Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 150

Search results for: out-patient

150 Are SMS Reminders an Precursor to Outpatient Show-Ups?

Authors: Shankar M. Bakkannavar, Smitha Nayak, Vinod C. Nayak, Ravi Bagali

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Attendance rate for hospital outpatient appointments plays a pivotal role in operational efficiency of a hospital. Strategic interventions like ‘reminder systems’ prior to the scheduled appointment has proved to be an effective strategy for outpatient appointment ‘show-ups’. This study is designed with an objective to assess the effectiveness of SMS reminders as an intervention to enhance the effectiveness of hospital outpatient attendance. Method: The survey was conducted at Columbia Asia Hosiptal, Bangalore. We surveyed 60 patients who had a scheduled outpatient appointment in Department of General Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Orthopedics department, as these departments had a heavy patient flow and had higher contributions to the top line of the hospital. Results: Majority (64%) of the patients preferred to be sent an SMS reminder on the outpatient appointment schedule. 37 (61%) respondents stated that the ideally, reminders could be effective only if they are sent 24-48 hours prior to the appointment schedule. 41(68%) respondents were of the opinion that a minimum of two reminders would be necessary to ensure patients show up for the appointment. 1% level of significance. It also observed that there is strong association between age and preference on mode of reminder (P=0.002).

Keywords: reminder systems, appointment show-ups, SMS reminders, health Information

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149 A Systematic Review on Communication and Relations between Health Care Professionals and Patients with Cancer in Outpatient Settings Matter

Authors: Anne Prip, Kirsten Alling Møller, Dorte Lisbet Nielsen, Mary Jarden, Marie-Helene Olsen, Anne Kjaergaard Danielsen

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Background: The development in cancer care has shifted towards shorter hospital stays and more outpatient treatment. Today, cancer care and treatment predominantly takes place in outpatient settings where encounters between patients and health care professionals are often brief. This development will probably continue internationally as the global cancer burden seems to be growing significantly. Furthermore, the number of patients who require ambulatory treatments such as chemotherapy is increasing. Focusing on the encounters between health care professionals and patients during oncology treatment has thus become increasingly important due to a growing trend in outpatient cancer management. Objective: The aim of the systematic review was to summarize the literature from the perspective of the patient, on experiences of and the need for communication and relationships with the health care professional during chemotherapy treatment in an outpatient setting. Method: The review was designed and carried out according to the PRISMA guidelines and PICO framework. The systematic search was conducted in Medline, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence Based Practice Database. Results: In all, 1174 studies were identified by literature search. After duplicates were removed, the remaining studies (n = 1053) were screened for inclusion. Nine studies were included; qualitative (n = 5) and quantitative (n = 4) as they met the inclusions criteria. The review identified that communication and relationships between health care professionals and patients were important for the patients’ ability to cope with cancer and also had an impact on patients’ satisfaction with care in the outpatient clinic. Furthermore, the review showed that hope and positivity was a need and strategy for patients with cancer and was facilitated by health care professionals. Finally, it revealed that outpatient clinic visits framed and influenced communication and relationships. Conclusions: This review identified the significance of communication and the relationships between patients and health care professionals in the outpatient setting as it supports patients’ ability to cope with cancer. The review showed the need for health care professionals to pay attention to the relational aspects of communication in an outpatient clinic as encounters are often brief. Furthermore, the review helps to specify which elements of the communication are central in the patient-health care professional interaction from the patients' perspective. Finally, it shows a need for more research to investigate which type of interaction and intervention would be the most effective in supporting patients’ coping during chemotherapy in an outpatient clinic.

Keywords: ambulatory chemotherapy, communication, health care professional-patient relation, nurse-patient relation, outpatient care, systematic review

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148 Midface Trauma: Outpatient Follow-Up and Surgical Treatment Times

Authors: Divya Pathak, James Sloane

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Surgical treatment of midface fractures should ideally occur within two weeks of injury, after which bony healing and consolidation make the repair more difficult for the operating surgeon. The oral and maxillofacial unit at the Royal Surrey Hospital is the tertiary referral center for maxillofacial trauma from five regional hospitals. This is a complete audit cycle of midface trauma referrals managed over a one year period. The standard set was that clinical assessment of the midface fracture would take place in a consultant led outpatient clinic within 7 days, and when indicated, surgical fixation would occur within 10 days of referral. Retrospective data was collected over one year (01/11/2018 - 31/12/2019). Three key changes were implemented: an IT referral mailbox, standardization of an on-call trauma table, and creation of a trauma theatre list. Re-audit was carried out over six months completing the cycle. 283 midface fracture referrals were received, of which 22 patients needed surgical fixation. The average time from referral to outpatient follow-up improved from 14.5 days to 8.3 days, and time from referral to surgery improved from 21.5 days to 11.6 days. Changes implemented in this audit significantly improved patient prioritization to appropriate outpatient clinics and shortened time to surgical intervention.

Keywords: maxillofacial trauma, midface trauma, oral and maxillofacial surgery, surgery fixation

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147 A Study of Applying the Use of Breathing Training to Palliative Care Patients, Based on the Bio-Psycho-Social Model

Authors: Wenhsuan Lee, Yachi Chang, Yingyih Shih

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In clinical practices, it is common that while facing the unknown progress of their disease, palliative care patients may easily feel anxious and depressed. These types of reactions are a cause of psychosomatic diseases and may also influence treatment results. However, the purpose of palliative care is to provide relief from all kinds of pains. Therefore, how to make patients more comfortable is an issue worth studying. This study adopted the “bio-psycho-social model” proposed by Engel and applied spontaneous breathing training, in the hope of seeing patients’ psychological state changes caused by their physiological state changes, improvements in their anxious conditions, corresponding adjustments of their cognitive functions, and further enhancement of their social functions and the social support system. This study will be a one-year study. Palliative care outpatients will be recruited and assigned to the experimental group or the control group for six outpatient visits (once a month), with 80 patients in each group. The patients of both groups agreed that this study can collect their physiological quantitative data using an HRV device before the first outpatient visit. They also agreed to answer the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire” before the first outpatient visit, to fill a self-report questionnaire after each outpatient visit, and to answer the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire” after the last outpatient visit. The patients of the experimental group agreed to receive the breathing training under HRV monitoring during the first outpatient visit of this study. Before each of the following three outpatient visits, they were required to fill a self-report questionnaire regarding their breathing practices after going home. After the outpatient visits, they were taught how to practice breathing through an HRV device and asked to practice it after going home. Later, based on the results from the HRV data analyses and the pre-tests and post-tests of the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire”, the influence of the breathing training in the bio, psycho, and social aspects were evaluated. The data collected through the self-report questionnaires of the patients of both groups were used to explore the possible interfering factors among the bio, psycho, and social changes. It is expected that this study will support the “bio-psycho-social model” proposed by Engel, meaning that bio, psycho, and social supports are closely related, and that breathing training helps to transform palliative care patients’ psychological feelings of anxiety and depression, to facilitate their positive interactions with others, and to improve the quality medical care for them.

Keywords: palliative care, breathing training, bio-psycho-social model, heart rate variability

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146 Exploring Salient Shifts and Transdiagnostic Factors in Eating Disordered Women

Authors: Francesca Favero, Despina Learmonth

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Carbohydrate addiction is said to be the sustained dependence on hyperpalatable foods rich in carbohydrates and sugar. This addiction manifests in increased consumption of carbohydrates through binging: a behaviour typically associated with eating disorders. There is a lack of consensus amongst relevant experts as to whether carbohydrates are physiologically or psychologically addictive. With an increased focus on carbohydrate addiction, an outpatient treatment programme, HELP, has been established in Cape Town, South Africa, to specifically address this issue. This research aimed to explore, pre-and post-intervention, the possible presence of, and subsequent shifts in, the maintaining mechanisms identified in the transdiagnostic model for eating disorders. However, the potential for the emergence of other perpetuating factors was not discounted and the nature of the analysis allowed for this possibility. Eight women between the ages of twenty-two and fifty, who had completed the outpatient treatment programme in the last six months, were interviewed. They were asked to speak retrospectively about their personal difficulties, eating and food, and their experience of the treatment. Thematic analysis was employed to identify themes arising from the data. Five themes congruent with the transdiagnostic model’s factors emerged: over-evaluation of weight and shape, core low self-esteem, interpersonal difficulties, clinical perfectionism and mood intolerance. A variety of sub-themes, elaborating upon the various ways in which the disordered eating was maintained, also emerged from the data. Shifts in these maintaining mechanisms were identified. Although not necessarily indicative of recovery, the results suggest that the outpatient HELP programme had a positive overall influence on the participants; and that the transdiagnostic model may be useful in understanding and guiding the treatment of clients who engage in this type of treatment programme.

Keywords: eating disorders, binge eating disorder, carbohydrate addiction, transdiagnostic model, maintaining mechanisms, thematic analysis, outpatient treatment

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145 Assessment of Utilization of Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling and Associated Factors among Adult out Patient Department Patients in Wonchi Woreda, South West Shoa Zone, Central Ethiopia

Authors: Dinka Fikadu, Mulugeta Shegaze

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Background: Currently in health facility, provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus testing is the key entry point to prevention, care, treatment and support services, but most people remains unaware of their HIV status due to various reasons. In many high-prevalence countries, fewer than one in ten people with HIV are aware of their HIV status. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, "has become one of the world’s most serious health and development challenges. Reaching individuals with HIV who do not know their serostatus is a global public health priority. Objective: To assess utilization of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling and associated factors among adult outpatient department patients. Methods: Health facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 392 adult outpatient department patients in Wonchi woreda from February 24 to March 24 /2013. The study participant was recruited patients from all adult outpatient department patients of all four public health facilities of wonchi woreda using systematic sampling. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to elicit all important variables from the study participants and multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Result: A total of 371 adult outpatient department patients aged between 15 to 64 years were actively participated in the study and 291(78.4%) of them utilized provider initiated HIV testing and counseling and 80(21.6%) of them refused. Knowledge on HIV is low in the study population; majority of the participants didn’t have comprehensive knowledge (64.7%) and (35.3%) fail to reject misconception about means of HIV transmission and prevention. Utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling were associated with divorced/widowed marital status[AOR (95%CI) = 0.32(0.15, 0.69)], being male sex [AOR (95%CI) =1.81(1.01, 3.24)], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [AOR (95%CI) =0.408(0.220,0.759)],having awareness about provider initiated HIV testing and counseling [AOR(95%CI) =2.89(1.48,5.66)] and receiving test on HIV before[AOR (95%CI)=4.15(2.30, 7.47)]. Conclusion: Utilization of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling among adult outpatient departments in wonchi woreda public health facility was [(78.4%)].Strengthening health information through mass media and peer education on HIV to address barrier to testing in the community such as low awareness on PITC, to increase up take of PITC among adult OPD patients.

Keywords: utilization, human immune deficiency, testing, provider, initiate

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144 Investigating the Relationship between Job Satisfaction, Role Identity, and Turnover Intention for Nurses in Outpatient Department

Authors: Su Hui Tsai, Weir Sen Lin, Rhay Hung Weng

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There are numerous outpatient departments at hospitals with enormous amounts of outpatients. Although the work of outpatient nursing staff does not include the ward, emergency and critical care units that involve patient life-threatening conditions, the work is cumbersome and requires facing and dealing with a large number of outpatients in a short period of time. Therefore, nursing staff often do not feel satisfied with their work and cannot identify with their professional role, leading to intentions to leave their job. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between the job satisfaction and role identity of nursing staff with turnover intention. This research was conducted using a questionnaire, and the subjects were outpatient nursing staff in three regional hospitals in Southern Taiwan. A total of 175 questionnaires were distributed, and 166 valid questionnaires were returned. After collecting the data, the reliability and validity of the study variables were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The influence of role identity and job satisfaction on nursing staff’s turnover intention was analyzed by descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that 'role identity' had significant differences in different types of marriages. Job satisfaction of 'grasp of environment' had significant differences in different levels of education. Job satisfaction of 'professional growth' and 'shifts and days off' showed significant differences in different types of marriages. 'Role identity' and 'job satisfaction' were negatively correlated with turnover intention respectively. Job satisfaction of 'salary and benefits' and 'grasp of environment' were significant predictors of role identity. The higher the job satisfaction of 'salary and benefits' and 'grasp of environment', the higher the role identity. Job satisfaction of 'patient and family interaction' were significant predictors of turnover intention. The lower the job satisfaction of 'patient and family interaction', the higher the turnover intention. This study found that outpatient nursing staff had the lowest satisfaction towards salary structure. It is recommended that bonuses, promotion opportunities and other incentives be established to increase the role identity of outpatient nursing staff. The results showed that the higher the job satisfaction of 'salary and benefits' and 'grasp of environment', the higher the role identity. It is recommended that regular evaluations be conducted to reward nursing staff with excellent service and invite nursing staff to share their work experiences and thoughts, to enhance nursing staff’s expectation and identification of their occupational role, as well as instilling the concept of organizational service and organizational expectations of emotional display. The results showed that the lower the job satisfaction of 'patient and family interaction', the higher the turnover intention. It is recommended that interpersonal communication and workplace violence prevention educational training courses be organized to enhance the communication and interaction of nursing staff with patients and their families.

Keywords: outpatient, job satisfaction, turnover, intention

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143 Ambulatory Care Utilization of Individuals with Cerebral Palsy in Taiwan- A Country with Universal Coverage and No Gatekeeper Regulation

Authors: Ming-Juei Chang, Hui-Ing Ma, Tsung-Hsueh Lu

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Introduction: Because of the advance of medical care (e.g., ventilation techniques and gastrostomy feeding), more and more children with CP can live to adulthood. However, little is known about the use of health care services from children to adults who have CP. The patterns of utilization of ambulatory care are heavily influenced by insurance coverage and primary care gatekeeper regulation. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP in Taiwan, a country with universal coverage and no gatekeeper regulation. Methods: A representative sample of one million patients (about 1/23 of total population) covered by Taiwan’s National Health Insurance was used to analyze the ambulatory care utilization in individuals with CP. Data were analyzed by 3 different age groups (children, youth and adults) during 2000 to 2003. Participants were identified by the presence of CP diagnosis made by pediatricians or physicians of physical and rehabilitation medicine and stated at least three times in claims data. Results: Annual rates of outpatient physician visits were 31680 for children, 16492 for youth, and 28617 for adults with CP (per 1000 persons). Individuals with CP received over 50% of their outpatient care from hospital outpatient department. Higher use of specialist physician services was found in children (54.7%) than in the other two age groups (28.4% in youth and 18.8% in adults). Diseases of respiratory system were the most frequent diagnoses for visits in both children and youth with CP. Diseases of the circulatory system were the main reasons (24.3%) that adults with CP visited hospital outpatient care department or clinics. Conclusion: This study showed different patterns of ambulatory care utilization among different age groups. It appears that youth and adults with CP continue to have complex health issues and rely heavily on the health care system. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors which influence ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, health services, lifespan, universal coverage

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142 Comparison of Patient Satisfaction and Observer Rating of Outpatient Care among Public Hospitals in Shanghai

Authors: Tian Yi Du, Guan Rong Fan, Dong Dong Zou, Di Xue

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Background: The patient satisfaction survey is becoming of increasing importance for hospitals or other providers to get more reimbursement and/or more governmental subsidies. However, when the results of patient satisfaction survey are compared among medical institutions, there are some concerns. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate patient satisfaction in tertiary hospitals of Shanghai and to compare the satisfaction rating on physician services between patients and observers. Methods: Two hundred outpatients were randomly selected for patient satisfaction survey in each of 28 public tertiary hospitals of Shanghai. Four or five volunteers were selected to observe 5 physicians’ practice in each of above hospitals and rated observed physicians’ practice. The outpatients that the volunteers observed their physician practice also filled in the satisfaction questionnaires. The rating scale for outpatient survey and volunteers’ observation was: 1 (very dissatisfied) to 6 (very satisfied). If the rating was equal to or greater than 5, we considered the outpatients and volunteers were satisfied with the services. The validity and reliability of the measure were assessed. Multivariate regressions for each of the 4 dimensions and overall of patient satisfaction were used in analyses. Paired t tests were applied to analyze the rating agreement on physician services between outpatients and volunteers. Results: Overall, 90% of surveyed outpatients were satisfied with outpatient care in the tertiary public hospitals of Shanghai. The lowest three satisfaction rates were seen in the items of ‘Restrooms were sanitary and not crowded’ (81%), ‘It was convenient for the patient to pay medical bills’ (82%), and ‘Medical cost in the hospital was reasonable’ (84%). After adjusting the characteristics of patients, the patient satisfaction in general hospitals was higher than that in specialty hospitals. In addition, after controlling the patient characteristics and number of hospital visits, the hospitals with higher outpatient cost per visit had lower patient satisfaction. Paired t tests showed that the rating on 6 items in the dimension of physician services (total 14 items) was significantly different between outpatients and observers, in which 5 were rated lower by the observers than by the outpatients. Conclusions: The hospital managers and physicians should use patient satisfaction and observers’ evaluation to detect the room for improvement in areas such as social skills cost control, and medical ethics.

Keywords: patient satisfaction, observation, quality, hospital

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141 Effect of Educational Information with Video Compact Disc on Anxiety Level in Patients Undergoing Bronchoscopy in Ramathibodi Hospital

Authors: Chariya Laohavich, Viboon Bunsrangsuk

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Objective: Bronchoscopy is a common outpatient procedure. The authors compared the patient anxiety level before and after received video-assisted procedural information. Method: One hundred and twenty patients who never received bronchoscopy and scheduled for elective bronchoscopy at outpatient Bronchosope unit at Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University were randomized into control and intervention group. Video-assisted procedural information was given in intervention group. Pre and post procedural anxiety score were recorded and compared between two groups. Paired T-test was used for statistical analysis. Result: There was statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) for anxiety score in patients who received video assisted procedural information compare with control group. Conclusion: Video-assisted procedural information should be given to patient who will have bronchoscopy to reduce anxiety.

Keywords: anxiety, bronchoscopy, video compact disc (VCD)

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140 Using Design Thinking Principles to Improve Patients Experiences in Two Outpatient Pharmacies in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Dalia Almaghaslah

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Design thinking approach; empathize, define, ideate prototype, test, implement, was used to assess outpatient experiences in two hospital pharmacies in the Asir region, Saudi Arabia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 patients. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings suggested that patients were generally satisfied with pharmaceutical services provided in both pharmacies. Pharmacists were found to have enough knowledge, good attitude, and efficient communication and counselling skills. Non-pharmacy-related factors such as cultural factors (gender segregation), long waiting times, uncomfortable waiting areas, lack of electronic prescribing, number waiting system were found to have a negative impact on patients' experiences and satisfaction. Prototypes will be used to test the effects of implementing the electronic system in Al -mahal hospital and to test changing the physical layout of the waiting area in Asir hospital.

Keywords: design thinking, hospital pharmacy, patient satisfaction, Saudi Arabia

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139 Nursing Experience in Improving Physical and Mental Well-Being of a Patient with Premature Menopause Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia in Nursing-Led Multi-Discipline Care

Authors: Huang Chiung Chiu

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This article is about the nursing experience of assisting an outpatient with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia through a multi-discipline care model. The nursing period is from September 22nd, 2020, to December 7th, 2020, collecting data through interviews with the patient, observation, and physical assessment. It was found that the main health problems were insufficient nutrition, less physical need, insomnia, and potentially dangerous falls. As an outpatient nurse, the author observed that in recent years, the age group of women with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia had shifted downward. Integrated multi-disciplinary interventions were provided upon the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Under the outpatient care setting, the collaborative team works between the doctors, nutritionists, osteoporosis educators, rehabilitates, physical therapists and other specialized teams were applied to provide individualized, integrated multi-disciplinary care. Through empathy and the establishment of attentive care, companionship and trust, we discussed care plans and treatment guidelines with the case, providing accurate, complete disease information and feedback education to strengthen the patient’s knowledge and motivation for exercise. Nursing guidance regarding the dietary nutrition and adjustment of daily routine was provided to increase the self-care ability, improve the health problems of muscle weakness and insomnia, and prevent falls. For patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and sarcopenia, it is recommended that the nurses coordinate the multi-discipline integrated care model, adjust patients’ lifestyle and diet, and establish a regular exercise plan so that the cases can be evaluated holistically to improve the quality of care and physical and mental comfort.

Keywords: multi-discipline care model, premature menopause, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, insomnia

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138 Use of Psychiatric Services and Psychotropics in Children with Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Mia Schneeweiss, Joseph Merola

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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with a prevalence of 9.6 million in children under the age of 18 in the US, 3.2 million of those suffer severe AD. AD has significant effects on the quality of life and psychiatric comorbidity in affected patients. We sought to quantify the use of psychotropic medications and mental health services in children. We used longitudinal claims data form commercially insured patients in the US between 2003 and 2016 to identify children aged 18 or younger with a diagnosis of AD associated with an outpatient or inpatient encounter. A 180-day enrollment period was required before the first diagnosis of AD. Among those diagnosed, we computed the use of psychiatric services and dispensing of psychotropic medications during the following 6 months. Among 1.6 million children <18 years with a diagnosis of AD, most were infants (0-1 years: 17.6%), babies (1-2 years: 12.2%) and young children (2-4 years: 15.4). 5.1% were in age group 16-18 years. Among younger children 50% of patients were female, after the age of 14 about 60% were female. In 16-18 years olds 6.4% had at least one claim with a recorded psychopathology during the 6-month baseline period; 4.6% had depression, 3.3% anxiety, 0.3% panic disorder, 0.6% psychotic disorder, 0.1% anorexia. During the 6 months following the physician diagnosis of AD, 66% used high-potency topical corticosteroids, 3.5% used an SSRI, 0.3% used an SNRI, 1.2% used a tricyclic antidepressant, 1.4% used an antipsychotic medication, and 5.2% used an anxiolytic agent. 4.4% had an outpatient visit with a psychiatrist and 0.1% had been hospitalized with a psychiatric diagnosis. In 14-16 years olds, 4.7% had at least one claim with a recorded psychopathology during the 6-month baseline period; 3.3% had depression, 2.5% anxiety, 0.2% panic disorder, 0.5% psychotic disorder, 0.1% anorexia. During the 6 months following the physician diagnosis of AD, 68% used high-potency topical corticosteroids, 4.6% used an SSRI, 0.6% used an SNRI, 1.5% used a tricyclic antidepressant, 1.4% used an antipsychotic medication, and 4.6% used an anxiolytic agent. 4.7% had an outpatient visit with a psychiatrist and 0.1% had been hospitalized with a psychiatric diagnosis. In 12-14 years olds, 3.3% had at least one claim with a recorded psychopathology during the 6-month baseline period; 1.9% had depression, 2.2% anxiety, 0.1% panic disorder, 0.7% psychotic disorder, 0.0% anorexia. During the 6 months following the physician diagnosis of AD, 67% used high-potency topical corticosteroids, 2.1% used an SSRI, 0.1% used an SNRI, 0.7% used a tricyclic antidepressant, 0.9 % used an antipsychotic medication, and 4.1% used an anxiolytic agent. 3.8% had an outpatient visit with a psychiatrist and 0.05% had been hospitalized with a psychiatric diagnosis. In younger children psychopathologies were decreasingly common: 10-12: 2.8%; 8-10: 2.3%; 6-8: 1.3%; 4-6: 0.6%. In conclusion, there is substantial psychiatric comorbidity among children, <18 years old, with diagnosed atopic dermatitis in a US commercially insured population. Meaningful psychiatric medication use (>3%) starts as early as 12 years old.

Keywords: pediatric atopic dermatitis, phychotropic medication use, psychiatric comorbidity, claims database

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137 A Cost-Evaluation Study on the Use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation for Salvage of Infected Implant-Based Breast Reconstructions

Authors: S. Haque, M. Kanapathy, E. Bollen, I. Younis, A. Mosahebi

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Background: Implant loss due to infection is the most devastating complication of implant-based breast reconstruction. The use of negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) for salvage of infected implant-based breast reconstructions has shown promising results to allow early reinsertion of a new implant as an alternative to current management of delayed reinsertion. This study compares the cost implication of NPWTi against current management of delayed reinsertion of infected breast implants. Methods: 20 cases of an infected breast implant treated with NPWTi (V.A.C. VERAFLO™ Therapy) followed by early re-insertion of a new implant were compared with 20 cases who had delayed reinsertion (non-NPWTi). Average cost per person was calculated using total operative expenses, cost of inpatient stay, cost of investigations, cost of antibiotics, and cost of outpatient visits. Results: Treatment with NPWTi allowed for earlier re-insertion of a new implant (NPWTi: 9.04 ± 2.92 days vs. non-NPWTi: 236.25 ± 123.89 days). The average cost per patient for NPWTi and non-NPWTi was £14,343.13 ± £2,786.70 and £8,920.31 ± £3,005.73 respectively. All patients treated with NPWTi had one admission and spent 11.9 ± 4.1days as an inpatient while non-NPWTi patients had 2.1 ± 0.3 admissions with total length of inpatient stay of 7.1 ± 5.8days. Patients treated with NPWTi had more surgeries (NPWTi: 3.35 ± 0.81 vs. non-NPWTi: 2.2 ± 0.41), however 3 non-NPWTi cases required flap reconstruction. Patients treated with NPWTi had fewer total outpatient visits (NPWTi: 12 ± 6 vs. non-NPWTi: 14.2 ± 6.3). Conclusion: Patients treated with NPWTi incurred higher average cost per patient, longer inpatient stay, and more procedures; however, had early re-insertion of new implants and fewer admissions and outpatient visits. A further study on patient-reported outcome is essential to compare cost against patient benefit.

Keywords: breast reconstruction, cost evaluation, infection, negative pressure wound therapy

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136 Designing a Combined Outpatient and Day Treatment Eating Disorder Program for Adolescents and Transitional Aged Youth: A Naturalistic Case Study

Authors: Deanne McArthur, Melinda Wall, Claire Hanlon, Dana Agnolin, Krista Davis, Melanie Dennis, Elizabeth Glidden, Anne Marie Smith, Claudette Thomson

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Background and significance: Patients with eating disorders have traditionally been an underserviced population within the publicly-funded Canadian healthcare system. This situation was worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic and accompanying public health measures, such as “lockdowns” which led to increased isolation, changes in routine, and other disruptions. Illness severity and prevalence rose significantly with corresponding increases in patient suffering and poor outcomes. In Ontario, Canada, the provincial government responded by increasing funding for the treatment of eating disorders, including the launch of a new day program at an intermediate, regional health centre that already housed an outpatient treatment service. The funding was received in March 2022. The care team sought to optimize this opportunity by designing a program that would fit well within the resource-constrained context in Ontario. Methods: This case study will detail how the team consulted the literature and sought patient and family input to design a program that optimizes patient outcomes and supports for patients and families while they await treatment. Early steps include a review of the literature, expert consultation and patient and family focus groups. Interprofessional consensus was sought at each step with the team adopting a shared leadership and patient-centered approach. Methods will include interviews, observations and document reviews to detail a rich description of the process undertaken to design the program, including evaluation measures adopted. Interim findings pertaining to the early stages of the program-building process will be detailed as well as early lessons and ongoing evolution of the program and design process. Program implementation and outcome evaluation will continue throughout 2022 and early 2023 with further publication and presentation of study results expected in the summer of 2023. The aim of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge pertaining to the design and implementation of eating disorder treatment services that combine outpatient and day treatment services in a resource-constrained context.

Keywords: eating disorders, day program, interprofessional, outpatient, adolescents, transitional aged youth

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135 Designing a Waitlist Intervention for Adult Patients Awaiting Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders: Preliminary Findings from a Pilot Test

Authors: Deanne McArthur, Melinda Wall, Claire Hanlon, Dana Agnolin, Krista Davis, Melanie Dennis, Elizabeth Glidden, Anne Marie Smith, Claudette Thomson

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In Canada, as prevalence rates and severity of illness have increased among patients suffering from eating disorders, wait times have grown substantially. Patients in Canada often face wait times in excess of 12 months. It is known that delaying treatment for eating disorders contributes to poor patient outcomes and higher rates of symptom relapse. Improving interim services for adult patients awaiting outpatient treatment is a priority for an outpatient eating disorders clinic in Ontario, Canada. The clinical setting currently provides care for adults diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. At present, the only support provided while patients are on the waitlist consists of communication with primary care providers regarding parameters for medical monitoring. The significance of this study will be to test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of an intervention to support adult patients awaiting outpatient eating disorder treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Methods: An intervention including psychoeducation, supportive resources, self-monitoring, and auxiliary referral will be pilot-tested with a group of patients in the summer of 2022 and detailed using a prospective cohort case study research design. The team will host patient focus groups in May 2022 to gather input informing the content of the intervention. The intervention will be pilot tested with newly-referred patients in June and July 2022. Patients who participate in the intervention will be asked to complete a survey evaluating the utility of the intervention and for suggestions, they may have for improvement. Preliminary findings describing the existing literature pertaining to waitlist interventions for patients with eating disorders, data gathered from the focus groups and early pilot testing results will be presented. Data analysis will continue throughout 2022 and early 2023 for follow-up publication and presentation in the summer of 2023. The aim of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge pertaining to providing interim support to those patients waiting for treatment for eating disorders and, by extension, to improve outcomes for this population.

Keywords: eating disorders, waitlist management, intervention study, pilot test

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134 Quality of Life of Patients on Oral Anticoagulant Therapy in Outpatient Cardiac Department Dr. Hasan Sadikin Central General Hospital Bandung

Authors: Mochammad Indra Permana, Andhiani Sharfina Arnellya, Dika Pramita Destiani, Budhi Prihartanto

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Cardiovascular disease is the cause of the highest mortality rates in the world. The number of cardiovascular disease patients is increasing every year. Data obtained from World Health Organization (WHO) that 17,5 million people died from this disease. The condition of cardiovascular diseases such as atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, and several other conditions need anticoagulant therapy. Results of the anticoagulant therapy are measured not only by the effectiveness of International Normalized Ratio (INR) value but also by the quality of life of the patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life of patients on oral anticoagulant therapy in outpatient cardiac department Dr. Hasan Sadikin central general hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. This is a cross-sectional study with collecting data from the quality of life questionnaire and medical record of the patients. The results of this study showed that 28 patients (46,7%) had a good quality of life, 30 patients (50%) had a moderate quality of life, and 2 patients (3,3%) had a poor quality of life with no significant differences in quality of life based on age, gender, diagnosis, and duration of drug use.

Keywords: anticoagulant, cardiovascular diseases, INR, quality of life

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133 The Incidence of Cardiac Arrhythmias Using Trans-Telephonic, Portable Electrocardiography Recorder, in Out-Patients Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital

Authors: Urasri Imsomboon, Sopita Areerob, Kanchaporn Kongchauy, Tuchapong Ngarmukos

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Objective: The Trans-telephonic Electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring is used to diagnose of infrequent cardiac arrhythmias and improve outcome of early detection and treatment on suspected cardiac patients. The objectives of this study were to explore incidence of cardiac arrhythmia using Trans-Telephonic and to explore time to first symptomatic episode and documented cardiac arrhythmia in outpatients. Methods: Descriptive research study was conducted between February 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016. A total of 117 patients who visited outpatient clinic were purposively selected. Research instruments in this study were the personal data questionnaire and the record form of incidence of cardiac arrhythmias using Trans-Telephonic ECG recorder. Results: A total of 117 patients aged between 15-92 years old (mean age 52.7 ±17.1 years), majority of studied sample was women (64.1%). The results revealed that 387 ECGs (Average 2.88 ECGs/person, SD = 3.55, Range 0 – 21) were sent to Cardiac Monitoring Center at Coronary Care Unit. Of these, normal sinus rhythm was found mostly 46%. Top 5 of cardiac arrhythmias were documented at the time of symptoms: sinus tachycardia 43.5%, premature atrial contraction 17.7%, premature ventricular contraction 14.3%, sinus bradycardia 11.5% and atrial fibrillation 8.6%. Presenting symptom were tachycardia 94%, palpitation 83.8%, dyspnea 51.3%, chest pain 19.6%, and syncope 14.5%. Mostly activities during symptom were no activity 64.8%, sleep 55.6% and work 25.6%.The mean time until the first symptomatic episode occurred on average after 6.88 ± 7.72 days (median 3 days). The first documented cardiac arrhythmia occurred on average after 9 ± 7.92 days (median 7 day). The treatments after patients known actual cardiac arrhythmias were observe themselves 68%, continue same medications 15%, got further investigations (7 patients), and corrected causes of cardiac arrhythmias via invasive cardiac procedures (5 patients). Conclusion: Trans-telephonic: portable ECGs recorder is effective in the diagnosis of suspected symptomatic cardiac arrhythmias in outpatient clinic.

Keywords: cardiac arrhythmias, diagnosis, outpatient clinic, trans-telephonic: portable ECG recorder

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132 Quality of Life of Patients on Oral Antiplatelet Therapy in Outpatient Cardiac Department Dr. Hasan Sadikin Central General Hospital Bandung

Authors: Andhiani Sharfina Arnellya, Mochammad Indra Permana, Dika Pramita Destiani, Ellin Febrina

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Health Research Data, Ministry of Health of Indonesia in 2007, showed coronary heart disease (CHD) or coronary artery disease (CAD) was the third leading cause of death in Indonesia after hypertension and stroke with 7.2% incidence rate. Antiplatelet is one of the important therapy in management of patients with CHD. In addition to therapeutic effect on patients, quality of life is one aspect of another assessment to see the success of antiplatelet therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life of patients on oral antiplatelet therapy in outpatient cardiac department Dr. Hasan Sadikin central general hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. This research is a cross sectional by collecting data through quality of life questionnaire of patients which performed prospectively as primary data and secondary data from medical record of patients. The results of this study showed that 54.3% of patients had a good quality of life, 45% had a moderate quality of life, and 0.7% had a poor quality of life. There are no significant differences in quality of life-based on age, gender, diagnosis, and duration of drug use.

Keywords: antiplatelet, quality of life, coronary artery disease, coronary heart disease

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131 Patient Understanding of Health Information: Implications for Organizational Health Literacy in Germany

Authors: Florian Tille, Heide Weishaar, Bernhard Gibis, Susanne Schnitzer

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Introduction: The quality of patient-doctor communication and of written health information is central to organizational health literacy (HL). Whether patients understand their doctors’ explanations and textual material on health, however, is understudied. This study identifies the overall levels of patient understanding of health information and its associations with patients’ social characteristics in outpatient health care in Germany. Materials & Methods: This analysis draws on data collected via a 2017 national health survey with a sample of 6,105 adults. Quality of communication was measured for consultations with general practitioners (GPs) and specialists (SPs) via the Ask Me 3 program questions, and through a question on written health material. Correlations with social characteristics were explored employing bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Over 90% of all respondents reported that they had understood their doctors’ explanations during the last consultation. Failed understanding was strongly correlated with patients’ very poor health (Odds Ratio [OR]: 5.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.23–12.10; ref. excellent/very good health), current health problem (OR: 6.54, CI: 1.70–25.12; ref. preventive examination) and age 65 years and above (OR: 2.97, CI: 1.10–8.00; ref. 18 to 34 years). Fewer patients answered they understood written material well (86.7% for las visit at GP, 89.7% at SP). Understanding written material poorly was highly associated with basic education (OR: 4.20, CI: 2.76–6.39; ref. higher education) and 65 years old and above (OR: 2.66, CI: 1.43–4.96). Discussion: Overall ratings of oral patient-doctor communication and written communication of health information are high. Yet, a considerable share of patients reports not-understanding their doctors and poor understanding of the written health-related material. Interventions that can contribute to improving organizational HL in outpatient care in Germany include HL training for doctors, reducing system barriers to easily-accessible health information for patients and combining oral and written health communication means. Conclusion: This work adds to the study of organizational HL in Germany. To increase patient understanding of health-relevant information and thereby possibly reduce health disparities, meeting the communication needs especially of persons in different age groups, with basic education and in very poor health is suggested.

Keywords: health survey, organizational health literacy, patient-doctor communication, social characteristics, outpatient care, Ask Me 3

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130 Tuberculosis Outpatient Treatment in the Context of Reformation of the Health Care System

Authors: Danylo Brindak, Viktor Liashko, Olexander Chepurniy

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Despite considerable experience in implementation of the best international approaches and services within response to epidemy of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, the results of situation analysis indicate the presence of faults in this area. In 2014, Ukraine (for the first time) was included in the world’s five countries with the highest level of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The effectiveness of its treatment constitutes only 35% in the country. In this context, the increase in allocation of funds to control the epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis does not produce perceptible positive results. During 2001-2016, only the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria allocated to Ukraine more than USD 521,3 million for programs of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS control. However, current conditions in post-Semashko system create little motivation for rational use of resources or cost control at inpatient TB facilities. There is no motivation to reduce overdue hospitalization and to target resources to priority sectors of modern tuberculosis control, including a model of care focused on the patient. In the presence of a line-item budget at medical institutions, based on the input factors as the ratios of beds and staff, there is a passive disposal of budgetary funds by health care institutions and their employees who have no motivation to improve quality and efficiency of service provision. Outpatient treatment of tuberculosis is being implemented in Ukraine since 2011 and has many risks, namely creation of parallel systems, low consistency through dependence on funding for the project, reduced the role of the family doctor, the fragmentation of financing, etc. In terms of reforming approaches to health system financing, which began in Ukraine in late 2016, NGO Infection Control in Ukraine conducted piloting of a new, motivating method of remuneration of employees in primary health care. The innovative aspect of this funding mechanism is cost according to results of treatment. The existing method of payment on the basis of the standard per inhabitant (per capita ratio) was added with motivating costs according to results of work. The effectiveness of such treatment of TB patients at the outpatient stage is 90%, while in whole on the basis of a current system the effectiveness of treatment of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB with positive swab is around 60% in the country. Even though Ukraine has 5.24 TB beds per 10 000 citizens. Implemented pilot model of ambulatory treatment will be used for the creation of costs system according to results of activities, the integration of TB and primary health and social services and their focus on achieving results, the reduction of inpatient treatment of tuberculosis.

Keywords: health care reform, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, outpatient treatment efficiency, tuberculosis

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129 Patient Scheduling Improvement in a Cancer Treatment Clinic Using Optimization Techniques

Authors: Maryam Haghi, Ivan Contreras, Nadia Bhuiyan

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Chemotherapy is one of the most popular and effective cancer treatments offered to patients in outpatient oncology centers. In such clinics, patients first consult with an oncologist and the oncologist may prescribe a chemotherapy treatment plan for the patient based on the blood test results and the examination of the health status. Then, when the plan is determined, a set of chemotherapy and consultation appointments should be scheduled for the patient. In this work, a comprehensive mathematical formulation for planning and scheduling different types of chemotherapy patients over a planning horizon considering blood test, consultation, pharmacy and treatment stages has been proposed. To be more realistic and to provide an applicable model, this study is focused on a case study related to a major outpatient cancer treatment clinic in Montreal, Canada. Comparing the results of the proposed model with the current practice of the clinic under study shows significant improvements regarding different performance measures. These major improvements in the patients’ schedules reveal that using optimization techniques in planning and scheduling of patients in such highly demanded cancer treatment clinics is an essential step to provide a good coordination between different involved stages which ultimately increases the efficiency of the entire system and promotes the staff and patients' satisfaction.

Keywords: chemotherapy patients scheduling, integer programming, integrated scheduling, staff balancing

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128 Evaluation of Medication Errors in Outpatient Pharmacies: Electronic Prescription System vs. Paper System

Authors: Mera Ababneh, Sayer Al-Azzam, Karem Alzoubi, Abeer Rababa'h

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Background: Medication errors are among the most common medical errors. Their occurrences result in patient’s mortality, morbidity, and additional healthcare costs. Continuous monitoring and detection is required. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare medication errors in outpatient’s prescriptions in two different hospitals (paper system vs. electronic system). Methods: This was a cross sectional observational study conducted in two major hospitals; King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) and Princess Bassma Teaching Hospital (PBTH) over three months period. Data collection was conducted by two trained pharmacists at each site. During the study period, medication prescriptions and dispensing procedures were screened for medication errors in both participating centers by two trained pharmacist. Results: In the electronic prescription hospital, 2500 prescriptions were screened in which 631 medication errors were detected. Prescription errors were 231 (36.6%), and dispensing errors were 400 (63.4%) of all errors. On the other side, analysis of 2500 prescriptions in paper-based hospital revealed 3714 medication errors, of which 288 (7.8%) were prescription errors, and 3426 (92.2%) were dispensing errors. A significant number of 2496 (67.2%) were inadequately and/or inappropriately labeled. Conclusion: This study provides insight for healthcare policy makers, professionals, and administrators to invest in advanced technology systems, education, and epidemiological surveillance programs to minimize medication errors.

Keywords: medication errors, prescription errors, dispensing errors, electronic prescription, handwritten prescription

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127 Nurse's Professional Space: Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic of Ottawa's Montfort Hospital 1976-2002

Authors: Silvia Maria Moya

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After the Great Depression, the number of admissions to psychiatric facilities saw a significant increase. This increase, coupled with the arrival of new antipsychotic drugs, prepared the ground to the psychiatric deinstitutionalization movement in North America. Community services became an essential part of care where the role of the nurse also became crucial in the management of patients. Looking through the archives of the Department of Psychiatry at the Ottawa Montfort Hospital, this project aims to assess the role of the nurse in a multidisciplinary team in a period of psychiatric deinstitutionalization. This research focuses on the different roles of the mental health nurse during the second half of the twentieth century. The case study, used as a methodological approach allows in-depth analysis of the journey of a female patient with long hospital course. The analysis of the document ‘psychiatric evaluation’ on the medical records of outpatient Montfort Hospital – where, on a regular basis, different health professionals of the multidisciplinary team write their notes – allow us to better understand the difficulties of the patient, their problems, their family and work relationships and the evolution of their self-esteem, but most importantly, it allows us to identify the importance of the different nurse`s roles in the team and in the mental health setting. This project therefore reveals that the nurse occupies a larger professional space than the other professionals in the multidisciplinary team and highlights the role of mental health nurses with patients and their families and their leadership role within a multidisciplinary team.

Keywords: mental health, nursing, deinstitutionalization, professional space

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126 Quality Care from the Perception of the Patient in Ambulatory Cancer Services: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Herlin Vallejo, Jhon Osorio

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Quality is a concept that has gained importance in different scenarios over time, especially in the area of health. The nursing staff is one of the actors that contributes most to the care process and the satisfaction of the users in the evaluation of quality. However, until now, there are few tools to measure the quality of care in specialized performance scenarios. Patients receiving ambulatory cancer treatments can face various problems, which can increase their level of distress, so improving the quality of outpatient care for cancer patients should be a priority for oncology nursing. The experience of the patient in relation to the care in these services has been little investigated. The purpose of this study was to understand the perception that patients have about quality care in outpatient chemotherapy services. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was carried out in 9 patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with cancer, who were treated at the Institute of Cancerology, in outpatient chemotherapy rooms, with a minimum of three months of treatment with curative intention and which had given your informed consent. The total of participants was determined by the theoretical saturation, and the selection of these was for convenience. Unstructured interviews were conducted, recorded and transcribed. The analysis of the information was done under the technique of content analysis. Three categories emerged that reflect the perception that patients have regarding quality care: patient-centered care, care with love and effects of care. Patients highlighted situations that show that care is centered on them, incorporating elements of patient-centered care from the institutional, infrastructure, qualities of care and what for them, in contrast, means inappropriate care. Care with love as a perception of quality care means for patients that the nursing staff must have certain qualities, perceive caring with love as a family affair, limits on care with love and the nurse-patient relationship. Quality care has effects on both the patient and the nursing staff. One of the most relevant effects was the confidence that the patient develops towards the nurse, besides to transform the unreal images about cancer treatment with chemotherapy. On the other hand, care with quality generates a commitment to self-care and is a facilitator in the transit of oncological disease and chemotherapeutic treatment, but from the perception of a healing transit. It is concluded that care with quality from the perception of patients, is a construction that goes beyond the structural issues and is related to an institutional culture of quality that is reflected in the attitude of the nursing staff and in the acts of Care that have positive effects on the experience of chemotherapy and disease. With the results, it contributes to better understand how quality care is built from the perception of patients and to open a range of possibilities for the future development of an individualized instrument that allows evaluating the quality of care from the perception of patients with cancer.

Keywords: nursing care, oncology service hospital, quality management, qualitative studies

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125 Reducing Waiting Time in Outpatient Services: Six Sigma and Technological Approach

Authors: Omkar More, Isha Saini, Gracy Mathai

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To study whether there is any clinical correlation between pterygium and dry eye and to evaluate the status of the tear film in patients with pterygium. Methods: 100 eyes with pterygium were compared with 100 control eyes without pterygium. Patients between 20 – 70 years were included in the study. A detailed history was taken and Schirmer’s test and TBUT were performed on all to evaluate the status of dry eye. Schirmer’s test ˂ 10 mm and TBUT ˂10 seconds was considered abnormal. Results: Maximum number (52) of patients affected by dry eye in both the groups were in the age group 31-40 years which statistically showed age as a significant factor of association for both pterygium and dry eye (P < 0.01).Schirmer’s test was slightly reduced in patients with pterygium(18.73±5.69 mm). TBUT was significantly reduced in the case group (12.26±2.24sec).TBUT decreased maximally in 51-60 yrs age group (13.00±2.77sec) with pterygium showing a tear film instability. On comparison of pterygia and controls with normal and abnormal tear film, Odd’s Ratio was 1.14 showing a risk of dry eye in pterygia patients to be 1.14 times higher than controls. Conclusion: Whether tear dysfunction is a precursor to pterygium growth or pterygium causes tear dysfunction is still not clear. Research and clinical evidence, however, suggest that there is a relationship between the two. This study is, therefore, undertaken to investigate the correlation between pterygium and dry eye. The patients with pterygia were compared with normals to evaluate their status regarding dryness. A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms and functional evidence of tear instability. Schirmer’s test and TBUT should routinely be used in the outpatient department to diagnose dry eye in patients with pterygium and these patients should be promptly treated to prevent any sight-threatening complications.

Keywords: footfall, nursing assessment, quality improvement, six sigma

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124 Integrating Nursing Informatics to Improve Patient-Centered Care: A Project to Reduce Patient Waiting Time at the Blood Pressure Counter

Authors: Pi-Chi Wu, Tsui-Ping Chu, Hsiu-Hung Wang

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Background: The ability to provide immediate medical service in outpatient departments is one of the keys to patient satisfaction. Objectives: This project used electronic equipment to integrate nursing care information to patient care at a blood pressure diagnostic counter. Through process reengineering, the average patient waiting time decreased from 35 minutes to 5 minutes, while service satisfaction increased from a score of 2.7 to 4.6. Methods: Data was collected from a local hospital in Southern Taiwan from a daily average of 2,200 patients in the outpatient department. Previous waiting times were affected by (1) space limitations, (2) the need to help guide patient mobility, (3) the need for nurses to appease irate patients and give instructions, (4), the need for patients to replace lost counter tickets, (5) the need to re-enter information, (6) the replacement of missing patient information. An ad hoc group was established to enhance patient satisfaction and shorten waiting times for patients to see a doctor. A four step strategy consisting of (1) counter relocation, (2) queue reorganization, (3) electronic information integration, (4) process reengineering was implemented. Results: Implementation of the developed strategy decreased patient waiting time from 35 minutes to an average of 5 minutes, and increased patient satisfaction scores from 2.7 to 6.4. Conclusion: Through the integration of information technology and process transformation, waiting times were drastically reduced, patient satisfaction increased, and nurses were allowed more time to engage in more cost-effective services. This strategy was simultaneously enacted in separate hospitals throughout Taiwan.

Keywords: process reengineering, electronic information integration, patient satisfaction, patient waiting time

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123 Combined Cervical Headache Snag with Cervical Snag Half Rotation Techniques on Cervicogenic Headache Patients

Authors: Wael Salah Shendy, Moataz Mohamed EL Semary, Hosam Salah Murad, Adham A. Mohamed

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Background: Cervicogenic headache is a major problem in many people suffering from upper cervical dysfunction with a great conflict in its physical therapy management. Objectives: To determine the effect of C1-C2 Mulligan SNAGs mobilizations on cervicogenic headache and associated dizziness symptoms. Methods: Forty-eight patients with cervicogenic headache included in the study; from the outpatient clinic of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, and New Cairo outpatient clinics, were randomly assigned into three equal groups; group A ( Headache SNAG), group B (C1-C2 SNAG rotation) and group C (combined). Their mean age was (29.37 ± 2.6), (29.31 ± 2.54) and (29.68 ± 2.65). Neck Disability Index used to examine neck pain intensity and CEH symptoms. 6 Items Headache Impact test '6-HIT' scale used to examine headache severity and its adverse effects on social life and functions. Flexion-Rotation Test 'FRT' also used to assess rotation ROM at the level of C1-C2 by 'CROM' device. Dizziness Handicap Inventory 'DHI' scale was used to evaluate dizziness symptoms. Evaluation is done pre and post treatment, and comparison between groups was quantified. Correlations between the examined parameters were also measured. Headache SNAG and C1-C2 Rotation SNAGs were done separately in group (A- B) and combined in group C as a treatment intervention. Results: Group C has Significant improvement in whole parameters compared to group A and B, positive correlation was found between NDI and 6-HIT scores compared to negative correlation between NDI and DHI scores. Conclusion: SNAGs mobilizations used in the study were effective in reducing cervicogenic headache and dizziness symptoms in all groups with a noticeable improvement in the combined group.

Keywords: cervicogenic headache, cervical headache snag, cervical snag half rotation, cervical dizziness

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122 Real-World Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nigeria

Authors: F. Fatoye, C. E. Mbada, T. Gebrye, A. O. Ogunsola, C. Fatoye, O. Oyewole

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Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major cause of pain and disability. It is likely to become a greater economic and public health burden that is unnecessary. Thus, reliable prevalence figures are important for both clinicians and policy-makers to plan health care needs for those affected with the disease. This study estimated hospital based real-world prevalence of MSDs in Nigeria. A review of medical charts for adult patients attending Physiotherapy Outpatient Clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Osun State, Nigeria between 2009 and 2018 was carried out to identify common MSDs including low back pain (LBP), cervical spondylosis (CSD), post immobilization stiffness (PIS), sprain, osteoarthritis (OA), and other conditions. Occupational class of the patients was determined using the International Labour Classification (ILO). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages. Overall, medical charts of 3,340 patients were reviewed within the span of ten years (2009 to 2018). Majority of the patients (62.8%) were in the middle class, and the remaining were in low class (25.1%) and high class (10.5%) category. An overall prevalence of 47.35% of MSD was found within the span of ten years. Of this, the prevalence of LBP, CSD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other conditions was 21.6%, 10%, 18.9%, 2%, 6.3%, and 41.3%, respectively. The highest (14.2%) and lowest (10.5%) prevalence of MSDs was recorded in the year of 2012 and 2018, respectively. The prevalence of MSDs is considerably high among Nigerian patients attending outpatient a physiotherapy clinic. The high prevalence of MSDs underscores the need for clinicians and decision makers to put in place appropriate strategies to reduce the prevalence of these conditions. In addition, they should plan and evaluate healthcare services to improve the health outcomes of patients with MSDs. Further studies are required to determine the economic burden of the condition and examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for patients with MSDs.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, Nigeria, prevalence, real world

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121 Prevalence of Oral Tori in Malaysia: A Teaching Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Preethy Mary Donald, Renjith George

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Oral tori are localized non-neoplastic protuberances of maxilla and mandible. Torus palatinus (TP) is found on the midline of the roof of mouth existing as single growth or in clusters. Torus mandibularis(TM) is located on the lingual aspect of the mandible commonly between canine and premolar region. Etiology of their presence was not clear and was found to be multifactorial. Their variations in relation to age, gender, ethnicity and also the characteristics of TP and TM have become the interest of multiple studies. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM) among patients who have visited outpatient department, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College. 108 patients were examined for the presence of oral tori at the outpatient department, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College. Factors such as age, gender, ethnicity of the patients and size, shape, location of the oral tori were studied. For TP, Malays (62.96%) have been found to have the highest prevalence than Chinese (43.3%) and Indians (35.71%). For TM, Chinese (7.46%) had predominated compared to Malays (7.41%) and Indians (0%). There is no significant association between occurrence of TP and TM with age, gender and ethnicity. For Torus palatinus, the most common size was Grade 1(1-3mm), most common location was molar region, and the most common shape was spindle. For Torus mandibularis, the most frequent location was canine premolar region and exists in unilateral single or bilateral single fashion. The overall prevalence rates were 47.2% for TP and 6.48% for TM. However, there is no significant association between occurrence of TP and TM with age, gender and ethnicity. The results showed variations in clinical characteristics and support the findings that occurrence of tori is a dynamic phenomenon which is multifactorial owing to the environmental factors such as stress from occlusion and dietary habits. It could be due to the genetic make-up of the individual.

Keywords: torus palatinus, torus mandibularis, age, gender

Procedia PDF Downloads 201