Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: A. Mahajan

27 Use of Triclosan-Coated Sutures Led to Cost Saving in Public and Private Setting in India across Five Surgical Categories: An Economical Model Assessment

Authors: Anish Desai, Reshmi Pillai, Nilesh Mahajan, Hitesh Chopra, Vishal Mahajan, Ajay Grover, Ashish Kohli


Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is hospital acquired infection of growing concern. This study presents the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of triclosan-coated suture, in reducing the burden of SSI in India. Methodology: A systematic literature search was conducted for economic burden (1998-2018) of SSI and efficacy of triclosan-coated sutures (TCS) vs. non-coated sutures (NCS) (2000-2018). PubMed Medline and EMBASE indexed articles were searched using Mesh terms or Emtree. Decision tree analysis was used to calculate, the cost difference between TCS and NCS at private and public hospitals, respectively for 7 surgical procedures. Results: The SSI range from low to high for Caesarean section (C-section), Laparoscopic hysterectomy (L-hysterectomy), Open Hernia (O-Hernia), Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (L-Cholecystectomy), Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), Total knee replacement (TKR), and Mastectomy were (3.77 to 24.2%), (2.28 to 11.7%), (1.75 to 60%), (1.71 to 25.58%), (1.6 to 18.86%), (1.74 to 12.5%), and (5.56 to 25%), respectively. The incremental cost (%) of TCS ranged 0.1%-0.01% in private and from 0.9%-0.09% at public hospitals across all surgical procedures. Cost savings at median efficacy & SSI risk was 6.52%, 5.07 %, 11.39%, 9.63%, 3.62%, 2.71%, 9.41% for C-section, L-hysterectomy, O-Hernia, L-Cholecystectomy, CABG, TKR, and Mastectomy in private and 8.79%, 4.99%, 12.67%, 10.58%, 3.32%, 2.35%, 11.83% in public hospital, respectively. Efficacy of TCS and SSI incidence in a particular surgical procedure were important determinants of cost savings using one-way sensitivity analysis. Conclusion: TCS suture led to cost savings across all 7 surgeries in both private and public hospitals in India.

Keywords: cost Savings, non-coated sutures, surgical site infection, triclosan-coated sutures

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26 Degree of Approximation by the (T.E^1) Means of Conjugate Fourier Series in the Hölder Metric

Authors: Kejal Khatri, Vishnu Narayan Mishra


We compute the degree of approximation of functions\tilde{f}\in H_w, a new Banach space using (T.E^1) summability means of conjugate Fourier series. In this paper, we extend the results of Singh and Mahajan which in turn generalizes the result of Lal and Yadav. Some corollaries have also been deduced from our main theorem and particular cases.

Keywords: conjugate Fourier series, degree of approximation, Hölder metric, matrix summability, product summability

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25 Study and Analysis of the Factors Affecting Road Safety Using Decision Tree Algorithms

Authors: Naina Mahajan, Bikram Pal Kaur


The purpose of traffic accident analysis is to find the possible causes of an accident. Road accidents cannot be totally prevented but by suitable traffic engineering and management the accident rate can be reduced to a certain extent. This paper discusses the classification techniques C4.5 and ID3 using the WEKA Data mining tool. These techniques use on the NH (National highway) dataset. With the C4.5 and ID3 technique it gives best results and high accuracy with less computation time and error rate.

Keywords: C4.5, ID3, NH(National highway), WEKA data mining tool

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24 Axiomatic Design of Laser Beam Machining Process

Authors: Nikhil Deshpande, Rahul Mahajan


Laser Beam Machining (LBM) is a non-traditional machining process that has inherent problems like dross, striation, and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) which reduce the quality of machining. In the present day scenario, these problems are controlled only by iteratively adjusting a large number of process parameters. This paper applies Axiomatic Design principles to design LBM process so as to eliminate the problem of dross and striation and minimize the effect of HAZ. Process parameters and their ranges are proposed to set-up the LBM process, execute the cut and finish the workpiece so as to obtain the best quality cut.

Keywords: laser beam machining, dross, striation, heat affected zone, axiomatic design

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23 Integrated Finishing of Textiles

Authors: Geetal Mahajan, R. V. Adivarekar


In this research, an attempt has been made to develop integrated finish on textile fabrics. The demand for mosquito repellent, flame retardant, and water repellent finished fabric has increased. Integrated finishing was done using commercially available products. These finishing agents were first assessed individually for their functional properties and then used in combination with other agents. Dip-air dry and pad-dry-cure (PDC) were two different methods used for fabric finishing. The finished fabric was assessed using spray test, limiting oxygen index and mosquito repellence test. Integrated finished fabric is in great demand by the customers as it increases the aesthetic as well as the functional properties of the fabric with added benefit of water and energy conservation.

Keywords: flame retardant, integrated finishing, mosquito repellent, textiles, water repellent

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22 A Probability Analysis of Construction Project Schedule Using Risk Management Tool

Authors: A. L. Agarwal, D. A. Mahajan


Construction industry tumbled along with other industry/sectors during recent economic crash. Construction business could not regain thereafter and still pass through slowdown phase, resulted many real estate as well as infrastructure projects not completed on schedule and within budget. There are many theories, tools, techniques with software packages available in the market to analyze construction schedule. This study focuses on the construction project schedule and uncertainties associated with construction activities. The infrastructure construction project has been considered for the analysis of uncertainty on project activities affecting project duration and analysis is done using @RISK software. Different simulation results arising from three probability distribution functions are compiled to benefit construction project managers to plan more realistic schedule of various construction activities as well as project completion to document in the contract and avoid compensations or claims arising out of missing the planned schedule.

Keywords: construction project, distributions, project schedule, uncertainty

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21 Sliver Nanoparticles Enhanced Visible and Near Infrared Emission of Er³+ Ions Doped Lithium Tungsten Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Sachin Mahajan, Ghizal Ansari


TeO2-WO3-Li2O glass doped erbium ions (1mol %) and embedded silver nanoparticles( Ag NPs) has successfully been prepared by melt quenching technique and increasing the heat-treatment duration. The amorphous nature of the glass is determined by X-ray diffraction method, and the presences of silver nanoparticles are confirmed using Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis. TEM image reveals that the Ag NPs are dispersed homogeneously with average size 18 nm. From the UV-Vis absorption spectra, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks are detected at 550 and 578 nm. Under 980 nm excitation wavelengths, enhancement of red upconversion fluorescence and near-infrared broadband emission around 1550nm of Er3+ ions doped tellurite glasses containing Ag NPs have been observed. The observed enhancement of Er3+ emission is mainly attributed to the local field effects of Ag NPs causes an intensified electromagnetic field around NPs. For observed enhancement involved mechanisms are discussed.

Keywords: erbium ions, silver nanoparticle, surface plasmon resonance, upconversion emission

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20 Real Time Acquisition and Psychoacoustic Analysis of Brain Wave

Authors: Shweta Singh, Dipali Bansal, Rashima Mahajan


Psychoacoustics has become a potential area of research due to the growing interest of both laypersons and medical and mental health professionals. Non-invasive brain computer interface like Electroencephalography (EEG) is widely being used in this field. An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the response of EEG signals to acoustic stimuli further analysing the brain electrical activity. The real time EEG is acquired for 6 participants using a cost effective and portable EMOTIV EEG neuron headset. EEG data analysis is further done using EMOTIV test bench, EDF browser and EEGLAB (MATLAB Tool) application software platforms. Spectral analysis of acquired neural signals (AF3 channel) using these software platforms are clearly indicative of increased brain activity in various bands. The inferences drawn from such an analysis have significant correlation with subject’s subjective reporting of the experiences. The results suggest that the methodology adopted can further be used to assist patients with sleeping and depressive disorders.

Keywords: OM chant, spectral analysis, EDF browser, EEGLAB, EMOTIV, real time acquisition

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19 Dengue Death Review: A Tool to Adjudge the Cause of Dengue Mortality and Use of the Tool for Prevention of Dengue Deaths

Authors: Gagandeep Singh Grover, Vini Mahajan, Bhagmal, Priti Thaware, Jaspreet Takkar


Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in many countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. The state of Punjab in India shows cyclical and seasonal variation in dengue cases. The Case Fatality Rate of Dengue has ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 in the past years. The department has initiated a review of the cases that have died due to dengue in order to know the exact cause of the death in a case of dengue. The study has been undertaken to know the other associated co-morbidities and factors causing death in a case of dengue. The study used the predesigned proforma on which the records (medical and Lab) were recorded and reviewed by the expert committee of the doctors. This study has revealed that cases of dengue having co-morbidities have a longer stay in the hospital. Fluid overload and co-morbidities have been found as major factors leading to death, however, in a confirmed case of dengue hepatorenal shutdown was found to be a major cause of mortality. The data obtained will help in sensitizing the treating physicians in order to decrease the mortality due to dengue in future.

Keywords: dengue, death, morbidities, DHF, DSS

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18 Design and Parametric Analysis of Pentaband Meander Line Antenna for Mobile Handset Applications

Authors: Shrinivas P. Mahajan, Aarti C. Kshirsagar


Wireless communication technology is rapidly changing with recent developments in portable devices and communication protocols. This has generated demand for more advanced and compact antenna structures and therefore, proposed work focuses on Meander Line Antenna (MLA) design. Here, Pentaband MLA is designed on a FR4 substrate (85 mm x 40 mm) with dielectric constant (ϵr) 4.4, loss tangent (tan ) 0.018 and height 1.6 mm with coplanar feed and open stub structure. It can be operated in LTE (0.670 GHz-0.696 GHz) GPS (1.564 GHz-1.579 GHz), WCDMA (1.920 GHz-2.135 GHz), LTE UL frequency band 23 (2-2.020 GHz) and 5G (3.10 GHz-3.550 GHz) application bands. Also, it gives good performance in terms of Return Loss (RL) which is < -10 dB, impedance bandwidth with maximum Bandwidth (BW) up to 0.21 GHz and realized gains with maximum gain up to 3.28 dBi. Antenna is simulated with open stub and without open stub structures to see the effect on impedance BW coverage. In addition to this, it is checked with human hand and head phantoms to assure that it falls within specified Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) limits.

Keywords: coplanar feed, L shaped ground, Meander Line Antenna, MLA, Phantom, Specific Absorption Rate, SAR

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17 Differences in Motivations for the Use of Facebook between Males and Females

Authors: Arti Bakhshi, Remia Mahajan


Social networking sites have evolved with great pace and India has been no exception. Facebook is the top most rated social networking site (SNS) in India. Though this site is mostly used by younger generations, the popularity of this site is increasing among all masses and classes. The current paper explores gender differences in motivations for the use of Facebook. Of the sample (N=556), 229 male and 327 female Facebook users from India were asked to rate the motivations for the use of Facebook from ‘most preferred’ to ‘least preferred’. The five motivations studied were- time passing, information, relationship development, relationship maintenance and trend following. The cross tab chi square analyses revealed significant differences in three out of five motivations between male and female Facebook users, namely time passing, relationship development and trend following. Female Facebook users rated ‘time passing’ as a more preferred motivation in comparison to male Facebook users, while male users rated ‘relationship development’ and ‘trend following’ motivations as more preferred in comparison to female Facebook users. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: facebook, gender, motivations, social networking sites

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16 Evaluating Factors Influencing Information Quality in Large Firms

Authors: B. E. Narkhede, S. K. Mahajan, B. T. Patil, R. D. Raut


Information quality is a major performance measure for an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system of any firm. This study identifies various critical success factors of information quality. The effect of various critical success factors like project management, reengineering efforts and interdepartmental communications on information quality is analyzed using a multiple regression model. Here quantitative data are collected from respondents from various firms through structured questionnaire for assessment of the information quality, project management, reengineering efforts and interdepartmental communications. The validity and reliability of the data are ensured using techniques like factor analysis, computing of Cronbach’s alpha. This study gives relative importance of each of the critical success factors. The findings suggest that among the various factors influencing information quality careful reengineering efforts are the most influencing factor. This paper gives clear insight to managers and practitioners regarding the relative importance of critical success factors influencing information quality so that they can formulate a strategy at the beginning of ERP system implementation.

Keywords: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), information systems (IS), multiple regression, information quality

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15 The Role of Trust in International Relations– Examining India’s Gujaral Doctrine and South Asian Politics

Authors: Bhavana Mahajan


International Relations is a discipline of paradoxes. The State is the dominant political institution, yet little attention has been accorded to why individual countries behave the way they do with the theoretical analysis dismissing the State as a reactionary monolith – thus States either play to “quest for power” or to “systemic” forces. However, States do behave as and are influenced by agents when interacting with international structures as well as with other states. While questions on “competitive power politics” and “trust” have been examined and developed to a fair extent by International Relations theorists in the post 1990s period, their application to the domain of South Asian politics is limited and little research, if any, examines the conduct of foreign policy beyond rational choice. This paper is an initial attempt to marry these theoretical insights with the foreign policy exercised by India especially the case of the “Gujral Doctrine, as one of “non-reciprocal accommodation”. Ignoring the view that such a policy move can be viewed as political “feinting” or deception, it is noteworthy that India even made the first move in terms of defining its role as one who “trusts” rather than one who “seeks” to trust, given the country’s geo-strategic context and threat perceptions.

Keywords: India’s foreign policy, South Asia, social constructivism, English school, trusting relationships, Gujral Doctrine, rationality

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14 Graphene-Reinforced Silicon Oxycarbide Composite with Lamellar Structures Prepared by the Phase Transfer Method

Authors: Min Yu, Olivier T. Picot, Theo Graves Saunders, Ivo Dlouhy, Amit Mahajan, Michael J. Reece


Graphene was successfully introduced into a polymer-derived silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) matrix by phase transfer of graphene oxide (GO) from an aqueous (GO dispersed in water) to an organic phase (copolymer as SiOC precursor in diethyl ether). With GO concentrations increasing up to 2 vol%, graphene-containing flakes self-assembled into a lamellar structure in the matrix leading to composite with the anisotropic property. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was applied to densify the composites with four different GO concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 vol%) up to ~2.3 g/cm3. The fracture toughness of SiOC-2 vol% GO composites was significantly increased by ~91% (from 0.70 to 1.34 MPa·m¹/²), at the expense of a decrease in the flexural strength (from 85MPa to 55MPa), compared to SiOC-0 vol% GO composites. Moreover, the electrical conductivity in the perpendicular direction (σ┴=3×10⁻¹ S/cm) in SiOC-2 vol% GO composite was two orders of magnitude higher than the parallel direction (σ║=4.7×10⁻³ S/cm) owing to the self-assembled lamellar structure of graphene in the SiOC matrix. The composites exhibited increased electrical conductivity (σ┴) from 8.4×10⁻³ to 3×10⁻¹ S/cm, with the increasing GO content from 0.5 to 2 vol%. The SiOC-2 vol% GO composites further showed the better electrochemical performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than pure graphene, exhibiting a similar onset potential (~0.75V vs. RHE) and more positive half-wave potential (~0.6V vs. RHE).

Keywords: composite, fracture toughness, flexural strength, electrical conductivity, electrochemical performance

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13 Smartphone Addiction and Reaction Time in Geriatric Population

Authors: Anjali N. Shete, G. D. Mahajan, Nanda Somwanshi


Context: Smartphones are the new generation of mobile phones; they have emerged over the last few years. Technology has developed so much that it has become part of our life and mobile phones are one of them. These smartphones are equipped with the capabilities to display photos, play games, watch videos and navigation, etc. The advances have a huge impact on many walks of life. The adoption of new technology has been challenging for the elderly. But, the elder population is also moving towards digitally connected lives. As age advances, there is a decline in the motor and cognitive functions of the brain, and hence the reaction time is affected. The study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of smartphones in improving cognitive functions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe the effects of smartphone addiction on reaction time in elderly population Material and Methods: This is an experimental study. 100 elderly subjects were enrolled in this study randomly from urban areas. They all were using smartphones for several hours a day. They were divided into two groups according to the scores of the mobile phone addiction scale (MPAS). Simple reaction time was estimated by the Ruler drop method. The reaction time was then calculated for each subject in both groups. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation test. Results: The mean reaction time in Group A is 0.27+ 0.040 and in Group B is 0.20 + 0.032. The values show a statistically significant change in reaction time. Conclusion: Group A with a high MPAS score has a low reaction time compared to Group B with a low MPAS score. Hence, it can be concluded that the use of smartphones in the elderly is useful, delaying the neurological decline, and smarten the brain.

Keywords: smartphones, MPAS, reaction time, elderly population

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12 Apolipoprotein A1 -75 G to a Substitution and Its Relationship with Serum ApoA1 Levels among Indian Punjabi Population

Authors: Savjot Kaur, Mridula Mahajan, AJS Bhanwer, Santokh Singh, Kawaljit Matharoo


Background: Disorders of lipid metabolism and genetic predisposition are CAD risk factors. ApoA1 is the apolipoprotein component of anti-atherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. The protective action of HDL and ApoA1 is attributed to their central role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Aim: This study was aimed at identifying sequence variations in ApoA1 (-75G>A) and its association with serum ApoA1 levels. Methods: A total of 300 CAD patients and 300 Normal individuals (controls) were analyzed. PCR-RFLP method was used to determine the DNA polymorphism in the ApoA1 gene, PCR products digested with restriction enzyme MspI, followed by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. Serum apolipoprotein A1 concentration was estimated with immunoturbidimetric method. Results: Deviation from Hardy- Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was observed for this gene variant. The A- allele frequency was higher among Coronary Artery disease patients (53.8) compared to controls (45.5), p= 0.004, O.R= 1.38(1.11-1.75). Under recessive model analysis (AA vs. GG+GA) AA genotype of ApoA1 G>A substitution conferred ~1 fold increased risk towards CAD susceptibility (p= 0.002, OR= 1.72(1.2-2.43). With serum ApoA1 levels < 107 A allele frequency was higher among CAD cases (50) as compared to controls (43.4) [p=0.23, OR= 1.2(0.84-2)] and there was zero % occurrence of A allele frequency in individuals with ApoA1 levels > 177. Conclusion: Serum ApoA1 levels were associated with ApoA1 promoter region variation and influence CAD risk. The individuals with the APOA1 -75 A allele confer excess hazard of developing CAD as a result of its effect on low serum concentrations of ApoA1.

Keywords: apolipoprotein A1 (G>A) gene polymorphism, coronary artery disease (CAD), reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)

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11 Assessment of Delirium, It's Possible Risk Factors and Outcome in Patient Admitted in Medical Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Rupesh K. Chaudhary, Narinder P. Jain, Rajesh Mahajan, Rajat Manchanda


Introduction: Delirium is a complex, multifactorial neuropsychiatric syndrome comprising a broad range of cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms. In critically ill patients, it may develop secondary to multiple predisposing factors. Although it can be transient and irreversible but if left untreated may lead to long term cognitive dysfunction. Early identification and assessment of risk factors usually help in appropriate management of delirium which in turn leads to decreased hospital stay, cost of therapy and mortality. Aim and Objective: Aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of delirium using a validated scale in medical ICU patients and to determine the associated risk factors and outcomes. Material and Method: A prospective study in an 18-bed medical-intensive care unit (ICU) was undertaken. A total of 357 consecutive patients admitted to ICU for more than 24 hours were assessed. These patients were screened with the help of Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit -CAM-ICU, Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale, Screening Checklist for delirium and APACHE II. Appropiate statistical analysis was done to evaluate the risk factors influencing mortality in delirium. Results: Delirium occurred in 54.6% of 194 patients. Risk of delirium was independently associated with a history of hypertension, diabetes but not with severity of illness APACHE II score. Delirium was linked to longer ICU stay 13.08 ± 9.6 ver 7.07 ± 4.98 days, higher ICU mortality (35.8% % vs. 17.0%). Conclusion: Our study concluded that delirium poses a great risk factor in the outcome of the patient and carries high mortality, so a timely intervention helps in addressing these issues.

Keywords: delirium, risk factors, outcome, intervention

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10 Subthalamic Nucleus in Adult Human Cadaveric Brain: A Morphometric Study

Authors: Mangala Kohli, P. A. Athira, Reeha Mahajan


The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a biconvex nucleus situated in the diencephalon. The knowledge of the morphometry of the subthalamic nucleus is essential for accurate targeting of the nucleus during Deep Brain Stimulation. The present study aims to note the morphometry of the subthalamic nucleus in both the cerebral hemispheres which will prove to be of great value to radiologists and neurosurgeons. A cross‐sectional observational study was conducted in the Departments of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College & Associated Hospitals, New Delhi on thirty adult cadaveric brain specimens of unclaimed and donated corpses. The specimens were categorized into 3 age groups: 20-35, 35-50 and above 50 years. All samples were collected after following the standard protocol for ethical clearance. The morphometric study of 60 subthalamic nucleus was thus conducted. Transverse section of the brain was made at a plane 4mm ventral to the plane containing mid commissural point. The dimensions of the subthalamic nucleus were measured bilaterally with the aid of digital Vernier caliper and magnifying glass. In the present study, the mean length and width and AC-PC length of the subthalamic nucleus was recorded on the right and left side in Group A, B and C. On comparison of mean of subthalamic nucleus dimensions between the right and left side in Group C, no statistically significant difference was observed. The length and width of subthalamic nucleus measured in the 3 age groups were compared with each other and the p value calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between the dimensions of Group A and B, Group B and C as well as Group A and C. The present study reveals that there is no significant reduction in the size of the nucleus was noted with increasing age. Thus, the values obtained in the present study can be used as a reference for various invasive and non-invasive procedures on subthalamic nucleus.

Keywords: cerebral hemisphere, deep brain stimulation, morphometry, subthalamic nucleus

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9 Eosinopenia: Marker for Early Diagnosis of Enteric Fever

Authors: Swati Kapoor, Rajeev Upreti, Monica Mahajan, Abhaya Indrayan, Dinesh Srivastava


Enteric Fever is caused by gram negative bacilli Salmonella typhi and paratyphi. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely initiation of treatment is a crucial step for prevention of any complications. Cultures of body fluids are diagnostic, but not always conclusive or practically feasible in most centers. Moreover, the results of cultures delay the treatment initiation. Serological tests lack diagnostic value. The blood counts can offer a promising option in diagnosis. A retrospective study to find out the relevance of leucopenia and eosinopenia was conducted on 203 culture proven enteric fever patients and 159 culture proven non-enteric fever patients in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. The patient details were retrieved from the electronic medical records section of the hospital. Absolute eosinopenia was considered as absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of less than 40/mm³ (normal level: 40-400/mm³) using LH-750 Beckman Coulter Automated machine. Leucopoenia was defined as total leucocyte count (TLC) of less than 4 X 10⁹/l. Blood cultures were done using BacT/ALERT FA plus automated blood culture system before first antibiotic dose was given. Case and control groups were compared using Pearson Chi square test. It was observed that absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of 0-19/mm³ was a significant finding (p < 0.001) in enteric fever patients, whereas leucopenia was not a significant finding (p=0.096). Using Receiving Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, it was observed that patients with both AEC < 14/mm³ and TCL < 8 x 10⁹/l had 95.6% chance of being diagnosed as enteric fever and only 4.4% chance of being diagnosed as non-enteric fever. This result was highly significant with p < 0.001. This is a very useful association of AEC and TLC found in enteric fever patients of this study which can be used for the early initiation of treatment in clinically suspected enteric fever patients.

Keywords: absolute eosinopenia, absolute eosinophil count, enteric fever, leucopenia, total leucocyte count

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8 A Real Time Set Up for Retrieval of Emotional States from Human Neural Responses

Authors: Rashima Mahajan, Dipali Bansal, Shweta Singh


Real time non-invasive Brain Computer Interfaces have a significant progressive role in restoring or maintaining a quality life for medically challenged people. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of emerging research in the field of cognitive/affective computing in context of human neural responses. The perspectives of different emotion assessment modalities like face expressions, speech, text, gestures, and human physiological responses have also been discussed. Focus has been paid to explore the ability of EEG (Electroencephalogram) signals to portray thoughts, feelings, and unspoken words. An automated workflow-based protocol to design an EEG-based real time Brain Computer Interface system for analysis and classification of human emotions elicited by external audio/visual stimuli has been proposed. The front end hardware includes a cost effective and portable Emotive EEG Neuroheadset unit, a personal computer and a set of external stimulators. Primary signal analysis and processing of real time acquired EEG shall be performed using MATLAB based advanced brain mapping toolbox EEGLab/BCILab. This shall be followed by the development of MATLAB based self-defined algorithm to capture and characterize temporal and spectral variations in EEG under emotional stimulations. The extracted hybrid feature set shall be used to classify emotional states using artificial intelligence tools like Artificial Neural Network. The final system would result in an inexpensive, portable and more intuitive Brain Computer Interface in real time scenario to control prosthetic devices by translating different brain states into operative control signals.

Keywords: brain computer interface, electroencephalogram, EEGLab, BCILab, emotive, emotions, interval features, spectral features, artificial neural network, control applications

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7 Development of Methotrexate Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Topical Treatment of Psoriasis: Optimization, Evaluation, and in vitro Studies

Authors: Yogeeta O. Agrawal, Hitendra S. Mahajan, Sanjay J. Surana


Methotrexate is effective in controlling recalcitrant psoriasis when administered by the oral or parenteral route long-term. However, the systematic use of this drug may provoke any of a number of side effects, notably hepatotoxic effects. To reduce these effects, clinical studies have been done with topical MTx. It is useful in treating a number of cutaneous conditions, including psoriasis. A major problem in topical administration of MTx currently available in market is that the drug is hydrosoluble and is mostly in the dissociated form at physiological pH. Its capacity for passive diffusion is thus limited. Localization of MTx in effected layers of skin is likely to improve the role of topical dosage form of the drug as a supplementary to oral therapy for treatment of psoriasis. One of the possibilities for increasing the penetration of drugs through the skin is the use of Nanostructured lipid Carriers. The objective of the present study was to formulate and characterize Methotrexate loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (MtxNLCs), to understand in vitro drug release and evaluate the role of the developed gel in the topical treatment of psoriasis. MtxNLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion technique using 3(2) full factorial design.The mean diameter and surface morphology of MtxNLC was evaluated. MtxNLCs were lyophilized and crystallinity of NLC was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimtery (DSC) and powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The NLCs were incorporated in 1% w/w Carbopol 934 P gel base and in vitro skin deposition studies in Human Cadaver Skin were conducted. The optimized MtxNLCs were spherical in shape, with average particle size of 253(±9.92)nm, zeta potential of -30.4 (±0.86) mV and EE of 53.12(±1.54)%. DSC and XRD data confirmed the formation of NLCs. Significantly higher deposition of Methotrexate was found in human cadaver skin from MtxNLC gel (71.52 ±1.23%) as compared to Mtx plain gel (54.28±1.02%). Findings of the studies suggest that there is significant improvement in therapeutic index in treatment of psoriasis by MTx-NLCs incorporated gel base developed in this investigation over plain drug gel currently available in the market.

Keywords: methotrexate, psoriasis, NLCs, hepatotoxic effects

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6 Comparison of 18F-FDG and 11C-Methionine PET-CT for Assessment of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Breast Carcinoma

Authors: Sonia Mahajan Dinesh, Anant Dinesh, Madhavi Tripathi, Vinod Kumar Ramteke, Rajnish Sharma, Anupam Mondal


Background: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy plays an important role in treatment of breast cancer by decreasing the tumour load and it offers an opportunity to evaluate response of primary tumour to chemotherapy. Standard anatomical imaging modalities are unable to accurately reflect the response to chemotherapy until several cycles of drug treatment have been completed. Metabolic imaging using tracers like 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a marker of glucose metabolism or amino acid tracers like L-methyl-11C methionine (MET) have potential role for the measurement of treatment response. In this study, our objective was to compare these two PET tracers for assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in locally advanced breast carcinoma. Methods: In our prospective study, 20 female patients with histology proven locally advanced breast carcinoma underwent PET-CT imaging using FDG and MET before and after three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CAF regimen). Thereafter, all patients were taken for MRM and the resected specimen was sent for histo-pathological analysis. Tumour response to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy was evaluated by PET-CT imaging using PERCIST criteria and correlated with histological results. Responses calculated were compared for statistical significance using paired t- test. Results: Mean SUVmax for primary lesion in FDG PET and MET PET was 15.88±11.12 and 5.01±2.14 respectively (p<0.001) and for axillary lymph nodes was 7.61±7.31 and 2.75±2.27 respectively (p=0.001). Statistically significant response in primary tumour and axilla was noted on both FDG and MET PET after three cycles of NAC. Complete response in primary tumour was seen in only 1 patient in FDG and 7 patients in MET PET (p=0.001) whereas there was no histological complete resolution of tumor in any patient. Response to therapy in axillary nodes noted on both PET scans were similar (p=0.45) and correlated well with histological findings. Conclusions: For the primary breast tumour, FDG PET has a higher sensitivity and accuracy than MET PET and for axilla both have comparable sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET shows higher target to background ratios so response is better predicted for primary breast tumour and axilla. Also, FDG-PET is widely available and has the advantage of a whole body evaluation in one study.

Keywords: 11C-methionine, 18F-FDG, breast carcinoma, neoadjuvant chemotherapy

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5 Whole Exome Sequencing in Characterizing Mysterious Crippling Disorder in India

Authors: Swarkar Sharma, Ekta Rai, Ankit Mahajan, Parvinder Kumar, Manoj K Dhar, Sushil Razdan, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Carol Wise, Shiro Ikegawa M.D., K.K. Pandita M.D.


Rare disorders are poorly understood hence, remain uncharacterized or patients are misdiagnosed and get poor medical attention. A rare mysterious skeletal disorder that remained unidentified for decades and rendered many people physically challenged and disabled for life has been reported in an isolated remote village ‘Arai’ of Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir. This village is located deep in mountains and the population residing in the region is highly consanguineous. In our survey of the region, 70 affected people were reported, showing similar phenotype, in the village with a population of approximately 5000 individuals. We were able to collect samples from two multi generational extended families from the village. Through Whole Exome sequencing (WES), we identified a rare variation NM_003880.3:c.156C>A NP_003871.1:p.Cys52Ter, which results in introduction of premature stop codon in WISP3 gene. We found this variation perfectly segregating with the disease in one of the family. However, this variation was absent in other family. Interestingly, a novel splice site mutation at position c.643+1G>A of WISP3 gene, perfectly segregating with the disease was observed in the second family. Thus, exploiting WES and putting different evidences together (familial histories and genetic data, clinical features, radiological and biochemical tests and findings), the disease has finally been diagnosed as a very rare recessive hereditary skeletal disease “Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Arthropathy of Childhood” (PPAC) also known as “Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Tarda with Progressive Arthropathy” (SEDT-PA). This genetic characterization and identification of the disease causing mutations will aid in genetic counseling, critically required to curb this rare disorder and to prevent its appearance in future generations in the population. Further, understanding of the role of WISP3 gene the biological pathways should help in developing treatment for the disorder.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing, Next Generation Sequencing, rare disorders

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4 Women Entrepreneurship: An Era Facing Challenges

Authors: Neetika Mahajan, Awanish Shukla


Entrepreneurship is key a driver to economic development. It opens opportunities for business startups and has potential to expand employment opportunities for many. Entrepreneurship gives ‘Purpose thriving’ approach towards society with new technologies and zeal to develop and compete in the market. There are many more advantages of entrepreneurship like freedom to scope of work and independence in setting own goals. Women contribute to nearly 50 percent of India’s population, constitute nearly 10 percent of a total number of entrepreneurs in India. Women are found to be better risk calculators, more ambitious and less prone to self-confidence. However, It is a hard fact that life has not been easy for women aspiring professional success. Gender parity is the biggest threat faced by female aspirant seeking new businesses. More challenges like socio-cultural barriers, insufficient financial assistance, etc. have been faced by the women of our country. To uplift the status of women in the society, a number of initiatives have been taken up by the Government of India. Initiatives like National Mission for Empowerment of Women by (Ministry of Women And Child Development) and SKILL INDIA aim to increase the technical skills and knowledge of women for tapping employment opportunities and self-confidence. Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD) Scheme and Mahila Coir Yojana are proposed by the Ministry of MSMEs aiming to facilitate employment opportunities for women and entrepreneurship development. This paper will aim to bring out the gaps and barriers, which are still resisting the potential women come upfront and start a new business irrespective of a number of initiatives being put by government of India. The aim is also to identify focus areas where further intervention is required and proposing suitable interventions. The methodology to take forward this research will include primary and secondary data collection from on ground survey to track various kind of challenges faced by aspirant women entrepreneurs. Insight will be put towards initiations by the government of India towards women empowerment and assistance to entrepreneurship. Scientific quantitative tools will be used to analyze collected information. The final output of the research shall focus on achieving the respective aims and objectives.

Keywords: women entrepreneurship, government programs and schemes, key challenges, economic development

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3 Antioxidant Status in Synovial Fluid from Osteoarthritis Patients: A Pilot Study in Indian Demography

Authors: S. Koppikar, P. Kulkarni, D. Ingale , N. Wagh, S. Deshpande, A. Mahajan, A. Harsulkar


Crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progression Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis has been endorsed several times though its exact mechanism remains unclear. Oxidative stress is known to instigate classical stress factors such as cytokines, chemokines and ROS, which hampers cartilage remodelling process and ultimately results in worsening the disease. Synovial fluid (SF) is a biological communicator between cartilage and synovium that accumulates redox and biochemical signalling mediators. The present work attempts to measure several oxidative stress markers in the synovial fluid obtained from knee OA patients with varying degree of disease severity. Thirty OA and five Meniscal-tear (MT) patients were graded using Kellgren-Lawrence scale and assessed for Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrate-Nitrite (NN), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels for comparison. Out of various oxidative markers studied, NO and SOD showed significant difference between moderate and severe OA (p= 0.007 and p= 0.08, respectively), whereas CAT demonstrated significant difference between MT and mild group (p= 0.07). Interestingly, NN revealed statistically positive correlation with OA severity (p= 0.001 and p= 0.003). MDA, a lipid peroxidation by-product was estimated maximum in early OA when compared to MT (p= 0.06). However, FRAP did not show any correlation with OA severity or MT control. NO is an essential bio-regulatory molecule essential for several physiological processes, and inflammatory conditions. However, due to its short life, exact estimation of NO becomes difficult. NO and its measurable stable products are still it is considered as one of the important biomarker of oxidative damage. Levels of NO and nitrite-nitrate in SF of patients with OA indicated its involvement in the disease progression. When SF groups were compared, a significant correlation among moderate, mild and MT groups was established. To summarize, present data illustrated higher levels of NO, SOD, CAT, DPPH and MDA in early OA in comparison with MT, as a control group. NN had emerged as a prognostic bio marker in knee OA patients, which may act as futuristic targets in OA treatment.

Keywords: antioxidant, knee osteoarthritis, oxidative stress, synovial fluid

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2 Genetic Screening of Sahiwal Bulls for Higher Fertility

Authors: Atul C. Mahajan, A. K. Chakravarty, V. Jamuna, C. S. Patil, Neeraj Kashyap, Bharti Deshmukh, Vijay Kumar


The selection of Sahiwal bulls on the basis of dams best lactation milk yield under breeding programme in herd of the country neglecting fertility traits leads to deterioration in their performances and economy. The goal of this study was to explore polymorphism of CRISP2 gene and their association with semen traits (Post Thaw Motility, Hypo-osmotic Swelling Test, Acrosome Integrity, DNA Fragmentation and capacitation status), scrotal circumference, expected predicted difference (EPD) for milk yield and fertility. Sahiwal bulls included in present study were 60 bulls used in breeding programme as well as 50 young bulls yet to be included in breeding programme. All the Sahiwal bulls were found to be polymorphic for CRISP2 gene (AA, AG and GG) present within exon 7 to the position 589 of CRISP2 mRNA by using PCR-SSCP and Sequencing. Semen analysis were done on 60 breeding bulls frozen semen doses pertaining to four season (winter, summer, rainy and autumn). The scrotal circumference was measured from existing Sahiwal breeding bulls in the herd (n=47). The effect of non-genetic factors on reproduction traits were studied by least-squares technique and the significant difference of means between subclasses of season, period, parity and age group were tested. The data were adjusted for the significant non-genetic factors to remove the differential environmental effects. The adjusted data were used to generate traits like Waiting Period (WP), Pregnancy Rate (PR), Expected Predicted Difference (EPD) of fertility, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of reproduction traits were estimated. The overall least-squares means of Age at First Calving (AFC), Service Period (SP) and WP were estimated as 36.69 ± 0.18 months, 120.47 ± 8.98 days and 79.78 ± 3.09 days respectively. Season and period of birth had significant effect (p < 0.01) on AFC. AFC was highest during autumn season of birth followed by summer, winter and rainy. Season and period of calving had significant effect (p < 0.01) on SP and WP of sahiwal cows. The WP for Sahiwal cows was standardized based on four developed predicted model for pregnancy rate 42, 63, 84 and 105 days using all lactation records. The WP for Sahiwal cows were standardized as 42 days. A selection criterion was developed for Sahiwal breeding bulls and young Sahiwal bulls on the basis of EPD of fertility. The genotype has significant effect on expected predicted difference of fertility and some semen parameters like post thaw motility and HOST. AA Genotype of CRISP2 gene revealed better EPD for fertility than EPD of milk yield. AA genotype of CRISP2 gene has higher scrotal circumference than other genotype. For young Sahiwal bulls only AA genotypes were present with similar patterns. So on the basis of association of genotype with seminal traits, EPD of milk yield and EPD for fertility status, AA and AG genotype of CRISP2 gene was better for higher fertility in Sahiwal bulls.

Keywords: expected predicted difference, fertility, sahiwal, waiting period

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1 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) as Multiplex Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensing Platforms

Authors: Pola Goldberg Oppenheimer, Stephan Hofmann, Sumeet Mahajan


Owing to its fingerprint molecular specificity and high sensitivity, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an established analytical tool for chemical and biological sensing capable of single-molecule detection. A strong Raman signal can be generated from SERS-active platforms given the analyte is within the enhanced plasmon field generated near a noble-metal nanostructured substrate. The key requirement for generating strong plasmon resonances to provide this electromagnetic enhancement is an appropriate metal surface roughness. Controlling nanoscale features for generating these regions of high electromagnetic enhancement, the so-called SERS ‘hot-spots’, is still a challenge. Significant advances have been made in SERS research, with wide-ranging techniques to generate substrates with tunable size and shape of the nanoscale roughness features. Nevertheless, the development and application of SERS has been inhibited by the irreproducibility and complexity of fabrication routes. The ability to generate straightforward, cost-effective, multiplex-able and addressable SERS substrates with high enhancements is of profound interest for miniaturised sensing devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been concurrently, a topic of extensive research however, their applications for plasmonics has been only recently beginning to gain interest. CNTs can provide low-cost, large-active-area patternable substrates which, coupled with appropriate functionalization capable to provide advanced SERS-platforms. Herein, advanced methods to generate CNT-based SERS active detection platforms will be discussed. First, a novel electrohydrodynamic (EHD) lithographic technique will be introduced for patterning CNT-polymer composites, providing a straightforward, single-step approach for generating high-fidelity sub-micron-sized nanocomposite structures within which anisotropic CNTs are vertically aligned. The created structures are readily fine-tuned, which is an important requirement for optimizing SERS to obtain the highest enhancements with each of the EHD-CNTs individual structural units functioning as an isolated sensor. Further, gold-functionalized VACNTFs are fabricated as SERS micro-platforms. The dependence on the VACNTs’ diameters and density play an important role in the Raman signal strength, thus highlighting the importance of structural parameters, previously overlooked in designing and fabricating optimized CNTs-based SERS nanoprobes. VACNTs forests patterned into predesigned pillar structures are further utilized for multiplex detection of bio-analytes. Since CNTs exhibit electrical conductivity and unique adsorption properties, these are further harnessed in the development of novel chemical and bio-sensing platforms.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), EHD patterning, SERS, vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests (VACNTF)

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