employed as construction materials for pipe work in the oil and gas production such as down hole tubular, flow lines and transmission pipelines, in chemical and allied industries for handling acids, alkalis and salt solutions due to its excellent mechanical property and low cost. Acid solutions are widely used for removal of undesirable scale and rust in many industrial processes. Among the commercially available acids hydrochloric acid is widely used for pickling, cleaning, de-scaling and acidization of oil process. Mild steel exhibits poor corrosion resistance in presence of hydrochloric acid. The high reactivity of mild steel in presence of hydrochloric acid is due to the soluble nature of ferrous chloride formed and the cementite phase (Fe3C) normally present in the steel is also readily soluble in hydrochloric acid. Pitting attack is also reported to be a major form of corrosion in mild steel in the presence of high concentrations of acids and thereby causing the complete destruction of metal. Hydrogen from acid reacts with the metal surface and makes it brittle and causes cracks, which leads to pitting type of corrosion. The use of chemical inhibitor to minimize the rate of corrosion has been considered to be the first line of defense against corrosion. In spite of long history of corrosion inhibition, a highly efficient and durable inhibitor that can completely protect mild steel in aggressive environment is yet to be realized. It is clear from the literature review that there is ample scope for the development of new organic inhibitors, which can be conveniently synthesized from relatively cheap raw materials and provide good inhibition efficiency with least risk of environmental pollution. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the electrochemical parameters for the corrosion inhibition behavior of an aromatic hydrazide derivative, 4-hydroxy- N '-[(E)-1H-indole-2-ylmethylidene)] benzohydrazide (HIBH) on mild steel in 2M hydrochloric acid using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques at 30-60 °C. The results showed that inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and decreased marginally with increase in temperature. HIBH showed a maximum inhibition efficiency of 95 % at 8×10-4 M concentration at 30 °C. Polarization curves showed that HIBH act as a mixed-type inhibitor. The adsorption of HIBH on mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption process of HIBH at the mild steel/hydrochloric acid solution interface followed mixed adsorption with predominantly physisorption at lower temperature and chemisorption at higher temperature. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption process and kinetic parameters for the metal dissolution reaction were determined.

Keywords: electrochemical parameters, EIS, mild steel, tafel polarization

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22 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel

Authors: Altoumi Alndalusi


The work examines the aqueous corrosion behavior of grades of stain less steel which are used as corrosion resistant castings for applications such as valve and pump bodies. The corrosion behavior of steels in the as-cast condition has been examined using potentiostatic studies to illustrate the need for correct thermal treatment. A metallurgical examination and chemical analysis were carried out to establish the morphology of the steel structure. Heat treatment was carried out in order to compare damage in relation to microstructure. Optical and scanning electron microscopy examinations confirmed that the austenitic steels suffers from severe localized inter-dendritic pitting attack, while non homogenized castings highly alloyed duplex steels gave inferior corrosion resistance. Through the heat treatment conditions a significant of phase transformation of the duplex steel C were occurred (from ferrite to austenite and sigma plus carbides) and were gave reduction resistance.

Keywords: cast, corrosion, duplex stainless, heat treatment, material, steel

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21 Oath Taking-An Approach to Combating Criminality: Challenges and Implication to the Victim Centered Approach in Human Trafficking

Authors: Faith G. Ehiemua, Chandra E. Ulinfun


This work presents two approaches that use competing models to combat criminality in human trafficking. It argues that oath-taking is an approach used to combat and repress crime by natives of African descent. Therefore, certain value choices reflected explicitly or implicitly in its habitual functioning are features of crime control, a model of the criminal process used to repress and prevent crime. By pitting the approaches against each other, the work examines the utility of the purpose of each approach with the aim of assessing moral worthiness. The approaches adopted are descriptive, normative, and theoretical. The findings reveal that oath-taking is effective in human trafficking mainly because Africans believe that the African traditional system is efficient. However, the utilitarian ethical theory applied to the use of oath-taking in human trafficking shows oath-taking as protecting the interest of human traffickers against the general good of society.

Keywords: human rights, human trafficking, oath taking, utilitarianism, victim-centered approach

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20 The Effectiveness of Energy Index Technique in Bearing Condition Monitoring

Authors: Faisal Alshammari, Abdulmajid Addali, Mosab Alrashed, Taihiret Alhashan


The application of acoustic emission techniques is gaining popularity, as it can monitor the condition of gears and bearings and detect early symptoms of a defect in the form of pitting, wear, and flaking of surfaces. Early detection of these defects is essential as it helps to avoid major failures and the associated catastrophic consequences. Signal processing techniques are required for early defect detection – in this article, a time domain technique called the Energy Index (EI) is used. This article presents an investigation into the Energy Index’s effectiveness to detect early-stage defect initiation and deterioration, and compares it with the common r.m.s. index, Kurtosis, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test. It is concluded that EI is a more effective technique for monitoring defect initiation and development than other statistical parameters.

Keywords: acoustic emission, signal processing, kurtosis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

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19 Corrosion Behavior of Induced Stress Duplex Stainless Steel in Chloride Environment

Authors: Serge Mudinga Lemika, Samuel Olukayode Akinwamide, Aribo Sunday, Babatunde Abiodun Obadele, Peter Apata Olubambi


Use of Duplex stainless steel has become predominant in applications where excellent corrosion resistance is of utmost importance. Corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel induced with varying stress in a chloride media were studied. Characterization of as received 2205 duplex stainless steels were carried out to reveal its structure and properties tensile sample produced from duplex stainless steel was initially subjected to tensile test to obtain the yield strength. Stresses obtained by various percentages (20, 40, 60 and 80%) of the yield strength was induced in DSS samples. Corrosion tests were carried out in magnesium chloride solution at room temperature. Morphologies of cracks observed with optical and scanning electron microscope showed that samples induced with higher stress had its austenite and ferrite grains affected by pitting.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel, hardness, nanoceramics, spark plasma sintering

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18 Rolling Contact Fatigue Failure Analysis of Ball Bearing in Gear Box

Authors: Piyas Palit, Urbi Pal, Jitendra Mathur, Santanu Das


Bearing is an important machinery part in the industry. When bearings fail to meet their expected life the consequences are increased downtime, loss of revenue and missed the delivery. This article describes the failure of a gearbox bearing in rolling contact fatigue. The investigation consists of visual observation, chemical analysis, characterization of microstructures using optical microscopes and hardness test. The present study also considers bearing life as well as the operational condition of bearings. Surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue, leading to a surface failure known as pitting, is a life-limiting failure mode in many modern machine elements, particularly rolling element bearings. Metallography analysis of crack propagation, crack morphology was also described. Indication of fatigue spalling in the ferrography test was also discussed. The analysis suggested the probable reasons for such kind of failure in operation. This type of spalling occurred due to (1) heavier external loading condition or (2) exceeds its service life.

Keywords: bearing, rolling contact fatigue, bearing life

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17 On Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Oil Sands Slurry: Electrochemical Studies

Authors: M. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera


The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of carbon steel in oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, steel, oil sands slurry, polarization

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16 Synergistic Erosion–Corrosion Behavior of Petroleum Pipelines at Various Conditions

Authors: M. A. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera


The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of petroleum pipelines (carbon steel) in the oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in the oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size, and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, oil sands slurry, polarization, steel

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15 Effect of Al2O3 Nanoparticles on Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy

Authors: Muna Khethier Abbass, Bassma Finner Sultan


In this research the effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles on corrosion behavior of aluminum base alloy(Al-4.5wt%Cu-1.5wt%Mg) has been investigated. Nanocomopsites reinforced with variable contents of 1,3 & 5wt% of Al2O3 nanoparticles were fabricated using powder metallurgy. All samples were prepared from the base alloy powders under the best powder metallurgy processing conditions of 6 hr of mixing time , 450 MPa of compaction pressure and 560°C of sintering temperature. Density and micro hardness measurements, and electrochemical corrosion tests are performed for all prepared samples in 3.5wt%NaCl solution at room temperature using potentiostate instrument. It has been found that density and micro hardness of the nanocomposite increase with increasing of wt% Al2O3 nanoparticles to Al matrix. It was found from Tafel extrapolation method that corrosion rates of the nanocomposites reinforced with alumina nanoparticles were lower than that of base alloy. From results of corrosion test by potentiodynamic cyclic polarization method, it was found the pitting corrosion resistance improves with adding of Al2O3 nanoparticles . It was noticed that the pits disappear and the hysteresis loop disappears also from anodic polarization curve.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, nano composites, Al-Cu-Mg alloy, electrochemical corrosion

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14 Electrochemical Behaviour of 2014 and 2024 Al-Cu-Mg Alloys of Various Tempers

Authors: K. S. Ghosh, Sagnik Bose, Kapil Tripati


Potentiodynamic polarization studies carried out on AA2024 and AA2014 Al-Cu-Mg alloys of various tempers in 3.5 wt. % NaCl and in 3.5 wt. % NaCl + 1.0 % H2O2 solution characteristic E-i curves. Corrosion potential (Ecorr) value has shifted towards more negative potential with the increase of artificial aging time. The Ecorr value for the alloy tempers has also shifted anodically in presence of H2O2 in 3.5 % NaCl solution. Further, passivity phenomenon has been observed in all the alloy tempers when tested in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution at pH 12. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of friction stir weld (FSW) joint of AA2014 alloy has been studied bu slow strain rate test (SSRT) in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution. Optical micrographs of the corroded surfaces of polarised samples showed general corrosion, extensive pitting and intergranular corrosion as well. Further, potentiodynamic cyclic polarization curves displayed wide hysteresis loop indicating that the alloy tempers are susceptible to pit growth damage. Attempts have been made to explain the variation of observed electrochemical and SCC behaviour of the alloy tempers and the electrolyte conditions with the help of microstructural features.

Keywords: AA 2014 and AA 2024 Al-C-Mg alloy, artificial ageing, potentiodynamic polarization, TEM micrographs, stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

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13 Effect of Demineralized Water Purity on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel Alloys

Authors: A. M. El-Aziz, M. Elsehamy, H. Hussein


Steel or stainless steel have reasonable corrosion behavior in water, their corrosion resistance is significantly dependent on the water purity. It was not expected that demineralized water has an aggressive effect on steel alloys, in this study, the effect of water with different purity on steel X52 and stainless steel 316L was investigated. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were employed to measure the corrosion behavior. Samples were microscopically investigated after test. It was observed that the higher the water purity the more reactive it is. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different water purity showed the aggressiveness of the demineralised water (conductivity of 0.05 microSiemens per cm) over the distilled water. Whereas, the corrosion rates of stainless steel 858 and 623 nm/y for demi and distilled water respectively. On the other hand, the corrosion rates of carbon steel x52 were estimated about 4.8 and 3.6 µm/y for demi and distilled water, respectively. Open circuit potential (OCP) recorded more positive potentials in case of stainless steel than carbon steel in different water purities. Generally, stainless steel illustrated high pitting resistance than carbon steel alloy, the surface film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This behavior was explained based on that demi and distilled water might be considered as ‘hungry water’ in which it wants to be in equilibrium and will pull ions out of the surrounding metals trying to satisfy its ‘hunger’.

Keywords: corrosion, demineralized water, distilled water, steel alloys

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12 A Combined Activated Sludge-Sonication Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Devendra Saroj, Judy Lee


Wastewater treatment is becoming a worldwide concern due to new and tighter environmental regulations, and the increasing need for fresh water for the exponentially growing population. The meat industry has one of the highest consumption of water producing up to 10 times more polluted (BOD) wastewaters in comparison to domestic sewage. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-sonication system was used to treat pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process and using ultrasound as tertiary treatment. Different ultrasonic frequencies, powers and sonication times were applied to the samples and results were analysed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids, pH, total coliforms and total viable counts. Additionally, both mechanical and chemical effects of ultrasound were quantified for organic matter removal (COD and BOD) and disinfection (microorganism inactivation) using different techniques such as aluminum foil pitting, flow cytometry, and KI dosimetry.

Keywords: abattoir wastewater, ultrasound, wastewater treatment, water disinfection

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11 Investigation on Corrosion Behavior of Copper Brazed Joints

Authors: A. M. Aminazad, A. M. Hadian, F. Ghasimakbari


DHP (Deoxidized High Phosphorus )copper is widely used in various heat transfer units such as, air conditioners refrigerators, evaporators and condensers. Copper sheets and tubes (ISODHP) were brazed with four different brazing alloys. Corrosion resistances of the joints were examined by polarization and salt spray tests. The selected fillers consisted of three silver-based brazing alloys (hard solder); AWS-BCu5 BAg8, DINLAg30, and a copper-based filler AWS BCuP2. All the joints were brazed utilizing four different brazing processes including furnace brazing under argon, vacuum, air atmosphere and torch brazing. All of the fillers were used with and without flux. The microstructure of the brazed sheets was examined using both optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hardness and leak tests were carried out on all the brazed tubes. In all three silver brazing alloys selective and galvanic corrosion were observed in filler metals, but in copper phosphor alloys the copper adjacent to the joints were noticeably corroded by pitting method. Microstructure of damaged area showed selective attack of copper lamellae as well. Interfacial attack was observed along boundaries as well as copper attack within the filler metal itself. It was found that the samples brazed with BAg5 filler metal using vacuum furnace show a higher resistance to corrosion. They also have a good ductility in the brazed zone.

Keywords: copper, brazing, corrosion, filler metal

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10 Corrosion Resistance Performance of Epoxy/Polyamidoamine Coating Due to Incorporation of Nano Aluminium Powder

Authors: Asiful Hossain Seikh, Mohammad Asif Alam, Ubair Abdus Samad, Jabair A. Mohammed, S. M. Al-Zahrani, El-Sayed M. Sherif


In this current investigation, aliphatic amine-cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) based epoxy coating was mixed with certain weight % hardener polyaminoamide (1:2) and was coated on carbon steel panels with and without 1% nano crystalline Al powder. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples were investigated by exposing them in the salt spray chamber, for 500 hours. According to ASTM-B-117, the bath was kept at 35 °C and 5% NaCl containing mist was sprayed at 1.3 bars pressure. Composition of coatings was confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Electrochemical characterization of the coated samples was also performed using potentiodynamic polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. All the experiments were done in 3.5% NaCl solution. The nano Al coated sample shows good corrosion resistance property compared to bare Al sample. In fact after salt spray exposure no pitting or local damage was observed for nano coated sample and the coating gloss was negligibly affected. The surface morphology of coated and corroded samples was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: epoxy, nano aluminium, potentiodynamic polarization, salt spray, electrochemical impedence spectroscopy

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9 Iterative Segmentation and Application of Hausdorff Dilation Distance in Defect Detection

Authors: S. Shankar Bharathi


Inspection of surface defects on metallic components has always been challenging due to its specular property. Occurrences of defects such as scratches, rust, pitting are very common in metallic surfaces during the manufacturing process. These defects if unchecked can hamper the performance and reduce the life time of such component. Many of the conventional image processing algorithms in detecting the surface defects generally involve segmentation techniques, based on thresholding, edge detection, watershed segmentation and textural segmentation. They later employ other suitable algorithms based on morphology, region growing, shape analysis, neural networks for classification purpose. In this paper the work has been focused only towards detecting scratches. Global and other thresholding techniques were used to extract the defects, but it proved to be inaccurate in extracting the defects alone. However, this paper does not focus on comparison of different segmentation techniques, but rather describes a novel approach towards segmentation combined with hausdorff dilation distance. The proposed algorithm is based on the distribution of the intensity levels, that is, whether a certain gray level is concentrated or evenly distributed. The algorithm is based on extraction of such concentrated pixels. Defective images showed higher level of concentration of some gray level, whereas in non-defective image, there seemed to be no concentration, but were evenly distributed. This formed the basis in detecting the defects in the proposed algorithm. Hausdorff dilation distance based on mathematical morphology was used to strengthen the segmentation of the defects.

Keywords: metallic surface, scratches, segmentation, hausdorff dilation distance, machine vision

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8 The Shrinking Nature of Parliamentary Immunity in Kenya: A Proposal for Judicial Restraint

Authors: Oscar Sang, Shadrack David Rotich


Parliamentary immunity is grounded on the notion that parliaments need certain rights or immunities to ensure they can operate independently make fair and impartial decisions without capitulating to political pressure or intimidation. The 2013 election in Kenya marked an important milestone in the development of the law of parliamentary privilege. Such importance relates to the dramatic increase in the number of legislatures in the country from one unicameral parliament, to a bicameral national parliament and forty-seven other regional legislative assemblies. The increase in legislatures has resulted in a dramatic increase in political contestations which have led to legal wrangles. The judiciary in Kenya, once considered submissive, has been invited to arbitrate on various matters pitting individual rights and parliamentary privilege and have invalidated a number of legislative action. While judicial intervention is indeed necessary to ensure that legislatures in Kenya live true to the constitutional aspirations of the Kenyan people, certain judicial decisions have had an effect on eroding parliamentary immunity. This paper highlights a number of instances in which it could be argued that parliamentary privilege came under attack by the courts in Kenya. The paper aims to make a case that while Kenya’s progressive constitution necessitates the scope and extent of legislature’s immunities and privilege to be determined by the courts, it is important that courts exercise restraint in its review of legislative action. The paper makes the argument that unrestrained judicial action in Kenya on questions within the realm parliamentary privilege may undermine the functioning of Kenya’s legislatures. The paper explores approaches taken by a number of jurisdictions in establishing a proper balance between maintaining a viable parliamentary privilege regime in a rights-based constitutional system.

Keywords: Kenya, constitution, judicial restraint, parliamentary privilege

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7 Corrosion Resistance of 17-4 Precipitation Hardenable Stainless Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Michella Alnajjar, Frederic Christien, Krzysztof Wolski, Cedric Bosch


Additive manufacturing (AM) has gained more interest in the past few years because it allows 3D parts often having a complex geometry to be directly fabricated, layer by layer according to a CAD model. One of the AM techniques is the selective laser melting (SLM) which is based on powder bed fusion. In this work, the corrosion resistance of 17-4 PH steel obtained by SLM is investigated. Wrought 17-4 PH steel is a martensitic precipitation hardenable stainless steel. It is widely used in a variety of applications such as aerospace, medical and food industries, due to its high strength and relatively good corrosion resistance. However, the combined findings of X-Ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) proved that SLM-ed 17-4 PH steel has a fully ferritic microstructure, more specifically δ ferrite. The microstructure consists of coarse ferritic grains elongated along the build direction, with a pronounced solidification crystallographic texture. These results were associated with the high cooling and heating rates experienced throughout the SLM process (10⁵-10⁶ K/s) that suppressed the austenite formation and produced a 'by-passing' phenomenon of this phase during the numerous thermal cycles. Furthermore, EDS measurements revealed a uniform distribution of elements without any dendritic structure. The extremely high cooling kinetics induced a diffusionless solidification, resulting in a homogeneous elemental composition. Consequently, the corrosion properties of this steel are altered from that of conventional ones. By using electrochemical means, it was found that SLM-ed 17-4 PH is more resistant to general corrosion than the wrought steel. However, the SLM-ed material exhibits metastable pitting due to its high porosity density. In addition, the hydrogen embrittlement of SLM-ed 17-4 PH steel is investigated, and a correlation between its behavior and the observed microstructure is made.

Keywords: corrosion resistance, 17-4 PH stainless steel, selective laser melting, hydrogen embrittlement

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