Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4482

Search results for: noise reduction

4482 Noise Reduction by Energising the Boundary Layer

Authors: Kiran P. Kumar, H. M. Nayana, R. Rakshitha, S. Sushmitha


Aircraft noise is a highly concerned problem in the field of the aviation industry. It is necessary to reduce the noise in order to be environment-friendly. Air-frame noise is caused because of the quick separation of the boundary layer over an aircraft body. So, we have to delay the boundary layer separation of an air-frame and engine nacelle. By following a certain procedure boundary layer separation can be reduced by converting laminar into turbulent and hence early separation can be prevented that leads to the noise reduction. This method has a tendency to reduce the noise of the aircraft hence it can prove efficient and environment-friendly than the present Aircraft.

Keywords: airframe, boundary layer, noise, reduction

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4481 An Analytical Study on the Vibration Reduction Method of Railway Station Using TPU

Authors: Jinho Hur, Minjung Shin, Heekyu Kim


In many places, new railway constructions in the city are being used to build a viaduct station to take advantage of the space below the line, for difficulty of securing railway site and disconnections of areas. The space under the viaduct has limited to use by noise and vibration. In order to use it for various purposes, reducing noise and vibration is required. The vibration reduction method for new structures is recently developed enough to use as accommodation, but the reduction method for existing structures is still far-off. In this study, it suggests vibration reduction method by filling vibration reduction material to column members which is path of structure-bone-noise from trains run. Because most of railroad stations are reinforced concrete structures. It compares vibration reduction of station applied the method and original station by FEM analysis. As a result, reduction of vibration acceleration level in bandwidth 15~30Hz can be reduced. Therefore, using this method for viaduct railroad station, vibration of station is expected to be reduced.

Keywords: structure borne noise, TPU, viaduct rail station, vibration reduction method

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
4480 Noise Reduction in Web Data: A Learning Approach Based on Dynamic User Interests

Authors: Julius Onyancha, Valentina Plekhanova


One of the significant issues facing web users is the amount of noise in web data which hinders the process of finding useful information in relation to their dynamic interests. Current research works consider noise as any data that does not form part of the main web page and propose noise web data reduction tools which mainly focus on eliminating noise in relation to the content and layout of web data. This paper argues that not all data that form part of the main web page is of a user interest and not all noise data is actually noise to a given user. Therefore, learning of noise web data allocated to the user requests ensures not only reduction of noisiness level in a web user profile, but also a decrease in the loss of useful information hence improves the quality of a web user profile. Noise Web Data Learning (NWDL) tool/algorithm capable of learning noise web data in web user profile is proposed. The proposed work considers elimination of noise data in relation to dynamic user interest. In order to validate the performance of the proposed work, an experimental design setup is presented. The results obtained are compared with the current algorithms applied in noise web data reduction process. The experimental results show that the proposed work considers the dynamic change of user interest prior to elimination of noise data. The proposed work contributes towards improving the quality of a web user profile by reducing the amount of useful information eliminated as noise.

Keywords: web log data, web user profile, user interest, noise web data learning, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
4479 Bidirectional Dynamic Time Warping Algorithm for the Recognition of Isolated Words Impacted by Transient Noise Pulses

Authors: G. Tamulevičius, A. Serackis, T. Sledevič, D. Navakauskas


We consider the biggest challenge in speech recognition – noise reduction. Traditionally detected transient noise pulses are removed with the corrupted speech using pulse models. In this paper we propose to cope with the problem directly in Dynamic Time Warping domain. Bidirectional Dynamic Time Warping algorithm for the recognition of isolated words impacted by transient noise pulses is proposed. It uses simple transient noise pulse detector, employs bidirectional computation of dynamic time warping and directly manipulates with warping results. Experimental investigation with several alternative solutions confirms effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in the reduction of impact of noise on recognition process – 3.9% increase of the noisy speech recognition is achieved.

Keywords: transient noise pulses, noise reduction, dynamic time warping, speech recognition

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4478 Efficacy of a Wiener Filter Based Technique for Speech Enhancement in Hearing Aids

Authors: Ajish K. Abraham


Hearing aid is the most fundamental technology employed towards rehabilitation of persons with sensory neural hearing impairment. Hearing in noise is still a matter of major concern for many hearing aid users and thus continues to be a challenging issue for the hearing aid designers. Several techniques are being currently used to enhance the speech at the hearing aid output. Most of these techniques, when implemented, result in reduction of intelligibility of the speech signal. Thus the dissatisfaction of the hearing aid user towards comprehending the desired speech amidst noise is prevailing. Multichannel Wiener Filter is widely implemented in binaural hearing aid technology for noise reduction. In this study, Wiener filter based noise reduction approach is experimented for a single microphone based hearing aid set up. This method checks the status of the input speech signal in each frequency band and then selects the relevant noise reduction procedure. Results showed that the Wiener filter based algorithm is capable of enhancing speech even when the input acoustic signal has a very low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Performance of the algorithm was compared with other similar algorithms on the basis of improvement in intelligibility and SNR of the output, at different SNR levels of the input speech. Wiener filter based algorithm provided significant improvement in SNR and intelligibility compared to other techniques.

Keywords: hearing aid output speech, noise reduction, SNR improvement, Wiener filter, speech enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
4477 The Improvement of Environmental Protection through Motor Vehicle Noise Abatement

Authors: Z. Jovanovic, Z. Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota


In this paper, a methodology for noise reduction of motor vehicles in use is presented. The methodology relies on synergic model of noise generation as a function of time. The arbitrary number of motor vehicle noise sources act in concert yielding the generation of the overall noise level of motor vehicle thereafter. The number of noise sources participating in the overall noise level of motor vehicle is subjected to the constraint of the calculation of the acoustic potential of each noise source under consideration. It is the prerequisite condition for the calculation of the acoustic potential of the whole vehicle. The recast form of pertinent set of equations describing the synergic model is laid down and solved by dint of Gauss method. The bunch of results emerged and some of them i.e. those ensuing from model application to MDD FAP Priboj motor vehicle in use are particularly elucidated.

Keywords: noise abatement, MV noise sources, noise source identification, muffler

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
4476 The Influence of Noise on Aerial Image Semantic Segmentation

Authors: Pengchao Wei, Xiangzhong Fang


Noise is ubiquitous in this world. Denoising is an essential technology, especially in image semantic segmentation, where noises are generally categorized into two main types i.e. feature noise and label noise. The main focus of this paper is aiming at modeling label noise, investigating the behaviors of different types of label noise on image semantic segmentation tasks using K-Nearest-Neighbor and Convolutional Neural Network classifier. The performance without label noise and with is evaluated and illustrated in this paper. In addition to that, the influence of feature noise on the image semantic segmentation task is researched as well and a feature noise reduction method is applied to mitigate its influence in the learning procedure.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, denoising, feature noise, image semantic segmentation, k-nearest-neighbor, label noise

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4475 CT Medical Images Denoising Based on New Wavelet Thresholding Compared with Curvelet and Contourlet

Authors: Amir Moslemi, Amir movafeghi, Shahab Moradi


One of the most important challenging factors in medical images is nominated as noise.Image denoising refers to the improvement of a digital medical image that has been infected by Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The digital medical image or video can be affected by different types of noises. They are impulse noise, Poisson noise and AWGN. Computed tomography (CT) images are subjected to low quality due to the noise. The quality of CT images is dependent on the absorbed dose to patients directly in such a way that increase in absorbed radiation, consequently absorbed dose to patients (ADP), enhances the CT images quality. In this manner, noise reduction techniques on the purpose of images quality enhancement exposing no excess radiation to patients is one the challenging problems for CT images processing. In this work, noise reduction in CT images was performed using two different directional 2 dimensional (2D) transformations; i.e., Curvelet and Contourlet and Discrete wavelet transform(DWT) thresholding methods of BayesShrink and AdaptShrink, compared to each other and we proposed a new threshold in wavelet domain for not only noise reduction but also edge retaining, consequently the proposed method retains the modified coefficients significantly that result in good visual quality. Data evaluations were accomplished by using two criterions; namely, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and Structure similarity (Ssim).

Keywords: computed tomography (CT), noise reduction, curve-let, contour-let, signal to noise peak-peak ratio (PSNR), structure similarity (Ssim), absorbed dose to patient (ADP)

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4474 Selection of Landscape Plant Species: A Experiment of Noise Reduction by Vibration of Plant Leaves

Authors: Li Mengmeng, Kang Jian


With the rapid development of the city, the noise pollution becomes more and more serious. Noise has seriously affected people's normal life, study and work. In addition, noise has seriously affected the city's ecological environment and the migration of birds. Therefore, it is urgent to control the noise. As one of natural noise-reducing materials, plants have been paid more and more attention. In urban landscape design, it is very important to choose plant species with good noise reduction effect to the sustainable development of urban ecology. The aim of this paper is to find out the characteristics of the plant with good noise reduction effect and apply it in urban landscape design. This study investigated the vibration of leaves of six plant species in a sound field using a Keyence (IG-1000/CCD) Laser Micrometer. The results of the experiments showed that the vibration speed of plant leaves increased obviously after being stimulated by sound source, about 5-10 times. In addition, when driven by the same sound, the speed of all leaves varied with the difference of leaf thickness, leaf size and leaf mass. The speed of all leaves would increase with the increase of leaf size and leaf mass, while those would decrease with the increase of leaf thickness.

Keywords: landscape design, leaf vibration , noise attenuation, plants configuration

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4473 Applying a Noise Reduction Method to Reveal Chaos in the River Flow Time Series

Authors: Mohammad H. Fattahi


Chaotic analysis has been performed on the river flow time series before and after applying the wavelet based de-noising techniques in order to investigate the noise content effects on chaotic nature of flow series. In this study, 38 years of monthly runoff data of three gauging stations were used. Gauging stations were located in Ghar-e-Aghaj river basin, Fars province, Iran. The noise level of time series was estimated with the aid of Gaussian kernel algorithm. This step was found to be crucial in preventing removal of the vital data such as memory, correlation and trend from the time series in addition to the noise during de-noising process.

Keywords: chaotic behavior, wavelet, noise reduction, river flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
4472 Predicting Automotive Interior Noise Including Wind Noise by Statistical Energy Analysis

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa


The applications of soundproof materials for reduction of high frequency automobile interior noise have been researched. This paper presents a sound pressure prediction technique including wind noise by Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis (HSEA) in order to reduce weight of acoustic insulations. HSEA uses both analytical SEA and experimental SEA. As a result of chassis dynamo test and road test, the validity of SEA modeling was shown, and utility of the method was confirmed.

Keywords: vibration, noise, road noise, statistical energy analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
4471 Design Optimization of Chevron Nozzles for Jet Noise Reduction

Authors: E. Manikandan, C. Chilambarasan, M. Sulthan Ariff Rahman, S. Kanagaraj, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The noise regulations around the major airports and rocket launching stations due to the environmental concern have made jet noise a crucial problem in the present day aero-acoustics research. The three main acoustic sources in jet nozzles are aerodynamics noise, noise from craft systems and engine and mechanical noise. Note that the majority of engine noise is due to the jet noise coming out from the exhaust nozzle. The previous studies reveal that the potential of chevron nozzles for aircraft engines noise reduction is promising owing to the fact that the jet noise continues to be the dominant noise component, especially during take-off. In this paper parametric analytical studies have been carried out for optimizing the number of chevron lobes, the lobe length and tip shape, and the level of penetration of the chevrons into the flow over a variety of flow conditions for various aerospace applications. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated steady 3D density based, SST k-ω turbulence model with enhanced wall functions. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Navier–Stokes equations is employed. We inferred that the geometry optimization of an environmental friendly chevron nozzle with a suitable number of chevron lobes with aerodynamically efficient tip contours for facilitating silent exit flow will enable a commendable sound reduction without much thrust penalty while comparing with the conventional supersonic nozzles with same area ratio.

Keywords: chevron nozzle, jet acoustic level, jet noise suppression, shape optimization of chevron nozzles

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4470 Wavelet Coefficients Based on Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) Based Filtering for Remotely Sensed Images

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur


In recent years, the technology of the remote sensing is growing rapidly. Image enhancement is one of most commonly used of image processing operations. Noise reduction plays very important role in digital image processing and various technologies have been located ahead to reduce the noise of the remote sensing images. The noise reduction using wavelet coefficients based on Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) has less consequences on the edges than available methods but this is not as establish in edge preservation techniques. So in this paper we provide a new technique minimum patch based noise reduction OMP which reduce the noise from an image and used edge preservation patch which preserve the edges of the image and presents the superior results than existing OMP technique. Experimental results show that the proposed minimum patch approach outperforms over existing techniques.

Keywords: image denoising, minimum patch, OMP, WCOMP

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4469 Sound Noise Control of a Steam Ejector in a Typical Power Plant: Design, Manufacturing, and Testing a Silencer-Muffler

Authors: Ali Siami, Masoud Asayesh, Asghar Najafi, Amirhosein Hamedanian


There are so many noise sources in power generation units that these sources can produce high-level sound noise. Therefore, sound noise reduction methods can assist these industries, especially in these days that laws related to environmental issues become more strict. In a typical power plant, so many machines and devices with high-level sound noise are arranged beside of each others. Therefore, the sound source identification and reducing the noise level can be very vital. In this paper, the procedure for designing, manufacturing and testing of a silencer-muffler used for a power plant steam vent is mentioned. This unit is placed near the residential area and so it is very important to reduce the noise emission. For this purpose, in the first step, measurements have done to identify the sound source and the frequency content of noise. The overall level of noise was so high and it was more than 120dB. Then, the appropriate noise control device is designed according to the measurement results and operational conditions. In the next step, the designed silencer-muffler has been manufactured and installed on the steam discharge of the ejector. For validation of the silencer-muffler effect, the acoustic test was done again in operating mode. Finally, the measurement results before and after the installation are compared. The results have confirmed a considerable reduction in noise level resultant of using silencer-muffler in the designed frequency range.

Keywords: silencer-muffler, sound noise control, sound measurement, steam ejector

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4468 Effect of Noise Reduction Algorithms on Temporal Splitting of Speech Signal to Improve Speech Perception for Binaural Hearing Aids

Authors: Rajani S. Pujar, Pandurangarao N. Kulkarni


Increased temporal masking affects the speech perception in persons with sensorineural hearing impairment especially under adverse listening conditions. This paper presents a cascaded scheme, which employs a noise reduction algorithm as well as temporal splitting of the speech signal. Earlier investigations have shown that by splitting the speech temporally and presenting alternate segments to the two ears help in reducing the effect of temporal masking. In this technique, the speech signal is processed by two fading functions, complementary to each other, and presented to left and right ears for binaural dichotic presentation. In the present study, half cosine signal is used as a fading function with crossover gain of 6 dB for the perceptual balance of loudness. Temporal splitting is combined with noise reduction algorithm to improve speech perception in the background noise. Two noise reduction schemes, namely spectral subtraction and Wiener filter are used. Listening tests were conducted on six normal-hearing subjects, with sensorineural loss simulated by adding broadband noise to the speech signal at different signal-to-noise ratios (∞, 3, 0, and -3 dB). Objective evaluation using PESQ was also carried out. The MOS score for VCV syllable /asha/ for SNR values of ∞, 3, 0, and -3 dB were 5, 4.46, 4.4 and 4.05 respectively, while the corresponding MOS scores for unprocessed speech were 5, 1.2, 0.9 and 0.65, indicating significant improvement in the perceived speech quality for the proposed scheme compared to the unprocessed speech.

Keywords: MOS, PESQ, spectral subtraction, temporal splitting, wiener filter

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4467 The Prediction of Reflection Noise and Its Reduction by Shaped Noise Barriers

Authors: I. L. Kim, J. Y. Lee, A. K. Tekile


In consequence of the very high urbanization rate of Korea, the number of traffic noise damages in areas congested with population and facilities is steadily increasing. The current environmental noise levels data in major cities of the country show that the noise levels exceed the standards set for both day and night times. This research was about comparative analysis in search for optimal soundproof panel shape and design factor that can minimize sound reflection noise. In addition to the normal flat-type panel shape, the reflection noise reduction of swelling-type, combined swelling and curved-type, and screen-type were evaluated. The noise source model Nord 2000, which often provides abundant information compared to models for the similar purpose, was used in the study to determine the overall noise level. Based on vehicle categorization in Korea, the noise levels for varying frequency from different heights of the sound source (directivity heights of Harmonize model) have been calculated for simulation. Each simulation has been made using the ray-tracing method. The noise level has also been calculated using the noise prediction program called SoundPlan 7.2, for comparison. The noise level prediction was made at 15m (R1), 30 m (R2) and at middle of the road, 2m (R3) receiving the point. By designing the noise barriers by shape and running the prediction program by inserting the noise source on the 2nd lane to the noise barrier side, among the 6 lanes considered, the reflection noise slightly decreased or increased in all noise barriers. At R1, especially in the cases of the screen-type noise barriers, there was no reduction effect predicted in all conditions. However, the swelling-type showed a decrease of 0.7~1.2 dB at R1, performing the best reduction effect among the tested noise barriers. Compared to other forms of noise barriers, the swelling-type was thought to be the most suitable for reducing the reflection noise; however, since a slight increase was predicted at R2, further research based on a more sophisticated categorization of related design factors is necessary. Moreover, as swellings are difficult to produce and the size of the modules are smaller than other panels, it is challenging to install swelling-type noise barriers. If these problems are solved, its applicable region will not be limited to other types of noise barriers. Hence, when a swelling-type noise barrier is installed at a downtown region where the amount of traffic is increasing every day, it will both secure visibility through the transparent walls and diminish any noise pollution due to the reflection. Moreover, when decorated with shapes and design, noise barriers will achieve a visual attraction than a flat-type one and thus will alleviate any psychological hardships related to noise, other than the unique physical soundproofing functions of the soundproof panels.

Keywords: reflection noise, shaped noise barriers, sound proof panel, traffic noise

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4466 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly


Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: exhaust system, expansion chamber, engine speed, spectra

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4465 'Low Electronic Noise' Detector Technology in Computed Tomography

Authors: A. Ikhlef


Image noise in computed tomography, is mainly caused by the statistical noise, system noise reconstruction algorithm filters. Since last few years, low dose x-ray imaging became more and more desired and looked as a technical differentiating technology among CT manufacturers. In order to achieve this goal, several technologies and techniques are being investigated, including both hardware (integrated electronics and photon counting) and software (artificial intelligence and machine learning) based solutions. From a hardware point of view, electronic noise could indeed be a potential driver for low and ultra-low dose imaging. We demonstrated that the reduction or elimination of this term could lead to a reduction of dose without affecting image quality. Also, in this study, we will show that we can achieve this goal using conventional electronics (low cost and affordable technology), designed carefully and optimized for maximum detective quantum efficiency. We have conducted the tests using large imaging objects such as 30 cm water and 43 cm polyethylene phantoms. We compared the image quality with conventional imaging protocols with radiation as low as 10 mAs (<< 1 mGy). Clinical validation of such results has been performed as well.

Keywords: computed tomography, electronic noise, scintillation detector, x-ray detector

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4464 Experimental Investigation on Noise from Rod-Airfoil with Leading Edge Serrations

Authors: Siti Ruhliah Lizarose Samion, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Con Doolan


The present work is an experimental investigation of adapting a passive treatment leading edge serrations over a rod-airfoil flow-induced noise generation. The leading edge serrations are bio-inspired from a barn-owl silent flight. The rod-airfoil configuration is a benchmark configuration taken to investigate airfoil-turbulence interaction noise (ATIN). Location of serrations placed and the wideness of serrations are the two parameters taken in this study. The ATIN is reduced up to 3.5 dB for a wide leading serrations case. A correlation is found between the wideness of serrations and the noise reduction mechanism of the airfoil.

Keywords: aerodynamic noise, leading edge serrations, rod-airfoil, experiment

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4463 Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa, Takao Yamaguchi


High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy for designers. In this report, the outline of this tool and an analysis example applied to floor mat are introduced.

Keywords: automobile, acoustics, porous material, transfer matrix method

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4462 The Materiality of Noise Barriers: Sustainability Approach

Authors: Mostafa Gabr, Rania Abdul Galil, Nihal Salim


Various interventions are applied in cities with the aim to improve living and acoustic environmental conditions. Noise is one of the most influential and critical factors in the environment that has an effect on the QOL (quality of life) and urban environment. It ranks second among environmental pollution issues according to EEAA. Traffic noise is a major source of noise. Noise barriers are one of the physical techniques in landscape design used to reduce the impact of noise pollution in urban areas. Roadways noise pollution can be best controlled by a noise barrier. The aim of this paper is to consider all facets of sustainability when designing a comfortable acoustic environment in roadways, through different strategies related to planning and the design process. The study focuses on the relation between the design of noise barriers as a landscape noise mitigation installation and their materiality in so far as it influences the sustainability of the open space and the acceptability of users. According to previous studies, design of noise barrier mainly depends on cost as a decisive factor. This study asserts that environmental and socioeconomic costs associated are equally important. Hence, the paper presents a strategy for sustainable soundscape design. It builds a framework focusing on materiality considering the environmental and socioeconomic impact of noise barriers shaping urban open space around the road ways, and the different academic and market positions on noise barrier types and materials. Finally, it concludes with a matrix of the relation between the noise barrier design consideration and the three pillars of sustainability (social, economic and environmental).

Keywords: traffic noise level, acoustic sustainability, noise barrier, noise reduction, noise control, acoustical level

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4461 A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior

Authors: Himanshu Dehra


This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.

Keywords: human brain, noise behavior, noise characterization, noise filters, physiological responses, psychoacoustics

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
4460 Estimation of Noise Barriers for Arterial Roads of Delhi

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Parul Madan


Traffic noise pollution has become a challenging problem for all metro cities of India due to rapid urbanization, growing population and rising number of vehicles and transport development. In Delhi the prime source of noise pollution is vehicular traffic. In Delhi it is found that the ambient noise level (Leq) is exceeding the standard permissible value at all the locations. Noise barriers or enclosures are definitely useful in obtaining effective deduction of traffic noise disturbances in urbanized areas. US’s Federal Highway Administration Model (FHWA) and Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CORTN) of UK are used to develop spread sheets for noise prediction. Spread sheets are also developed for evaluating effectiveness of existing boundary walls abutting houses in mitigating noise, redesigning them as noise barriers. Study was also carried out to examine the changes in noise level due to designed noise barrier by using both models FHWA and CORTN respectively. During the collection of various data it is found that receivers are located far away from road at Rithala and Moolchand sites and hence extra barrier height needed to meet prescribed limits was less as seen from calculations and most of the noise diminishes by propagation effect.On the basis of overall study and data analysis, it is concluded that FHWA and CORTN models under estimate noise levels. FHWA model predicted noise levels with an average percentage error of -7.33 and CORTN predicted with an average percentage error of -8.5. It was observed that at all sites noise levels at receivers were exceeding the standard limit of 55 dB. It was seen from calculations that existing walls are reducing noise levels. Average noise reduction due to walls at Rithala was 7.41 dB and at Panchsheel was 7.20 dB and lower amount of noise reduction was observed at Friend colony which was only 5.88. It was observed from analysis that Friends colony sites need much greater height of barrier. This was because of residential buildings abutting the road. At friends colony great amount of traffic was observed since it is national highway. At this site diminishing of noise due to propagation effect was very less.As FHWA and CORTN models were developed in excel programme, it eliminates laborious calculations of noise. There was no reflection correction in FHWA models as like in CORTN model.

Keywords: IFHWA, CORTN, Noise Sources, Noise Barriers

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4459 Acoustics Barrier Design to Reduce Railway Noise by Using Maekawa's Method

Authors: Malinda Sabrina, Khoerul Anwar


Railway noise generated by pass-by train has been described as a form of environmental pollutants especially for the residential area near the railway. Many studies have shown, that environmental noise particularly transportation noise has negative effects on people which resulting in annoyance and specific health problems such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and sleep disturbance. Therefore, various attempts are made to reduce the noise. One method of reducing such noise to acceptable noise levels is to build acoustically barrier walls. The objective of this study was to review the method of reducing railway noise and obtain the preliminary design of the acoustics barrier on the edge of railway tracks close to the residential area. The design of this barrier is using the Maekawa's method. Measurements have been performed in residential areas around the railroads in the Karawang - Indonesia with the absence of an acoustical barrier. From the observation, it was found that the railway was passed by five trains within thirty minutes. With the limited distance between the railway tracks and the location of the residential area as well as the street of residents, then it was obtained that a reduction in sound pressure level is 25 dBA. Maximum sound pressure level obtained is 86.9 dBA then by setting the barrier as high as 4 m at a distance, 2.5 m from the railway, the noise level received by residents in the settlement around the railway line becomes 61.9 dBA.

Keywords: acoustics barrier, Maekawa's method, noise attenuation, railway noise

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4458 Speckle Noise Reduction Using Anisotropic Filter Based on Wavelets

Authors: Kritika Bansal, Akwinder Kaur, Shruti Gujral


In this paper, the approach of denoising is solved by using a new hybrid technique which associates the different denoising methods. Wavelet thresholding and anisotropic diffusion filter are the two different filters in our hybrid techniques. The Wavelet thresholding removes the noise by removing the high frequency components with lesser edge preservation, whereas an anisotropic diffusion filters is based on partial differential equation, (PDE) to remove the speckle noise. This PDE approach is used to preserve the edges and provides better smoothing. So our new method proposes a combination of these two filtering methods which performs better results in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), coefficient of correlation (COC) and equivalent no of looks (ENL).

Keywords: denoising, anisotropic diffusion filter, multiplicative noise, speckle, wavelets

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4457 Ear Protectors and Their Action in Protecting Hearing System of Workers against Occupational Noise

Authors: F. Forouharmajd, S. Pourabdian, N. Ziayi Ghahnavieh


For many years, the ear protectors have been used to preventing the audio and non-audio effects of received noise from occupation environments. Despite performing hearing protection programs, there are many people which still suffer from noise-induced hearing loss. This study was conducted with the aim of determination of human hearing system response to received noise and the effectiveness of ear protectors on preventing of noise-induced hearing loss. Sound pressure microphones were placed in a simulated ear canal. The severity of noise measured inside and outside of ear canal. The noise reduction values due to installing ear protectors were calculated in the octave band frequencies and LabVIEW programmer. The results of noise measurement inside and outside of ear canal showed a different in received sound levels by ear canal. The effectiveness of ear protectors has been considerably reduced for the low frequency limits. A change in resonance frequency also was observed after using ear protectors. The study indicated the ear canal structure may affect the received noise and it may lead a difference between the received sound from the measured sound by a sound level meter, and hearing system. It means the human hearing system may probably respond different from a sound level meter. Hearing protectors’ efficiency declines by increasing the noise levels, and thus, they are not suitable to protect workers against industrial noise particularly low frequency noise. Hearing protectors may be solely a reason to damaging of hearing system in a special frequency via changing of human hearing system acoustical structure. We need developing the subjective method of hearing protectors testing, because their evaluation is not designed based on industrial noise or in the field.

Keywords: ear protector, hearing system, occupational noise, workers

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4456 Reduction of Impulsive Noise in OFDM System using Adaptive Algorithm

Authors: Alina Mirza, Sumrin M. Kabir, Shahzad A. Sheikh


The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with high data rate, high spectral efficiency and its ability to mitigate the effects of multipath makes them most suitable in wireless application. Impulsive noise distorts the OFDM transmission and therefore methods must be investigated to suppress this noise. In this paper, a State Space Recursive Least Square (SSRLS) algorithm based adaptive impulsive noise suppressor for OFDM communication system is proposed. And a comparison with another adaptive algorithm is conducted. The state space model-dependent recursive parameters of proposed scheme enables to achieve steady state mean squared error (MSE), low bit error rate (BER), and faster convergence than that of some of existing algorithm.

Keywords: OFDM, impulsive noise, SSRLS, BER

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4455 Digital Forgery Detection by Signal Noise Inconsistency

Authors: Bo Liu, Chi-Man Pun


A novel technique for digital forgery detection by signal noise inconsistency is proposed in this paper. The forged area spliced from the other picture contains some features which may be inconsistent with the rest part of the image. Noise pattern and the level is a possible factor to reveal such inconsistency. To detect such noise discrepancies, the test picture is initially segmented into small pieces. The noise pattern and level of each segment are then estimated by using various filters. The noise features constructed in this step are utilized in energy-based graph cut to expose forged area in the final step. Experimental results show that our method provides a good illustration of regions with noise inconsistency in various scenarios.

Keywords: forgery detection, splicing forgery, noise estimation, noise

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4454 A Novel RLS Based Adaptive Filtering Method for Speech Enhancement

Authors: Pogula Rakesh, T. Kishore Kumar


Speech enhancement is a long standing problem with numerous applications like teleconferencing, VoIP, hearing aids, and speech recognition. The motivation behind this research work is to obtain a clean speech signal of higher quality by applying the optimal noise cancellation technique. Real-time adaptive filtering algorithms seem to be the best candidate among all categories of the speech enhancement methods. In this paper, we propose a speech enhancement method based on Recursive Least Squares (RLS) adaptive filter of speech signals. Experiments were performed on noisy data which was prepared by adding AWGN, Babble and Pink noise to clean speech samples at -5dB, 0dB, 5dB, and 10dB SNR levels. We then compare the noise cancellation performance of proposed RLS algorithm with existing NLMS algorithm in terms of Mean Squared Error (MSE), Signal to Noise ratio (SNR), and SNR loss. Based on the performance evaluation, the proposed RLS algorithm was found to be a better optimal noise cancellation technique for speech signals.

Keywords: adaptive filter, adaptive noise canceller, mean squared error, noise reduction, NLMS, RLS, SNR, SNR loss

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4453 Prediction of Conducted EMI Noise in a Converter

Authors: Jon Cobb, Nasir


Due to higher switching frequencies, the conducted Electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise is generated in a converter. It degrades the performance of a switching converter. Therefore, it is an essential requirement to mitigate EMI noise of high performance converter. Moreover, it includes two types of emission such as common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) noise. CM noise is due to parasitic capacitance present in a converter and DM noise is caused by switching current. However, there is dire need to understand the main cause of EMI noise. Hence, we propose a novel method to predict conducted EMI noise of different converter topologies during early stage. This paper also presents the comparison of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise due to different SMPS topologies. We also make an attempt to develop an EMI noise model for a converter which allows detailed performance analysis. The proposed method is applied to different converter, as an example, and experimental results are verified the novel prediction technique.

Keywords: EMI, electromagnetic interference, SMPS, switch-mode power supply, common mode, CM, differential mode, DM, noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 245