Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: angina

16 Socioeconomic Status and Mortality in Older People with Angina: A Population-Based Cohort Study in China

Authors: Weiju Zhou, Alex Hopkins, Ruoling Chen

Abstract:

Background: China has increased the gap in income between richer and poorer over the past 40 years, and the number of deaths from people with angina has been rising. It is unclear whether socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased mortality in older people with angina. Methods: Data from a cohort study of 2,380 participants aged ≥ 65 years, who were randomly recruited from 5-province urban communities were examined in China. The cohort members were interviewed to record socio-demographic and risk factors and document doctor-diagnosed angina at baseline and were followed them up in 3-10 years, including monitoring vital status. Multivariate Cox regression models were employed to examine all-cause mortality in relation to low SES. Results: The cohort follow-up identified 373 deaths occurred; 41 deaths in 208 angina patients. Compared to participants without angina (n=2,172), patients with angina had increased mortality (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.97). Within angina patients, the risk of mortality increased with low satisfactory income (2.51, 1.08-5.85) and having financial problem (4.00, 1.07-15.00), but significantly with levels of education and occupation. In non-angina participants, none of these four SES indicators were associated with mortality. There was a significant interaction effect between angina and low satisfactory income on mortality. Conclusions: In China, having low income and financial problem increase mortality in older people with angina. Strategies to improve economic circumstances in older people could help reduce inequality in angina survival.

Keywords: angina, mortality, older people, socio-economic status

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15 The Clinical Manifestations of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Alexey Yu. Martynov, Sulejman Bayramov

Abstract:

Introduction: The myocardial bridging is the most common anomaly of the coronary arteries (CA). Depending on the examination method, the frequency of detected myocardial bridges (MB) varies in a rather wide range. The typical clinical manifestations of MB are angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death. Objective: To study the incidence of MB in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess clinical manifestations of MB in patients admitted with CAD. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 19159 case histories of patients admitted at clinical city hospital in Moscow from 01.01.2018 to 31.12 2019 with CAD was performed. 9384 patients’ coronary angiographies (CAG) were examined for MB. The localization of MB, the degree of coronary contraction by MB, the number of MB, isolated MB and combined with CAD were assessed. The clinical manifestations of MB were determined. Results: MB was detected in 52 patients all with one myocardial bridge. 20 patients with MB have intact CA, and 32 patients have MB combined with CAD. Among 20 patients with intact CA: I degree of MB contraction (up to 50%) was detected in 9 patients. Clinical manifestations in five cases were angina pectoris, in 3 myocardial infarction (MI) - 1 patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), 2 without ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 1 post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS). Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, vasospastic angina (VSA) in 1 patient. II degree of MB contraction (up to 50-70%) was determined in 9 patients: in seven cases angina pectoris was detected, 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, VSA in 3 patients. III degree of MB contraction (> 70%) detected in 2 patients. II FC stable angina in one case, PICS in another. Among 32 patients having MB combined with CAD I degree of MB contraction was observed in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations in 12 cases were angina pectoris in 8 II FC and in 4 III FC, 7 MI 6 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. II degree of MB contraction was detected in 7 patients, 4 of them had angina pectoris, 3 MI 2 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI. Stable angina II FC in 3, VSA in 1 patients. III degree of MB contraction was diagnosed in five patients. In two cases, II FC and III FC stable angina were observed, 2 MI with STEMI and NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Conclusions: MB incidence is one in 368 patients with CAD. The most common involvement (68%) is MB combined with CA atherosclerotic lesions. MB with intact CA are detected in one-third (32%) of patients. The first-degree MB contraction is most frequent condition. MI is more often detected in intact CA with first degree MB than in the second degree. The degree of MB contraction was not correlated with the severity of the clinical manifestations.

Keywords: clinical manifestations, coronary angiography, coronary artery disease, myocardial bridging, myocardial infarction, stable angina

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14 Demand for Care in Primary Health Care in the Governorate of Ariana: Results of a Survey in Ariana Primary Health Care and Comparison with the Last 30 Years

Authors: Chelly Souhir, Harizi Chahida, Hachaichi Aicha, Aissaoui Sihem, Chahed Mohamed Kouni

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Introduction: In Tunisia, few studies have attempted to describe the demand for primary care in a standardized and systematic way. The purpose of this study is to describe the main reasons for demand for care in primary health care, through a survey of the Ariana Governorate PHC and to identify their evolutionary trend compared to last 30 years, reported by studies of the same type. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study which concerns the study of consultants in the first line of the governorate of Ariana and their use of care recorded during 2 days in the same week during the month of May 2016, in each of these PHC. The same data collection sheet was used in all CSBs. The coding of the information was done according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). The data was entered and analyzed by the EPI Info 7 software. Results: Our study found that the most common ICPC chapters are respiratory (42%) and digestive (13.2%). In 1996 were the respiratory (43.5%) and circulatory (7.8%). In 2000, we found also the respiratory (39,6%) and circulatory (10,9%). In 2002, respiratory (43%) and digestive (10.1%) motives were the most frequent. According to the ICPC, the pathologies in our study were acute angina (19%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (8%). In 1996, it was tonsillitis ( 21.6%) and acute bronchitis (7.2%). For Ben Abdelaziz in 2000, tonsillitis (14.5%) follow by acute bronchitis (8.3%). In 2002, acute angina (15.7%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (11.2%) were the most common. Conclusion: Acute angina and tonsillitis are the most common in all studies conducted in Tunisia.

Keywords: acute angina, classification of primary care, primary health care, tonsillitis, Tunisia

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13 Relationship of Silent Myocardial Ischemia to Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Ali Kassem, Esam Nada, Amro Abdelhamed, Shigeo Horie

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Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with macrovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), and microvascular complications that contribute to the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). On the other hand, silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is more common in diabetic patients and is a strong predictor of cardiac events and mortality in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Recently, Multidetector computed tomographic coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) has become a reliable non-invasive imaging modality for screening diabetic patients for SMI. We aim to evaluate the presence of SMI using (MDCT-CA) in patients with type 2DM having ED. Methods: This study evaluated 20 patients (mean age 61.45 ± 10.7 years), with DM and ED without any history of angina or angina equivalent. ED was tested with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men score, erection hardness score (EHS), and maximal penile circumferential change by an erect meter. Results: Of twenty studied patients, coronary artery stenosis was detected in 13 (65%) patients in the form of one-vessel disease (n = 6, 30%), two-vessel disease (n = 2, 10%), and three-vessel disease (n = 5, 25%). Maximum coronary artery stenosis was positively correlated with age (P < 0.016,) and negatively correlated with EHS (P <04). Multivariate regression analysis using age and EHS showed that age was the only independent predictor of SMI (P <04). Conclusion: MDCT-CA is a useful tool to identify SMI in patients with diabetes mellitus and ED. One should consider the possibility of SMI especially in elderly patients with DM who have ED.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction, microvascular, silent ischemia

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12 Patient’s Knowledge and Use of Sublingual Glyceryl Trinitrate Therapy in Taiping Hospital, Malaysia

Authors: Wan Azuati Wan Omar, Selva Rani John Jasudass, Siti Rohaiza Md. Saad

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Introduction & objective: The objectives of this study were to assess patient’s knowledge of appropriate sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) use as well as to investigate how patients commonly store and carry their sublingual GTN tablets. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey, using a validated researcher-administered questionnaire. The study involved cardiac patients receiving sublingual GTN attending the outpatient and inpatient departments of Taiping Hospital, a non-academic public care hospital. The minimum calculated sample size was 92, but 100 patients were conveniently sampled. Respondents were interviewed on 3 areas, including demographic data, knowledge and use of sublingual GTN. Eight items were used to calculate each subject’s knowledge score and six items were used to calculate use score. Results: Of the 96 patients who consented to participate, majority (96.9%) were well aware of the indication of sublingual GTN. With regards to the mechanism of action of sublingual GTN, 73 (76%) patients did not know how the medication works. Majority of the patients (66.7%) knew about the proper storage of the tablet. In relation to the maximum number of sublingual GTN tablets that can be taken during each angina episode, 36.5% did not know that up to 3 tablets of sublingual GTN can be taken during each episode of angina. Fifty four (56.2%) patients were not aware that they need to replace sublingual GTN every 8 weeks after receiving the tablets. Majority (69.8%) of the patients demonstrated lack of knowledge with regards to the use of sublingual GTN as prevention of chest pain. Conclusion: Overall, patients’ knowledge regarding the self administration of sublingual GTN is still inadequate. The findings support the need for more frequent reinforcement of patient education, especially in the areas of preventive use, storage and drug stability.

Keywords: glyceryl trinitrate, knowledge, adherence, patient education

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11 The Impact of Total Dust (LGS) and Mineral Dust (PM 10) in Cardio Vascular and Respiratory System, in Albania: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: Canga Mimoza, Irene Malagnino, Giulia Malagnino, Vito Malagnino

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Aim: This study aims at evaluating the impact of total dust (LGS) and mineral dust (PM10), in the cardio vascular and respiratory systems. Also proving that these air polluters are the cause of several diseases, such as bronchopneumonia, pneumonia, bronchitis, angina pectoris and cardiac insufficiency. Material and Method: The study is concentrated in the cities of Fier and Vlora. This is a clinic-epidemiological study conducted during the time period 2014-2019. Some of the data of LGS and PM10 were obtained from the database of the Institute of Public Health. The formula to measure the mean value of LGS and PM10 is ∆X=X (mean)-Xᵢ. Results: Based on the calculations made, we noticed that: The mean value of LGS in the city of Fieri was 227,33, while the mean value of LGS in the city of Vlora was 177,4. Whereas, the mean value of PM10 in the city of Fieri was 105.5 and the mean value of PM10 in the city of Vlore was 77.5. According to, our statistics the values of LGS were 1.2 times higher in Fier than in Vlora and the PM10 values were 1.36 times higher in Fier than in Vlora. Based on the data, in the city of Fier, the incidence of the bronchopneumonia was 56.53 sick patients/1000 inhabitants, but in Vlora, it was 22 sick patients/1000 inhabitants, so the number of the sick patients was 2.5 times higher in the city of Fieri compared with Vlora city, (P=0.001). The number of the patients with bronchitis, in the city of Fier, was 18 patients/1000 inhabitants, whereas, in Vlora, it was 9 patients/1000 inhabitants, (P=0.005). Based on the data, 8 patients/1000 inhabitants in the city of Fier, suffered from the pneumonia disease, while in Vlora city, were 4 patients/1000 inhabitants, (P=0.005). Another disease taken in consideration was angina pectoris. This study can claim that in the city of Fier, 9.5 patients/1000 inhabitants suffered from this disease, while in Vlora city, were only 4 patients /1000 inhabitants, (P=0.001). Findings of the present study proved that 3.7 patients/1000 inhabitants in the city of Fieri, had cardiac insufficiency, whereas in the city of Vlora, were 1.8 patients/1000 inhabitants, (P=0.05). Conclusions: LGS and PM10 have an influential impact on the cardio vascular and respiratory system; that’s why their levels should be kept under control. The pollution levels are 1.2 and 1.4 times higher in Fier than in Vlora; also the incidences of the diseases are 2 times higher in Fier than in Vlora. Recommendations: In order to prevent the cardio vascular and respiratory diseases, we should avoid places where pollution is higher than the norm. This can be achieved by frequenting places where the air pollution is lower, such as parks, gardens, top floors, etc.

Keywords: impact of total dust, LGS, mineral dust, PM 10, cardio vascular pathologies, respiratory disease

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10 Healing Performances: Ethnographic Concepts and Emic Perspectives

Authors: S. Ishak, M. G. Nasuruddin

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This paper looks at healing performances as ethnographic expressions of local knowledge and culture embedded within the Malay psyche and gemeinschaft. As society develops and progresses, these healing performances are caught within conflicting trajectories which become compounded by the contestations of tradition, religious concerns, locality and modernity. As exemplifications of the Malay ethos, these performances practice common rituals, cater to the innate needs of the practitioners and serve the targeted, closed, local community. This paper traces the ethnographic methods in documenting these practices as rituals of healing in a post-modern world. It delineates the ethnographic concepts used to analyze these rituals, and to semiotically read the varied binarial oppositions and juxtapositions. The paper concludes by highlighting the reconciliatory processes involved in maintaining these ritual performances as exemplifications of the Malay ethos playing an important role in the re-aligning, re-balancing and healing of the Malay community’s psyche.

Keywords: angina, winds, semangat, spirits, traditional theatres, trance

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9 Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Jyotismita Talukdar

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In this paper, a study has been made on the possibility and accuracy of early prediction of several Heart Disease using Artificial Neural Network. (ANN). The study has been made in both noise free environment and noisy environment. The data collected for this analysis are from five Hospitals. Around 1500 heart patient’s data has been collected and studied. The data is analysed and the results have been compared with the Doctor’s diagnosis. It is found that, in noise free environment, the accuracy varies from 74% to 92%and in noisy environment (2dB), the results of accuracy varies from 62% to 82%. In the present study, four basic attributes considered are Blood Pressure (BP), Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Thalach (THAL) and Cholesterol (CHOL.). It has been found that highest accuracy(93%), has been achieved in case of PPI( Post-Permanent-Pacemaker Implementation ), around 79% in case of CAD(Coronary Artery disease), 87% in DCM (Dilated Cardiomyopathy), 89% in case of RHD&MS(Rheumatic heart disease with Mitral Stenosis), 75 % in case of RBBB +LAFB (Right Bundle Branch Block + Left Anterior Fascicular Block), 72% for CHB(Complete Heart Block) etc. The lowest accuracy has been obtained in case of ICMP (Ischemic Cardiomyopathy), about 38% and AF( Atrial Fibrillation), about 60 to 62%.

Keywords: coronary heart disease, chronic stable angina, sick sinus syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, Thalach

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8 Optimization of Lercanidipine Nanocrystals Using Design of Experiments Approach

Authors: Dolly Gadhiya, Jayvadan Patel, Mihir Raval

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Lercanidipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blockers used for treating angina pectoris and hypertension. Lercanidipine is a BCS Class II drug having poor aqueous solubility. Absolute bioavailability of Lercanidipine is very low and the main reason ascribed for this is poor aqueous solubility of the drug. Design and formulatation of nanocrystals by media milling method was main focus of this study. In this present study preliminary optimization was carried out with one factor at a time (OFAT) approach. For this different parameters like size of milling beads, amount of zirconium beads, types of stabilizer, concentrations of stabilizer, concentrations of drug, stirring speeds and milling time were optimized on the basis of particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. From the OFAT model different levels for above parameters selected for Plackett - Burman Design (PBD). Plackett-Burman design having 13 runs involving 6 independent variables was carried out at higher and lower level. Based on statistical analysis of PBD it was found that concentration of stabilizer, concentration of drug and stirring speed have significant impact on particle size, PDI, zeta potential value and saturation solubility. These experimental designs for preparation of nanocrystals were applied successfully which shows increase in aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of Lercanidipine hydrochloride.

Keywords: Lercanidipine hydrochloride, nanocrystals, OFAT, Plackett Burman

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7 Transdermal Therapeutic System of Lercanıdipine Hydrochloride: Fabrication and in Vivo Evaluation

Authors: Jiji Jose, R. Narayanacharyulu, Molly Mathew, Jisha Prems

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Introduction: Lercanidipine hydrochloride (LD), an effective calcium channel blocker, widely used for the treatment of chronic stable angina and hypertension seems to be potential transdermal therapeutic system candidate, mainly due to its low oral bio availability, short half life and high first-pass metabolism. Objective: To develop transdermal therapeutic systems for LD and to evaluate its in vivo performance in rabbits. Methodology: Transdermal patches of LD were formulated using the polymer blend of eudragit RL100 (ERL) and polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) by casting method Propylene glycol (PG) and tween 80 were used as plasticizer and permeation enhancer respectively. The pharmaco kinetic parameters of LD after the administration of transdermal patches was compared with that of oral administration. The study was carried out in a two way crossover design in male New Zealand albino rabbits. Results: The formulation with ERL: PVP ratio 1:4 with 15% w/w PG as plasticizer and 4% w/w tween 80 as permeation enhancer showed the best drug release results. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, tmax, mean residence time (MRT) and area under the curve (AUC 0-∞) were significantly different following transdermal administration compared to oral administration. The terminal half life of transdermally administered LD was found to similar that of oral administration. A sustained drug release over a period of 24 hrs was observed after transdermal administration. Conclusion: The fabricated transdermal delivery system have the potential to provide controlled and extended drug release, better bio availability and thus, this may improve the patient compliance.

Keywords: transdermal therapeutic system, lercanidipine hydrochloride, eudragit, skinpermeation

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6 Clinical Features of Acute Aortic Dissection Patients Initially Diagnosed with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Min Jee Lee, Young Sun Park, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Jae Ho Lee, Yoon Seon Lee, Kyung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim

Abstract:

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) concomitant with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is rare but prompt recognition of concomitant AAS is crucial, especially in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) because misdiagnosis with early thrombolytic or anticoagulant treatment may result in catastrophic consequences. Objectives: This study investigated the clinical features of patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS that may lead to the diagnostic clue. Method: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014, 22 patients who were the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (AMI and unstable angina) and AAS (aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and ruptured thoracic aneurysm) in our emergency department were reviewed. Among these, we excluded 10 patients who were transferred from other hospital and 4 patients with non-STEMI, leaving a total of 8 patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS for analysis. Result: The mean age of study patients was 57.5±16.31 years and five patients were Standford type A and three patients were type B aortic dissection. Six patients had ST-segment elevation in anterior leads and two patients had in inferior leads. Most of the patients had acute onset, severe chest pain but no patients had dissecting nature chest pain. Serum troponin I was elevated in three patients but all patients had D-dimer elevation. Aortic regurgitation or regional wall motion abnormality was founded in four patients. However, widened mediastinum was seen in all study patients. Conclusion: When patients with STEMI have elevated D-dimer and widened mediastinum, concomitant AAS may have to be suspected.

Keywords: aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, ST-segment, d-dimer

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5 Molecular Detection of Helicobacter Pylori and Its Association with TNFα-308 Polymorphism in Cardiovascular Diseases

Authors: Azar Sharafianpor, Hossein Rassi, Fahimeh Nemati Mansur

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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most important cause of death in industrialized and developing countries such as Iran. The most important risk factors for the CVD, genetic factors and chronic infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori, can be mentioned. The TNFα gene is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines that can affect the sensitivity, efficacy, and ability of the immune response to chronic infections. Some TNF-α gene polymorphisms, including the replacement of the G nucleotide G with A at position 308 in the promoter region of TNF-α, increase the transcription of cytokines in the target cells and thus predispose a person to chronic infections. This study examines the TNF-α 308 polymorphism and its association with Helicobacter pylori infection in this disease. This study was a case-control study in which 154 patients were examined as cases or patients with symptoms of myocardial infarction or angina and 160 as controls or healthy subjects. All of the subjects at different ages were given venous blood and age, BMI, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were determined. DNA was extracted from the specimens, and the cagA gene from H. pylori and the TNF-α-308 polymorphism were determined by PCR in patients and healthy subjects. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi Info software. The results showed that the frequency of H. pylori infection in the patients and healthy group were 53.23% (82 out of 154) and 47.5% (76 out of 160). There was no significant difference in H. pylori outbreak between the two groups. The frequencies of TNF-α-308 genotype for GG, GA, and AA in patients were 0.17, 0.49, and 0.34, respectively, whereas for controls 0.47, 0.35, and 0.18 for GG, GA, and AA, respectively. The frequency of genotype analysis of TNF-α-308 polymorphisms in both patients and healthy groups showed that there was a significant difference in the frequency of genotypes and the AA genotype was higher in the affected individuals. Also, there was a significant relationship between the genotype and the contamination with H. pylori and changes in cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were observed. The results of the study indicate that H. pylori detection in individuals with AA genotype in people under 50 years of age can play an important role in early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, TNFα gene, cardiovascular diseases, TNFα-308 polymorphism

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4 The Potential of Acanthaster Plancii Fractions as Anti-Atherosclerotic Agent by Inhibiting the Expression of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin-Kexin Type 9

Authors: Nurjannatul Naim Kamaruddin, Tengku Sifziuzl Tengku Muhammad, Aina Farahiyah Abdul Manan, Habsah Mohamad

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Atherosclerosis which leads to cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, unstable angina (ischemic heart pain), sudden cardiac death and stroke is the principal cause of death worldwide. It has been a very critical issue as current common drug treatment, statin therapy has left bad side effects like rhabdomyolysis, atrial fibrillation, liver disease, abdominal and chest pain. Interestingly, the discoveries of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 have paved a new way in the treatment of atherosclerosis. This serine protease is believed to involve in the regulation of LDL- uptake by LDL-receptor. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Acanthaster plancii fractions to reduce the transcriptional activity of the PCSK9 promoter. In this study, the marine organism which is Acanthaster plancii has been used as the source for marine compounds in inhibiting PCSK9. The cytotoxicity activity of ten fractions from the methanol extracts of Acanthaster plancii was investigated on HepG2 cell lines using MTS assay and dual glo luciferase assay was carried out later to analyses the effects of the samples in reducing the transcriptional activity of the PCSK9 promoter. Both assays used fractions with five different concentrations, 3.13µg/mL, 6.25µg/mL, 12.5µg/mL, 25µg/mL, and 50µg/mL. MTS assay indicated that the fractions are non-cytotoxic towards HepG2 cell lines as their IC50 value is greater than 30µg/mL. Whilst, for the dual glo luciferase assay, among all the fractions, Enhance Fraction 2 (EF2) showed the best potential in reducing the transcriptional activity of the PCSK9 promoter. The results indicated that this EF2 gave the lowest PCSK9 promoter expression at low concentration which is 0.2 fold change at 6.25µg/mL. This finding suggested that further analysis should be done to validate the potential of Acanthaster plancii as the source of anti-atherosclerotic agent.

Keywords: Acanthaster plancii, atherosclerosis, luciferase assay, PCSK9

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3 The Association between Saharran Dust and Emergency Department Admission and Hospitalization in Gaziantep, Turkey

Authors: Behcet Al, Mustafa Bogan, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Suat Zengin, Hasan Bayram

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Objective: In the last two decades there is a strong scientific interest regarding the role of aerosols for the Earth’s climate and associated changes. Aerosol particles are very important to the Earth-atmosphere climate system playing a crucial role in cloud and precipitation processes, air quality and climate. Here, we evaluated the association between saharran dust and emergency department admission, hospitalization, and mortality. Method: The records of admission to emergency department of Gaziantep University and the dust stroms of 31 months were studied. Patients admitted to ED at dust strom with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), asthma bronchiale (AB), serebrovascular events (SVE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stabile and unstabile angina pectoris (SAAP andUSAP); and the days with and without dust stroms were included. The study was realized from March 2010 to October 2012. The admission of three days before strom (group 1), during strom days (group 2) and three days after strom (group 3) were determined. The mean level of dust PM10 particulate was calculated, and the results were compared. Results: 5864 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma bronchiale, serebrovascular events, acute myocardial infarction, stabile and unstabile angyina pectoris admitted during the days with and without dust stroms. 28 dust stroms ocurred during 31 months. The totaliy of stroms continiued 78 days. Of admissions, 35.5% (n=2075) were in group1, 29.8% (n=1746) in group 2, and 34.8% (n=2043) were in group 3. The mean of PM10 for groups (group 1, 2 and 3) were 78.53 mg/m3 (range 19–276) particulate, 108.7 mg/m3 (range 34–631) particulate, and 60.9 mg/m3 (range 17–160) particulate respectively. The mean admission per a day for groups were 24.86, 22.55, and 24.50 respectively. The mortality was 12 in group 1, 12 in group 2, and 17 in grou 3. The hospitalization ratio for groups were 0.24, 0.27, and 0.27 respectively. Conclusion: However, the mean level of PM10 particulate for groups 2 (in dust strom days) is significantly higher (p=0.001) than the days before (group 1) and after (group 3) dust stroms, the mean admissions/day, hostilalization and mortality related to deseases (COLD, AB, SVE, AMI, SAAP andUSA) for group 2 is lower than the group 1 and group 3.

Keywords: Saharran dust, PM10 particulate, emergency department admission, mortality

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2 Study of Silent Myocardial Ischemia in Type 2 Diabeic Males: Egyptian Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem, Yhea Kishik, Ali Hassan, Mohamed Abdelwahab

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Introduction: Accelerated coronary and peripheral vascular atherosclerosis is one of the most common and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. A recent aspect of coronary artery disease in this condition is its silent nature. The aim of the work: Detection of the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) in Upper Egypt type 2 diabetic males and to select male diabetic population who should be screened for SMI. Patients and methods: 100 type 2 diabetic male patients with a negative history of angina or anginal equivalent symptoms and 30 healthy control were included. Full medical history and thorough clinical examination were done for all participants. Fasting and post prandial blood glucose level, lipid profile, (HbA1c), microalbuminuria, and C-reactive protein were done for all participants Resting ECG, trans-thoracic echocardiography, treadmill exercise ECG, myocardial perfusion imaging were done for all participants and patients positive for one or more NITs were subjected for coronary angiography. Results Twenty nine patients (29%) were positive for one or more NITs in the patients group compared to only one case (3.3%) in the controls. After coronary angiography, 20 patients were positive for significant coronary artery stenosis in the patients group, while it was refused to be done by the patient in the controls. There were statistical significant difference between the two groups regarding, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity, family history of DM and IHD with higher levels of microalbuminuria, C-reactive protein, total lipids in patient group versus controls According to coronary angiography, patients were subdivided into two subgroups, 20 positive for SMI (positive for coronary angiography) and 80 negative for SMI (negative for coronary angiography). No statistical difference regarding family history of DM and type of diabetic therapy was found between the two subgroups. Yet, smoking, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and family history of IHD were significantly higher in diabetics positive versus those negative for SMI. 90% of patients in subgroup positive for SMI had two or more cardiac risk factors while only two patients had one cardiac risk factor (10%). Uncontrolled DM was detected more in patients positive for SMI. Diabetic complications were more prevalent in patients positive for SMI versus those negative for SMI. Most of the patients positive for SMI have DM more than 5 years duration. Resting ECG and resting Echo detected only 6 and 11 cases, respectively, of the 20 positive cases in group positive for SMI compared to treadmill exercise ECG and myocardial perfusion imaging that detected 16 and 18 cases respectively, Conclusion: Type 2 diabetic male patients should be screened for detection of SMI when aged above 50 years old, diabetes duration is more than 5 years, presence of two or more cardiac risk factors and/or patients suffering from one or more of the chronic diabetic complications. CRP, is an important parameter for selection of type 2 diabetic male patients who should be screened for SMI. Non invasive cardiac tests are reliable for screening of SMI in these patients in our locality.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, Silent myocardial ischemia, Stress tests, type 2 DM

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1 Case Report of Left Atrial Myxoma Diagnosed by Bedside Echocardiography

Authors: Anthony S. Machi, Joseph Minardi

Abstract:

We present a case report of left atrial myxoma diagnosed by bedside transesophageal (TEE) ultrasound. Left atrial myxoma is the most common benign cardiac tumor and can obstruct blood flow and cause valvular insufficiency. Common symptoms consist of dyspnea, pulmonary edema and other features of left heart failure in addition to thrombus release in the form of tumor fragments. The availability of bedside ultrasound equipment is essential for the quick diagnosis and treatment of various emergency conditions including cardiac neoplasms. A 48-year-old Caucasian female with a four-year history of an untreated renal mass and anemia presented to the ED with two months of sharp, intermittent, bilateral flank pain radiating into the abdomen. She also reported intermittent vomiting and constipation along with generalized body aches, night sweats, and 100-pound weight loss over last year. She had a CT in 2013 showing a 3 cm left renal mass and a second CT in April 2016 showing a 3.8 cm left renal mass along with a past medical history of diverticulosis, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea on exertion, uncontrolled hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Her maternal family history is positive for breast cancer, hypertension, and Type II Diabetes. Her paternal family history is positive for stroke. She was a current everyday smoker with an 11 pack/year history. Alcohol and drug use were denied. Physical exam was notable for a Grade II/IV systolic murmur at the right upper sternal border, dyspnea on exertion without angina, and a tender left lower quadrant. Her vitals and labs were notable for a blood pressure of 144/96, heart rate of 96 beats per minute, pulse oximetry of 96%, hemoglobin of 7.6 g/dL, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and multiple other abnormalities. Physicians ordered a CT to evaluate her flank pain which revealed a 7.2 x 8.9 x 10.5 cm mixed cystic/solid mass in the lower pole of the left kidney and a filling defect in the left atrium. Bedside TEE was ordered to follow up on the filling defect. TEE reported an ejection fraction of 60-65% and visualized a mobile 6 x 3 cm mass in the left atrium attached to the interatrial septum extending into the mitral valve. Cardiothoracic Surgery and Urology were consulted and confirmed a diagnosis of left atrial myxoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The patient returned a week later due to worsening nausea and vomiting and underwent emergent nephrectomy, lymph node dissection, and colostomy due to a necrotic colon. Her condition declined over the next four months due to lung and brain metastases, infections, and other complications until she passed away.

Keywords: bedside ultrasound, echocardiography, emergency medicine, left atrial myxoma

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