Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1445

Search results for: vibration signals

1445 Monitoring of Belt-Drive Defects Using the Vibration Signals and Simulation Models

Authors: A. Nabhan, Mohamed R. El-Sharkawy, A. Rashed


The main aim of this paper is to dedicate the belt drive system faults like cogs missing, misalignment and belt worm using vibration analysis technique. Experimentally, the belt drive test-rig is equipped to measure vibrations signals under different operating conditions. Finite element 3D model of belt drive system is created and vibration response analyzed using commercial finite element software ABAQUS/CAE.  Root mean square (RMS) and Crest Factor will serve as indicators of average amplitude of envelope analysis signals. The vibration signals pattern obtained from the simulation model and experimental data have the same characteristics. It can be concluded that each case of the RMS is more effective in detecting the defect for acceleration response. While Crest Factor parameter has a response with the displacement and velocity of vibration signals. Also it can be noticed that the model has difficulty in completing the solution when the misalignment angle is higher than 1 degree.

Keywords: simulation model, misalignment, cogs missing, vibration analysis

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1444 Vibration Signals of Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Aqoul H. H. Alanezy, Ali M. Abdelsalam, Nouby M. Ghazaly


In recent years, progress has been made in increasing the renewable energy share in the power sector particularly in the wind. The experimental study conducted in this paper aims to investigate the effects of number of blades and inflow wind speed on vibration signals of a vertical axis Savonius type wind turbine. The operation of the model of Savonius type wind turbine is conducted to compare two, three and four blades wind turbines to show vibration amplitudes related with wind speed. It is found that the increase of the number of blades leads to decrease of the vibration magnitude. Furthermore, inflow wind speed has reduced effect on the vibration level for higher number of blades.

Keywords: Savonius type wind turbine, number of blades, renewable energy, vibration signals

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
1443 Permanent Magnet Machine Can Be a Vibration Sensor for Itself

Authors: M. Barański


The article presents a new vibration diagnostic method designed to (PM) machines with permanent magnets. Those devices are commonly used in small wind and water systems or vehicles drives. The author’s method is very innovative and unique. Specific structural properties of PM machines are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. There was analysed number of publications which describe vibration diagnostic methods and tests of electrical PM machines and there was no method found to determine the technical condition of such machine basing on their own signals. In this article, the method genesis, the similarity of machines with permanent magnet to vibration sensor and simulation and laboratory tests results will be discussed. The method of determination the technical condition of electrical machine with permanent magnets basing on its own signals is the subject of patent application No P.405669, and it is the main thesis of author’s doctoral dissertation.

Keywords: vibrations, generator, permanent magnet, traction drive, electrical vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
1442 Vehicle Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Based on Cepstrum Analysis

Authors: Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenová


Research on damage of gears and gear pairs using vibration signals remains very attractive, because vibration signals from a gear pair are complex in nature and not easy to interpret. Predicting gear pair defects by analyzing changes in vibration signal of gears pairs in operation is a very reliable method. Therefore, a suitable vibration signal processing technique is necessary to extract defect information generally obscured by the noise from dynamic factors of other gear pairs. This article presents the value of cepstrum analysis in vehicle gearbox fault diagnosis. Cepstrum represents the overall power content of a whole family of harmonics and sidebands when more than one family of sidebands is present at the same time. The concept for the measurement and analysis involved in using the technique are briefly outlined. Cepstrum analysis is used for detection of an artificial pitting defect in a vehicle gearbox loaded with different speeds and torques. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as the internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of the output joint shafts. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a gear of the fifth speed on the secondary shaft. Also, a method for fault diagnosis of gear faults is presented based on order cepstrum. The procedure is illustrated with the experimental vibration data of the vehicle gearbox. The results show the effectiveness of cepstrum analysis in detection and diagnosis of the gear condition.

Keywords: cepstrum analysis, fault diagnosis, gearbox, vibration signals

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
1441 Application of Fuzzy Approach to the Vibration Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Jalel Khelil


In order to improve reliability of Gas Turbine machine especially its generator equipment, a fault diagnosis system based on fuzzy approach is proposed. Three various methods namely K-NN (K-nearest neighbors), F-KNN (Fuzzy K-nearest neighbors) and FNM (Fuzzy nearest mean) are adopted to provide the measurement of relative strength of vibration defaults. Both applications consist of two major steps: Feature extraction and default classification. 09 statistical features are extracted from vibration signals. 03 different classes are used in this study which describes vibrations condition: Normal, unbalance defect, and misalignment defect. The use of the fuzzy approaches and the classification results are discussed. Results show that these approaches yield high successful rates of vibration default classification.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, fuzzy classification k-nearest neighbor, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
1440 Quality Control of Automotive Gearbox Based On Vibration Signal Analysis

Authors: Nilson Barbieri, Bruno Matos Martins, Gabriel de Sant'Anna Vitor Barbieri


In more complex systems, such as automotive gearbox, a rigorous treatment of the data is necessary because there are several moving parts (gears, bearings, shafts, etc.), and in this way, there are several possible sources of errors and also noise. The basic objective of this work is the detection of damage in automotive gearbox. The detection methods used are the wavelet method, the bispectrum; advanced filtering techniques (selective filtering) of vibrational signals and mathematical morphology. Gearbox vibration tests were performed (gearboxes in good condition and with defects) of a production line of a large vehicle assembler. The vibration signals are obtained using five accelerometers in different positions of the sample. The results obtained using the kurtosis, bispectrum, wavelet and mathematical morphology showed that it is possible to identify the existence of defects in automotive gearboxes.

Keywords: automotive gearbox, mathematical morphology, wavelet, bispectrum

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1439 Internal Combustion Engine Fuel Composition Detection by Analysing Vibration Signals Using ANFIS Network

Authors: M. N. Khajavi, S. Nasiri, E. Farokhi, M. R. Bavir


Alcohol fuels are renewable, have low pollution and have high octane number; therefore, they are important as fuel in internal combustion engines. Percentage detection of these alcoholic fuels with gasoline is a complicated, time consuming, and expensive process. Nowadays, these processes are done in equipped laboratories, based on international standards. The aim of this research is to determine percentage detection of different fuels based on vibration analysis of engine block signals. By doing, so considerable saving in time and cost can be achieved. Five different fuels consisted of pure gasoline (G) as base fuel and combination of this fuel with different percent of ethanol and methanol are prepared. For example, volumetric combination of pure gasoline with 10 percent ethanol is called E10. By this convention, we made M10 (10% methanol plus 90% pure gasoline), E30 (30% ethanol plus 70% pure gasoline), and M30 (30% Methanol plus 70% pure gasoline) were prepared. To simulate real working condition for this experiment, the vehicle was mounted on a chassis dynamometer and run under 1900 rpm and 30 KW load. To measure the engine block vibration, a three axis accelerometer was mounted between cylinder 2 and 3. After acquisition of vibration signal, eight time feature of these signals were used as inputs to an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The designed ANFIS was trained for classifying these five different fuels. The results show suitable classification ability of the designed ANFIS network with 96.3 percent of correct classification.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, vibration signal, fuel composition, classification, ANFIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
1438 Application of Local Mean Decomposition for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based On Vibration Signals

Authors: Toufik Bensana, Slimane Mekhilef, Kamel Tadjine


Vibration analysis has been frequently applied in the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings. Unfortunately, the vibration signals collected from a faulty bearing are generally non stationary, nonlinear and with strong noise interference, so it is essential to obtain the fault features correctly. In this paper, a novel numerical analysis method based on local mean decomposition (LMD) is proposed. LMD decompose the signal into a series of product functions (PFs), each of which is the product of an envelope signal and a purely frequency modulated FM signal. The envelope of a PF is the instantaneous amplitude (IA) and the derivative of the unwrapped phase of a purely flat frequency demodulated (FM) signal is the IF. After that the fault characteristic frequency of the roller bearing can be extracted by performing spectrum analysis to the instantaneous amplitude of PF component containing dominant fault information. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique in fault detection and diagnosis of rolling element bearing.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, condition monitoring, local mean decomposition, rolling element bearing, vibration analysis

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1437 Early Installation Effect on the Machines’ Generated Vibration

Authors: Maitham Al-Safwani


Motor vibration issues were analyzed by several studies. It is generally accepted that vibration issues result from poor equipment installation. We had a water injection pump tested in the factory and exceeded the pump the vibration limit. Once the pump was brought to the site, its half-size shim plates were replaced with full-size shims plates that drastically reduced the vibration. In this study, vibration data was recorded for several similar motors run at the same and different speeds. The vibration values were recorded -for two and a half hours- and the vibration readings were analyzed to determine when the readings became consistent. This was as well supported by recording the audio noises produced by some machines seeking a relationship between changes in machine noises and machine abnormalities, such as vibration.

Keywords: vibration, noise, installation, machine

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1436 An Approach to Determine the in Transit Vibration to Fresh Produce Using Long Range Radio (LORA) Wireless Transducers

Authors: Indika Fernando, Jiangang Fei, Roger Stanely, Hossein Enshaei


Ever increasing demand for quality fresh produce by the consumers, had increased the gravity on the post-harvest supply chains in multi-fold in the recent years. Mechanical injury to fresh produce was a critical factor for produce wastage, especially with the expansion of supply chains, physically extending to thousands of miles. The impact of vibration damages in transit was identified as a specific area of focus which results in wastage of significant portion of the fresh produce, at times ranging from 10% to 40% in some countries. Several studies were concentrated on quantifying the impact of vibration to fresh produce, and it was a challenge to collect vibration impact data continuously due to the limitations in battery life or the memory capacity in the devices. Therefore, the study samples were limited to a stretch of the transit passage or a limited time of the journey. This may or may not give an accurate understanding of the vibration impacts encountered throughout the transit passage, which limits the accuracy of the results. Consequently, an approach which can extend the capacity and ability of determining vibration signals in the transit passage would contribute to accurately analyze the vibration damage along the post-harvest supply chain. A mechanism was developed to address this challenge, which is capable of measuring the in transit vibration continuously through the transit passage subject to a minimum acceleration threshold (0.1g). A system, consisting six tri-axel vibration transducers installed in different locations inside the cargo (produce) pallets in the truck, transmits vibration signals through LORA (Long Range Radio) technology to a central device installed inside the container. The central device processes and records the vibration signals transmitted by the portable transducers, along with the GPS location. This method enables to utilize power consumption for the portable transducers to maximize the capability of measuring the vibration impacts in the transit passage extending to days in the distribution process. The trial tests conducted using the approach reveals that it is a reliable method to measure and quantify the in transit vibrations along the supply chain. The GPS capability enables to identify the locations in the supply chain where the significant vibration impacts were encountered. This method contributes to determining the causes, susceptibility and intensity of vibration impact damages to fresh produce in the post-harvest supply chain. Extensively, the approach could be used to determine the vibration impacts not limiting to fresh produce, but for products in supply chains, which may extend from few hours to several days in transit.

Keywords: post-harvest, supply chain, wireless transducers, LORA, fresh produce

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
1435 Multiple Fault Detection and Classification in a Coupled Motor with Rotor Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Mehrdad Nouri Khajavi, Gollamhassan Payganeh, Mohsen Fallah Tafti


Fault diagnosis is an important aspect of maintaining rotating machinery health and increasing productivity. Many researches has been done in this regards. Many faults such as unbalance, misalignment, looseness, bearing faults, etc. have been considered and diagnosed with different techniques. Most of the researches in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery deal with single fault. Where as in reality faults usually occur simultaneously and it is, therefore, necessary to recognize them at the same time. In this research, two of the most common faults namely unbalance and misalignment have been considered simultaneously with different intensity and then identified and classified with the use of Multi-Layer Perception Neural Network (MLPNN). Processed Vibration signals are used as the input to the MLPNN, and the class of mixed unbalancy, and misalignment is the output of the NN.

Keywords: unbalance, parallel misalignment, combined faults, vibration signals

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
1434 Investigation for the Mechanism of Lateral-Torsional Coupled Vibration of the Propulsion Shaft in a Ship

Authors: Hyungsuk Han, Soohong Jeon, Chungwon Lee, YongHoon Kim


When a rubber mount and flexible coupling are installed on the main engine, high torsional vibration can occur. The root cause of this high torsional vibration can be attributed to the lateral-torsional coupled vibration of the shaft system. Therefore, the lateral-torsional coupled vibration is investigated numerically after approximating the shaft system to a three-degrees-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor. To verify that the high torsional vibration is caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration, a test unit that can simulate this lateral-torsional coupled vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft is developed. Performing a vibration test with the test unit, it can be experimentally verified that the high torsional vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft of the particular ship was caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration.

Keywords: Jeffcott rotor, lateral-torsional coupled vibration, propulsion shaft, stability

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1433 Experimental Study on the Floor Vibration Evaluation of Concrete Slab for Existing Buildings

Authors: Yong-Taeg Lee, Jun-Ho Na, Seung-Hun Kim, Seong-Uk Hong


Damages from noise and vibration are increasing every year, most of which are noises between floors in deteriorated building caused by floor impact sound. In this study, the concrete slab measured vibration impact sound for evaluation floor vibration of deteriorated buildings that fails to satisfy with the minimum thickness. In this experimental study, the vibration scale by impact sound was calibrated and compared with ISO and AIJ standard for vibration. The results show that vibration in slab with thickness used in existing building reach human perception levels.

Keywords: vibration, frequency, accelerometer, concrete slab

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1432 A New Approach of Preprocessing with SVM Optimization Based on PSO for Bearing Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Tawfik Thelaidjia, Salah Chenikher


Bearing fault diagnosis has attracted significant attention over the past few decades. It consists of two major parts: vibration signal feature extraction and condition classification for the extracted features. In this paper, feature extraction from faulty bearing vibration signals is performed by a combination of the signal’s Kurtosis and features obtained through the preprocessing of the vibration signal samples using Db2 discrete wavelet transform at the fifth level of decomposition. In this way, a 7-dimensional vector of the vibration signal feature is obtained. After feature extraction from vibration signal, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied to automate the fault diagnosis procedure. To improve the classification accuracy for bearing fault prediction, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to simultaneously optimize the SVM kernel function parameter and the penalty parameter. The results have shown feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach

Keywords: condition monitoring, discrete wavelet transform, fault diagnosis, kurtosis, machine learning, particle swarm optimization, roller bearing, rotating machines, support vector machine, vibration measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
1431 Analysis and Modeling of Vibratory Signals Based on LMD for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Toufik Bensana, Slimane Mekhilef, Kamel Tadjine


The use of vibration analysis has been established as the most common and reliable method of analysis in the field of condition monitoring and diagnostics of rotating machinery. Rolling bearings cover a broad range of rotary machines and plays a crucial role in the modern manufacturing industry. Unfortunately, the vibration signals collected from a faulty bearing are generally non-stationary, nonlinear and with strong noise interference, so it is essential to obtain the fault features correctly. In this paper, a novel numerical analysis method based on local mean decomposition (LMD) is proposed. LMD decompose the signal into a series of product functions (PFs), each of which is the product of an envelope signal and a purely frequency modulated FM signal. The envelope of a PF is the instantaneous amplitude (IA) and the derivative of the unwrapped phase of a purely flat frequency demodulated (FM) signal is the IF. After that, the fault characteristic frequency of the roller bearing can be extracted by performing spectrum analysis to the instantaneous amplitude of PF component containing dominant fault information. the results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique in fault detection and diagnosis of rolling element bearing.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, local mean decomposition, rolling element bearing, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
1430 An Analytical Study on the Vibration Reduction Method of Railway Station Using TPU

Authors: Jinho Hur, Minjung Shin, Heekyu Kim


In many places, new railway constructions in the city are being used to build a viaduct station to take advantage of the space below the line, for difficulty of securing railway site and disconnections of areas. The space under the viaduct has limited to use by noise and vibration. In order to use it for various purposes, reducing noise and vibration is required. The vibration reduction method for new structures is recently developed enough to use as accommodation, but the reduction method for existing structures is still far-off. In this study, it suggests vibration reduction method by filling vibration reduction material to column members which is path of structure-bone-noise from trains run. Because most of railroad stations are reinforced concrete structures. It compares vibration reduction of station applied the method and original station by FEM analysis. As a result, reduction of vibration acceleration level in bandwidth 15~30Hz can be reduced. Therefore, using this method for viaduct railroad station, vibration of station is expected to be reduced.

Keywords: structure borne noise, TPU, viaduct rail station, vibration reduction method

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1429 Development of a Human Vibration Model Considering Muscles and Stiffness of Intervertebral Discs

Authors: Young Nam Jo, Moon Jeong Kang, Hong Hee Yoo


Most human vibration models have been modeled as a multibody system consisting of some rigid bodies and spring-dampers. These models are developed for certain posture and conditions. So, the models cannot be used in vibration analysis in various posture and conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop a human vibration model that represent human vibration characteristics under various conditions by employing a musculoskeletal model. To do this, the human vibration model is developed based on biomechanical models. In addition, muscle models are employed instead of spring-dampers. Activations of muscles are controlled by PD controller to maintain body posture under vertical vibration is applied. Each gain value of the controller is obtained to minimize the difference of apparent mass and acceleration transmissibility between experim ent and analysis by using an optimization method.

Keywords: human vibration analysis, hill type muscle model, PD control, whole-body vibration

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1428 Experimental Study on the Vibration Isolation Performance of Metal-Net Rubber Vibration Absorber

Authors: Su Yi Ming, Hou Ying, Zou Guang Ping


Metal-net rubber is a new dry friction damping material, compared with the traditional metal rubber, which has high mechanization degree, and the mechanical performance of metal-net rubber is more stable. Through the sine sweep experiment and random vibration experiment of metal-net rubber vibration isolator, the influence of several important factors such as the lines slope, relative density and wire diameter on the transfer rate, natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration of metal-net rubber vibration isolation system, were studied through the method of control variables. Also, several relevant change curves under different vibration levels were derived, and the effects of vibration level on the natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration were analyzed through the curves.

Keywords: metal-net rubber vibration isolator, relative density, vibration level, wire diameter

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1427 Computer Simulation Studies of Aircraft Wing Architectures on Vibration Responses

Authors: Shengyong Zhang, Mike Mikulich


Vibration is a crucial limiting consideration in the analysis and design of airplane wing structures to avoid disastrous failures due to the propagation of existing cracks in the material. In this paper, we build CAD models of aircraft wings to capture the design intent with configurations. Subsequent FEA vibration analysis is performed to study the natural vibration properties and impulsive responses of the resulting user-defined wing models. This study reveals the variations of the wing’s vibration characteristics with respect to changes in its structural configurations. Integrating CAD modelling and FEA vibration analysis enables designers to improve wing architectures for implementing design requirements in the preliminary design stage.

Keywords: aircraft wing, CAD modelling, FEA, vibration analysis

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1426 Research on the Torsional Vibration of a Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain Equipped with a Dual Mass Flywheel

Authors: Xiaolin Tang, Wei Yang, Xiaoan Chen


The research described in this paper was aimed at exploring the torsional vibration characteristics of a power-split hybrid powertrain equipped with a dual mass flywheel. The dynamic equations of governing torsional vibration for this hybrid driveline are presented, and the multi-body dynamic model for the powertrain is established with the software of ADAMS. Accordingly, different parameters of dual mass flywheel are investigated by forced vibration to reduce the torsional vibration of hybrid drive train. The analysis shows that the implementation of a dual mass flywheel is an effective way to decrease the torsional vibration of the hybrid powertrain. At last, the optimal combination of parameters yielding the lowest vibration is provided.

Keywords: dual mass flywheel, hybrid electric vehicle, torsional vibration, powertrain, dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
1425 Influence of Vibration Amplitude on Reaction Time and Drowsiness Level

Authors: Mohd A. Azizan, Mohd Z. Zali


It is well established that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human health, comfort, and performance. However, there is little quantitative knowledge on performance combined with drowsiness level during vibration exposure. This paper reports a study investigating the influence of vibration amplitude on seated occupant reaction time and drowsiness level. Eighteen male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Before commencing the experiment, total transmitted acceleration measured at interfaces between the seat pan and seatback to human body was adjusted to become 0.2 ms-2 r.m.s and 0.4 ms-2 r.m.s for each volunteer. Seated volunteers were exposed to Gaussian random vibration with frequency band 1-15 Hz at two level of amplitude (low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude) for 20-minutes in separate days. For the purpose of drowsiness measurement, volunteers were asked to complete 10-minutes PVT test before and after vibration exposure and rate their subjective drowsiness by giving score using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) before vibration, every 5-minutes interval and following 20-minutes of vibration exposure. Strong evidence of drowsiness was found as there was a significant increase in reaction time and number of lapse following exposure to vibration in both conditions. However, the effect is more apparent in medium vibration amplitude. A steady increase of drowsiness level can also be observed in KSS in all volunteers. However, no significant differences were found in KSS between low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude. It is concluded that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human alertness level and more pronounced at higher vibration amplitude. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of vibration in promoting drowsiness, especially at higher vibration amplitude.

Keywords: drowsiness, human vibration, karolinska sleepiness scale, psychomotor vigilance test

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1424 Performance Enrichment of Deep Feed Forward Neural Network and Deep Belief Neural Networks for Fault Detection of Automobile Gearbox Using Vibration Signal

Authors: T. Praveenkumar, Kulpreet Singh, Divy Bhanpuriya, M. Saimurugan


This study analysed the classification accuracy for gearbox faults using Machine Learning Techniques. Gearboxes are widely used for mechanical power transmission in rotating machines. Its rotating components such as bearings, gears, and shafts tend to wear due to prolonged usage, causing fluctuating vibrations. Increasing the dependability of mechanical components like a gearbox is hampered by their sealed design, which makes visual inspection difficult. One way of detecting impending failure is to detect a change in the vibration signature. The current study proposes various machine learning algorithms, with aid of these vibration signals for obtaining the fault classification accuracy of an automotive 4-Speed synchromesh gearbox. Experimental data in the form of vibration signals were acquired from a 4-Speed synchromesh gearbox using Data Acquisition System (DAQs). Statistical features were extracted from the acquired vibration signal under various operating conditions. Then the extracted features were given as input to the algorithms for fault classification. Supervised Machine Learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and unsupervised algorithms such as Deep Feed Forward Neural Network (DFFNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBN) algorithms are used for fault classification. The fusion of DBN & DFFNN classifiers were architected to further enhance the classification accuracy and to reduce the computational complexity. The fault classification accuracy for each algorithm was thoroughly studied, tabulated, and graphically analysed for fused and individual algorithms. In conclusion, the fusion of DBN and DFFNN algorithm yielded the better classification accuracy and was selected for fault detection due to its faster computational processing and greater efficiency.

Keywords: deep belief networks, DBN, deep feed forward neural network, DFFNN, fault diagnosis, fusion of algorithm, vibration signal

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1423 Investigation of Cavitation in a Centrifugal Pump Using Synchronized Pump Head Measurements, Vibration Measurements and High-Speed Image Recording

Authors: Simon Caba, Raja Abou Ackl, Svend Rasmussen, Nicholas E. Pedersen


It is a challenge to directly monitor cavitation in a pump application during operation because of a lack of visual access to validate the presence of cavitation and its form of appearance. In this work, experimental investigations are carried out in an inline single-stage centrifugal pump with optical access. Hence, it gives the opportunity to enhance the value of CFD tools and standard cavitation measurements. Experiments are conducted using two impellers running in the same volute at 3000 rpm and the same flow rate. One of the impellers used is optimized for lower NPSH₃% by its blade design, whereas the other one is manufactured using a standard casting method. The cavitation is detected by pump performance measurements, vibration measurements and high-speed image recordings. The head drop and the pump casing vibration caused by cavitation are correlated with the visual appearance of the cavitation. The vibration data is recorded in an axial direction of the impeller using accelerometers recording at a sample rate of 131 kHz. The vibration frequency domain data (up to 20 kHz) and the time domain data are analyzed as well as the root mean square values. The high-speed recordings, focusing on the impeller suction side, are taken at 10,240 fps to provide insight into the flow patterns and the cavitation behavior in the rotating impeller. The videos are synchronized with the vibration time signals by a trigger signal. A clear correlation between cloud collapses and abrupt peaks in the vibration signal can be observed. The vibration peaks clearly indicate cavitation, especially at higher NPSHA values where the hydraulic performance is not affected. It is also observed that below a certain NPSHA value, the cavitation started in the inlet bend of the pump. Above this value, cavitation occurs exclusively on the impeller blades. The impeller optimized for NPSH₃% does show a lower NPSH₃% than the standard impeller, but the head drop starts at a higher NPSHA value and is more gradual. Instabilities in the head drop curve of the optimized impeller were observed in addition to a higher vibration level. Furthermore, the cavitation clouds on the suction side appear more unsteady when using the optimized impeller. The shape and location of the cavitation are compared to 3D fluid flow simulations. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental investigations. In conclusion, these investigations attempt to give a more holistic view on the appearance of cavitation by comparing the head drop, vibration spectral data, vibration time signals, image recordings and simulation results. Data indicates that a criterion for cavitation detection could be derived from the vibration time-domain measurements, which requires further investigation. Usually, spectral data is used to analyze cavitation, but these investigations indicate that the time domain could be more appropriate for some applications.

Keywords: cavitation, centrifugal pump, head drop, high-speed image recordings, pump vibration

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1422 Assessment of Influence of Short-Lasting Whole-Body Vibration on the Proprioception of Lower Limbs

Authors: Sebastian Wójtowicz, Anna Mosiołek, Anna Słupik, Zbigniew Wroński, Dariusz Białoszewski


Introduction: In whole-body vibration (WBV) high-frequency mechanical stimuli is generated by a vibration plate and is transferred through bone, muscle and connective tissues to the whole body. The research has shown that the implementation of a vibration plate training over a long period of time leads to improvement of neuromuscular facilitation, especially in afferent neural pathways, which are responsible for the conduction of vibration and proprioceptive stimuli, muscle function, balance, and proprioception. The vibration stimulus is suggested to briefly inhibit the conduction of afferent signals from proprioceptors and may hinder the maintenance of body balance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of a single set of exercises connected with whole-body vibration on the proprioception. Material and Methods: The study enrolled 60 people aged 19-24 years. These individuals were divided into a test group (group A) and a control group (group B). Both groups consisted of 30 persons and performed the same set of exercises on a vibration plate. The following vibration parameters: frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 3mm, were used in the group A. The vibration plate was turned off while the control group did their exercises. All participants performed six dynamic 30-seconds-long exercises with a 60-second resting period between them. Large muscle groups of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limbs were involved while taking the exercises. The results were measured before and immediately after the exercises. The proprioception of lower limbs was measured in a closed kinematic chain using a Humac 360®. Participants were instructed to perform three squats with biofeedback in a defined range of motion. Then they did three squats without biofeedback which were measured. The final result was the average of three measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0 PL software. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups, both before and after the exercise (p > 0.05). The proprioception did not change in both the group A and the group B. Conclusions: 1. Deterioration in proprioception was not observed immediately after the vibration stimulus. This suggests that vibration-induced blockage of proprioceptive stimuli conduction can only have a short-lasting effect occurring only in the presence of the vibration stimulus. 2. Short-term use of vibration seems to be safe for patients with proprioceptive impairment due to the fact that the treatment does not decrease proprioception. 3. There is a need for supplementing the results with evaluation of proprioception while vibration stimuli are being applied. Moreover, the effects of vibration parameters used in the exercises should be evaluated.

Keywords: joint position sense, proprioception, squat, whole body vibration

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1421 PM Electrical Machines Diagnostic: Methods Selected

Authors: M. Barański


This paper presents a several diagnostic methods designed to electrical machines especially for permanent magnets (PM) machines. Those machines are commonly used in small wind and water systems and vehicles drives. Those methods are preferred by the author in periodic diagnostic of electrical machines. The special attention should be paid to diagnostic method of turn-to-turn insulation and vibrations. Both of those methods were created in Institute of Electrical Drives and Machines Komel. The vibration diagnostic method is the main thesis of author’s doctoral dissertation. This is method of determination the technical condition of PM electrical machine basing on its own signals is the subject of patent application No P.405669. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. There was analysed number of publications which describe vibration diagnostic methods and tests of electrical machines with permanent magnets and there was no method found to determine the technical condition of such machine basing on their own signals.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, generator, main insulation, permanent magnet, thermography, turn-to-traction drive, turn insulation, vibrations

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1420 Development of Scratching Monitoring System Based on Mathematical Model of Unconstrained Bed Sensing Method

Authors: Takuya Sumi, Syoko Nukaya, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara


We propose an unconstrained measurement system for scratching motion based on mathematical model of unconstrained bed sensing method which could measure the bed vibrations due to the motion of the person on the bed. In this paper, we construct mathematical model of the unconstrained bed monitoring system, and we apply the unconstrained bed sensing method to the system for detecting scratching motion. The proposed sensors are placed under the three bed feet. When the person is lying on the bed, the output signals from the sensors are proportional to the magnitude of the vibration due to the scratching motion. Hence, we could detect the subject’s scratching motion from the output signals from ceramic sensors. We evaluated two scratching motions using the proposed system in the validity experiment as follows: First experiment is the subject’s scratching the right side cheek with his right hand, and; second experiment is the subject’s scratching the shin with another foot. As the results of the experiment, we recognized the scratching signals that enable the determination when the scratching occurred. Furthermore, the difference among the amplitudes of the output signals enabled us to estimate where the subject scratched.

Keywords: unconstrained bed sensing method, scratching, body movement, itchy, piezoceramics

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1419 Studies on Influence of Rub on Vibration Signature of Rotating Machines

Authors: K. N. Umesh, K. S. Srinivasan


The influence of rotor rub was studied with respect to light rub and heavy rub conditions. The investigations were carried out for both below and above critical speeds. The time domain waveform has revealed truncation of the waveform during rubbing conditions. The quantum of rubbing has been indicated by the quantum of truncation. The orbits for light rub have indicated a single loop whereas for heavy rub multi looped orbits have been observed. In the heavy rub condition above critical speed both sub harmonics and super harmonics are exhibited. The orbit precess in a direction opposite to the direction of the rotation of the rotor. When the rubbing was created above the critical speed the orbit shape was of '8' shape indicating the rotor instability. Super-harmonics and sub-harmonics of vibration signals have been observed for light rub and heavy rub conditions and for speeds above critical.

Keywords: rotor rub, orbital analysis, frequency analysis, vibration signatures

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1418 Experimental Study of Vibration Isolators Made of Expanded Cork Agglomerate

Authors: S. Dias, A. Tadeu, J. Antonio, F. Pedro, C. Serra


The goal of the present work is to experimentally evaluate the feasibility of using vibration isolators made of expanded cork agglomerate. Even though this material, also known as insulation cork board (ICB), has mainly been studied for thermal and acoustic insulation purposes, it has strong potential for use in vibration isolation. However, the adequate design of expanded cork blocks vibration isolators will depend on several factors, such as excitation frequency, static load conditions and intrinsic dynamic behavior of the material. In this study, transmissibility tests for different static and dynamic loading conditions were performed in order to characterize the material. Since the material’s physical properties can influence the vibro-isolation performance of the blocks (in terms of density and thickness), this study covered four mass density ranges and four block thicknesses. A total of 72 expanded cork agglomerate specimens were tested. The test apparatus comprises a vibration exciter connected to an excitation mass that holds the test specimen. The test specimens under characterization were loaded successively with steel plates in order to obtain results for different masses. An accelerometer was placed at the top of these masses and at the base of the excitation mass. The test was performed for a defined frequency range, and the amplitude registered by the accelerometers was recorded in time domain. For each of the signals (signal 1- vibration of the excitation mass, signal 2- vibration of the loading mass) a fast Fourier transform (FFT) was applied in order to obtain the frequency domain response. For each of the frequency domain signals, the maximum amplitude reached was registered. The ratio between the amplitude (acceleration) of signal 2 and the amplitude of signal 1, allows the calculation of the transmissibility for each frequency. Repeating this procedure allowed us to plot a transmissibility curve for a certain frequency range. A number of transmissibility experiments were performed to assess the influence of changing the mass density and thickness of the expanded cork blocks and the experimental conditions (static load and frequency of excitation). The experimental transmissibility tests performed in this study showed that expanded cork agglomerate blocks are a good option for mitigating vibrations. It was concluded that specimens with lower mass density and larger thickness lead to better performance, with higher vibration isolation and a larger range of isolated frequencies. In conclusion, the study of the performance of expanded cork agglomerate blocks presented herein will allow for a more efficient application of expanded cork vibration isolators. This is particularly relevant since this material is a more sustainable alternative to other commonly used non-environmentally friendly products, such as rubber.

Keywords: expanded cork agglomerate, insulation cork board, transmissibility tests, sustainable materials, vibration isolators

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1417 Dynamic Simulation of IC Engine Bearings for Fault Detection and Wear Prediction

Authors: M. D. Haneef, R. B. Randall, Z. Peng


Journal bearings used in IC engines are prone to premature failures and are likely to fail earlier than the rated life due to highly impulsive and unstable operating conditions and frequent starts/stops. Vibration signature extraction and wear debris analysis techniques are prevalent in the industry for condition monitoring of rotary machinery. However, both techniques involve a great deal of technical expertise, time and cost. Limited literature is available on the application of these techniques for fault detection in reciprocating machinery, due to the complex nature of impact forces that confounds the extraction of fault signals for vibration based analysis and wear prediction. This work is an extension of a previous study, in which an engine simulation model was developed using a MATLAB/SIMULINK program, whereby the engine parameters used in the simulation were obtained experimentally from a Toyota 3SFE 2.0 litre petrol engines. Simulated hydrodynamic bearing forces were used to estimate vibrations signals and envelope analysis was carried out to analyze the effect of speed, load and clearance on the vibration response. Three different loads 50/80/110 N-m, three different speeds 1500/2000/3000 rpm, and three different clearances, i.e., normal, 2 times and 4 times the normal clearance were simulated to examine the effect of wear on bearing forces. The magnitude of the squared envelope of the generated vibration signals though not affected by load, but was observed to rise significantly with increasing speed and clearance indicating the likelihood of augmented wear. In the present study, the simulation model was extended further to investigate the bearing wear behavior, resulting as a consequence of different operating conditions, to complement the vibration analysis. In the current simulation, the dynamics of the engine was established first, based on which the hydrodynamic journal bearing forces were evaluated by numerical solution of the Reynold’s equation. Also, the essential outputs of interest in this study, critical to determine wear rates are the tangential velocity and oil film thickness between the journal and bearing sleeve, which if not maintained appropriately, have a detrimental effect on the bearing performance. Archard’s wear prediction model was used in the simulation to calculate the wear rate of bearings with specific location information as all determinative parameters were obtained with reference to crank rotation. Oil film thickness obtained from the model was used as a criterion to determine if the lubrication is sufficient to prevent contact between the journal and bearing thus causing accelerated wear. A limiting value of 1 µm was used as the minimum oil film thickness needed to prevent contact. The increased wear rate with growing severity of operating conditions is analogous and comparable to the rise in amplitude of the squared envelope of the referenced vibration signals. Thus on one hand, the developed model demonstrated its capability to explain wear behavior and on the other hand it also helps to establish a correlation between wear based and vibration based analysis. Therefore, the model provides a cost-effective and quick approach to predict the impending wear in IC engine bearings under various operating conditions.

Keywords: condition monitoring, IC engine, journal bearings, vibration analysis, wear prediction

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1416 Combined Odd Pair Autoregressive Coefficients for Epileptic EEG Signals Classification by Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: Boukari Nassim


This paper describes the use of odd pair autoregressive coefficients (Yule _Walker and Burg) for the feature extraction of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In the classification: the radial basis function neural network neural network (RBFNN) is employed. The RBFNN is described by his architecture and his characteristics: as the RBF is defined by the spread which is modified for improving the results of the classification. Five types of EEG signals are defined for this work: Set A, Set B for normal signals, Set C, Set D for interictal signals, set E for ictal signal (we can found that in Bonn university). In outputs, two classes are given (AC, AD, AE, BC, BD, BE, CE, DE), the best accuracy is calculated at 99% for the combined odd pair autoregressive coefficients. Our method is very effective for the diagnosis of epileptic EEG signals.

Keywords: epilepsy, EEG signals classification, combined odd pair autoregressive coefficients, radial basis function neural network

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