Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: gearbox

29 Design and Analysis of a Planetary Gearbox Used in Stirred Vessel

Authors: Payal T. Patel, Ramakant Panchal, Ketankumar G. Patel


Gear in stirred vessel is one of the most critical components in machinery which has power transmission system and it is rotating machinery cost and redesign being the major constraints, there is always a great scope for a mechanical engineer to apply skills to improve the design. Gear will be most effective means of transmitting power in future machinery due to their high degree of compactness. The Galliard moved in the industry from heavy industries such as textile machinery and shipbuilding to industries such as automobile manufacture tools will necessitate the affable application of gear technology. The two-stage planetary reduction gear unit is designed to meet the output specifications. In industries, where the bevel gears are used in turret vessel to transmit the power, that unit is replaced by this planetary gearbox. Use of this type of gearbox is to get better efficiency and also the manufacturing of the bevel gear is more complex than the spur gears. Design a gearbox with the epicyclic gear train. In industries, the power transmission from gearbox to vessel is done through the bevel gears, which transmit the power at a right angle. In this work, the power is to be transmitted vertically from gearbox to vessel, which will increase the efficiency and life of gears. The arrangement of the gears is quite difficult as well as it needs high manufacturing cost and maintenance cost. The design is replaced by the planetary gearbox to reduce the difficulties, and same output is achieved but with a different arrangement of the planetary gearbox.

Keywords: planetary gearbox, epicyclic gear, optimization, dynamic balancing

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28 Quality Control of Automotive Gearbox Based On Vibration Signal Analysis

Authors: Nilson Barbieri, Bruno Matos Martins, Gabriel de Sant'Anna Vitor Barbieri


In more complex systems, such as automotive gearbox, a rigorous treatment of the data is necessary because there are several moving parts (gears, bearings, shafts, etc.), and in this way, there are several possible sources of errors and also noise. The basic objective of this work is the detection of damage in automotive gearbox. The detection methods used are the wavelet method, the bispectrum; advanced filtering techniques (selective filtering) of vibrational signals and mathematical morphology. Gearbox vibration tests were performed (gearboxes in good condition and with defects) of a production line of a large vehicle assembler. The vibration signals are obtained using five accelerometers in different positions of the sample. The results obtained using the kurtosis, bispectrum, wavelet and mathematical morphology showed that it is possible to identify the existence of defects in automotive gearboxes.

Keywords: automotive gearbox, mathematical morphology, wavelet, bispectrum

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27 Singular Value Decomposition Based Optimisation of Design Parameters of a Gearbox

Authors: Mehmet Bozca


Singular value decomposition based optimisation of geometric design parameters of a 5-speed gearbox is studied. During the optimisation, a four-degree-of freedom torsional vibration model of the pinion gear-wheel gear system is obtained and the minimum singular value of the transfer matrix is considered as the objective functions. The computational cost of the associated singular value problems is quite low for the objective function, because it is only necessary to compute the largest and smallest singular values (µmax and µmin) that can be achieved by using selective eigenvalue solvers; the other singular values are not needed. The design parameters are optimised under several constraints that include bending stress, contact stress and constant distance between gear centres. Thus, by optimising the geometric parameters of the gearbox such as, the module, number of teeth and face width it is possible to obtain a light-weight-gearbox structure. It is concluded that the all optimised geometric design parameters also satisfy all constraints.

Keywords: Singular value, optimisation, gearbox, torsional vibration

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26 Formulation of Optimal Shifting Sequence for Multi-Speed Automatic Transmission

Authors: Sireesha Tamada, Debraj Bhattacharjee, Pranab K. Dan, Prabha Bhola


The most important component in an automotive transmission system is the gearbox which controls the speed of the vehicle. In an automatic transmission, the right positioning of actuators ensures efficient transmission mechanism embodiment, wherein the challenge lies in formulating the number of actuators associated with modelling a gearbox. Data with respect to actuation and gear shifting sequence has been retrieved from the available literature, including patent documents, and has been used in this proposed heuristics based methodology for modelling actuation sequence in a gear box. This paper presents a methodological approach in designing a gearbox for the purpose of obtaining an optimal shifting sequence. The computational model considers factors namely, the number of stages and gear teeth as input parameters since these two are the determinants of the gear ratios in an epicyclic gear train. The proposed transmission schematic or stick diagram aids in developing the gearbox layout design. The number of iterations and development time required to design a gearbox layout is reduced by using this approach.

Keywords: automatic transmission, gear-shifting, multi-stage planetary gearbox, rank ordered clustering

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25 Gearbox Defect Detection in the Semi Autogenous Mills Using the Vibration Analysis Technique

Authors: Mostafa Firoozabadi, Alireza Foroughi Nematollahi


Semi autogenous mills are designed for grinding or primary crushed ore, and are the most widely used in concentrators globally. Any defect occurrence in semi autogenous mills can stop the production line. A Gearbox is a significant part of a rotating machine or a mill, so, the gearbox monitoring is a necessary process to prevent the unwanted defects. When a defect happens in a gearbox bearing, this defect can be transferred to the other parts of the equipment like inner ring, outer ring, balls, and the bearing cage. Vibration analysis is one of the most effective and common ways to detect the bearing defects in the mills. Vibration signal in a mill can be made by different parts of the mill including electromotor, pinion girth gear, different rolling bearings, and tire. When a vibration signal, made by the aforementioned parts, is added to the gearbox vibration spectrum, an accurate and on time defect detection in the gearbox will be difficult. In this paper, a new method is proposed to detect the gearbox bearing defects in the semi autogenous mill on time and accurately, using the vibration signal analysis method. In this method, if the vibration values are increased in the vibration curve, the probability of defect occurrence is investigated by comparing the equipment vibration values and the standard ones. Then, all vibration frequencies are extracted from the vibration signal and the equipment defect is detected using the vibration spectrum curve. This method is implemented on the semi autogenous mills in the Golgohar mining and industrial company in Iran. The results show that the proposed method can detect the bearing looseness on time and accurately. After defect detection, the bearing is opened before the equipment failure and the predictive maintenance actions are implemented on it.

Keywords: condition monitoring, gearbox defects, predictive maintenance, vibration analysis

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24 Study of Inhibition of the End Effect Based on AR Model Predict of Combined Data Extension and Window Function

Authors: Pan Hongxia, Wang Zhenhua


In this paper, the EMD decomposition in the process of endpoint effect adopted data based on AR model to predict the continuation and window function method of combining the two effective inhibition. Proven by simulation of the simulation signal obtained the ideal effect, then, apply this method to the gearbox test data is also achieved good effect in the process, for the analysis of the subsequent data processing to improve the calculation accuracy. In the end, under various working conditions for the gearbox fault diagnosis laid a good foundation.

Keywords: gearbox, fault diagnosis, ar model, end effect

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23 Creeping Control Strategy for Direct Shift Gearbox Based on the Investigation of Temperature Variation of the Wet Clutch

Authors: Biao Ma, Jikai Liu, Man Chen, Jianpeng Wu, Liyong Wang, Changsong Zheng


Proposing an appropriate control strategy is an effective and practical way to address the overheat problems of the wet multi-plate clutch in Direct Shift Gearbox under the long-time creeping condition. To do so, the temperature variation of the wet multi-plate clutch is investigated firstly by establishing a thermal resistance model for the gearbox cooling system. To calculate the generated heat flux and predict the clutch temperature precisely, the friction torque model is optimized by introducing an improved friction coefficient, which is related to the pressure, the relative speed and the temperature. After that, the heat transfer model and the reasonable friction torque model are employed by the vehicle powertrain model to construct a comprehensive co-simulation model for the Direct Shift Gearbox (DSG) vehicle. A creeping control strategy is then proposed and, to evaluate the vehicle performance, the safety temperature (250 ℃) is particularly adopted as an important metric. During the creeping process, the temperature of two clutches is always under the safety value (250 ℃), which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in avoiding the thermal failures of clutches.

Keywords: creeping control strategy, direct shift gearbox, temperature variation, wet clutch

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22 Simulation of Die Casting Process in an Industrial Helical Gearbox Flange Die

Authors: Mehdi Modabberifar, Behrouz Raad, Bahman Mirzakhani


Flanges are widely used for connecting valves, pipes and other industrial devices such as gearboxes. Method of producing a flange has a considerable impact on the manner of their involvement with the industrial engines and gearboxes. By Using die casting instead of sand casting and machining for manufacturing flanges, production speed and dimensional accuracy of the parts increases. Also, in die casting, obtained dimensions are close to final dimensions and hence the need for machining flanges after die casting process decreases which makes a significant savings in raw materials and improves the mechanical properties of flanges. In this paper, a typical die of an industrial helical gearbox flange (size ISO 50) was designed and die casting process for producing this type of flange was simulated using ProCAST software. The results of simulation were used for optimizing die design. Finally, using the results of the analysis, optimized die was built.

Keywords: die casting, finite element, flange, helical gearbox

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21 Vehicle Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Based on Cepstrum Analysis

Authors: Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenová


Research on damage of gears and gear pairs using vibration signals remains very attractive, because vibration signals from a gear pair are complex in nature and not easy to interpret. Predicting gear pair defects by analyzing changes in vibration signal of gears pairs in operation is a very reliable method. Therefore, a suitable vibration signal processing technique is necessary to extract defect information generally obscured by the noise from dynamic factors of other gear pairs. This article presents the value of cepstrum analysis in vehicle gearbox fault diagnosis. Cepstrum represents the overall power content of a whole family of harmonics and sidebands when more than one family of sidebands is present at the same time. The concept for the measurement and analysis involved in using the technique are briefly outlined. Cepstrum analysis is used for detection of an artificial pitting defect in a vehicle gearbox loaded with different speeds and torques. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as the internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of the output joint shafts. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a gear of the fifth speed on the secondary shaft. Also, a method for fault diagnosis of gear faults is presented based on order cepstrum. The procedure is illustrated with the experimental vibration data of the vehicle gearbox. The results show the effectiveness of cepstrum analysis in detection and diagnosis of the gear condition.

Keywords: cepstrum analysis, fault diagnosis, gearbox, vibration signals

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20 Design and Manufacture of a Hybrid Gearbox Reducer System

Authors: Ahmed Mozamel, Kemal Yildizli


Due to mechanical energy losses and a competitive of minimizing these losses and increases the machine efficiency, the need for contactless gearing system has raised. In this work, one stage of mechanical planetary gear transmission system integrated with one stage of magnetic planetary gear system is designed as a two-stage hybrid gearbox system. The permanent magnets internal energy in the form of the magnetic field is used to create meshing between contactless magnetic rotors in order to provide self-system protection against overloading and decrease the mechanical loss of the transmission system by eliminating the friction losses. Classical methods, such as analytical, tabular method and the theory of elasticity are used to calculate the planetary gear design parameters. The finite element method (ANSYS Maxwell) is used to predict the behaviors of a magnetic gearing system. The concentric magnetic gearing system has been modeled and analyzed by using 2D finite element method (ANSYS Maxwell). In addition to that, design and manufacturing processes of prototype components (a planetary gear, concentric magnetic gear, shafts and the bearings selection) of a gearbox system are investigated. The output force, the output moment, the output power and efficiency of the hybrid gearbox system are experimentally evaluated. The viability of applying a magnetic force to transmit mechanical power through a non-contact gearing system is presented. The experimental test results show that the system is capable to operate continuously within the range of speed from 400 rpm to 3000 rpm with the reduction ratio of 2:1 and maximum efficiency of 91%.

Keywords: hybrid gearbox, mechanical gearboxes, magnetic gears, magnetic torque

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19 Analysis and Experimental Research on the Influence of Lubricating Oil on the Transmission Efficiency of New Energy Vehicle Gearbox

Authors: Chen Yong, Bi Wangyang, Zang Libin, Li Jinkai, Cheng Xiaowei, Liu Jinmin, Yu Miao


New energy vehicle power transmission systems continue to develop in the direction of high torque, high speed, and high efficiency. The cooling and lubrication of the motor and the transmission system are integrated, and new requirements are placed on the lubricants for the transmission system. The effects of traditional lubricants and special lubricants for new energy vehicles on transmission efficiency were studied through experiments and simulation methods. A mathematical model of the transmission efficiency of the lubricating oil in the gearbox was established. The power loss of each part was analyzed according to the working conditions. The relationship between the speed and the characteristics of different lubricating oil products on the power loss of the stirring oil was discussed. The minimum oil film thickness was required for the life of the gearbox. The accuracy of the calculation results was verified by the transmission efficiency test conducted on the two-motor integrated test bench. The results show that the efficiency increases first and then decreases with the increase of the speed and decreases with the increase of the kinematic viscosity of the lubricant. The increase of the kinematic viscosity amplifies the transmission power loss caused by the high speed. New energy vehicle special lubricants have less attenuation of transmission efficiency in the range above mid-speed. The research results provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the evaluation and selection of transmission efficiency of gearbox lubricants for new energy vehicles.

Keywords: new energy vehicles, lubricants, transmission efficiency, kinematic viscosity, test and simulation

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18 Ghost Frequency Noise Reduction through Displacement Deviation Analysis

Authors: Paua Ketan, Bhagate Rajkumar, Adiga Ganesh, M. Kiran


Low gear noise is an important sound quality feature in modern passenger cars. Annoying gear noise from the gearbox is influenced by the gear design, gearbox shaft layout, manufacturing deviations in the components, assembly errors and the mounting arrangement of the complete gearbox. Geometrical deviations in the form of profile and lead errors are often present on the flanks of the inspected gears. Ghost frequencies of a gear are very challenging to identify in standard gear measurement and analysis process due to small wavelengths involved. In this paper, gear whine noise occurring at non-integral multiples of gear mesh frequency of passenger car gearbox is investigated and the root cause is identified using the displacement deviation analysis (DDA) method. DDA method is applied to identify ghost frequency excitations on the flanks of gears arising out of generation grinding. Frequency identified through DDA correlated with the frequency of vibration and noise on the end-of-line machine as well as vehicle level measurements. With the application of DDA method along with standard lead profile measurement, gears with ghost frequency geometry deviations were identified on the production line to eliminate defective parts and thereby eliminate ghost frequency noise from a vehicle. Further, displacement deviation analysis can be used in conjunction with the manufacturing process simulation to arrive at suitable countermeasures for arresting the ghost frequency.

Keywords: displacement deviation analysis, gear whine, ghost frequency, sound quality

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17 Performance Enrichment of Deep Feed Forward Neural Network and Deep Belief Neural Networks for Fault Detection of Automobile Gearbox Using Vibration Signal

Authors: T. Praveenkumar, Kulpreet Singh, Divy Bhanpuriya, M. Saimurugan


This study analysed the classification accuracy for gearbox faults using Machine Learning Techniques. Gearboxes are widely used for mechanical power transmission in rotating machines. Its rotating components such as bearings, gears, and shafts tend to wear due to prolonged usage, causing fluctuating vibrations. Increasing the dependability of mechanical components like a gearbox is hampered by their sealed design, which makes visual inspection difficult. One way of detecting impending failure is to detect a change in the vibration signature. The current study proposes various machine learning algorithms, with aid of these vibration signals for obtaining the fault classification accuracy of an automotive 4-Speed synchromesh gearbox. Experimental data in the form of vibration signals were acquired from a 4-Speed synchromesh gearbox using Data Acquisition System (DAQs). Statistical features were extracted from the acquired vibration signal under various operating conditions. Then the extracted features were given as input to the algorithms for fault classification. Supervised Machine Learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and unsupervised algorithms such as Deep Feed Forward Neural Network (DFFNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBN) algorithms are used for fault classification. The fusion of DBN & DFFNN classifiers were architected to further enhance the classification accuracy and to reduce the computational complexity. The fault classification accuracy for each algorithm was thoroughly studied, tabulated, and graphically analysed for fused and individual algorithms. In conclusion, the fusion of DBN and DFFNN algorithm yielded the better classification accuracy and was selected for fault detection due to its faster computational processing and greater efficiency.

Keywords: deep belief networks, DBN, deep feed forward neural network, DFFNN, fault diagnosis, fusion of algorithm, vibration signal

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16 Direct Drive Double Fed Wind Generator

Authors: Vlado Ostovic


An electric machine topology characterized by single tooth winding in both stator and rotor is presented. The proposed machine is capable of operating as a direct drive double fed wind generator (DDDF, D3F) because it requires no gearbox and only a reduced-size converter. A wind turbine drive built around a D3F generator is cheaper to manufacture, requires less maintenance, and has a higher energy yield than its conventional counterparts. The single tooth wound generator of a D3F turbine has superb volume utilization and lower stator I2R losses due to its extremely short-end windings. Both stator and rotor of a D3F generator can be manufactured in segments, which simplifies its assembly and transportation to the site, and makes production cheaper.

Keywords: direct drive, double fed generator, gearbox, permanent magnet generators, single tooth winding, wind power

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15 Transmission Design That Eliminates Gradual System Problems in Gearboxes

Authors: Ömer Ateş, Atilla Savaş


Reducers and transmission systems are power and speed transfer tools that have been used for many years in the technology world and in all engineering fields. Since today's transmissions have a threaded tap system, torque interruption occurs during tap change. besides, breakdown and manufacturing costs are high. Another problem is the limited torque and rpm setting in stepped gearbox systems. In this study, a new type of transmission system is designed to solve these problems. This new type of transmission system has been called the Continuously Variable Pulley. The most important feature of the transmission system in the study is that it can be adjusted Revolutions Per Minute-wise and torque-wise at the millimeter (precision) adjustment level. In order to make adjustments at this level, an adjustable pulley with the help of hydraulic piston is designed. The efficiency of the designed transmission system is 97 percent, the efficiency of today's transmissions is in the range of 85-95 percent. examined at the analysis and calculations, it is seen that the designed system gives realistic results and can be compared with today's transmissions and reducers. Therefore, this new type of transmission has been proven to be usable in production areas and the world of technology.

Keywords: gearbox, reducer, transmission, torque

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14 Simulation Based Analysis of Gear Dynamic Behavior in Presence of Multiple Cracks

Authors: Ahmed Saeed, Sadok Sassi, Mohammad Roshun


Gears are important components with a vital role in many rotating machines. One of the common gear failure causes is tooth fatigue crack; however, its early detection is still a challenging task. The objective of this study is to develop a numerical model that simulates the effect of teeth cracks on the resulting gears vibrations and permits consequently to perform an early fault detection. In contrast to other published papers, this work incorporates the possibility of multiple simultaneous cracks with different depths. As cracks alter significantly the stiffness of the tooth, finite element software is used to determine the stiffness variation with respect to the angular position, for different combinations of crack orientation and depth. A simplified six degrees of freedom nonlinear lumped parameter model of a one-stage spur gear system is proposed to study the vibration with and without cracks. The model developed for calculating the stiffness with the crack permitted to update the physical parameters of the second-degree-of-freedom equations of motions describing the vibration of the gearbox. The vibration simulation results of the gearbox were by obtained using Simulink/Matlab. The effect of one crack with different levels was studied thoroughly. The change in the mesh stiffness and the vibration response were found to be consistent with previously published works. In addition, various statistical time domain parameters were considered. They showed different degrees of sensitivity toward the crack depth. Multiple cracks were also introduced at different locations and the vibration response along with the statistical parameters were obtained again for a general case of degradation (increase in crack depth, crack number and crack locations). It was found that although some parameters increase in value as the deterioration level increases, they show almost no change or even decrease when the number of cracks increases. Therefore, the use of any statistical parameters could be misleading if not considered in an appropriate way.

Keywords: Spur gear, cracked tooth, numerical simulation, time-domain parameters

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13 Gear Fault Diagnosis Based on Optimal Morlet Wavelet Filter and Autocorrelation Enhancement

Authors: Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenová


Condition monitoring is used to increase machinery availability and machinery performance, whilst reducing consequential damage, increasing machine life, reducing spare parts inventories, and reducing breakdown maintenance. An efficient condition monitoring system provides early warning of faults by predicting them at an early stage. When a localized fault occurs in gears, the vibration signals always exhibit non-stationary behavior. The periodic impulsive feature of the vibration signal appears in the time domain and the corresponding gear mesh frequency (GMF) emerges in the frequency domain. However, one limitation of frequency-domain analysis is its inability to handle non-stationary waveform signals, which are very common when machinery faults occur. Particularly at the early stage of gear failure, the GMF contains very little energy and is often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations. An effective signal processing method would be necessary to remove such corrupting noise and interference. In this paper, a new hybrid method based on optimal Morlet wavelet filter and autocorrelation enhancement is presented. First, to eliminate the frequency associated with interferential vibrations, the vibration signal is filtered with a band-pass filter determined by a Morlet wavelet whose parameters are selected or optimized based on maximum Kurtosis. Then, to further reduce the residual in-band noise and highlight the periodic impulsive feature, an autocorrelation enhancement algorithm is applied to the filtered signal. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as the internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers induce a load on the output joint shaft flanges. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a gear of the fifth speed on the secondary shaft. The gearbox used for experimental measurements is of the type most commonly used in modern small to mid-sized passenger cars with transversely mounted powertrain and front wheel drive: a five-speed gearbox with final drive gear and front wheel differential. The results obtained from practical experiments prove that the proposed method is very effective for gear fault diagnosis.

Keywords: wavelet analysis, pitted gear, autocorrelation, gear fault diagnosis

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12 A Fermatean Fuzzy MAIRCA Approach for Maintenance Strategy Selection of Process Plant Gearbox Using Sustainability Criteria

Authors: Soumava Boral, Sanjay K. Chaturvedi, Ian Howard, Kristoffer McKee, V. N. A. Naikan


Due to strict regulations from government to enhance the possibilities of sustainability practices in industries, and noting the advances in sustainable manufacturing practices, it is necessary that the associated processes are also sustainable. Maintenance of large scale and complex machines is a pivotal task to maintain the uninterrupted flow of manufacturing processes. Appropriate maintenance practices can prolong the lifetime of machines, and prevent associated breakdowns, which subsequently reduces different cost heads. Selection of the best maintenance strategies for such machines are considered as a burdensome task, as they require the consideration of multiple technical criteria, complex mathematical calculations, previous fault data, maintenance records, etc. In the era of the fourth industrial revolution, organizations are rapidly changing their way of business, and they are giving their utmost importance to sensor technologies, artificial intelligence, data analytics, automations, etc. In this work, the effectiveness of several maintenance strategies (e.g., preventive, failure-based, reliability centered, condition based, total productive maintenance, etc.) related to a large scale and complex gearbox, operating in a steel processing plant is evaluated in terms of economic, social, environmental and technical criteria. As it is not possible to obtain/describe some criteria by exact numerical values, these criteria are evaluated linguistically by cross-functional experts. Fuzzy sets are potential soft-computing technique, which has been useful to deal with linguistic data and to provide inferences in many complex situations. To prioritize different maintenance practices based on the identified sustainable criteria, multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approaches can be considered as potential tools. Multi-Attributive Ideal Real Comparative Analysis (MAIRCA) is a recent addition in the MCDM family and has proven its superiority over some well-known MCDM approaches, like TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and ELECTRE (ELimination Et Choix Traduisant la REalité). It has a simple but robust mathematical approach, which is easy to comprehend. On the other side, due to some inherent drawbacks of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets (IFS) and Pythagorean Fuzzy Sets (PFS), recently, the use of Fermatean Fuzzy Sets (FFSs) has been proposed. In this work, we propose the novel concept of FF-MAIRCA. We obtain the weights of the criteria by experts’ evaluation and use them to prioritize the different maintenance practices according to their suitability by FF-MAIRCA approach. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to highlight the robustness of the approach.

Keywords: Fermatean fuzzy sets, Fermatean fuzzy MAIRCA, maintenance strategy selection, sustainable manufacturing, MCDM

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11 Computer Aided Engineering Optimization of Synchronous Reluctance Motor and Vibro-Acoustic Analysis for Lift Systems

Authors: Ezio Bassi, Francesco Vercesi, Francesco Benzi


The aim of this study is to evaluate the potentiality of synchronous reluctance motors for lift systems by also evaluating the vibroacoustic behaviour of the motor. Two types of synchronous machines are designed, analysed, and compared with an equivalent induction motor, which is the more common solution in such gearbox applications. The machines' performance are further improved with optimization procedures based on multiobjective optimization genetic algorithm (MOGA). The difference between the two synchronous motors consists in the rotor geometry; a symmetric and an asymmetric rotor design were investigated. The evaluation of the vibroacoustic performance has been conducted with a multi-variable model and finite element software taking into account electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal features of the motor, therefore carrying out a multi-physics analysis of the electrical machine.

Keywords: synchronous reluctance motor, vibro-acoustic, lift systems, genetic algorithm

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10 Investigating of the Fuel Consumption in Construction Machinery and Ways to Reduce Fuel Consumption

Authors: Reza Bahboodian


One of the most important factors in the use of construction machinery is the fuel consumption cost of this equipment. The use of diesel engines in off-road vehicles is an important source of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter 10 in off-road vehicles (construction and mining) may be high. Due to the high cost of fuel, it is necessary to minimize fuel consumption. Factors affecting the fuel consumption of these cars are very diverse. Climate changes such as changes in pressure, temperature, humidity, fuel type selection, type of gearbox used in the car are effective in fuel consumption and pollution, and engine efficiency. In this paper, methods for reducing fuel consumption and pollutants by considering valid European and European standards are examined based on new methods such as hybridization, optimal gear change, adding hydrogen to diesel fuel, determining optimal working fluids, and using oxidation catalysts.

Keywords: improve fuel consumption, construction machinery, pollutant reduction, determining the optimal working cycle

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9 Rolling Contact Fatigue Failure Analysis of Ball Bearing in Gear Box

Authors: Piyas Palit, Urbi Pal, Jitendra Mathur, Santanu Das


Bearing is an important machinery part in the industry. When bearings fail to meet their expected life the consequences are increased downtime, loss of revenue and missed the delivery. This article describes the failure of a gearbox bearing in rolling contact fatigue. The investigation consists of visual observation, chemical analysis, characterization of microstructures using optical microscopes and hardness test. The present study also considers bearing life as well as the operational condition of bearings. Surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue, leading to a surface failure known as pitting, is a life-limiting failure mode in many modern machine elements, particularly rolling element bearings. Metallography analysis of crack propagation, crack morphology was also described. Indication of fatigue spalling in the ferrography test was also discussed. The analysis suggested the probable reasons for such kind of failure in operation. This type of spalling occurred due to (1) heavier external loading condition or (2) exceeds its service life.

Keywords: bearing, rolling contact fatigue, bearing life

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8 Fatigue Life Estimation Using N-Code for Drive Shaft of Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Tae An Kim, Hyo Lim Kang, Hye Won Han, Seung Ho Han


The drive shaft of passenger vehicle has its own function such as transmitting the engine torque from the gearbox and differential gears to the wheels. It must also compensate for all variations in angle or length resulting from manoeuvring and deflection for perfect synchronization between joints. Torsional fatigue failures occur frequently at the connection parts of the spline joints in the end of the drive shaft. In this study, the fatigue life of a drive shaft of passenger vehicle was estimated by using the finite element analysis. A commercial software of n-Code was applied under twisting load conditions, i.e. 0~134kgf•m and 0~188kgf•m, in which the shear strain range-fatigue life relationship considering Signed Shear method, Smith-Watson-Topper equation, Neuber-Hoffman Seeger method, size sensitivity factor and surface roughness effect was taken into account. The estimated fatigue life was verified by a twisting load test of the real drive shaft in a test rig. (Human Resource Training Project for Industry Matched R & D, KIAT, N036200004).

Keywords: drive shaft, fatigue life estimation, passenger vehicle, shear strain range-fatigue life relationship, torsional fatigue failure

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7 An Investigation on Hybrid Composite Drive Shaft for Automotive Industry

Authors: Gizem Arslan Özgen, Kutay Yücetürk, Metin Tanoğlu, Engin Aktaş


Power transmitted from the engine to the final drive where useful work is applied through a system consisting of a gearbox, clutch, drive shaft and a differential in the rear-wheel-drive automobiles. It is well-known that the steel drive shaft is usually manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental bending natural frequency to ensure safe operation conditions. In this work, hybrid one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites have been designed for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Hybridization of carbon and glass fibers is being studied to optimize the cost/performance requirements. Composites shaft materials with various fiber orientation angles and stacking sequences are being fabricated and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA).

Keywords: composite propeller shaft, hybridization, epoxy matrix, static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling strength, fundamental natural bending frequency.

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6 Control of Grid Connected PMSG-Based Wind Turbine System with Back-To-Back Converter Topology Using Resonant Controller

Authors: Fekkak Bouazza, Menaa Mohamed, Loukriz Abdelhamid, Krim Mohamed L.


This paper presents modeling and control strategy for the grid connected wind turbine system based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The considered system is based on back-to-back converter topology. The Grid Side Converter (GSC) achieves the DC bus voltage control and unity power factor. The Machine Side Converter (MSC) assures the PMSG speed control. The PMSG is used as a variable speed generator and connected directly to the turbine without gearbox. The pitch angle control is not either considered in this study. Further, Optimal Tip Speed Ratio (OTSR) based MPPT control strategy is used to ensure the most energy efficiency whatever the wind speed variations. A filter (L) is put between the GSC and the grid to reduce current ripple and to improve the injected power quality. The proposed grid connected wind system is built under MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed topology and performance of its control strategies.

Keywords: wind, grid, PMSG, MPPT, OTSR

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5 Design of a Satellite Solar Panel Deployment Mechanism Using the Brushed DC Motor as Rotational Speed Damper

Authors: Hossein Ramezani Ali-Akbari


This paper presents an innovative method to control the rotational speed of a satellite solar panel during its deployment phase. A brushed DC motor has been utilized in the passive spring driven deployment mechanism to reduce the deployment speed. In order to use the DC motor as a damper, its connector terminals have been connected with an external resistance in a closed circuit. It means that, in this approach, there is no external power supply in the circuit. The working principle of this method is based on the back electromotive force (or back EMF) of the DC motor when an external torque (here the torque produced by the torsional springs) is coupled to the DC motor’s shaft. In fact, the DC motor converts to an electric generator and the current flows into the circuit and then produces the back EMF. Based on Lenz’s law, the generated current produced a torque which acts opposite to the applied external torque, and as a result, the deployment speed of the solar panel decreases. The main advantage of this method is to set an intended damping coefficient to the system via changing the external resistance. To produce the sufficient current, a gearbox has been assembled to the DC motor which magnifies the number of turns experienced by the DC motor. The coupled electro-mechanical equations of the system have been derived and solved, then, the obtained results have been presented. A full-scale prototype of the deployment mechanism has been built and tested. The potential application of brushed DC motors as a rotational speed damper has been successfully demonstrated.

Keywords: back electromotive force, brushed DC motor, rotational speed damper, satellite solar panel deployment mechanism

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4 Optimization-Based Design Improvement of Synchronizer in Transmission System for Efficient Vehicle Performance

Authors: Sanyka Banerjee, Saikat Nandi, P. K. Dan


Synchronizers as an integral part of gearbox is a key element in the transmission system in automotive. The performance of synchronizer affects transmission efficiency and driving comfort. Synchronizing mechanism as a major component of transmission system must be capable of preventing vibration and noise in the gears. Gear shifting efficiency improvement with an aim to achieve smooth, quick and energy efficient power transmission remains a challenge for the automotive industry. Performance of the synchronizer is dependent on the features and characteristics of its sub-components and therefore analysis of the contribution of such characteristics is necessary. An important exercise involved is to identify all such characteristics or factors which are associated with the modeling and analysis and for this purpose the literature was reviewed, rather extensively, to study the mathematical models, formulated considering such. It has been observed that certain factors are rather common across models; however, there are few factors which have specifically been selected for individual models, as reported. In order to obtain a more realistic model, an attempt here has been made to identify and assimilate practically all possible factors which may be considered in formulating the model more comprehensively. A simulation study, formulated as a block model, for such analysis has been carried out in a reliable environment like MATLAB. Lower synchronization time is desirable and hence, it has been considered here as the output factors in the simulation modeling for evaluating transmission efficiency. An improved synchronizer model requires optimized values of sub-component design parameters. A parametric optimization utilizing Taguchi’s design of experiment based response data and their analysis has been carried out for this purpose. The effectiveness of the optimized parameters for the improved synchronizer performance has been validated by the simulation study of the synchronizer block model with improved parameter values as input parameters for better transmission efficiency and driver comfort.

Keywords: design of experiments, modeling, parametric optimization, simulation, synchronizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
3 A Simplified, Low-Cost Mechanical Design for an Automated Motorized Mechanism to Clean Large Diameter Pipes

Authors: Imad Khan, Imran Shafi, Sarmad Farooq


Large diameter pipes, barrels, tubes, and ducts are used in a variety of applications covering civil and defense-related technologies. This may include heating/cooling networks, sign poles, bracing, casing, and artillery and tank gun barrels. These large diameter assemblies require regular inspection and cleaning to increase their life and reduce replacement costs. This paper describes the design, development, and testing results of an efficient yet simplified, low maintenance mechanical design controlled with minimal essential electronics using an electric motor for a non-technical staff. The proposed solution provides a simplified user interface and an automated cleaning mechanism that requires a single user to optimally clean pipes and barrels in the range of 105 mm to 203 mm caliber. The proposed system employs linear motion of specially designed brush along the barrel using a chain of specific strength and a pulley anchor attached to both ends of the barrel. A specially designed and manufactured gearbox is coupled with an AC motor to allow movement of contact brush with high torque to allow efficient cleaning. A suitably powered AC motor is fixed to the front adapter mounted on the muzzle side whereas the rear adapter has a pulley-based anchor mounted towards the breach block in case of a gun barrel. A mix of soft nylon and hard copper bristles-based large surface brush is connected through a strong steel chain to motor and anchor pulley. The system is equipped with limit switches to auto switch the direction when one end is reached on its operation. The testing results based on carefully established performance indicators indicate the superiority of the proposed user-friendly cleaning mechanism vis-à-vis its life cycle cost.

Keywords: pipe cleaning mechanism, limiting switch, pipe cleaning robot, large pipes

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2 Model-Based Diagnostics of Multiple Tooth Cracks in Spur Gears

Authors: Ahmed Saeed Mohamed, Sadok Sassi, Mohammad Roshun Paurobally


Gears are important machine components that are widely used to transmit power and change speed in many rotating machines. Any breakdown of these vital components may cause severe disturbance to production and incur heavy financial losses. One of the most common causes of gear failure is the tooth fatigue crack. Early detection of teeth cracks is still a challenging task for engineers and maintenance personnel. So far, to analyze the vibration behavior of gears, different approaches have been tried based on theoretical developments, numerical simulations, or experimental investigations. The objective of this study was to develop a numerical model that could be used to simulate the effect of teeth cracks on the resulting vibrations and hence to permit early fault detection for gear transmission systems. Unlike the majority of published papers, where only one single crack has been considered, this work is more realistic, since it incorporates the possibility of multiple simultaneous cracks with different lengths. As cracks significantly alter the gear mesh stiffness, we performed a finite element analysis using SolidWorks software to determine the stiffness variation with respect to the angular position for different combinations of crack lengths. A simplified six degrees of freedom non-linear lumped parameter model of a one-stage gear system is proposed to study the vibration of a pair of spur gears, with and without tooth cracks. The model takes several physical properties into account, including variable gear mesh stiffness and the effect of friction, but ignores the lubrication effect. The vibration simulation results of the gearbox were obtained via Matlab and Simulink. The results were found to be consistent with the results from previously published works. The effect of one crack with different levels was studied and very similar changes in the total mesh stiffness and the vibration response, both were observed and compared to what has been found in previous studies. The effect of the crack length on various statistical time domain parameters was considered and the results show that these parameters were not equally sensitive to the crack percentage. Multiple cracks are introduced at different locations and the vibration response and the statistical parameters were obtained.

Keywords: dynamic simulation, gear mesh stiffness, simultaneous tooth cracks, spur gear, vibration-based fault detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1 Shared Vision System Support for Maintenance Tasks of Wind Turbines

Authors: Buket Celik Ünal, Onur Ünal


Communication is the most challenging part of maintenance operations. Communication between expert and fieldworker is crucial for effective maintenance and this also affects the safety of the fieldworkers. To support a machine user in a remote collaborative physical task, both, a mobile and a stationary device are needed. Such a system is called a shared vision system and the system supports two people to solve a problem from different places. This system reduces the errors and provides a reliable support for qualified and less qualified users. Through this research, it was aimed to validate the effectiveness of using a shared vision system to facilitate communication between on-site workers and those issuing instructions regarding maintenance or inspection works over long distances. The system is designed with head-worn display which is called a shared vision system. As a part of this study, a substitute system is used and implemented by using a shared vision system for maintenance operation. The benefits of the use of a shared vision system are analyzed and results are adapted to the wind turbines to improve the occupational safety and health for maintenance technicians. The motivation for the research effort in this study can be summarized in the following research questions: -How can expert support technician over long distances during maintenance operation? -What are the advantages of using a shared vision system? Experience from the experiment shows that using a shared vision system is an advantage for both electrical and mechanical system failures. Results support that the shared vision system can be used for wind turbine maintenance and repair tasks. Because wind turbine generator/gearbox and the substitute system have similar failures. Electrical failures, such as voltage irregularities, wiring failures and mechanical failures, such as alignment, vibration, over-speed conditions are the common and similar failures for both. Furthermore, it was analyzed the effectiveness of the shared vision system by using a smart glasses in connection with the maintenance task performed by a substitute system under four different circumstances, namely by using a shared vision system, an audio communication, a smartphone and by yourself condition. A suitable method for determining dependencies between factors measured in Chi Square Test, and Chi Square Test for Independence measured for determining a relationship between two qualitative variables and finally Mann Whitney U Test is used to compare any two data sets. While based on this experiment, no relation was found between the results and the gender. Participants` responses confirmed that the shared vision system is efficient and helpful for maintenance operations. From the results of the research, there was a statistically significant difference in the average time taken by subjects on works using a shared vision system under the other conditions. Additionally, this study confirmed that a shared vision system provides reduction in time to diagnose and resolve maintenance issues, reduction in diagnosis errors, reduced travel costs for experts, and increased reliability in service.

Keywords: communication support, maintenance and inspection tasks, occupational health and safety, shared vision system

Procedia PDF Downloads 193