Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Search results for: disruptions

70 A Reactive Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Model in a Stochastic Environment

Authors: Majid Khalili, Hamed Tayebi

Abstract:

This paper considers a stochastic flexible job-shop scheduling (SFJSS) problem in the presence of production disruptions, and reactive scheduling is implemented in order to find the optimal solution under uncertainty. In this problem, there are two main disruptions including machine failure which influences operation time, and modification or cancellation of the order delivery date during production. In order to decrease the negative effects of these difficulties, two derived strategies from reactive scheduling are used; the first one is relevant to being able to allocate multiple machine to each job, and the other one is related to being able to select the best alternative process from other job while some disruptions would be created in the processes of a job. For this purpose, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model is proposed.

Keywords: flexible job-shop scheduling, reactive scheduling, stochastic environment, mixed integer linear programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
69 Managerial Advice-Seeking and Supply Chain Resilience: A Social Capital Perspective

Authors: Ethan Nikookar, Yalda Boroushaki, Larissa Statsenko, Jorge Ochoa Paniagua

Abstract:

Given the serious impact that supply chain disruptions can have on a firm's bottom-line performance, both industry and academia are interested in supply chain resilience, a capability of the supply chain that enables it to cope with disruptions. To date, much of the research has focused on the antecedents of supply chain resilience. This line of research has suggested various firm-level capabilities that are associated with greater supply chain resilience. A consensus has emerged among researchers that supply chain flexibility holds the greatest potential to create resilience. Supply chain flexibility achieves resilience by creating readiness to respond to disruptions with little cost and time by means of reconfiguring supply chain resources to mitigate the impacts of the disruption. Decisions related to supply chain disruptions are made by supply chain managers; however, the role played by supply chain managers' reference networks has been overlooked in the supply chain resilience literature. This study aims to understand the impact of supply chain managers on their firms' supply chain resilience. Drawing on social capital theory and social network theory, this paper proposes a conceptual model to explore the role of supply chain managers in developing the resilience of supply chains. Our model posits that higher level of supply chain managers' embeddedness in their reference network is associated with increased resilience of their firms' supply chain. A reference network includes individuals from whom supply chain managers seek advice on supply chain related matters. The relationships between supply chain managers' embeddedness in reference network and supply chain resilience are mediated by supply chain flexibility.

Keywords: supply chain resilience, embeddedness, reference networks, social capitals

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
68 Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Impact of Inflation on Global Supply Chains

Authors: Elad Harison

Abstract:

The paper identifies the complex links between post-COVID-19 inflationary pressures and global supply chains. Throughout the COVID-19 lockdowns and long periods after the termination of social distancing policies, consumers, notably in the U.S., have confronted and still face disruptions in the supply of goods. The study analyzes the monetary policy in the U.S. that led to the significant shift in consumer demand during a limited supply period, hence resulting in shortages and emphasizing inflationary dynamics. We argue that the monetary guidelines applied by the U.S. government further elevated the scope of supply chain disruptions.

Keywords: consumer demand, COVID-19, inflation, monetary policy, supply chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
67 A Coordination of Supply Chain Disruption in Different Types of Manufacturing Environments: A Case Study of Sugar Manufacturing Company

Authors: Max Moleke, Gilbert Mbonde

Abstract:

Coordinating supply chain process within a manufacturing environment is a very critical aspect of any organization. Nowadays, most manufacturing industries turn to look at only the financial indicator which in real life situation on the shop floor, there are a number of supply chain disruptions that are been ignored. In this work, we had to look at different types of supply chain disruption and their various impact within the organization. A number of Industrial engineering tools are employed which includes, Multifactor productivity, activity on arrow and rescheduling plans. The final result shows that supply chain disruption various with different geographical area where the production plant is operating.

Keywords: supply chain, disruptions, flow shop scheduling, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
66 Synchrony between Genetic Repressilators in Sister Cells in Different Temperatures

Authors: Jerome G. Chandraseelan, Samuel M. D. Oliveira, Antti Häkkinen, Sofia Startceva, Andre S. Ribeiro

Abstract:

We used live E. coli containing synthetic genetic oscillators to study how the degree of synchrony between the genetic circuits of sister cells changes with temperature. We found that both the mean and the variability of the degree of synchrony between the fluorescence signals from sister cells are affected by temperature. Also, while most pairs of sister cells were found to be highly synchronous in each condition, the number of asynchronous pairs increased with increasing temperature, which was found to be due to disruptions in the oscillations. Finally we provide evidence that these disruptions tend to affect multiple generations as opposed to individual cells. These findings provide insight in how to design more robust synthetic circuits and in how cell division can affect their dynamics.

Keywords: repressilator, robustness, synchrony, synthetic biology

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
65 Analysis of Supply Chain Risk Management Strategies: Case Study of Supply Chain Disruptions

Authors: Marcelo Dias Carvalho, Leticia Ishikawa

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Supply Chain Risk Management refers to a set of strategies used by companies to avoid supply chain disruption caused by damage at production facilities, natural disasters, capacity issues, inventory problems, incorrect forecasts, and delays. Many companies use the techniques of the Toyota Production System, which in a way goes against a better management of supply chain risks. This paper studies key events in some multinationals to analyze the trade-off between the best supply chain risk management techniques and management policies designed to create lean enterprises. The result of a good balance of these actions is the reduction of losses, increased customer trust in the company and better preparedness to face the general risks of a supply chain.

Keywords: just in time, lean manufacturing, supply chain disruptions, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
64 A Decision Support System for Flight Disruptions Management

Authors: Burak Erkayman, Emin Gundogar, Hayrettin Evirgen, Murat Sarı

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With the increasing competition in recent years, airline companies tend to manage their operations aiming fewer losses in a robust manner. Airline operations are complex operations and have the necessity of being performed just in time and more knock-on relevant elements in the event of a disruption. In this study a knowledge based decision support system is suggested and software is developed. The developed software includes knowledge bases which are based on expert experience and government regulations, model bases and data bases. The results of the suggested approach are presented and improvable aspects of the approach are discussed.

Keywords: knowledge based systems, irregular operations, decision support systems, flight disruptions management

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
63 Real-Time Scheduling and Control of Supply Chain Networks: Challenges and Graph-Based Solution Approach

Authors: Jens Ehm

Abstract:

Manufacturing in supply chains requires an efficient organisation of production and transport processes in order to guarantee the supply of all partners within the chain with the material that is needed for the reliable fulfilment of tasks. If one partner is not able to supply products for a certain period, these products might be missing as the working material for the customer to perform the next manufacturing step, potentially as supply for further manufacturing steps. This way, local disruptions can influence the whole supply chain. In order to avoid material shortages, an efficient scheduling of tasks is necessary. However, the occurrence of unexpected disruptions cannot be eliminated, so that a modification of the schedule should be arranged as fast as possible. This paper discusses the challenges for the implementation of real-time scheduling and control methods and presents a graph-based approach that enables the integrated scheduling of production and transport processes for multiple supply chain partners and offers the potential for quick adaptations to parts of the initial schedule.

Keywords: production, logistics, integrated scheduling, real-time scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
62 The Incesant Subversion of Judiciary by African Political Leaders

Authors: Joy Olayemi Gbala, Fatai Olatokunbo, Philip Cloud

Abstract:

Catastrophic dictatorship has been discovered to be the major leadership challenge that orchestrates stagnated and contrasted economy with dysfunctional democracy in Africa through willful misappropriation of resources and egregious subversion of the rule of law. Almost invariably, most African leaders inexplicably often become power drunk and addicted which usually leads to abuse of state power, abdication of constitutional duties, unjustly withdrawal of business license of operation, human right violation, election malpractices, financial corruption, disruptions of policies of democratic government transition, annulment of free and fair election, and disruptions of legal electoral procedures and unachievable dividends of democracy and many more. Owing to this, most African nations have gone and still go through political unrest and insurgencies leading to loss of lives and property, violent protests, detention of detractors and political activists and massive human displacement. This research work is concerned with, and investigates the causes, menace, consequences and impacts of subverting the rule of law in Africa on the economy and the development of the continent with a suggested practical solution to the plights.

Keywords: corruption, law, leadership, violation

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
61 Survey of Potential Adverse Health Effects of Mobile Phones, and Wireless Base Stations in Nigeria

Authors: Nureni A. Yekini, Isaac T. Babalola, Edwin E. Aighokhan, Agnes K. Akinwole, N. Stephen Igwe

Abstract:

Survey was conducted to gather information on potential adverse health effects of Mobile Phones, and Telecommunication Tower Base Stations in Nigeria. Data was sourced from two sampled populations. Firstly from the people living in close proximity to base stations, and secondly from cell phone users. Questionnaire was used to gathered information from 574 people on thirteen non-specific health symptoms. Data obtained was presented and analyzed. The analysis shows that people living close to the based stations over a long period of time with or without cell phone, and also the heavy phone users with close proximity to the base stations are liable to have some potential health hazards, such as fatigue, sleep disturbances, headaches, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentrating, depression, memory loss, visual disruptions, irritability, hearing disruptions, skin problems, cardiovascular disorders, and dizziness.

Keywords: health hazards, wireless base stations, phone users, mobile phones, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
60 Paradox of Growing Adaptive Capacities for Sustainability Transformation in Urban Water Management in Bangladesh

Authors: T. Yasmin, M. A. Farrelly, B. C. Rogers

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Urban water governance in developing countries faces numerous challenges arising from uncontrolled urban population expansion, water pollution, greater economic push and more recently, climate change impact while undergoing transitioning towards a sustainable system. Sustainability transition requires developing adaptive capacities of the socio-ecological and socio-technical system to be able to deal with complexity. Adaptive capacities deliver strategies to connect individuals, organizations, agencies and institutions at multiple levels for dealing with such complexity. Understanding the level of adaptive capacities for sustainability transformation thus has gained significant research attention within developed countries, much less so in developing countries. Filling this gap, this article develops a conceptual framework for analysing the level of adaptive capacities (if any) within a developing context. This framework then applied to the chronological development of urban water governance strategies in Bangladesh for almost two centuries. The chronological analysis of governance interventions has revealed that crisis (public health, food and natural hazards) became the opportunities and thus opened the windows for experimentation and learning to occur as a deviation from traditional practices. Self-organization and networks thus created the platform for development or disruptions to occur for creating change. Leadership (internal or external) is important for nurturing and upscaling theses development or disruptions towards guiding policy vision and targets as well as championing ground implementation. In the case of Bangladesh, the leadership from the international and national aid organizations and targets have always lead the development whereas more often social capital tools (trust, power relations, cultural norms) act as disruptions. Historically, this has been evident in the development pathways of urban water governance in Bangladesh. Overall this research has shown some level of adaptive capacities is growing for sustainable urban growth in big cities, nevertheless unclear regarding the growth in medium and small cities context.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, Bangladesh, sustainability transformation, water governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
59 Energy Security and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Abhimanyu Behera

Abstract:

Over the past few years, energy security and sustainable development have moved rapidly into the global agenda. There are two main reasons: first, the impact of high and often volatile energy prices; second, concerns over environmental sustainability particularly about the global climate. Both issues are critically important in which impressive economic growth has boosted the demand for energy and put corresponding strains on the environment. Energy security is a broad concept that focuses on energy availability and pricing. Specifically, it refers to the ability of the energy supply system i.e. suppliers, transporters, distributors and regulatory, financial and R&D institutions to deliver the amount of competitively priced energy that customers demand, within accepted standards of reliability, timeliness, quality, safety. Traditionally, energy security has been defined in the context of the geopolitical risks to external oil supplies but today it is encompassing all energy forms, all the external and internal links bringing the energy to the final consumer, and all the many ways energy supplies can be disrupted including equipment malfunctions, system design flaws, operator errors, malicious computer activities, deficient market and regulatory frameworks, corporate financial problems, labour actions, severe weather and natural events, aggressive acts (e.g. war, terrorism and sabotage), and geopolitical disruptions. In practice, the most challenging disruptions are those linked to: 1) extreme weather events; 2) mismatched electricity supply and demand; 3) regulatory failures; and 4) concentration of oil and gas resources in certain regions of the world. However, insecure energy supplies inhibit development by raising energy costs and imposing expensive cuts in services when disruptions actually occur. The energy supply sector can best advance sustainable development by producing and delivering secure and environmentally-friendly sources of energy and by increasing the efficiency of energy use. With this objective, this paper seeks to highlight the significance of energy security and sustainable development in today’s world. Moreover, it critically overhauls the major challenges towards sustainability of energy security and what are the major policies are taken to overcome these challenges by Government is lucidly explicated in this paper.

Keywords: energy, policies, security, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
58 COVID-19 Pandemic and Disruptions in Nigeria’s Domestic Economic Activities: A Pre-post Empirical Investigation

Authors: Amaefule, Leonard Ifeanyi

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The study evaluated the disruptions in Nigeria’s domestic economic activities occasioned by the COVID-19 pandemic: a pre and post-pandemic investigation approach. Domestic economic activities were measured with composite manufacturing purchasing managers index (PMI) and composite non-manufacturing PMI. Production and employment levels indices were proxies for composite manufacturing PMI, while business activities and employment level indices were proxies for non-manufacturing PMI. Data for these indices were sourced from monthly and quarterly publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria for periods covering fifteen (15) months before and 15 months after the outbreak of the virus in Nigeria. Test of equality of means was employed in establishing the significance of the difference of means between the pre and post-pandemic domestic economic activities. Results from the analysis indicated that a significant negative difference exists in each of the measures of domestic economic activities between the pre and post-pandemic periods. These findings, therefore, offer empirical evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted domestic economic activities in Nigeria; thus, it exerts a negative influence on the measures of the nation’s domestic economic activities. The study thus recommended (among other things) that the Nigerian government should focus on policies that would enhance domestic production, employment and enhance business activities.

Keywords: COVID-19, domestic economic activities, composite manufacturing indices, composite non-manufacturing indices

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
57 Blockchain: Institutional and Technological Disruptions in the Public Sector

Authors: Maria Florencia Ferrer, Saulo Fabiano Amancio-Vieira

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The use of the blockchain in the public sector is present today and no longer the future of disruptive institutional and technological models. There are still some cultural barriers and resistance to the proper use of its potential. This research aims to present the strengths and weaknesses of using a public-permitted and distributed network in the context of the public sector. Therefore, bibliographical/documentary research was conducted to raise the main aspects of the studied platform, focused on the use of the main demands of the public sector. The platform analyzed was LACChain, which is a global alliance composed of different actors in the blockchain environment, led by the Innovation Laboratory of the Inter-American Development Bank Group (IDB Lab) for the development of the blockchain ecosystem in Latin America and the Caribbean. LACChain provides blockchain infrastructure, which is a distributed ratio technology (DLT). The platform focuses on two main pillars: community and infrastructure. It is organized as a consortium for the management and administration of an infrastructure classified as public, following the ISO typologies (ISO / TC 307). It is, therefore, a network open to any participant who agrees with the established rules, which are limited to being identified and complying with the regulations. As benefits can be listed: public network (open to all), decentralized, low transaction cost, greater publicity of transactions, reduction of corruption in contracts / public acts, in addition to improving transparency for the population in general. It is also noteworthy that the platform is not based on cryptocurrency and is not anonymous; that is, it is possible to be regulated. It is concluded that the use of record platforms, such as LACChain, can contribute to greater security on the part of the public agent in the migration process of their informational applications.

Keywords: blockchain, LACChain, public sector, technological disruptions

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
56 Illness Experience Without Illness: A Qualitative Study on the Lived Experience of Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Gemma Postil, Claire Zanin, Michael Halpin, Caroline Ritter

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Illness experience research typically focuses on people that are living with a medical condition; however, the broad consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are impacting those without the virus itself, as many experienced extensive lockdowns, social isolation, and distress. Drawing on conceptual work in the illness experience literature, we argue that policy and social changes tied to COVID-19 produce biographical disruptions. In this sense, we argue that the COVID-19 pandemic produces illness experience without illness, as the pandemic comprehensively impacts health and biography. This paper draws on 30 in-depth interviews with young adults living in Prince Edward Island (PEI), which were conducted as part of a larger project to understand how young adults navigate compliance with the COVID-19 pandemic. We then inductively analyzed the interviews with a constructivist grounded theory approach. Specifically, we demonstrate that young adults living in PEI during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced biographical disruptions throughout the pandemic despite not contracting the virus. First, we detail how some participants experience biographical acceleration, with the pandemic accelerating relationships, home buying, and career planning. Second, we demonstrate biographical stagnation, wherein participants report being unable to pursue major life milestones. Lastly, we describe biographical regression, wherein participants feel they are losing ground during the pandemic and are actively falling behind their peers. These findings provide the novel application of illness experience concepts to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, contribute to work on illness experience and ambiguity, and extend Bury’s conceptualization of biographical disruption. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young adults experienced the biographical disruption expected from having COVID-19 without having an illness, highlighting the depth to which the pandemic affected young adults.

Keywords: illness experience, lived experience, biographical disruption, COVID-19, young adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
55 An Advanced Method of Minimizing Unforeseen Disruptions within a Manufacturing System: A Case Study of Amico, South Africa

Authors: Max Moleke

Abstract:

Manufacturing industries are faced with different types of problems. One of the most important role of controlling and monitoring a production process is to actually determine how to deal with unforeseen disruption when they arise. A majority of manufacturing tern to spend huge amount of money in order to meet up with their customers requirements and demand but due to instabilities within the manufacturing process, this objectives and goals are difficult to be achieved. In this research, we have developed a feedback control system that can minimize instability within the manufacturing system in order to boost the system output and productivity.

Keywords: disruption, scheduling, manufacturing, instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
54 Socioeconomic Burden of a Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer in Women in Rural Uganda: Findings from a Phenomenological Study

Authors: Germans Natuhwera, Peter Ellis, Acuda Wilson, Anne Merriman, Martha Rabwoni

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Objective: The aim of the study was to diagnose the socio-economic burden and impact of a diagnosis of cervical cancer (CC) in rural women in the context of low-resourced country Uganda, using a phenomenological enquiry. Methods: This was a multi-site phenomenological inquiry, conducted at three hospice settings; Mobile Hospice Mbarara in southwestern, Little Hospice Hoima in Western, and Hospice Africa Uganda Kampala in central Uganda. A purposive sample of women with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of CC was recruited. Data was collected using open-ended audio-recorded interviews conducted in the native languages of participants. Interviews were transcribed verbatim in English, and Braun and Clarke’s (2019) framework of thematic analysis was used. Results: 13 women with a mean age of 49.2 and age range 29-71 participated in the study. All participants were of low socioeconomic status. The majority (84.6%) had advanced disease at diagnosis. A fuller reading of transcripts produced four major themes clustered under; (1) socioeconomic characteristics of women, (2) impact of CC on women’s relationships, (3) disrupted and impaired activities of daily living (ADLs), and (4) economic disruptions. Conclusions: A diagnosis of CC introduces significant socio-economic disruptions in a woman’s and her family’s life. CC causes disability, impairs the woman and her family’s productivity hence exacerbating levels of poverty in the home. High and expensive out-of-pocket expenditure on treatment, investigations, and transport costs further compound the socio-economic burden. Decentralizing cancer care services to regional centers, scaling up screening services, subsidizing costs of cancer care services, or making cervical cancer care treatment free of charge, strengthening monitoring mechanisms in public facilities to curb the vice of healthcare workers soliciting bribes from patients, increased mass awareness campaigns about cancer, training more healthcare professionals in cancer investigation and management, and palliative care, and introducing an introductory course on gynecologic cancers into all health training institutions are recommended.

Keywords: activities of daily living, cervical cancer, out-of-pocket, expenditure, phenomenology, socioeconomic

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
53 Rescheduling of Manufacturing Flow Shop under Different Types of Disruption

Authors: M. Ndeley

Abstract:

Now our days, Almost all manufacturing facilities need to use production planning and scheduling systems to increase productivity and to reduce production costs. Real-life production operations are subject to a large number of unexpected disruptions that may invalidate the original schedules. In these cases, rescheduling is essential to minimize the impact on the performance of the system. In this work we consider flow shop layouts that have seldom been studied in the rescheduling literature. We generate and employ three types of disruption that interrupt the original schedules simultaneously. We develop rescheduling algorithms to finally accomplish the twofold objective of establishing a standard framework on the one hand; and proposing rescheduling methods that seek a good trade-off between schedule quality and stability on the other.

Keywords: flow shop scheduling, uncertainty, rescheduling, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
52 An Application of a Feedback Control System to Minimize Unforeseen Disruption in a Paper Manufacturing Industry in South Africa

Authors: Martha E. Ndeley

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Operation management is the key element within the manufacturing process. However, during this process, there are a number of unforeseen disruptions that causes the process to a standstill which are, machine breakdown, employees absenteeism, improper scheduling. When this happens, it forces the shop flow to a rescheduling process and these strategy reschedules only a limited part of the initial schedule to match up with the pre-schedule at some point with the objective to create a new schedule that is reliable which in the long run gets disrupted. In this work, we have developed feedback control system that minimizes any form of disruption before the impact becomes severe, the model was tested in a paper manufacturing industries and the results revealed that, if the disruption is minimized at the initial state, the impact becomes unnoticeable.

Keywords: disruption, machine, absenteeism, scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
51 Mobi-DiQ: A Pervasive Sensing System for Delirium Risk Assessment in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Subhash Nerella, Ziyuan Guan, Azra Bihorac, Parisa Rashidi

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Intensive care units (ICUs) provide care to critically ill patients in severe and life-threatening conditions. However, patient monitoring in the ICU is limited by the time and resource constraints imposed on healthcare providers. Many critical care indices such as mobility are still manually assessed, which can be subjective, prone to human errors, and lack granularity. Other important aspects, such as environmental factors, are not monitored at all. For example, critically ill patients often experience circadian disruptions due to the absence of effective environmental “timekeepers” such as the light/dark cycle and the systemic effect of acute illness on chronobiologic markers. Although the occurrence of delirium is associated with circadian disruption risk factors, these factors are not routinely monitored in the ICU. Hence, there is a critical unmet need to develop systems for precise and real-time assessment through novel enabling technologies. We have developed the mobility and circadian disruption quantification system (Mobi-DiQ) by augmenting biomarker and clinical data with pervasive sensing data to generate mobility and circadian cues related to mobility, nightly disruptions, and light and noise exposure. We hypothesize that Mobi-DiQ can provide accurate mobility and circadian cues that correlate with bedside clinical mobility assessments and circadian biomarkers, ultimately important for delirium risk assessment and prevention. The collected multimodal dataset consists of depth images, Electromyography (EMG) data, patient extremity movement captured by accelerometers, ambient light levels, Sound Pressure Level (SPL), and indoor air quality measured by volatile organic compounds, and the equivalent CO₂ concentration. For delirium risk assessment, the system recognizes mobility cues (axial body movement features and body key points) and circadian cues, including nightly disruptions, ambient SPL, and light intensity, as well as other environmental factors such as indoor air quality. The Mobi-DiQ system consists of three major components: the pervasive sensing system, a data storage and analysis server, and a data annotation system. For data collection, six local pervasive sensing systems were deployed, including a local computer and sensors. A video recording tool with graphical user interface (GUI) developed in python was used to capture depth image frames for analyzing patient mobility. All sensor data is encrypted, then automatically uploaded to the Mobi-DiQ server through a secured VPN connection. Several data pipelines are developed to automate the data transfer, curation, and data preparation for annotation and model training. The data curation and post-processing are performed on the server. A custom secure annotation tool with GUI was developed to annotate depth activity data. The annotation tool is linked to the MongoDB database to record the data annotation and to provide summarization. Docker containers are also utilized to manage services and pipelines running on the server in an isolated manner. The processed clinical data and annotations are used to train and develop real-time pervasive sensing systems to augment clinical decision-making and promote targeted interventions. In the future, we intend to evaluate our system as a clinical implementation trial, as well as to refine and validate it by using other data sources, including neurological data obtained through continuous electroencephalography (EEG).

Keywords: deep learning, delirium, healthcare, pervasive sensing

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50 High Performance Computing Enhancement of Agent-Based Economic Models

Authors: Amit Gill, Lalith Wijerathne, Sebastian Poledna

Abstract:

This research presents the details of the implementation of high performance computing (HPC) extension of agent-based economic models (ABEMs) to simulate hundreds of millions of heterogeneous agents. ABEMs offer an alternative approach to study the economy as a dynamic system of interacting heterogeneous agents, and are gaining popularity as an alternative to standard economic models. Over the last decade, ABEMs have been increasingly applied to study various problems related to monetary policy, bank regulations, etc. When it comes to predicting the effects of local economic disruptions, like major disasters, changes in policies, exogenous shocks, etc., on the economy of the country or the region, it is pertinent to study how the disruptions cascade through every single economic entity affecting its decisions and interactions, and eventually affect the economic macro parameters. However, such simulations with hundreds of millions of agents are hindered by the lack of HPC enhanced ABEMs. In order to address this, a scalable Distributed Memory Parallel (DMP) implementation of ABEMs has been developed using message passing interface (MPI). A balanced distribution of computational load among MPI-processes (i.e. CPU cores) of computer clusters while taking all the interactions among agents into account is a major challenge for scalable DMP implementations. Economic agents interact on several random graphs, some of which are centralized (e.g. credit networks, etc.) whereas others are dense with random links (e.g. consumption markets, etc.). The agents are partitioned into mutually-exclusive subsets based on a representative employer-employee interaction graph, while the remaining graphs are made available at a minimum communication cost. To minimize the number of communications among MPI processes, real-life solutions like the introduction of recruitment agencies, sales outlets, local banks, and local branches of government in each MPI-process, are adopted. Efficient communication among MPI-processes is achieved by combining MPI derived data types with the new features of the latest MPI functions. Most of the communications are overlapped with computations, thereby significantly reducing the communication overhead. The current implementation is capable of simulating a small open economy. As an example, a single time step of a 1:1 scale model of Austria (i.e. about 9 million inhabitants and 600,000 businesses) can be simulated in 15 seconds. The implementation is further being enhanced to simulate 1:1 model of Euro-zone (i.e. 322 million agents).

Keywords: agent-based economic model, high performance computing, MPI-communication, MPI-process

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
49 Statistical Estimation of Ionospheric Energy Dissipation Using ØStgaard's Empirical Relation

Authors: M. A. Ahmadu, S. S. Rabia

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During the past few decades, energy dissipation in the ionosphere resulting from the geomagnetic activity has caused an increasing number of major disruptions of important power and communication services, malfunctions and loss of expensive facilities. Here, the electron precipitation energy, w(ep) and joule heating energy, w(jh) was used in the computation of this dissipation using Østgaard’s empirical relation from hourly geomagnetic indices of 2012, under the assumption that the magnetosphere does not store any energy, so that at the beginning of the activity t1=0 and end at t2=t, the statistical results obtained show that ionospheric dissipation varies month to month, day to day and hour to hour and estimated with a value ~3.6 w(ep), which is in agreement with experimental result.

Keywords: Ostgaard's, ionospheric dissipation, joule heating, electron precipitation, geomagnetic indices, empirical relation

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
48 Mobility Management via Software Defined Networks (SDN) in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)

Authors: Bilal Haider, Farhan Aadil

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A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) provides various services to end-users traveling on the road at high speeds. However, this high-speed mobility of mobile nodes can cause frequent service disruptions. Various mobility management protocols exist for managing node mobility, but due to their centralized nature, they tend to suffer in the VANET environment. In this research, we proposed a distributed mobility management protocol using software-defined networks (SDN) for VANETs. Instead of relying on a centralized mobility anchor, the mobility functionality is distributed at multiple infrastructural nodes. The protocol is based on the classical Proxy Mobile IP version 6 (PMIPv6). It is evident from simulation results that this work has improved the network performance with respect to nodes throughput, delay, and packet loss.

Keywords: SDN, VANET, mobility management, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
47 Exploring Barriers and Pathways to Wellbeing and Sources of Resilience of Refugee Mothers in Calgary during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)

Authors: Chloe Zivot, Natasha Vattikonda, Debbie Bell

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We conducted interviews with refugee mothers (n=28) participating in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program in Calgary to explore experiences of wellbeing and resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Disruptions to education and increased isolation, and parental duties contributed to decreased wellbeing. Mothers identified tangible protective factors at the micro, meso, and macro levels. HIPPY played a substantial role in pandemic resilience, speaking to the potential of home-based intervention models in mitigating household adversity.

Keywords: refugee resettlement, family wellbeing, COVID-19, motherhood, resilience, gender, health

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
46 Using the Countryside to Absorb Urban Political Youth: The Cultural Revolution, Ballet, and Discontent

Authors: Eva Chou

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This paper presents a case study of a historical moment in the city vs countryside relationship that is important in urban studies in China. Policies during the Cultural Revolution in China (1966-76) several times sent educated urban youths to the countryside. Initially, they were sent to “make revolution”: they were instructed to instigate powerful disruptions of established village relations. Later, they were “sent-down” to the countryside “to learn from the peasants.” Millions of urban youths “volunteered” to live as peasants did in the poverty of the countryside, thus resolving a political problem of urban unrest for the Party. Many had remained for decades before they were able to leave; others were never re-urbanized. Ballet troupes constituted a special case in both of these periods. This paper examines the differing experiences of individual “sent-down” ballet dancers on the one hand, and on the other hand, ballet troupes assigned to perform in the countryside.

Keywords: cultural revolution, reurbanized, sent-down youths, ballet

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
45 Disruption Coordination of Supply Chain with Loss-Averse Retailer Under Buy-Back Contract

Authors: Yuan Tian, Benhe Gao

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This paper aims to investigate a two stage supply chain of one leading supplier and one following retailer that experiences two factors perturbation out of supplier's production cost, retailer's marginal cost and retail price in stochastic demand environment. Granted that risk neutral condition has long been discussed, little attention has been given to disruptions under the premise of risk neutral supplier and risk aversion retailer. We establish the optimal order quantity and revealed the profit distribution coefficient in risk-neutral static model, make adjustment under disruption scenario, and then select utility function method for risk aversion model. Using buy-back contract policy, the improvement of parameters can achieve channel coordination where Pareto optimal is realized.

Keywords: supply chain coordination, disruption management, buy-back contract, lose aversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
44 Principles of Sustainable and Affordable Housing Policy for Afghan Refugees Returning to Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The overall goal of this paper is to examine the suitability and potential of the policies addressing the sustainability and affordability of housing for returnees, and to determine the impact of this policy on housing delivery for Afghan refugees. Housing is a central component of the settlement experience of refugees. A positive housing situation can facilitate many aspects of integration. Unaffordable, and unsafe housing, however, can cause disruptions in the entire settlement process. This paper aims to identify a suite of built forms for housing that is both affordable and environmentally sustainable for Afghan refugees. The result was the development of a framework that enables the assessment of the overall performance of various types of housing development in all zones of the country. There is very little evidence that the present approach of housing provision to the vagaries of market forces has provided affordable housing, especially for Afghan refugees. There is a need to incorporate social housing into the policy to assist people who cannot afford to have their own houses.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, housing policy, affordability, social housing, housing provision, environmental sustainability principles, resettlement

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43 Modeling and Simulation Frameworks for Cloud Computing Environment: A Critical Evaluation

Authors: Abul Bashar

Abstract:

The recent surge in the adoption of cloud computing systems by various organizations has brought forth the challenge of evaluating their performance. One of the major issues faced by the cloud service providers and customers is to assess the ability of cloud computing systems to provide the desired services in accordance to the QoS and SLA constraints. To this end, an opportunity exists to develop means to ensure that the desired performance levels of such systems are met under simulated environments. This will eventually minimize the service disruptions and performance degradation issues during the commissioning and operational phase of cloud computing infrastructure. However, it is observed that several simulators and modelers are available for simulating the cloud computing systems. Therefore, this paper presents a critical evaluation of the state-of-the-art modeling and simulation frameworks applicable to cloud computing systems. It compares the prominent simulation frameworks in terms of the API features, programming flexibility, operating system requirements, supported services, licensing needs and popularity. Subsequently, it provides recommendations regarding the choice of the most appropriate framework for researchers, administrators and managers of cloud computing systems.

Keywords: cloud computing, modeling framework, performance evaluation, simulation tools

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42 Using Traffic Micro-Simulation to Assess the Benefits of Accelerated Pavement Construction for Reducing Traffic Emissions

Authors: Sudipta Ghorai, Ossama Salem

Abstract:

Pavement maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation (MRR) processes may have considerable environmental impacts due to traffic disruptions associated with work zones. The simulation models in use to predict the emission of work zones were mostly static emission factor models (SEFD). SEFD calculates emissions based on average operation conditions e.g. average speed and type of vehicles. Although these models produce accurate results for large-scale planning studies, they are not suitable for analyzing driving conditions at the micro level such as acceleration, deceleration, idling, cruising, and queuing in a work zone. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive work zone environmental assessment (WEA) framework to calculate the emissions caused due to disrupted traffic; by integrating traffic microsimulation tools with emission models. This will help highway officials to assess the benefits of accelerated construction and opt for the most suitable TMP not only economically but also from an environmental point of view.

Keywords: accelerated construction, pavement MRR, traffic microsimulation, congestion, emissions

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41 COVID–19 Impact on Passenger and Cargo Traffic: A Case Study

Authors: Maja Čović, Josipa Bojčić, Bruna Bacalja, Gorana Jelić Mrčelić

Abstract:

The appearance of the COVID-19 disease and its fast-spreading brought global pandemic and health crisis. In order to prevent the further spreading of the virus, the governments had implemented mobility restriction rules which left a negative mark on the world’s economy. Although there is numerous research on the impact of COVID-19 on marine traffic around the world, the objective of this paper is to consider the impact of COVID-19 on passenger and cargo traffic in Port of Split, in the Republic of Croatia. Methods used to make the theoretical and research part of the paper are descriptive method, comparative method, compilation, inductive method, deductive method, and statistical method. Paper relies on data obtained via Port of Split Authority and analyses trends in passenger and cargo traffic, including the year 2020, when the pandemic broke. Significant reductions in income, disruptions in transportation and traffic, as well as other maritime services are shown in the paper. This article also observes a significant decline in passenger traffic, cruising traffic and also observes the dynamic of cargo traffic inside the port of Split.

Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, passenger traffic, ports, trends, cargo traffic

Procedia PDF Downloads 88