Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4343

Search results for: breast cancer detection

4343 Aspects and Studies of Fractal Geometry in Automatic Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Kakali Das Jr., Barin Kumar De, Debotosh Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and a leading cause of death for women in the 35 to 55 age group. Early detection of breast cancer can decrease the mortality rate of breast cancer. Mammography is considered as a ‘Gold Standard’ for breast cancer detection and a very popular modality, presently used for breast cancer screening and detection. The screening of digital mammograms often leads to over diagnosis and a consequence to unnecessary traumatic & painful biopsies. For that reason recent studies involving the use of thermal imaging as a screening technique have generated a growing interest especially in cases where the mammography is limited, as in young patients who have dense breast tissue. Tumor is a significant sign of breast cancer in both mammography and thermography. The tumors are complex in structure and they also exhibit a different statistical and textural features compared to the breast background tissue. Fractal geometry is a geometry which is used to describe this type of complex structure as per their main characteristic, where traditional Euclidean geometry fails. Over the last few years, fractal geometrics have been applied mostly in many medical image (1D, 2D, or 3D) analysis applications. In breast cancer detection using digital mammogram images, also it plays a significant role. Fractal is also used in thermography for early detection of the masses using the thermal texture. This paper presents an overview of the recent aspects and initiatives of fractals in breast cancer detection in both mammography and thermography. The scope of fractal geometry in automatic breast cancer detection using digital mammogram and thermogram images are analysed, which forms a foundation for further study on application of fractal geometry in medical imaging for improving the efficiency of automatic detection.

Keywords: fractal, tumor, thermography, mammography

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4342 Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Digital Mammograms Based on Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Sehreen Moorat, Mussarat Lakho

Abstract:

A method of artificial intelligence using digital mammograms data has been proposed in this paper for detection of breast cancer. Many researchers have developed techniques for the early detection of breast cancer; the early diagnosis helps to save many lives. The detection of breast cancer through mammography is effective method which detects the cancer before it is felt and increases the survival rate. In this paper, we have purposed image processing technique for enhancing the image to detect the graphical table data and markings. Texture features based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix and intensity based features are extracted from the selected region. For classification purpose, neural network based supervised classifier system has been used which can discriminate between benign and malignant. Hence, 68 digital mammograms have been used to train the classifier. The obtained result proved that automated detection of breast cancer is beneficial for early diagnosis and increases the survival rates of breast cancer patients. The proposed system will help radiologist in the better interpretation of breast cancer.

Keywords: medical imaging, cancer, processing, neural network

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4341 An Insight into Early Stage Detection of Malignant Tumor by Microwave Imaging

Authors: Muhammad Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong

Abstract:

Detection of malignant tumor inside the breast of women is a challenging field for the researchers. MWI (Microwave imaging) for breast cancer diagnosis has been of interest for last two decades, newly it suggested for finding cancerous tissues of women breast. A simple and basic idea of the mathematical modeling is used throughout this paper for imaging of malignant tumor. In this paper, the authors explained inverse scattering method in the microwave imaging and also present some simulation results.

Keywords: breast cancer detection, microwave imaging, tomography, tumor

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4340 Evolving Digital Circuits for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Using Cartesian Genetic Programming

Authors: Zahra Khalid, Gul Muhammad Khan, Arbab Masood Ahmad

Abstract:

Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) is explored to design an optimal circuit capable of early stage breast cancer detection. CGP is used to evolve simple multiplexer circuits for detection of malignancy in the Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) samples of breast. The data set used is extracted from Wisconsins Breast Cancer Database (WBCD). A range of experiments were performed, each with different set of network parameters. The best evolved network detected malignancy with an accuracy of 99.14%, which is higher than that produced with most of the contemporary non-linear techniques that are computational expensive than the proposed system. The evolved network comprises of simple multiplexers and can be implemented easily in hardware without any further complications or inaccuracy, being the digital circuit.

Keywords: breast cancer detection, cartesian genetic programming, evolvable hardware, fine needle aspiration

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4339 A Novel Breast Cancer Detection Algorithm Using Point Region Growing Segmentation and Pseudo-Zernike Moments

Authors: Aileen F. Wang

Abstract:

Mammography has been one of the most reliable methods for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, mammography misses about 17% and up to 30% of breast cancers due to the subtle and unstable appearances of breast cancer in their early stages. Recent computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) technology using Zernike moments has improved detection accuracy. However, it has several drawbacks: it uses manual segmentation, Zernike moments are not robust, and it still has a relatively high false negative rate (FNR)–17.6%. This project will focus on the development of a novel breast cancer detection algorithm to automatically segment the breast mass and further reduce FNR. The algorithm consists of automatic segmentation of a single breast mass using Point Region Growing Segmentation, reconstruction of the segmented breast mass using Pseudo-Zernike moments, and classification of the breast mass using the root mean square (RMS). A comparative study among the various algorithms on the segmentation and reconstruction of breast masses was performed on randomly selected mammographic images. The results demonstrated that the newly developed algorithm is the best in terms of accuracy and cost effectiveness. More importantly, the new classifier RMS has the lowest FNR–6%.

Keywords: computer aided diagnosis, mammography, point region growing segmentation, pseudo-zernike moments, root mean square

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4338 Detection of Lymphedema after Breast Cancer in Yucatecan Women

Authors: Olais A. Ingrid, Peraza G. Leydi, Estrella C. Damaris

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common among women worldwide; the different treatments can bring sequels that directly affect the quality of life, such as lymphedema. The objective was to determine if there is presence of lymphedema secondary to breast cancer in Yucatecan women. It was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study, 92 women were included who met the following criteria: women with surgical treatment for unilateral: breast cancer, aged between 25 and 65 years old, minimum 6 weeks after unilateral breast surgery and have completed any type of chemotherapy or adjuvant radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. The evaluation was through indirect measurement volume by circometry to determine the presence of lymphedema. 23% of women had lymphedema grade I. It related to the presence of some of the symptoms like stiffness, swelling, decreased range of motion and feeling of heaviness in the arm of the operated side of the breast. It is important to determine the presence of lymphedema to perform physical therapy treatment.

Keywords: breast cancer, lymphedema, physical therapy, Yucatan

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4337 Molecular Study of P53- and Rb-Tumor Suppressor Genes in Human Papilloma Virus-Infected Breast Cancers

Authors: Shakir H. Mohammed Al-Alwany, Saad Hasan M. Ali, Ibrahim Mohammed S. Shnawa

Abstract:

The study was aimed to define the percentage of detection of high-oncogenic risk types of HPV and their genotyping in archival tissue specimens that ranged from apparently healthy tissue to invasive breast cancer by using one of the recent versions of In Situ Hybridization(ISH) 0.2. To find out rational significance of such genotypes as well as over expressed products of mutants P53 and RB genes on the severity of underlying breast cancers. The DNA of HPV was detected in 46.5 % of tissues from breast cancers while HPV DNA in the tissues from benign breast tumours was detected in 12.5%. No HPV positive–ISH reaction was detected in healthy breast tissues of the control group. HPV DNA of genotypes (16, 18, 31 and 33) was detected in malignant group in frequency of 25.6%, 27.1%, 30.2% and 12.4%, respectively. Over expression of p53 was detected by IHC in 51.2% breast cancer cases and in 50% benign breast tumour group, while none of control group showed P53- over expression. Retinoblastoma protein was detected by IHC test in 49.7% of malignant breast tumours, 54.2% of benign breast tumours but no signal was reported in the tissues of control group. The significance prevalence of expression of mutated p53 & Rb genes as well as detection of high-oncogenic HPV genotypes in patients with breast cancer supports the hypothesis of an etiologic role for the virus in breast cancer development.

Keywords: human papilloma virus, P53, RB, breast cancer

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4336 Epidemiological, Clinical, Histopathological Profile and Management of Breast Cancer at Kinshasa University Clinics

Authors: Eddy K. Mukadi

Abstract:

This work is a documentary and descriptive study devoted to the epidemiological, clinical, histopathological and therapeutic profile of breast cancer deals with the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the university clinics of Kinshasa during the period from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. We have identified 56 cases of breast cancer. These cancers accounted for 45.2% of gynecological mammary cancers. The youngest in our series was 18 years old while the oldest was 74 years old; And the mean age of these patients was 43.4 years and mostly multiparous (35.7%). Brides (60.7%) and bachelors (26.8%) were the most affected by breast cancer. The reasons for consultation were dominated by nodules in the breast (48.2%) followed by pain (35.7%) and nipple discharge (14.3%). In 89.2% of the cases, it was the advanced clinical stage (stage 3 and 4) and the infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (75%) The malignant tumor was mainly in the left breast (55.3%), and chemotherapy with hormone therapy and patey was the most convenient treatment (42.8%), while patey mastectomy was performed in 12.5% of patients. Because of the high incidence of breast cancer identified in our study, some preventive measures must be taken into account to address this public health problem, including breast autopalpation once a month, Early detection system development of a national breast cancer policy and the implementation of a national breast cancer control program.

Keywords: breast cancer, histopathological profile, epidemiological profile, Kinshasa

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4335 Microwave Tomography: The Analytical Treatment for Detecting Malignant Tumor Inside Human Body

Authors: Muhammad Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong

Abstract:

Early detection through screening is the best tool short of a perfect treatment against the malignant tumor inside the breast of a woman. By detecting cancer in its early stages, it can be recognized and treated before it has the opportunity to spread and change into potentially dangerous. Microwave tomography is a new imaging method based on contrast in dielectric properties of materials. The mathematical theory of microwave tomography involves solving an inverse problem for Maxwell’s equations. In this paper, we present designed antenna for breast cancer detection, which will use in microwave tomography configuration.

Keywords: microwave imaging, inverse scattering, breast cancer, malignant tumor detection

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4334 Mobile Health Approaches in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Authors: Hyekyung Woo, Gwihyun Kim

Abstract:

mHealth, which encompasses mobile health technologies and interventions, is rapidly evolving in various medical specialties, and its impact is evident in oncology. This review describes current trends in research addressing the integration of mHealth into the management of breast cancer by examining evaluations of mHealth and its contributions across the cancer care continuum. Mobile technologies are perceived as effective in prevention and as feasible for managing breast cancer, but the diagnostic accuracy of these tools remains in doubt. Not all phases of breast cancer treatment involve mHealth, and not all have been addressed by research. These drawbacks in the application of mHealth to breast cancer management call for intensified research to strengthen its role in breast cancer care.

Keywords: mobile application, breast cancer, content analysis, mHealth

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4333 Evaluation of the Radiolabelled 68GA-DOTATOC Complex in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer

Authors: S. Zolghadri, M. Naderi, H. Yousefnia, B. Alirzapour, A. R. Jalilian, A. Ramazani

Abstract:

Nowadays, 68Ga-DOTATOC has been known as a potential agent for the detection of neuroendocrine tumours and it has indicated higher sensitivity compared with the 111In-Octeroetide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this new agent in the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma breast cancer. 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 98% and by the specific activity of 39.6 TBq/mmol. 37 MBq of the complex was injected intravenously into the BULB/c mice with adenocarcinoma breast cancer. PET/CT images were acquired after 30, 60 and 90 min post injection demonstrated significant accumulation in the tumour sites. Also, considerable activity was observed in the kidney and bladder as the main routs of excretion. Generally, the results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as a suitable complex for diagnosis of the adenocarcinoma breast cancer using PET procedure.

Keywords: adenocarcinoma breast cancer, 68Ga, octreotide, imaging

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4332 Breast Cancer Early Recognition, New Methods of Screening, and Analysis

Authors: Sahar Heidary

Abstract:

Breast cancer is a main public common obstacle global. Additionally, it is the second top reason for tumor death across women. Considering breast cancer cure choices can aid private doctors in precaution for their patients through future cancer treatment. This article reviews usual management centered on stage, histology, and biomarkers. The growth of breast cancer is a multi-stage procedure including numerous cell kinds and its inhibition residues stimulating in the universe. Timely identification of breast cancer is one of the finest methods to stop this illness. Entirely chief therapeutic administrations mention screening mammography for women aged 40 years and older. Breast cancer metastasis interpretations for the mainstream of deaths from breast cancer. The discovery of breast cancer metastasis at the initial step is essential for managing and estimate of breast cancer development. Developing methods consuming the exploration of flowing cancer cells illustrate talented outcomes in forecasting and classifying the initial steps of breast cancer metastasis in patients. In public, mammography residues are the key screening implement though the efficiency of medical breast checks and self-checkup is less. Innovative screening methods are doubtful to exchange mammography in the close upcoming for screening the overall people.

Keywords: breast cancer, screening, metastasis, methods

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4331 MITOS-RCNN: Mitotic Figure Detection in Breast Cancer Histopathology Images Using Region Based Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Siddhant Rao

Abstract:

Studies estimate that there will be 266,120 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,920 breast cancer induced deaths in the year of 2018 alone. Despite the pervasiveness of this affliction, the current process to obtain an accurate breast cancer prognosis is tedious and time consuming. It usually requires a trained pathologist to manually examine histopathological images and identify the features that characterize various cancer severity levels. We propose MITOS-RCNN: a region based convolutional neural network (RCNN) geared for small object detection to accurately grade one of the three factors that characterize tumor belligerence described by the Nottingham Grading System: mitotic count. Other computational approaches to mitotic figure counting and detection do not demonstrate ample recall or precision to be clinically viable. Our models outperformed all previous participants in the ICPR 2012 challenge, the AMIDA 2013 challenge and the MITOS-ATYPIA-14 challenge along with recently published works. Our model achieved an F- measure score of 0.955, a 6.11% improvement in accuracy from the most accurate of the previously proposed models.

Keywords: breast cancer, mitotic count, machine learning, convolutional neural networks

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4330 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi

Abstract:

Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: breast cancer, Arab Muslim, Jordan, lived experiences, spirituality, culture

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4329 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

Abstract:

In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight

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4328 Intelligent Prediction of Breast Cancer Severity

Authors: Wahab Ali, Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Adnan Khashman

Abstract:

Breast cancer remains a threat to the woman’s world in view of survival rates, it early diagnosis and mortality statistics. So far, research has shown that many survivors of breast cancer cases are in the ones with early diagnosis. Breast cancer is usually categorized into stages which indicates its severity and corresponding survival rates for patients. Investigations show that the farther into the stages before diagnosis the lesser the chance of survival; hence the early diagnosis of breast cancer becomes imperative, and consequently the application of novel technologies to achieving this. Over the year, mammograms have used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, but the inconclusive deductions made from such scans lead to either false negative cases where cancer patients may be left untreated or false positive where unnecessary biopsies are carried out. This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks in the prediction of severity of breast tumour (whether benign or malignant) using mammography reports and other factors that are related to breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, intelligent classification, neural networks, mammography

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4327 Discriminant Function Based on Circulating Tumor Cells for Accurate Diagnosis of Metastatic Breast Cancer

Authors: Hatem A. El-Mezayen, Ahmed Abdelmajeed, Fatehya Metwally, Usama Elsaly, Salwa Atef

Abstract:

Tumor metastasis involves the dissemination of malignant cells into the basement membrane and vascular system contributes to the circulating pool of these markers. In this context our aim has been focused on development of a non-invasive. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a unique liquid biopsy carrying comprehensive biological information of the primary tumor. Herein, we sought to develop a novel score based on the combination of the most significant CTCs biomarkers with and routine laboratory tests for accurate detection of metastatic breast cancer. Methods: Cytokeratin 18 (CK18), Cytokeratin 19 (CK19), and CA15.3 were assayed in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients (75), non-MBC patients (50) and healthy control (20). Results: Areas under receiving operating curve (AUCs) were calculated and used for construction on novel score. A novel score named MBC-CTCs = CA15.3 (U/L) × 0.08 + CK 18 % × 2.9 + CK19 × 3.1– 510. That function correctly classified 87% of metastatic breast cancer at cut-off value = 0.55. (i.e great than 0.55 indicates patients with metastatic breast cancer and less than 0.55 indicates patients with non-metastatic breast cancer). Conclusion: MBC-CTCs is a novel, non-invasive and simple can applied to discriminate patients with metastatic breast cancer.

Keywords: metastatic breast cancer, circulating tumor cells, cytokeratin, EpiCam

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4326 Nurse’s Role in Early Detection of Breast Cancer through Mammography and Genetic Screening and Its Impact on Patient's Outcome

Authors: Salwa Hagag Abdelaziz, Dorria Salem, Hoda Zaki, Suzan Atteya

Abstract:

Early detection of breast cancer saves many thousands of lives each year via application of mammography and genetic screening and many more lives could be saved if nurses are involved in breast care screening practices. So, the aim of the study was to identify nurse's role in early detection of breast cancer through mammography and genetic screening and its impact on patient's outcome. In order to achieve this aim, 400 women above 40 years, asymptomatic were recruited for mammography and genetic screening. In addition, 50 nurses and 6 technologists were involved in the study. A descriptive analytical design was used. Five tools were utilized: sociodemographic, mammographic examination and risk factors, women's before, during and after mammography, items relaying to technologists, and items related to nurses were also obtained. The study finding revealed that 3% of women detected for malignancy and 7.25% for fibroadenoma. Statistically, significant differences were found between mammography results and age, family history, genetic screening, exposure to smoke, and using contraceptive pills. Nurses have insufficient knowledge about screening tests. Based on these findings the present study recommended involvement of nurses in breast care which is very important to in force population about screening practices.

Keywords: mammography, early detection, genetic screening, breast cancer

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4325 Impact of Mammographic Screening on Ethnic Inequalities in Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis and Survival in New Zealand

Authors: Sanjeewa Seneviratne, Ian Campbell, Nina Scott, Ross Lawrenson

Abstract:

Introduction: Indigenous Māori women experience a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We explored the impact of difference in the rate of screen detected breast cancer between Māori and European women on more advanced disease at diagnosis and lower survival in Māori women. Methods: All primary in-situ and invasive breast cancers diagnosed in screening age women (as defined by the New Zealand National Breast Cancer Screening Programme) between 1999 and 2012 in the Waikato area were identified from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register and the national screening database. Association between screen versus non-screen detection and cancer stage at diagnosis and survival were compared by ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. Results: Māori women had 50% higher odds of being diagnosed with more advance staged cancer compared with NZ European women, a half of which was explained by the lower rate of screen detected cancer in Māori women. Significantly lower breast cancer survival rates were observed for Māori compared with NZ European and most deprived compared with most affluent socioeconomic groups for symptomatically detected breast cancer. No significant survival differences by ethnicity or socioeconomic deprivation were observed for screen detected breast cancer. Conclusions: Low rate of screen detected breast cancer appears to be a major contributor for more advanced stage disease at diagnosis and lower breast cancer survival in Māori compared with NZ European women. Increasing screening participation for Māori has the potential to substantially reduce breast cancer mortality inequity between Māori and NZ European women.

Keywords: breast cancer, screening, ethnicity, inequity

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4324 KAP Study on Breast Cancer Among Women in Nirmala Educational Institutions-A Prospective Observational Study

Authors: Shaik Asha Begum, S. Joshna Rani, Shaik Abdul Rahaman

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is a disease that creates in breast cells. "KAP" study estimates the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of a local area. More than 1.5 million ladies (25% of all ladies with malignancy) are determined to have bosom disease consistently all through the world. Understanding the degrees of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice will empower a more effective cycle of mindfulness creation as it will permit the program to be custom-made all the more properly to the necessities of the local area. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge on signs and symptoms, risk factors, provide awareness on the practicing of the early detection techniques of breast cancer and provide knowledge on the overall breast cancer including preventive techniques. METHODOLOGY: This is an expressive cross-sectional investigation. This investigation of KAP was done in the Nirmala Educational Institutions from January to April 2021. A total of 300 participants are included from women students in pharmacy graduates & lecturers, and also from graduates other than the pharmacy. The examiners are taken from the BCAM (Breast Cancer Awareness Measure), tool compartment (Version 2). RESULT: According to the findings of the study, the majority of the participants were not well informed about breast cancer. A lump in the breast was the most commonly mentioned sign of breast cancer, followed by pain in the breast or nipple. The percentage of knowledge related to the breast cancer risk factors was also very less. The correct answers for breast cancer risk factors were radiation exposure (58.20 percent), a positive family history (47.6 percent), obesity (46.9 percent), a lack of physical activity (43.6 percent), and smoking (43.2 percent). Breast cancer screening, on the other hand, was uncommon (only 30 and 11.3 percent practiced clinical breast examination and mammography respectively). CONCLUSION: In this study, the knowledge on the signs and symptoms, risk factors of breast cancer - pharmacy graduates have more knowledge than the non-pharmacy graduates but in the preventive techniques and early detective tools of breast cancer -had poor knowledge in the pharmacy and non-pharmacy graduate. After the awareness program, pharmacy and non-pharmacy graduates got supportive knowledge on the preventive techniques and also practiced the early detective techniques of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, mammography, KAP study, early detection

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4323 PCR Based DNA Analysis in Detecting P53 Mutation in Human Breast Cancer (MDA-468)

Authors: Debbarma Asis, Guha Chandan

Abstract:

Tumor Protein-53 (P53) is one of the tumor suppressor proteins. P53 regulates the cell cycle that conserves stability by preventing genome mutation. It is named so as it runs as 53-kilodalton (kDa) protein on Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis although the actual mass is 43.7 kDa. Experimental evidence has indicated that P53 cancer mutants loses tumor suppression activity and subsequently gain oncogenic activities to promote tumourigenesis. Tumor-specific DNA has recently been detected in the plasma of breast cancer patients. Detection of tumor-specific genetic materials in cancer patients may provide a unique and valuable tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis. Commercially available MDA-468 breast cancer cell line was used for the proposed study.

Keywords: tumor protein (P53), cancer mutants, MDA-468, tumor suppressor gene

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4322 The Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Omani Women

Authors: H. Al-Awaisi, M. H. Al-Azri, S. Al-Rasbi, M. Al-Moundhri

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. It is also the most common cancer among females in Oman with 100 new breast cancer cases diagnosed every year. It has been found that breast cancer have a devastating effect on women’s life. Women diagnosed with breast cancer might develop negative attitudes towards the illness and their bodies. They might also suffer from psychological ailments such as depression. Despite the evidence on the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on women, there was no study found to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis among women in Oman. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Omani women. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were analyzed thematically. From the data, there are four main themes identified in relation to the impact of cancer diagnosis on Omani women. These are 'shock and disbelieve', 'a death sentence', “uncertain future” and “social stigma”. At the time of interviews, all participants had advanced breast cancer with some participants having metastatic disease. The impact of the word “cancer” had a profound and catastrophic effect on the women and their close relatives. In conclusion, breast cancer diagnosis was shocking and mainly perceived as a death sentence by Omani women with uncertain future and social stigma. Regardless of age, maternal status and education level, it is evident that Omani women participated in this study lacked awareness about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Keywords: breast cancer, coping, diagnosis, Oman, women

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4321 Standard Protocol Selection for Acquisition of Breast Thermogram in Perspective of Early Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Usha Rani Gogoi Jr., Anjan Kumar Ghosh, Debotosh Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

In the last few decades, breast thermography has achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 90% for breast tumor detection. Breast thermography is a non-invasive, cost-effective, painless and radiation-free breast imaging modality which makes a significant contribution to the evaluation and diagnosis of patients, suspected of having breast cancer. An abnormal breast thermogram may indicate significant biological risk for the existence or the development of breast tumors. Breast thermography can detect a breast tumor, when the tumor is in its early stage or when the tumor is in a dense breast. The infrared breast thermography is very sensitive to environmental changes for which acquisition of breast thermography should be performed under strictly controlled conditions by undergoing some standard protocols. Several factors like air, temperature, humidity, etc. are there to be considered for characterizing thermal images as an imperative tool for detecting breast cancer. A detailed study of various breast thermogram acquisition protocols adopted by different researchers in their research work is provided here in this paper. After going through a rigorous study of different breast thermogram acquisition protocols, a new standard breast thermography acquisition setup is proposed here in this paper for proper and accurate capturing of the breast thermograms. The proposed breast thermogram acquisition setup is being built in the Radiology Department, Agartala Government Medical College (AGMC), Govt. of Tripura, Tripura, India. The breast thermograms are captured using FLIR T650sc thermal camera with the thermal sensitivity of 20 mK at 30 degree C. The paper is an attempt to highlight the importance of different critical parameters of breast thermography like different thermography views, patient preparation protocols, acquisition room requirements, acquisition system requirements, etc. This paper makes an important contribution by providing a detailed survey and a new efficient approach on breast thermogram capturing.

Keywords: acquisition protocol, breast cancer, breast thermography, infrared thermography

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4320 Factors Contributing to Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer and Its Outcome in Jamhoriat Hospital Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Jawad Fardin

Abstract:

Over 60% of patients with breast cancer in Afghanistan present late with advanced stage III and IV, a major cause for the poor survival rate. The objectives of this study were to identify the contributing factors for the diagnosis and treatment delay and its outcome. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 318 patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer in the oncology department of Jamhoriat hospital, which is the first and only national cancer center in Afghanistan; data were collected from medical records and interviews conducted with women diagnosed with breast cancer, linear regression and logistic regression were used for analysis. Patient delay was defined as the time from first recognition of symptoms until first medical consultation and doctor form first consultation with a health care provider until histological confirmation of breast cancer. The mean age of patients was 49.2+_ 11.5years. The average time for the final diagnosis of breast cancer was 8.5 months; most patients had ductal carcinoma 260.7 (82%). Factors associated with delay were low education level 76% poor socioeconomic and cultural conditions 81% lack of cancer center 73% lack of screening 19%. The stage distribution was as follows stage IV 4 22% stage III 44.4% stage II 29.3% stage I 4.3%. Complex associated factors were identified to delayed the diagnosis of breast cancer and increased adverse outcomes consequently. Raising awareness and education in women, the establishment of cancer centers and providing accessible diagnosis service and screening, training of general practitioners; required to promote early detection, diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: delayed diagnosis and poor outcome, breast cancer in Afghanistan, poor outcome of delayed breast cancer treatment, breast cancer delayed diagnosis and treatment in Afghanistan

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4319 Ultra Wideband Breast Cancer Detection by Using SAR for Indication the Tumor Location

Authors: Wittawat Wasusathien, Samran Santalunai, Thanaset Thosdeekoraphat, Chanchai Thongsopa

Abstract:

This paper presents breast cancer detection by observing the specific absorption rate (SAR) intensity for identification tumor location, the tumor is identified in coordinates (x,y,z) system. We examined the frequency between 4-8 GHz to look for the most appropriate frequency. Results are simulated in frequency 4-8 GHz, the model overview include normal breast with 50 mm radian, 5 mm diameter of tumor, and ultra wideband (UWB) bowtie antenna. The models are created and simulated in CST Microwave Studio. For this simulation, we changed antenna to 5 location around the breast, the tumor can be detected when an antenna is close to the tumor location, which the coordinate of maximum SAR is approximated the tumor location. For reliable, we experiment by random tumor location to 3 position in the same size of tumor and simulation the result again by varying the antenna position in 5 position again, and it also detectable the tumor position from the antenna that nearby tumor position by maximum value of SAR, which it can be detected the tumor with precision in all frequency between 4-8 GHz.

Keywords: specific absorption rate (SAR), ultra wideband (UWB), coordinates, cancer detection

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4318 Overview and Pathophysiology of Radiation-Induced Breast Changes as a Consequence of Radiotherapy Toxicity

Authors: Monika Rezacova

Abstract:

Radiation-induced breast changes are a consequence of radiotherapy toxicity over the breast tissues either related to targeted breast cancer treatment or other thoracic malignancies (eg. lung cancer). This study has created an overview of different changes and their pathophysiology. The main conditions included were skin thickening, interstitial oedema, fat necrosis, dystrophic calcifications, skin retractions, glandular atrophy, breast fibrosis and radiation induced breast cancer. This study has performed focused literature search through multiple databases including pubmed, medline and embase. The study has reviewed English as well as non English publications. As a result of the literature the study provides comprehensive overview of radiation-induced breast changes and their pathophysiology with small focus on new development and prevention.

Keywords: radiotherapy toxicity, breast tissue changes, breast cancer treatment, radiation-induced breast changes

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4317 Assessment of Predictive Confounders for the Prevalence of Breast Cancer among Iraqi Population: A Retrospective Study from Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Nadia H. Mohammed, Anmar Al-Taie, Fadia H. Al-Sultany

Abstract:

Although breast cancer prevalence continues to increase, mortality has been decreasing as a result of early detection and improvement in adjuvant systemic therapy. Nevertheless, this disease required further efforts to understand and identify the associated potential risk factors that could play a role in the prevalence of this malignancy among Iraqi women. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of certain predictive risk factors on the prevalence of breast cancer types among a sample of Iraqi women diagnosed with breast cancer. This was a retrospective observational study carried out at National Cancer Research Center in College of Medicine, Baghdad University from November 2017 to January 2018. Data of 100 patients with breast cancer whose biopsies examined in the National Cancer Research Center were included in this study. Data were collected to structure a detailed assessment regarding the patients’ demographic, medical and cancer records. The majority of study participants (94%) suffered from ductal breast cancer with mean age 49.57 years. Among those women, 48.9% were obese with body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m2. 68.1% of them had positive family history of breast cancer and 66% had low parity. 40.4% had stage II ductal breast cancer followed by 25.5% with stage III. It was found that 59.6% and 68.1% had positive oestrogen receptor sensitivity and positive human epidermal growth factor (HER2/neu) receptor sensitivity respectively. In regard to the impact of prediction of certain variables on the incidence of ductal breast cancer, positive family history of breast cancer (P < 0.0001), low parity (P< 0.0001), stage I and II breast cancer (P = 0.02) and positive HER2/neu status (P < 0.0001) were significant predictive factors among the study participants. The results from this study provide relevant evidence for a significant positive and potential association between certain risk factors and the prevalence of breast cancer among Iraqi women.

Keywords: Ductal Breast Cancer, Hormone Sensitivity, Iraq, Risk Factors

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4316 The Economic Burden of Breast Cancer on Women in Nigeria: Implication for Socio-Economic Development

Authors: Tolulope Allo, Mofoluwake P. Ajayi, Adenike E. Idowu, Emmanuel O. Amoo, Fadeke Esther Olu-Owolabi

Abstract:

Breast cancer which was more prevalent in Europe and America in the past is gradually being mirrored across the world today with greater economic burden on low and middle income countries (LMCs). Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally and current studies have shown that a woman dies with the diagnosis of breast cancer every thirteen minutes. The economic cost of breast cancer is overwhelming particularly for developing economies. While it causes billion of dollar in losses of national income, it pushes millions of people below poverty line. This study examined the economic burden of breast cancer on Nigerian women, its impacts on their standard of living and its effects on Nigeria’s socio economic development. The study adopts a qualitative research approach using the in-depth interview technique to elicit valuable information from respondents with cancer experience from the Southern part of Nigeria. Respondents constituted women in their reproductive age (15-49 years) that have experienced and survived cancer and also those that are currently receiving treatment. Excerpts from the interviews revealed that the cost of treatment is one of the major factors contributing to the late presentation of breast cancer incidences among women as many of them could not afford to pay for their own treatment. The study also revealed that many women prefer to explore other options such as herbal treatments and spiritual consultations which is less expensive and affordable. The study therefore concludes that breast cancer diagnosis and treatment should be subsidized by the government in order to facilitate easy access and affordability thereby promoting early detection and reducing the economic burden of treatment on women.

Keywords: breast cancer, development, economic burden, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
4315 Convolutional Neural Networks versus Radiomic Analysis for Classification of Breast Mammogram

Authors: Mehwish Asghar

Abstract:

Breast Cancer (BC) is a common type of cancer among women. Its screening is usually performed using different imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, mammogram, X-ray, CT, etc. Among these modalities’ mammogram is considered a powerful tool for diagnosis and screening of breast cancer. Sophisticated machine learning approaches have shown promising results in complementing human diagnosis. Generally, machine learning methods can be divided into two major classes: one is Radiomics analysis (RA), where image features are extracted manually; and the other one is the concept of convolutional neural networks (CNN), in which the computer learns to recognize image features on its own. This research aims to improve the incidence of early detection, thus reducing the mortality rate caused by breast cancer through the latest advancements in computer science, in general, and machine learning, in particular. It has also been aimed to ease the burden of doctors by improving and automating the process of breast cancer detection. This research is related to a relative analysis of different techniques for the implementation of different models for detecting and classifying breast cancer. The main goal of this research is to provide a detailed view of results and performances between different techniques. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of a convolutional neural network (CNN) w.r.t feature extractor and as a classifier. Also, in this research, it has been aimed to add the module of Radiomics for comparison of its results with deep learning techniques.

Keywords: breast cancer (BC), machine learning (ML), convolutional neural network (CNN), radionics, magnetic resonance imaging, artificial intelligence

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4314 Computer Aided Diagnosis Bringing Changes in Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Devadrita Dey Sarkar

Abstract:

Regardless of the many technologic advances in the past decade, increased training and experience, and the obvious benefits of uniform standards, the false-negative rate in screening mammography remains unacceptably high .A computer aided neural network classification of regions of suspicion (ROS) on digitized mammograms is presented in this abstract which employs features extracted by a new technique based on independent component analysis. CAD is a concept established by taking into account equally the roles of physicians and computers, whereas automated computer diagnosis is a concept based on computer algorithms only. With CAD, the performance by computers does not have to be comparable to or better than that by physicians, but needs to be complementary to that by physicians. In fact, a large number of CAD systems have been employed for assisting physicians in the early detection of breast cancers on mammograms. A CAD scheme that makes use of lateral breast images has the potential to improve the overall performance in the detection of breast lumps. Because breast lumps can be detected reliably by computer on lateral breast mammographs, radiologists’ accuracy in the detection of breast lumps would be improved by the use of CAD, and thus early diagnosis of breast cancer would become possible. In the future, many CAD schemes could be assembled as packages and implemented as a part of PACS. For example, the package for breast CAD may include the computerized detection of breast nodules, as well as the computerized classification of benign and malignant nodules. In order to assist in the differential diagnosis, it would be possible to search for and retrieve images (or lesions) with these CAD systems, which would be reliable and useful method for quantifying the similarity of a pair of images for visual comparison by radiologists.

Keywords: CAD(computer-aided design), lesions, neural network, ROS(region of suspicion)

Procedia PDF Downloads 394