Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: P. Alvarez

69 Production and Evaluation of Activated Carbon from Oil Palm Kernel Shell in the Removal of Paraquat Diluted in Water

Authors: Sonia L. Rincon Prat, Oscar F. Alvarez Alvarez, Daniel M. Alvarez Villanueva

Abstract:

Oil Palm Kernel Shell (OPKS) is a residue of the palm oil extraction process, which has good characteristics for the production of activated carbon (AC). Colombia ranks fourth in the world in palm oil production, and it is estimated that in 2018, the amount of produced OPKS was approximately 350,000 tons per year. Within the contaminants of surface waters, the pesticide Paraquat is identified as one of the most dangerous for human health and most used in agriculture in Colombia. Oil palm kernel shells were first carbonized in a horizontal oven under N₂ atmosphere until 850 °C for 30 min. After that, three batches, each of 300 g of the carbonized OPKS (C- OPKS), were activated in the same horizontal reactor by means of partial gasification using H₂O as reaction agent. The activation process starts with a heating stage by raising the temperature from 20 °C to 850 °C in approximately 280 minutes under a flow of 0.481 l/min N₂ at standard conditions. Subsequently, in the activation stage, the flow of N₂ is suspended and replaced by a flow of 4 ml/min steam (measurement in liquid state before going through the evaporation system) while maintaining the temperature at 850 ± 10 °C for another 310 minutes. Finally, the flow of steam is changed to N₂ and the oven is cooled down until ambient temperature. As a result of the activation process (partial gasification), an activated carbon (AC-OPKS) with approximately 50 % degree of activation and a surface area of 1200 m²/g were obtained. The activated carbon is characterized by means of determination of pH, soluble water content, extractable acid content, iodine number, methylene blue index, phenol adsorption, BET surface area from N₂ adsorption and density. The adsorption capacity of the AC-OPKS towards Paraquat is studied by measuring breakthrough curves in an adsorption column using initial concentrations of Paraquat between 600 µg/l and 5000 µg/l. A comparison is performed by using a commercial activated carbon CO-AC from the company Donau Carbon ref. Hydraffin. The determination of the concentration of Paraquat in water is made by voltammetry. This technique provides the necessary sensitivity and is economical and accessible.

Keywords: Removal of contaminants, activated carbon, oil palm kernel shell, partial gasification

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68 Integration of LCA and BIM for Sustainable Construction

Authors: Laura Álvarez Antón, Joaquín Díaz

Abstract:

The construction industry is turning towards sustainability. It is a well-known fact that sustainability is based on a balance between environmental, social and economic aspects. In order to achieve sustainability efficiently, these three criteria should be taken into account in the initial project phases, since that is when a project can be influenced most effectively. Thus the aim must be to integrate important tools like BIM and LCA at an early stage in order to make full use of their potential. With the synergies resulting from the integration of BIM and LCA, a wider approach to sustainability becomes possible, covering the three pillars of sustainability.

Keywords: Sustainability, construction industry, Design Phase, building information modeling (BIM), life cycle assessment (LCA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
67 Touching Interaction: An NFC-RFID Combination

Authors: Gabriel Chavira, Jorge Orozco, Eduardo Álvarez, Gerardo Quiroga

Abstract:

AmI proposes a new way of thinking about computers, which follows the ideas of the Ubiquitous Computing vision of Mark Weiser. In these, there is what is known as a Disappearing Computer Initiative, with users immersed in intelligent environments. Hence, technologies need to be adapted so that they are capable of replacing the traditional inputs to the system by embedding these in every-day artifacts. In this work, we present an approach, which uses Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC) technologies. In the latter, a new form of interaction appears by contact. We compare both technologies by analyzing their requirements and advantages. In addition, we propose using a combination of RFID and NFC.

Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing, Interaction, Ambient intelligence, touching interaction, NFC and RFID

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66 The Effects of Wealth on Eco-Centric and Anthropocentric Environmentalism: A Statistical Approach Using the World Values Survey

Authors: Rubi Alvarez-Rodriguez

Abstract:

Traditionally, eco-centric and anthropocentric forms of environmentalism have been seen as mutually exclusive. While eco-centrism focuses on global environmental issues, anthropocentrism is concerned with local ones. The objective of this paper is to characterize the relationship between eco-centric and anthropocentric attitudes across 43 countries. This study analysed secondary data from the 2005 World Values Survey, using a standard linear regression approach. It is shown that eco-centric and anthropocentric attitudes are not mutually exclusive and that the predominance of one over the other is best predicted by a country’s level of wealth.

Keywords: Anthropocentrism, wealth, eco-centrism, pro-environmental attitudes

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
65 The Effect of Outliers on the Economic and Social Survey on Income and Living Conditions

Authors: Juan F. Muñoz, Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

Abstract:

The European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is a popular survey which provides information on income, poverty, social exclusion and living conditions of households and individuals in the European Union. The EUSILC contains variables which may contain outliers. The presence of outliers can have an impact on the measures and indicators used by the EU-SILC. In this paper, we used data sets from various countries to analyze the presence of outliers. In addition, we obtain some indicators after removing these outliers, and a comparison between both situations can be observed. Finally, some conclusions are obtained.

Keywords: poverty line, risk of poverty, skewness coefficient, headcount index

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
64 Neural Correlates of Arabic Digits Naming

Authors: Fernando Ojedo, Alejandro Alvarez, Pedro Macizo

Abstract:

In the present study, we explored electrophysiological correlates of Arabic digits naming to determine semantic processing of numbers. Participants named Arabic digits grouped by category or intermixed with exemplars of other semantic categories while the N400 event-related potential was examined. Around 350-450 ms after the presentation of Arabic digits, brain waves were more positive in anterior regions and more negative in posterior regions when stimuli were grouped by category relative to the mixed condition. Contrary to what was found in other studies, electrophysiological results suggested that the production of numerals involved semantic mediation.

Keywords: semantic processing, Arabic digit naming, event-related potentials, number production

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63 On Estimating the Headcount Index by Using the Logistic Regression Estimator

Authors: Juan F. Muñoz, Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

Abstract:

The problem of estimating a proportion has important applications in the field of economics, and in general, in many areas such as social sciences. A common application in economics is the estimation of the headcount index. In this paper, we define the general headcount index as a proportion. Furthermore, we introduce a new quantitative method for estimating the headcount index. In particular, we suggest to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the headcount index. Assuming a real data set, results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the traditional estimator of the headcount index.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulations, poverty line, poor, risk of poverty, sample

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62 Touch Interaction through Tagging Context

Authors: Gabriel Chavira, Jorge Orozco, Salvador Nava, Eduardo Álvarez, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo

Abstract:

Ambient Intelligence promotes a shift in computing which involves fitting-out the environments with devices to support context-aware applications. One of main objectives is the reduction to a minimum of the user’s interactive effort, the diversity and quantity of devices with which people are surrounded with, in existing environments; increase the level of difficulty to achieve this goal. The mobile phones and their amazing global penetration, makes it an excellent device for delivering new services to the user, without requiring a learning effort. The environment will have to be able to perceive all of the interaction techniques. In this paper, we present the PICTAC model (Perceiving touch Interaction through TAgging Context), which similarly delivers service to members of a research group.

Keywords: Ambient intelligence, tagging context, touch interaction, touching services

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61 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López

Abstract:

In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes

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60 A Comparison between Empirical and Theoretical OC Curves Related to Acceptance Sampling for Attributes

Authors: Juan F. Muñoz, Encarnación Álvarez, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda, Noemı Hidalgo-Rebollo

Abstract:

Many companies use the technique named as acceptance sampling which consists on the inspection and decision making regarding products. According to the results derived from this method, the company takes the decision of acceptance or rejection of a product. The acceptance sampling can be applied to the technology management, since the acceptance sampling can be seen as a tool to improve the design planning, operation and control of technological products. The theoretical operating characteristic (OC) curves are widely used when dealing with acceptance sampling. In this paper, we carry out Monte Carlo simulation studies to compare numerically the empirical OC curves derived from the empirical results to the customary theoretical OC curves. We analyze various possible scenarios in such a way that the differences between the empirical and theoretical curves can be observed under different situations.

Keywords: Quality Control, Monte Carlo Simulation, single-sampling plan, lot

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59 Renewable Energy System Eolic-Photovoltaic for the Touristic Center La Tranca-Chordeleg in Ecuador

Authors: Christian Castro Samaniego, Daniel Icaza Alvarez, Juan Portoviejo Brito

Abstract:

For this research work, hybrid wind-photovoltaic (SHEF) systems were considered as renewable energy sources that take advantage of wind energy and solar radiation to transform into electrical energy. In the present research work, the feasibility of a wind-photovoltaic hybrid generation system was analyzed for the La Tranca tourist viewpoint of the Chordeleg canton in Ecuador. The research process consisted of the collection of data on solar radiation, temperature, wind speed among others by means of a meteorological station. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink based on a mathematical model. In the end, we compared the theoretical radiation-power curves and the measurements made at the site.

Keywords: Modeling, Simulation, Validation, Hybrid System, Wind turbine, Ecuador, experimental data, panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
58 Model Based Development of a Processing Map for Friction Stir Welding of AA7075

Authors: Elizabeth Hoyos, Hernán Alvarez, Diana Lopez, Yesid Montoya

Abstract:

The main goal of this research relates to the modeling of FSW from a different or unusual perspective coming from mechanical engineering, particularly looking for a way to establish process windows by assessing soundness of the joints as a priority and with the added advantage of lower computational time. This paper presents the use of a previously developed model applied to specific aspects of soundness evaluation of AA7075 FSW welds. EMSO software (Environment for Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization) was used for simulation and an adapted CNC machine was used for actual welding. This model based approach showed good agreement with the experimental data, from which it is possible to set a window of operation for commercial aluminum alloy AA7075, all with low computational costs and employing simple quality indicators that can be used by non-specialized users in process modeling.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, aluminum AA7075, phenomenological based semiphysical model, processing map

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57 Economic Design of a Quality Control Chart for the Proportion of Defective Items

Authors: Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda, Juan F. Muñoz-Rosas, Encarnación Álvarez-Verdejo, Pablo J. Moya-Fernández, Raúl Amor-Pulido

Abstract:

Many companies use the statistical tool named as statistical quality control, and which can have a high cost for the companies interested on these statistical tools. The evaluation of the quality of products and services is an important topic, but the reduction of the cost of the implantation of the statistical quality control also has important benefits for the companies. For this reason, it is important to implement a economic design for the various steps included into the statistical quality control. In this paper, we describe some relevant aspects related to the economic design of a quality control chart for the proportion of defective items. They are very important because the suggested issues can reduce the cost of implementing a quality control chart for the proportion of defective items. Note that the main purpose of this chart is to evaluate and control the proportion of defective items of a production process.

Keywords: type i error, distribution function, proportion, economic plan

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56 Learning through Gaming with Mobile Devices

Authors: Juan Manuel Peña Aguilar, Luis Rodrigo Valencia Pérez, Adelina Morita Alexander, Alberto Lamadrid Alvarez, Héctor Fernando Valencia Pérez

Abstract:

Financial education is among the areas of opportunity in the Spanish-speaking from an early age to high school, through mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets using ludic and fun applications like interactive games, children can learn money management and investment through time, thereby fostering the habit of saving and/or sound management of cash and family business resources, having interaction with an uncontrolled environment such as the involvement of other players in the external decisions of the environment in which the game is play. The application proposed in Phase 1 (design and development) was designed in multi-user environments, under methodologies of hybrid programming for any platform on the market and designed under CMMI standards that allow for quality production over time, following up on these improvements counting with continuous user feedback and usage statistics.

Keywords: Children, multiuser, mobile educational games, ludic games, design and software development

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55 A New Method to Estimate the Low Income Proportion: Monte Carlo Simulations

Authors: Juan F. Muñoz, Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández

Abstract:

Estimation of a proportion has many applications in economics and social studies. A common application is the estimation of the low income proportion, which gives the proportion of people classified as poor into a population. In this paper, we present this poverty indicator and propose to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the low income proportion. Various sampling designs are presented. Assuming a real data set obtained from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions, Monte Carlo simulation studies are carried out to analyze the empirical performance of the logistic regression estimator under the various sampling designs considered in this paper. Results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the customary estimator under the various sampling designs considered in this paper. The stratified sampling design can also provide more accurate results.

Keywords: auxiliary variable, poverty line, risk of poverty, ratio method

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54 An AFM Approach of RBC Micro and Nanoscale Topographic Features During Storage

Authors: K. Santacruz-Gomez, E. Silva-Campa, S. Álvarez-García, V. Mata-Haro, D. Soto-Puebla, M. Pedroza-Montero

Abstract:

Blood gamma irradiation is the only available method to prevent transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). However, when blood is irradiated, determine blood shelf time is crucial. Non-irradiated blood has a self-time from 21 to 35 days when is preserved with an anticoagulated solution and stored at 4°C. During their storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo a series of biochemical, biomechanical and molecular changes involving what is known as storage lesion (SL). SL include loss of structural integrity of RBC, a decrease of 2,3-diphosphatidylglyceric acid levels, and an increase of both ion potassium concentration and hemoglobin (Hb). On the other hand, Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) represents a versatile tool for a nano-scale high-resolution topographic analysis in biological systems. In order to evaluate SL in irradiated and non-irradiated blood, RBC topography and morphometric parameters were obtained from an AFM XE-BIO system. Cell viability was followed using flow cytometry. Our results showed that early markers as nanoscale roughness, allow us to evaluate blood quality since another perspective.

Keywords: roughness, AFM, blood γ-irradiation, storage lesion

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53 Application of Transform Fourier for Dynamic Control of Structures with Global Positioning System

Authors: J. M. de Luis Ruiz, P. M. Sierra García, R. P. García, R. P. Álvarez, F. P. García, E. C. López

Abstract:

Given the evolution of viaducts, structural health monitoring requires more complex techniques to define their state. two alternatives can be distinguished: experimental and operational modal analysis. Although accelerometers or Global Positioning System (GPS) have been applied for the monitoring of structures under exploitation, the dynamic monitoring during the stage of construction is not common. This research analyzes whether GPS data can be applied to certain dynamic geometric controls of evolving structures. The fundamentals of this work were applied to the New Bridge of Cádiz (Spain), a worldwide milestone in bridge building. GPS data were recorded with an interval of 1 second during the erection of segments and turned to the frequency domain with Fourier transform. The vibration period and amplitude were contrasted with those provided by the finite element model, with differences of less than 10%, which is admissible. This process provides a vibration record of the structure with GPS, avoiding specific equipment.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Operational modal analysis, Fourier transform, global position system

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52 Asymmetric Warfare: Exploratory Study of the Implicit Defense Strategy of the People's Republic of China in 2012-2016

Authors: María Victoria Alvarez Magañini, Lautaro Nahuel Rubbi

Abstract:

According to different theories, the hegemonic war between the United States and the People's Republic of China seems to be imminent. However, nowadays, it is clear that China's conventional military capacity is inferior to that of the United States. Nevertheless, the conditions that in the past were considered to be an indicator of validity in asymmetrical warfare, at present, in a possible asymmetric war scenario, are no longer considered to be taken as such. The military capacity is not the only concept that represents the main indicator of victory. The organisation and the use of forces are also an essential part of it. The present paper aims to analyze the Chinese Defense Strategy in relation to the concept of asymmetric warfare in the face of a possible war with the United States. The starting point will be developed on the basis of application of the theory which corresponds to the concept aforementioned making focus on recent developments of the People’s Republic of China in the field of non-conventional defense. A comparative analysis of the conventional forces of both powers/countries will also be carried out.

Keywords: China, Asymmetric Warfare, United States, hegemonic warfare

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51 A Novel Photocrosslinkable and Cytocompatible Chitosan Coating for TI6AL4V Surfaces

Authors: D. Zujur, J. Moret, D. Rodriguez, L. Cruz, J. Lira, L. Gil, E. Dominguez, J. F. Alvarez-Barreto

Abstract:

In this work, chitosan (CH) has been used to produce a novel coating for Ti6Al4V, the most widely used alloy in orthopedic implants, so as to improve the biological tissue response at the metallic surface. The Ti6Al4V surface was sandblasted with alumina particles and observed by SEM. Chitosan was chemically modified, via crodiimide chemistry, with lactobionic and 4-azidebenzoic acid to make it soluble at physiological pH and photo-crosslinkable, respectively. The reaction was verified by FTIR, NMR, and UV/vis spectroscopy. Ti6Al4V surfaces were coated with solutions of the modified CH and exposed to UV light, causing the polymer crosslinking, and formation of a hydrogel on the surface. The crosslinking reaction was monitored by FTIR at different exposure times. Coating morphology was observed by SEM. The coating´s cytocompatibility was determined in vitro through the culture of rat bone marrow´s mesenchymal stem cells, using an MTT assay. The results show that the developed coating is cytocompatible, easy to apply and could be used for further studies in the encapsulation of bioactive molecules to improve osteogenic potential at the tissue-implant interface.

Keywords: Hydrogel, chitosan, photo-crosslinking, Ti6Al4V, bioactive coating

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50 Synthesis and Characterization of Ferromagnetic Ni-Cu Alloys for Thermal Rectification Applications

Authors: Jaime Alvarez Quintana, Josue Javier Martinez Flores

Abstract:

A thermal rectifier consists of a device which can load a different heat flow which depends on the direction of that flow. That device is a thermal diode. It is well known that heat transfer in solids basically depends on the electrical, magnetic and crystalline nature of materials via electrons, magnons and phonons as thermal energy carriers respectively. In the present research, we have synthesized polycrystalline Ni-Cu alloys and identified the Curie temperatures; and we have observed that by way of secondary phase transitions, it is possible manipulate the heat conduction in solid state thermal diodes via transition temperature. In this sense, we have succeeded in developing solid state thermal diodes with a control gate through the Curie temperature via the activation and deactivation of magnons in Ni-Cu ferromagnetic alloys at room temperature. Results show thermal diodes with thermal rectification factors up to 1.5. Besides, the performance of the electrical rectifiers can be controlled by way of alloy Cu content; hence, lower Cu content alloys present enhanced thermal rectifications factors than higher ones.

Keywords: curie temperature, thermal rectification, ferromagnetic alloys, magnons

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
49 Modeling and Simulation of a Hybrid System Solar Panel and Wind Turbine in the Quingeo Heritage Center in Ecuador

Authors: Christian Castro Samaniego, Daniel Icaza Alvarez, Juan Portoviejo Brito

Abstract:

In this article, we present the modeling, simulations, and energy conversion analysis of the solar-wind system for the Quingeo Heritage Center in Ecuador. A numerical model was constructed based on the 19 equations, it was coded in MATLAB R2017a, and the results were compared with the experimental data of the site. The model is built with the purpose of using it as a computer development for the optimization of resources and designs of hybrid systems in the Parish of Quingeo and its surroundings. The model obtained a fairly similar pattern compared to the data and curves obtained in the field experimentally and detailed in manuscript. It is important to indicate that this analysis has been carried out so that in the near future one or two of these power generation systems can be exploited in a massive way according to the budget assigned by the Parish GAD of Quingeo or other national or international organizations with the purpose of preserving this unique colonial helmet in Ecuador.

Keywords: Modeling, Simulation, Smart Grid, Hybrid System, Wind turbine, Quingeo Azuay Ecuador

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48 Batch Biodrying of Pulp and Paper Secondary Sludge: Influence of Initial Moisture Content on the Process

Authors: César Huiliñir, Danilo Villanueva, Pedro Iván Alvarez, Francisco Cubillos

Abstract:

Biodrying aims at removing water from biowastes and has been mostly studied for municipal solid wastes (MSW), while few studies have dealt with secondary sludge from the paper and pulp industry. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of initial moisture content (MC) on the batch biodrying of pulp and paper secondary sludge, using rice husks as bulking agents. Three initial MCs were studied (54, 65, and 74% w.b.) in closed batch laboratory-scale reactors under adiabatic conditions and with a constant air-flow rate (0.65 l min-1 kg-1 wet solid). The initial MC of the mixture of secondary sludge and rice husks showed a significant effect on the biodrying process. Using initial moisture content between 54-65% w.b., the solid moisture content was reduce up to 37 % w.b. in ten days, getting calorific values between 8000-9000 kJ kg-1. It was concluded that a decreasing of initial MC improves the drying rate and decreases the solid volatile consumption, therefore, the optimization of biodrying should consider this parameter.

Keywords: rice husk, biodrying, secondary sludge, initial moisture content, pulp and paper industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
47 Heritage 3D Digitalization Combining High Definition Photogrammetry with Metrologic Grade Laser Scans

Authors: Sebastian Oportus, Fabrizio Alvarez

Abstract:

3D digitalization of heritage objects is widely used nowadays. However, the most advanced 3D scanners in the market that capture topology and texture at the same time, and are specifically made for this purpose, don’t deliver the accuracy that is needed for scientific research. In the last three years, we have developed a method that combines the use of Metrologic grade laser scans, that allows us to work with a high accuracy topology up to 15 times more precise and combine this mesh with a texture obtained from high definition photogrammetry with up to 100 times more pixel concentrations. The result is an accurate digitalization that promotes heritage preservation, scientific study, high detail reproduction, and digital restoration, among others. In Chile, we have already performed 478 digitalizations of high-value heritage pieces and compared the results with up to five different digitalization methods; the results obtained show a considerable better dimensional accuracy and texture resolution. We know the importance of high precision and resolution for academics and museology; that’s why our proposal is to set a worldwide standard using this open source methodology.

Keywords: Digital Heritage, heritage preservation, digital restauration, heritage reproduction

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46 Detection of Biomechanical Stress for the Prevention of Disability Derived from Musculoskeletal Disorders

Authors: Leydi Noemi Peraza Gómez, Jose Álvarez Nemegyei, Damaris Francis Estrella Castillo

Abstract:

In order to have an epidemiological tool to detect biomechanical stress (ERGO-Mex), which impose physical labor or recreational activities, a questionnaire is constructed in Spanish, validated and culturally adapted to the Mayan indigenous population of Yucatan. Through the seven steps proposed by Guillemin and Beaton the procedure was: initial translation, synthesis of the translations, feed back of the translation. After that review by a committee of experts, pre-test of the preliminary version, and presentation of the results to the committee of experts and members of the community. Finally the evaluation of its internal validity (Cronbach's α coefficient) and external (intraclass correlation coefficient). The results for the validation in Spanish indicated that 45% of the participants have biomechanical stress. The ERGO-Mex correlation was 0.69 (p <0.0001). Subjects with high biomechanical stress had a higher score than subjects with low biomechanical stress (17.4 ± 8.9 vs.9.8 ± 2.8, p = 0.003). The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.92; and for validation in Cronbach's α maya it was 0.82 and CCI = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.58-0.79; p˂0.0001); ERGO-Mex is suitable for performing early detection of musculoskeletal diseases and helping to prevent disability.

Keywords: Prevention, Disability, Musculoskeletal Disorders, biomechanical stress

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45 Brain Computer Interface Implementation for Affective Computing Sensing: Classifiers Comparison

Authors: Ramón Aparicio-García, Gustavo Juárez Gracia, Jesús Álvarez Cedillo

Abstract:

A research line of the computer science that involve the study of the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), which search to recognize and interpret the user intent by the storage and the subsequent analysis of the electrical signals of the brain, for using them in the control of electronic devices. On the other hand, the affective computing research applies the human emotions in the HCI process helping to reduce the user frustration. This paper shows the results obtained during the hardware and software development of a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) capable of recognizing the human emotions through the association of the brain electrical activity patterns. The hardware involves the sensing stage and analogical-digital conversion. The interface software involves algorithms for pre-processing of the signal in time and frequency analysis and the classification of patterns associated with the electrical brain activity. The methods used for the analysis and classification of the signal have been tested separately, by using a database that is accessible to the public, besides to a comparison among classifiers in order to know the best performing.

Keywords: Brain, Interface, Affective Computing, intelligent interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
44 Analysis of the Accuracy of Earth Movement with Drone Surveys

Authors: Raúl Pereda García, Julio Manuel de Luis Ruiz, Elena Castillo López, Rubén Pérez Álvarez, Felipe Piña García

Abstract:

New technologies for the capture of point clouds have experienced a great advance in recent years. In this way, its use has been extended in geomatics, providing measurement solutions that have been popularized without there being, many times, a detailed study of its accuracy. This research focuses on the study of the viability of topographic works with drones incorporating different sensors sensitive to the visible spectrum. The fundamentals have been applied to a road, located in Cantabria (Spain), where a platform extension and the reform of a riprap were being constructed. A total of six flights were made during two months, all of them with GPS as part of the photogrammetric process, and the results were contrasted with those measured with total station. The obtained results show that the choice of the camera and the planning of the flight have an important impact on the accuracy. In fact, the representations with a level of detail corresponding to 1/1000 scale are admissible, depending on the existing vegetation, and obtaining better results in the area of the riprap. This set of techniques is, therefore, suitable for the control of earthworks in road works but with certain limitations which are exposed in this paper.

Keywords: drone, global position system, earth movement control, surveying technology

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43 On Estimating the Low Income Proportion with Several Auxiliary Variables

Authors: Rosa M. García-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz-Rosas, Encarnación Álvarez-Verdejo, Pablo J. Moya-Fernández

Abstract:

Poverty measurement is a very important topic in many studies in social sciences. One of the most important indicators when measuring poverty is the low income proportion. This indicator gives the proportion of people of a population classified as poor. This indicator is generally unknown, and for this reason, it is estimated by using survey data, which are obtained by official surveys carried out by many statistical agencies such as Eurostat. The main feature of the mentioned survey data is the fact that they contain several variables. The variable used to estimate the low income proportion is called as the variable of interest. The survey data may contain several additional variables, also named as the auxiliary variables, related to the variable of interest, and if this is the situation, they could be used to improve the estimation of the low income proportion. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulation studies to analyze numerically the performance of estimators based on several auxiliary variables. In this simulation study, we considered real data sets obtained from the 2011 European Union Survey on Income and Living Condition. Results derived from this study indicate that the estimators based on auxiliary variables are more accurate than the naive estimator.

Keywords: Poverty, poverty line, inclusion probability, survey sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
42 Optimizing Resource Allocation and Indoor Location Using Bluetooth Low Energy

Authors: Néstor Álvarez-Díaz, Pino Caballero-Gil, Héctor Reboso-Morales, Francisco Martín-Fernández

Abstract:

The recent tendency of "Internet of Things" (IoT) has developed in the last years, causing the emergence of innovative communication methods among multiple devices. The appearance of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has allowed a push to IoT in relation to smartphones. In this moment, a set of new applications related to several topics like entertainment and advertisement has begun to be developed but not much has been done till now to take advantage of the potential that these technologies can offer on many business areas and in everyday tasks. In the present work, the application of BLE technology and smartphones is proposed on some business areas related to the optimization of resource allocation in huge facilities like airports. An indoor location system has been developed through triangulation methods with the use of BLE beacons. The described system can be used to locate all employees inside the building in such a way that any task can be automatically assigned to a group of employees. It should be noted that this system cannot only be used to link needs with employees according to distances, but it also takes into account other factors like occupation level or category. In addition, it has been endowed with a security system to manage business and personnel sensitive data. The efficiency of communications is another essential characteristic that has been taken into account in this work.

Keywords: smartphones, bluetooth low energy, indoor location, resource assignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
41 The Influence of Swirl Burner Geometry on the Sugar-Cane Bagasse Injection and Burning

Authors: Daniel José de Oliveira Ferreira, Juan Harold Sosa-Arnao, Leonardo Paes Rangel, Song Won Park, Caice Guarato Santos, Justo Emílio Alvarez

Abstract:

A comprehensive CFD model is developed to represent heterogeneous combustion and two burner designs of supply sugar-cane bagasse into a furnace. The objective of this work is to compare the insertion and burning of a Brazilian south-eastern sugar-cane bagasse using a new swirl burner design against an actual geometry under operation. The new design allows control the particles penetration and scattering inside furnace by adjustment of axial/tangential contributions of air feed without change their mass flow. The model considers turbulence using RNG k-, combustion using EDM, radiation heat transfer using DTM with 16 ray directions and bagasse particle tracking represented by Schiller-Naumann model. The obtained results are favorable to use of new design swirl burner because its axial/tangential control promotes more penetration or more scattering than actual design and allows reproduce the actual design operation without change the overall mass flow supply.

Keywords: comprehensive CFD model, sugar-cane bagasse combustion, swirl burner, contributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
40 Impact of Legs Geometry on the Efficiency of Thermoelectric Devices

Authors: Angel Fabian Mijangos, Jaime Alvarez Quintana

Abstract:

Key concepts like waste heat recycling or waste heat recovery are the basic ideas in thermoelectricity so as to the design the newest solid state sources of energy for a stable supply of electricity and environmental protection. According to several theoretical predictions; at device level, the geometry and configuration of the thermoelectric legs are crucial in the thermoelectric performance of the thermoelectric modules. Thus, in this work, it has studied the geometry effect of legs on the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of the device. First, asymmetrical legs are proposed in order to reduce the overall thermal conductance of the device so as to increase the temperature gradient in the legs, as well as by harnessing the Thomson effect, which is generally neglected in conventional symmetrical thermoelectric legs. It has been developed a novel design of a thermoelectric module having asymmetrical legs, and by first time it has been validated experimentally its thermoelectric performance by realizing a proof-of-concept device which shows to have almost twofold the thermoelectric figure of merit as compared to conventional one. Moreover, it has been also varied the length of thermoelectric legs in order to analyze its effect on the thermoelectric performance of the device. Along with this, it has studied the impact of contact resistance in these systems. Experimental results show that device architecture can improve up to twofold the thermoelectric performance of the device.

Keywords: Heat recovery, asymmetrical legs, heat recycling, thermoelectric module, Thompson effect

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