Search results for: magnesium oxide nanoparticles
2627 Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide in Spinning Disk Reactor and Its Applications in Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide to Epoxides
Authors: Tzu-Wen Liu, Yi-Feng Lin, Yu-Shao Chen
Abstract:CO_2 is believed to be partly responsible for changes to the global climates. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the past. Recently, how to convert the captured CO_2 into fine chemicals gets lots of attention owing to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and providing greener feedstock for the chemicals industry. A variety of products can be manufactured from carbon dioxide and the most attractive products are cyclic carbonates. Therefore, the kind of catalyst plays an important role in cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides. Magnesium oxide can be an efficiency heterogeneous catalyst for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides because magnesium oxide has both acid and base active sites and can provide the adsorption of carbon dioxide, promoting ring-opening reaction. Spinning disk reactor (SDR) is one of the device of high-gravity technique and has successfully used for synthesis of nanoparticles by precipitation methods because of the high mass transfer rate. Synthesis of nanoparticles in SDR has advantages of low energy consumption and easy to scale up. The aim of this research is to synthesize magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles in SDR as precursors for magnesium oxide. Experimental results showed that the calcination temperature of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium oxide, and the pressure and temperature of cycloaddition reaction had significantly effect on the conversion and selectivity of the reaction.
Keywords: magnesium oxide, catalyst, cycloaddition, spinning disk reactor, carbon dioxideProcedia PDF Downloads 222
2626 Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinacia Oleracea Leaf Extract
Authors: Yameen Ahmed, Jamshid Hussain, Farman Ullah, Sohaib Asif
Abstract:The investigation aims at the synthesis of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract. These nanoparticles have many properties and applications. They possess antimicrobial catalytic properties and also they can be used in energy storage materials, gas sensors, etc. The Spinacia oleracea leaf extract behaves as a reducing agent in nanoparticle synthesis. The plant extract was first prepared and then treated with copper and cobalt salt solutions to get the precipitate. The salt solutions used for this purpose are copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO₄.5H₂O) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂.6H₂O). The UV-Vis, XRD, EDX, and SEM techniques are used to find the optical, structural, and morphological properties of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The UV absorption peaks are at 326 nm and 506 nm for copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles.
Keywords: cobalt oxide, copper oxide, green synthesis, nanoparticlesProcedia PDF Downloads 120
2625 One-Pot Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Calliandra Calothyrsus Leaf Extract
Authors: Indah Kurniawaty, Yoki Yulizar, Haryo Satriya Oktaviano, Adam Kusuma Rianto
Abstract:Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NP) were successfully synthesized in this study using a one-pot green synthesis mediated by Calliandra Calothyrsus leaf extract (CLE). CLE was prepared by maceration of the leaf using methanol with a ratio of 1:5 for 7 days. Secondary metabolites in CLE, such as alkaloids and flavonoids, served as a weak base provider and capping agent in the formation of MgO NP. CLE Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectra peak at 3255, 1600, 1384, 1205, 1041, and 667 cm-1 showing the presence of vibrations O-H stretching, N-H bending, C-C stretching, C-N stretching and N-H wagging. During the experiment, different CLE volumes and calcined temperatures were used, resulting in a variety of structures. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS) and FTIR were used to characterize metal oxide particles. MgO diffraction pattern at 2θ of 36.9°; 42.9°; 62.2°; 74.6°; and 78.5° which can be assigned to crystal planes (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222), respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology. The morphology ranged from sphere to flower-like resulting in crystallite sizes of 28, 23, 12, and 9 nm.
Keywords: MgO, nanoparticle, calliandra calothyrsus, green-synthesisProcedia PDF Downloads 18
2624 Phyto-Assisted Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles: Characterization and Applications
Authors: Surendra Kumar Gautam, Mahesh Dhungana
Abstract:Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) are less toxic to humans and the environment as compared to other metal oxide nanoparticles. Various conventional chemical and physical methods are used for synthesis whose toxicity level is high and highly expensive. As the best alternative, phyto-assisted synthesis has emerged, which uses extracts from plant parts for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Here, we report the synthesis of MgO nanoparticles with the assistance of beetroot extract and leaf extract of P. guajava and A. adenophora. The synthesized MgO NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and UV-visible spectroscopy. X-ray analysis for the broadening of peaks was used to evaluate the crystallite size and lattice strain using Debye-Scherer and Williamson–Hall method. The results of crystallite size obtained by both methods are in close proximity. The crystallite size obtained by the Williamson-Hall method seems more accurate, with values being 8.1 nm and 13.2 nm for beetroot MgO NPs and P. guajava MgO NPs, respectively. The FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the dominance of chemical bonds as well as functional groups on MgO NPs surfaces. The UV-visible absorption spectra of MgO NPs were found to be 310 nm, 315 nm, and 315 nm for beetroot, P. guajava, and A. adenophora leaf extract, respectively. Among the three samples, beetroot-mediated MgO NPs were effective antibacterial against both gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, synthesized MgO NPs also show significant antioxidant efficacy against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Further, beetroot MgO NPs showed the highest photocatalytic activity of about 91% in comparison with other samples.
Keywords: MgO NPs, XRD, FTIR, antibacterial, antioxidant and photocatalytic activityProcedia PDF Downloads 11
2623 Turmeric Mediated Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles
Authors: Nithin Krisshna Gunasekaran, Prathima Prabhu Tumkur, Nicole Nazario Bayon, Krishnan Prabhakaran, Joseph C. Hall, Govindarajan T. Ramesh
Abstract:Cerium oxide and turmeric have antioxidant properties, which have gained interest among researchers to study their applications in the field of biomedicine, such asanti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial applications. In this study, the turmeric extract was prepared and mixed with cerium nitrate hexahydrate, stirred continuously to obtain a homogeneous solution and then heated on a hot plate to get the supernatant evaporated, then calcinated at 600°C to obtain the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Characterization of synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles through Scanning Electron Microscopy determined the particle size to be in the range of 70 nm to 250 nm. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy determined the elemental composition of cerium and oxygen. Individual particles were identified through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, in which the particles were determined to be spherical and in the size of around 70 nm. The presence of cerium oxide was assured by analyzing the spectrum obtained through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The crystal structure of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be face-centered cubic by analyzing the peaks obtained through theX-Ray Diffraction method. The crystal size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be around 13 nm by using the Debye Scherer equation. This study confirmed the synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using turmeric extract.
Keywords: antioxidant, characterization, cerium oxide, synthesis, turmericProcedia PDF Downloads 89
2622 Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Copper Doped Zinc Oxide
Authors: Humaira Khan, Mohsin Javed, Sammia Shahid
Abstract:The reinforced photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) along with composites of ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by synthesizing ZnO and copper- doped ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. Zinc acetate and copper acetate were used as precursors, whereas graphene oxide was prepared from pre-oxidized graphite in the presence of H2O2.The supernatant was collected carefully and showed high-quality single-layer characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction Analysis), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The degradation of methylene blue as standard pollutant under UV-Visible irradiation gave results for photocatalytic activity of dopants. It could be concluded that shrinking of optical band caused by composites of Cu-dopped nanoparticles with GO enhances the photocatalytic activity.
Keywords: degradation, graphene oxide, photocatalysis, ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticlesProcedia PDF Downloads 134
2621 An Experimental Investigation on the Fuel Characteristics of Nano-Aluminium Oxide and Nano-Cobalt Oxide Particles Blended in Diesel Fuel
Authors: S. Singh, P. Patel, D. Kachhadiya, Swapnil Dharaskar
Abstract:The research objective is to integrate nanoparticles into fuels- i.e. diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel blended with diesel, plastic derived fuels, etc. to increase the fuel efficiency. The metal oxide nanoparticles will reduce the carbon monoxide emissions by donating oxygen atoms from their lattices to catalyze the combustion reactions and to aid complete combustion; due to this, there will be an increase in the calorific value of the blend (fuel + metal nanoparticles). Aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The characterization was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The size of the particles was determined by XRD to be 28.6 nm and 28.06 nm for aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles respectively. Different concentration blends- 50, 100, 150 ppm were prepared by adding the required weight of metal oxides in 1 liter of diesel and sonicating for 30 minutes at 500W. The blend properties- calorific value, viscosity, and flash point were determined by bomb calorimeter, Brookfield viscometer and pensky-martin apparatus. For the aluminum oxide blended diesel, there was a maximum increase of 5.544% in the calorific value, but at the same time, there was an increase in the flash point from 43°C to 58.5°C and an increase in the viscosity from 2.45 cP to 3.25 cP. On the other hand, for the cobalt oxide blended diesel there was a maximum increase of 2.012% in the calorific value while the flash point increased from 43°C to 51.5°C and the viscosity increased from 2.45 cP to 2.94 cP. There was a linear increase in the calorific value, viscosity and flash point when the concentration of the metal oxide nanoparticles in the blend was increased. For the 50 ppm Al₂O₃ and 50 ppm Co₃O₄ blend the increasing the calorific value was 1.228 %, and the viscosity changed from 2.45 cP to 2.64 cP and the flash point increased from 43°C to 50.5°C. Clearly the aluminium oxide nanoparticles increase the calorific value but at the cost of flash point and viscosity, thus it is better to use the 50 ppm aluminium oxide, and 50 ppm cobalt oxide blended diesel.
Keywords: aluminium oxide nanoparticles, cobalt oxide nanoparticles, fuel additives, fuel characteristicsProcedia PDF Downloads 250
2620 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Environmental Application
Authors: Shalini Rajput, Dinesh Mohan
Abstract:Water is the most important and essential resources for existing of life on the earth. Water quality is gradually decreasing due to increasing urbanization and industrialization and various other developmental activities. It can pose a threat to the environment and public health therefore it is necessary to remove hazardous contaminants from wastewater prior to its discharge to the environment. Recently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been arise as significant materials due to its distinct properties. This article focuses on the synthesis method with a possible mechanism, structure and application of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The various characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer are useful to describe the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles. Nanosized iron oxide particles utilized for remediation of contaminants from aqueous medium through adsorption process. Due to magnetic properties, nanoparticles can be easily separate from aqueous media. Considering the importance and emerging trend of nanotechnology, iron oxide nanoparticles as nano-adsorbent can be of great importance in the field of wastewater treatment.
Keywords: nanoparticles, adsorption, iron oxide, nanotechnologyProcedia PDF Downloads 499
2619 Studies on Modified Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Potential Drug Carrier
Authors: Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Olga Dlugosz, Marcin Banach
Abstract:The toxicity of bare zinc oxide nanoparticles used as drug carriers may be the result of releasing zinc ions. Thus, zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with galactose were obtained. The process of their formation was conducted in the microwave field. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were studied. The size and electrokinetic potential were defined by using dynamic light scattering technique. The crystalline properties were assessed by X-ray diffractometry. In order to confirm the formation of the desired products, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used. The releasing of zinc ions from the prepared products when comparing to the bare oxide was analyzed. It was found out that modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles with galactose limits the releasing of zinc ions which are responsible for the toxic effect of the whole carrier-drug conjugate.
Keywords: nanomaterials, zinc oxide, drug delivery system, toxicityProcedia PDF Downloads 91
2618 Inhibitory Impacts of Fulvic Acid-Coated Iron Oxide Nano Particles on the Amyloid Fibril Aggregations
Authors: Dalia Jomehpour, Sara Sheikhlary, Esmaeil Heydari, Mohammad Hossien Majles Ara
Abstract:In this study, we report fulvic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of 10.7 ± 2.7 nm size, which serve to inhibit amyloid fibrillation formation. Although the effect of fulvic acid on tau fibrils was investigated, to our best knowledge, its inhibitory impacts on amyloid aggregation formation have been assessed neither in-vitro nor in-vivo. On the other hand, iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit anti-amyloid activity on their own. This study investigates the inhibitory effect of fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles on amyloid aggregations formed from the commonly used in-vitro model, lysozyme from chicken egg white. FESEM, XRD, and FTIR characterization confirmed that fulvic acid was coated onto the surface of the nanoparticles. The inhibitory effects of the fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles were verified by Thioflavin T assay, circular dichroism (CD), and FESEM analysis. Furthermore, the toxicity of the nanoparticles on the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y human cell line was assessed through an MTT assay. Our results indicate that fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles can efficiently inhibit the formation of amyloid aggregations while exhibiting negligible in-vitro toxicity; thus, they can be used as anti-amyloid agents in the development of the potential drug for neurodegenerative diseases.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles, fulvic acid, amyloid inhibitor, polyphenolsProcedia PDF Downloads 48
2617 Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate
Authors: Fereshteh Chekin, Sepideh Sadeghi
Abstract:Nickel nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of applications in catalysis, medical diagnostics and magnetic applications. In this work, we reported a simple and low-cost procedure to synthesize nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) by using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and gelatin as stabilizer. The synthesized NiO-NPs were characterized by a variety of means such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the NiO nanoparticles with high crystalline can be obtained using this simple method. The grain size measured by TEM was 16 in presence of SDS, which agrees well with the XRD data. SDS plays an important role in the formation of the NiO nanoparticles. Moreover, the NiO nanoparticles have been used as a solid phase catalyst for the decomposition of hydrazine hydrate at room temperatures. The decomposition process has been monitored by UV–vis analysis. The present study showed that nanoparticles are not poisoned after their repeated use in decomposition of hydrazine.
Keywords: nickel oxide nanoparticles, sodium dodecyl sulphate, synthesis, stabilizerProcedia PDF Downloads 427
2616 Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles as MRI Contrast Agents
Authors: Suhas Pednekar, Prashant Chavan, Ramesh Chaughule, Deepak Patkar
Abstract:Iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are one of the most attractive nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. An important potential medical application of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is as imaging agents. Composition, size, morphology and surface chemistry of these nanoparticles can now be tailored by various processes to not only improve magnetic properties but also affect the behavior of nanoparticles in vivo. MNPs are being actively investigated as the next generation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Also, there is considerable interest in developing magnetic nanoparticles and their surface modifications with therapeutic agents. Our study involves the synthesis of biocompatible cancer drug coated with iron oxide nanoparticles and to evaluate their efficacy as MRI contrast agents. A simple and rapid microwave method to prepare Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been developed. The drug was successfully conjugated to the Fe3O4 nanoparticles which can be used for various applications. The relaxivity R2 (reciprocal of the spin-spin relaxation time T2) is an important factor to determine the efficacy of Fe nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI experiments. R2 values of the coated magnetic nanoparticles were also measured using MRI technique and the results showed that R2 of the Fe complex consisting of Fe3O4, polymer and drug was higher than that of bare Fe nanoparticles and polymer coated nanoparticles. This is due to the increase in hydrodynamic sizes of Fe NPs. The results with various amounts of iron molar concentrations are also discussed. Using MRI, it is seen that the R2 relaxivity increases linearly with increase in concentration of Fe NPs in water.
Keywords: cancer drug, hydrodynamic size, magnetic nanoparticles, MRIProcedia PDF Downloads 408
2615 Preparation of MgO Nanoparticles by Green Methods
Authors: Maryam Sabbaghan, Pegah Sofalgar
Abstract:Over the past few decades, a significant amount of research activities in the chemical community has been directed towards green synthesis. This area of chemistry has received extensive attention because of environmentally benign processes as well as economically viable. In this article, the MgO nanoparticles were prepared by different methods in the present of ionic liquids. A wide range of Magnesium oxide particle sizes within the nanometer scale is obtained by these methods. The structure of these MgO particles was studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the formation of nanoparticle could involve the role of performed 'nucleus' and used template to control the growth rate of nucleuses. The crystallite size of the MgO products was in a range from 31 to 77 nm.
Keywords: MgO, ionic liquid, nanoparticles, green chemistryProcedia PDF Downloads 225
2614 The Effect of the Reaction Time on the Microwave Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from MgCl2.6H2O, MgO and H3BO3
Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, P. Gurses, M. Yildirim, A. S. Kipcak, T. Ibroska, S. Piskin
Abstract:Due to their strong mechanical and thermal properties magnesium borates have a wide usage area such as ceramic industry, detergent production, friction reducing additive and grease production. In this study, microwave synthesis of magnesium borates from MgCl2.6H2O (Magnesium chloride hexahydrate), MgO (Magnesium oxide) and H3BO3 (Boric acid) for different reaction times is researched. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy are used to find out how the reaction time sways on the products. The superficial properties are investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). According to XRD analysis, the synthesized compounds are 00-041-1407 pdf coded Shabinite (Mg5(BO3)4Cl2(OH)5.4(H2O)) and 01-073-2158 pdf coded Karlite (Mg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5).
Keywords: magnesium borate, microwave synthesis, XRD, SEMProcedia PDF Downloads 282
2613 Control of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC7644 in Fresh Tomato and Carrot with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi, Faith Semwayo
Abstract:Preference for consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables continues to be on the upward trend however food-borne outbreaks related to them have also been on the increase. In this study the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on controlling Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 in tomatoes and carrots during storage was investigated. Nutrient broth was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and thereafter inoculated with 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 1.2mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 200ppm chlorine was used as a control. Whole tomatoes and carrots were also inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 after which they were dipped into zinc oxide nanoparticle solutions and chlorine solutions. 1.2 mg/ml had a 2.40 log reduction; 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution had a log reduction of 2.15 in the broth solution. There was however a 4.89 log and 4.46 reduction by 200 ppm chlorine in tomato and carrot respectively. Control with 0.3 mg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles resulted in a log reduction of 5.19 in tomato and 3.66 in carrots. 1.2 mg/ml nanozinc oxide solution resulted in a 5.53 log reduction in tomato and a 4.44 log reduction in carrots. A combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml nanozinc oxide was also used and resulted in log reductions of 5.76 and 4.84 respectively in tomatoes and carrots. Treatments were more effective in tomatoes than in carrots and the combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml ZnO resulted in the highest log reductions in both vegetables. Statistical analysis however showed that there was no significant difference between treatments with Chlorine and nanoparticle solutions. This study therefore indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles have the potential for use as a control agent in the fresh produce industry.
Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, nanoparticles, tomato, carrotProcedia PDF Downloads 446
2612 Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Nano-Nutrient for the Growth and Enhancement of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Plant
Authors: G. Karunakaran, M. Jagathambal, N. Van Minh, E. Kolesnikov, A. Gusev, O. V. Zakharova, E. V. Scripnikova, E. D. Vishnyakova, D. Kuznetsov
Abstract:Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) are widely used in different applications due to its ecofriendly nature and biocompatibility. Hence, in this investigation, biosynthesized Fe2O3NPs influence on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant was examined. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were found to be cubic phase which is confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to the iron oxide nanoparticle. The elemental analysis also confirmed that the obtained nanoparticle is iron oxide nanoparticle. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy confirm that the average particle size was around 56 nm. The effect of Fe2O3NPs on seed germination followed by biochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained after four days and 11 days of seed vigor studies showed that the seedling length (cm), average number of seedling with leaves, increase in root length (cm) was found to be enhanced on treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles when compared to control. A positive correlation was noticed with the dose of the nanoparticle and plant growth, which may be due to changes in metabolic activity. Hence, to evaluate the change in metabolic activity, peroxidase and catalase activities were estimated. It was clear from the observation that higher concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs 1000 mg/L) has enhanced peroxidase and catalase activities and in turn plant growth. Thus, this study clearly showed that biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles will be an effective nano-nutrient for agriculture applications.
Keywords: catalase, fertilizer, iron oxide nanoparticles, Linum usitatissimum L., nano-nutrient, peroxidaseProcedia PDF Downloads 297
2611 Influence of MgO Physically Mixed with Tungsten Oxide Supported Silica Catalyst on Coke Formation
Authors: Thidaya Thitiapichart
Abstract:The effect of additional magnesium oxide (MgO) was investigated by using the tungsten oxide supported on silica catalyst (WOx/SiO2) physically mixed with MgO in a weight ratio 1:1. The both fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by FT-Raman spectrometer, UV-Vis spectrometer, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The results indicated that the additional MgO could enhance the conversion of trans-2-butene due to isomerization reaction. However, adding MgO would increase the amount of coke deposit on the WOx/SiO2 catalyst. The TPO profile presents two peaks when the WOx/SiO2 catalyst was physically mixed with MgO. The further peak was suggested to be coming from the coke precursor that could be produced by isomerization reaction of the undesired product. Then, the occurred coke precursor could deposit and form coke on the acid catalyst.
Keywords: coke formation, metathesis, magnesium oxide, physically mixProcedia PDF Downloads 183
2610 Preparation of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Anti-diabetic Effect with Momordica Charantia Plant Extract in Diabetic Mice
Authors: Zahid Hussain, Nayyab Sultan
Abstract:This study describes the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and their anti-diabetic effect individually and with the combination of Momordica charantia plant extract. This plant is termed bitter melon, balsam pear, bitter gourd, or karela. Blood glucose levels in mice were monitored in their random state before and after the administration of zinc oxide nanoparticles and plant extract. The powdered form of nanoparticles and the selected plant were used as an oral treatment. Diabetes was induced in mice by using a chemical named as streptozotocin. It is an artificial diabetes-inducing chemical. In the case of zinc oxide nanoparticles (3mg/kg) and Momordica charantia plant extract (500mg/kg); the maximum anti-diabetic effect observed was 70% ± 1.6 and 75% ± 1.3, respectively. In the case of the combination of zinc oxide nanoparticles (3mg/kg) and Momordica charantia plant extract (500mg/kg), the maximum anti-diabetic effect observed was 86% ± 2.0. The results obtained were more effective as compared to standard drugs Amaryl (3mg/kg), having an effectiveness of 52% ± 2.4, and Glucophage (500mg/kg), having an effectiveness of 29% ± 2.1. Results indicate that zinc oxide nanoparticles and plant extract in combination are more helpful in treating diabetes as compared to their individual treatments. It is considered a natural treatment without any side effects rather than using standard drugs, which shows adverse side effects on health, and most probably detoxifies in liver and kidneys. More experimental work and extensive research procedures are still required in order to make them applicable to pharmaceutical industries.
Keywords: albino mice, amaryl, anti-diabetic effect, blood glucose level, Camellia sinensis, diabetes mellitus, Momordica charantia plant extract, streptozotocin, zinc oxide nanoparticlesProcedia PDF Downloads 14
2609 Electrochemical Biosensor for Rutin Detection with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles
Authors: Stephen Rathinaraj Benjamin, Flavio Colmati Junior, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes, Rosa Amalia Fireman Dutra
Abstract:A new enzymatic electrochemical biosensor based on multiwall carbon nanotubes and cerium oxide nanoparticles for the detection of rutin has been developed. The cerium oxide nanoparticles /HRP/ multiwall carbon nanotubes/ carbon paste electrode (HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE) was prepared by ensuing addition of MWCNTs and HRP on the CPE, followed by the mixing with cerium oxide nanoparticles. Surface physical characteristics of the modified electrode and the electrochemical properties of the composite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cylic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE showed good selectivity, stability and reproducibility, which was further applied to detect rutin tablet and capsule samples with satisfactory results.
Keywords: cerium dioxide nanoparticles, horseradish peroxidase, multiwall carbon nanotubes, rutinProcedia PDF Downloads 324
2608 Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles along with Sodium Hydroxide on Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate
Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Maryam Mohammdi, Loghman Karimi
Abstract:In this study, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out along with the hydrolysis of Polyethylene terephthalate using sodium hydroxide to increase the surface activity and enhance the nanoparticles adsorption. The polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ultrasound bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The self-cleaning property of treated polyethylene terephthalate was evaluated through discoloring methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.
Keywords: zinc oxide, polyethylene terephthalate, self-cleaning, antibacterialProcedia PDF Downloads 254
2607 Comparative Analysis of Water-Based Alumina Nanoparticles with Water-Based Cupric Nanoparticles Past an Exponentially Accelerated Vertical Radiative Riga Plate with Heat Transfer
Authors: Kanayo Kenneth Asogwa
Abstract:The influence of the flow of nanoparticles in nanofluids across a vertical surface is significant, and its application in medical sciences, engineering, pharmaceutical, and food industries is enormous & widely published. However, the comparative examination of alumina nanoparticles with cupric nanoparticles past a rapid progressive Riga plate remains unknown. Thus, this report investigates water-based alumina and cupric nanoparticles passing through an exponentially accelerated Riga plate. Nanofluids containing copper (II) oxide (CuO) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles are considered. The Laplace transform technique is used to solve the partial differential equations guiding the flow. The effect of various factors on skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles is investigated and reported in tabular and graphical form. The upsurge of Modified Hartmann number and radiative impact improves copper (II) oxide nanofluid compared to aluminum oxide nanofluid due to Lorentz force and since CuO is a better heat conductor. At the same time, heat absorption and reactive species favor a slight decline in Alumina nanofluid than Cupric nanofluid in the thermal and velocity fields. The higher density of Cupric nanofluid is enhanced by increasing nanoparticle volume fraction over Alumina nanofluid with a decline in velocity distribution.
Keywords: alumina, cupric, nanoparticles, water-basedProcedia PDF Downloads 139
2606 Synthesis of Tricalcium Phosphate Substituted with Magnesium Ions for Bone Regeneration
Authors: Andreia Cucuruz, Cristina Daniela Ghitulica, Georgeta Voicu, Cristina Busuioc
Abstract:Ceramics based on calcium phosphates have lately increased attention for tissue engineering because they can be used as substitute bones or for bone regeneration since they mimic very well the nanostructure of tough bone tissue, but also because of other advantages such as a very good biocompatibility and osseointegration. This study aims the preparation and characterization of ceramic materials on the basis of TCP (Ca₃(PO₄)₂), within which calcium ions are substituted by magnesium ions (Mg²⁺) in order to improve the regenerative properties of these materials. TCP-Mg material was synthesized by chemical precipitation method using calcium oxide (CaO) and phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) as precursors. The objective was to obtain powders with different concentrations of Mg in order to analyze the effect of magnesium ions on the physicochemical properties of phosphate ceramics and in vitro degradation in simulated biological fluid (SBF). Ceramic powders were characterized in vitro but also from the compositional and microstructural point of view. TCP_Mg powders were prepared through wet chemical method from calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide nanopowder (MgO < 50 nm particle size (BET) Sigma Aldrich), phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄ - 85 wt.% in H₂O, 99.99% trace metals basis - Sigma Aldrich). In order to determine the quantities of raw materials, calculations were performed to obtain HAp with Ca/P ratio of 1.5.
Keywords: bone regeneration, magnesium substitution, tricalcium phosphate, tissue engineeringProcedia PDF Downloads 275
2605 Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source
Authors: Rafayel K. Kostanyan
Abstract:The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.
Keywords: energy, electrodialysis, magnesium, new technologyProcedia PDF Downloads 207
2604 Application of Nanoparticles in Biomedical and MRI
Authors: Raziyeh Mohammadi
Abstract:At present, nanoparticles are used for various biomedical applications where they facilitate laboratory diagnostics and therapeutics. The performance of nanoparticles for biomedical applications is often assessed by their narrow size distribution, suitable magnetic saturation, and low toxicity effects. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have received great attention due to their applications as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. (Processes in the tissue where the blood brain barrier is intact in this way shielded from the contact to this conventional contrast agent and will only reveal changes in the tissue if it involves an alteration in the vasculature. This technique is very useful for detecting tumors and can even be used for detecting metabolic functional alterations in the brain, such as epileptic activity.SPIONs have found application in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and magnetic hyperthermia. Unlike bulk iron, SPIONs do not have remnant magnetization in the absence of the external magnetic field; therefore, a precise remote control over their action is possible.
Keywords: nanoparticles, MRI, biomedical, iron oxide, spionsProcedia PDF Downloads 133
2603 Efficient Photodegradation of Methyl Red Dye by Kaolin Clay Supported Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities
Authors: Idrees Khan, Zhang Baoliang
Abstract:Kaolin clay (KC) supported Zinc oxide (ZnO/KC) and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a chemical reduction process and used for the photodegradation of methyl red (MR) as photocatalysts. Due to the interlayered porous structure of KC, we achieved a perfect association between ZnO NPs and KC. SEM image showed the irregular morphology of ZnO NPs, while ZnO/KC NCs were predominately round-shaped. Moreover, in both cases, NPs were present in dispersed and agglomerated forms with an average particle size way below 100 nm. The results acquired from photodegradation analyses showed that ZnO NPs and ZnO/KC NCs degraded about 82% and 99% of MR under UV light in a short irradiation time within 10 min. The recovered and re-recovered ZnO NPs and ZnO/KC NCs were also considerably photodegraded MR in an aqueous medium. The same NPs also exhibit promising bioactivities against two pathogenic bacteria, i.e., Citrobacter and Providencia. ZnO/KC NCs' antioxidant activity reached a reasonable 70% compared to the 88% activity of the standard ascorbic acid.
Keywords: nanoparticles, photocatalyst, photodegradation, zinc oxide, methyl redProcedia PDF Downloads 1
2602 Spectroscopic Characterization Approach to Study Ablation Time on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesis by Laser Ablation Technique
Authors: Suha I. Al-Nassar, K. M. Adel, F. Zainab
Abstract:This work was devoted for producing ZnO nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of Zn metal plate in the aqueous environment of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using Q-Switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser with wavelength= 1064 nm, Rep. rate= 10 Hz, Pulse duration= 6 ns and laser energy 50 mJ. Solution of nanoparticles is found stable in the colloidal form for a long time. The effect of ablation time on the optical and structure of ZnO was studied is characterized by UV-visible absorption. UV-visible absorption spectrum has four peaks at 256, 259, 265, 322 nm for ablation time (5, 10, 15, and 20 sec) respectively, our results show that UV–vis spectra show a blue shift in the presence of CTAB with decrease the ablation time and blue shift indicated to get smaller size of nanoparticles. The blue shift in the absorption edge indicates the quantum confinement property of nanoparticles. Also, FTIR transmittance spectra of ZnO2 nanoparticles prepared in these states show a characteristic ZnO absorption at 435–445cm^−1.
Keywords: zinc oxide nanoparticles, CTAB solution, pulsed laser ablation technique, spectroscopic characterizationProcedia PDF Downloads 317
2601 Novel Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles from Type IV Deep Eutectic Solvents
Authors: Lorenzo Gontrani, Marilena Carbone, Domenica Tommasa Donia, Elvira Maria Bauer, Pietro Tagliatesta
Abstract:One of the fields where DES shows remarkable added values is the synthesis Of inorganic materials, in particular nanoparticles. In this field, the higher- ent and highly-tunable nano-homogeneities of DES structure give origin to a marked templating effect, a precious role that has led to the recent bloom of a vast number of studies exploiting these new synthesis media to prepare Nanomaterials and composite structures of various kinds. In this contribution, the most recent developments in the field will be reviewed, and some ex-citing examples of novel metal oxide nanoparticles syntheses using non-toxic type-IV Deep Eutectic Solvents will be described. The prepared materials possess nanometric dimensions and show flower-like shapes. The use of the pre- pared nanoparticles as fluorescent materials for the detection of various contaminants is under development.
Keywords: metal deep eutectic solvents, nanoparticles, inorganic synthesis, type IV DES, lamellarProcedia PDF Downloads 53
2600 Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nano Particles Using Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Extract and Its Application for Solar Cell
Authors: Prasanta Sutradhar, Mitali Saha
Abstract:With an increasing awareness of green and clean energy, zinc oxide based solar cells were found to be suitable candidates for cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices. In this work, we have reported the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) by thermal method and under microwave irradiation using the aqueous extract of tomatoes as non-toxic and ecofriendly reducing material. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), particle size analyser (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X- ray diffraction study (XRD). A series of ZnO nanocomposites with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) and graphene oxide (GO) were prepared for photovoltaic application. Structural and morphological studies of these nanocomposites were carried out using UV-vis, SEM, XRD, and AFM. The current-voltage measurements of the nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.18% in case of ZnO/GO/TiO2 nanocomposite.
Keywords: ZnO, green synthesis, microwave, nanocomposites, I-V characteristicsProcedia PDF Downloads 328
2599 Tribological Behaviour Improvement of Lubricant Using Copper (II) Oxide Nanoparticles as Additive
Authors: M. A. Hassan, M. H. Sakinah, K. Kadirgama, D. Ramasamy, M. M. Noor, M. M. Rahman
Abstract:Tribological properties that include nanoparticles are an alternative to improve the tribological behaviour of lubricating oil, which has been investigated by many researchers for the past few decades. Various nanostructures can be used as additives for tribological improvement. However, this also depends on the characteristics of the nanoparticles. In this study, tribological investigation was performed to examine the effect of CuO nanoparticles on the tribological behaviour of Syntium 800 SL 10W−30. Three parameters used in the analysis using the wear tester (piston ring) were load, revolutions per minute (rpm), and concentration. The specifications of the nanoparticles, such as size, concentration, hardness, and shape, can affect the tribological behaviour of the lubricant. The friction and wear experiment was conducted using a tribo-tester and the Response Surface Methodology method was used to analyse any improvement of the performance. Therefore, two concentrations of 40 nm nanoparticles were used to conduct the experiments, namely, 0.005 wt % and 0.01 wt % and compared with base oil 0 wt % (control). A water bath sonicator was used to disperse the nanoparticles in base oil, while a tribo-tester was used to measure the coefficient of friction and wear rate. In addition, the thermal properties of the nanolubricant were also measured. The results have shown that the thermal conductivity of the nanolubricant was increased when compared with the base oil. Therefore, the results indicated that CuO nanoparticles had improved the tribological behaviour as well as the thermal properties of the nanolubricant oil.
Keywords: concentration, improvement, tribological, copper (II) oxide, nano lubricantProcedia PDF Downloads 380
2598 Titanium Dioxide Modified with Glutathione as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Toxic Properties
Authors: Olga Długosz, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Marcin Banach
Abstract:The paper presents a process to obtain glutathione-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The processes were carried out in a microwave radiation field. The influence of the molar ratio of glutathione to titanium oxide and the effect of the fold of NaOH vs. stoichiometric amount on the size of the formed TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope- energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopy methods. The size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was characterized from 30 to 336 nm. The release of titanium ions from the prepared products was evaluated. These studies were carried out using different media in which the powders were incubated for a specific time. These were water, SBF and Ringer's solution. The release of titanium ions from modified products is weaker compared to unmodified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The reduced release of titanium ions may allow the use of such modified materials as substances in drug delivery systems.
Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, drug carrier, glutathioneProcedia PDF Downloads 23