Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: non-polar AlGaN epilayer

26 Growth of Non-Polar a-Plane AlGaN Epilayer with High Crystalline Quality and Smooth Surface Morphology

Authors: Abbas Nasir, Xiong Zhang, Sohail Ahmad, Yiping Cui

Abstract:

Non-polar a-plane AlGaN epilayers of high structural quality have been grown on r-sapphire substrate by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A graded non-polar AlGaN buffer layer with variable aluminium concentration was used to improve the structural quality of the non-polar a-plane AlGaN epilayer. The characterisations were carried out by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall effect measurement. The XRD and AFM results demonstrate that the Al-composition-graded non-polar AlGaN buffer layer significantly improved the crystalline quality and the surface morphology of the top layer. A low root mean square roughness 1.52 nm is obtained from AFM, and relatively low background carrier concentration down to 3.9×  cm-3 is obtained from Hall effect measurement.

Keywords: non-polar AlGaN epilayer, Al composition-graded AlGaN layer, root mean square, background carrier concentration

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25 Capacitance Models of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: A. Douara, N. Kermas, B. Djellouli

Abstract:

In this study, we report calculations of gate capacitance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with nextnano device simulation software. We have used a physical gate capacitance model for III-V FETs that incorporates quantum capacitance and centroid capacitance in the channel. These simulations explore various device structures with different values of barrier thickness and channel thickness. A detailed understanding of the impact of gate capacitance in HEMTs will allow us to determine their role in future 10 nm physical gate length node.

Keywords: gate capacitance, AlGaN/GaN, HEMTs, quantum capacitance, centroid capacitance

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24 Improved Non-Ideal Effects in AlGaN/GaN-Based Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors

Authors: Wei-Chou Hsu, Ching-Sung Lee, Han-Yin Liu

Abstract:

This work uses H2O2 oxidation technique to improve the pH sensitivity of the AlGaN/GaN-based ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). 10-nm-thick Al2O3 was grown on the surface of the AlGaN. It was found that the pH sensitivity was improved from 41.6 mV/pH to 55.2 mV/pH. Since the H2O2-grown Al2O3 was served as a passivation layer and the problem of Fermi-level pinning was suppressed for the ISFET with the H2O2 oxidation process. Hysteresis effect in the ISFET with the H2O2 treatment also became insignificant. The hysteresis effect was observed by dipping the ISFETs into different pH value solutions and comparing the voltage difference between the initial and final conditions. The hysteresis voltage (Vhys) of the ISFET with the H2O2 oxidation process was improved from 8.7 mV to 4.8 mV. The hysteresis effect is related to the buried binding sites which are related to the material defects like threading dislocations in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure which was grown by the hetero-epitaxy technique. The H2O2-grown Al2O3 passivate these material defects and the Al2O3 has less material defects. The long-term stability of the ISFET is estimated by the drift effect measurement. The drift measurement was conducted by dipping the ISFETs into a specific pH value solution for 12 hours and the ISFETs were operating at a specific quiescent point. The drift rate is estimated by the drift voltage divided by the total measuring time. It was found that the drift rate of the ISFET was improved from 10.1 mV/hour to 1.91 mV/hour in the pH 7 solution, from 14.06 mV/hour to 6.38 mV/pH in the pH 2 solution, and from 12.8 mV/hour to 5.48 mV/hour in the pH 12 solution. The drift effect results from the capacitance variation in the electric double layer. The H2O2-grown Al2O3 provides an additional capacitance connection in series with the electric double layer. Therefore, the capacitance variation of the electric double layer became insignificant. Generally, the H2O2 oxidation process is a simple, fast, and cost-effective method for the AlGaN/GaN-based ISFET. Furthermore, the performance of the AlGaN/GaN ISFET was improved effectively and the non-ideal effects were suppressed.

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN, Al2O3, hysteresis effect, drift effect, reliability, passivation, pH sensors

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23 Fabrication of High-Power AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode with Field Plate Design

Authors: Chia-Jui Yu, Chien-Ju Chen, Jyun-Hao Liao, Chia-Ching Wu, Meng-Chyi Wu

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In this letter, we demonstrate high-performance AlGaN/GaN planar Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on the silicon substrate with field plate structure for increasing breakdown voltage VB. A low turn-on resistance RON (3.55 mΩ-cm2), low reverse leakage current (< 0.1 µA) at -100 V, and high reverse breakdown voltage VB (> 1.1 kV) SBD has been fabricated. A virgin SBD exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 615 V, and with the field plate technology device exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 1525 V (the anode–cathode distance was LAC = 40 µm). Devices without the field plate design exhibit a Baliga’s figure of merit of VB2/ RON = 60.2 MW/cm2, whereas devices with the field plate design show a Baliga’s figure of merit of VB2/ RON = 340.9 MW/cm2 (the anode–cathode distance was LAC = 20 µm).

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, silicon substrate, Schottky barrier diode (SBD), high breakdown voltage, Baliga’s figure-of-merit, field plate

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22 Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Overgrowth on the Bragg Grating for Gallium Nitride Based Distributed Feedback Laser

Authors: Junze Li, M. Li

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Laser diodes fabricated from the III-nitride material system are emerging solutions for the next generation telecommunication systems and optical clocks based on Ca at 397nm, Rb at 420.2nm and Yb at 398.9nm combined 556 nm. Most of the applications require single longitudinal optical mode lasers, with very narrow linewidth and compact size, such as communication systems and laser cooling. In this case, the GaN based distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode is one of the most effective candidates with gratings are known to operate with narrow spectra as well as high power and efficiency. Given the wavelength range, the period of the first-order diffraction grating is under 100 nm, and the realization of such gratings is technically difficult due to the narrow line width and the high quality nitride overgrowth based on the Bragg grating. Some groups have reported GaN DFB lasers with high order distributed feedback surface gratings, which avoids the overgrowth. However, generally the strength of coupling is lower than that with Bragg grating embedded into the waveguide within the GaN laser structure by two-step-epitaxy. Therefore, the overgrowth on the grating technology need to be studied and optimized. Here we propose to fabricate the fine step shape structure of first-order grating by the nanoimprint combined inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching, then carry out overgrowth high quality AlGaN film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Then a series of gratings with different period, depths and duty ratios are designed and fabricated to study the influence of grating structure to the nano-heteroepitaxy. Moreover, we observe the nucleation and growth process by step-by-step growth to study the growth mode for nitride overgrowth on grating, under the condition that the grating period is larger than the mental migration length on the surface. The AFM images demonstrate that a smooth surface of AlGaN film is achieved with an average roughness of 0.20 nm over 3 × 3 μm2. The full width at half maximums (FWHMs) of the (002) reflections in the XRD rocking curves are 278 arcsec for the AlGaN film, and the component of the Al within the film is 8% according to the XRD mapping measurement, which is in accordance with design values. By observing the samples with growth time changing from 200s, 400s to 600s, the growth model is summarized as the follow steps: initially, the nucleation is evenly distributed on the grating structure, as the migration length of Al atoms is low; then, AlGaN growth alone with the grating top surface; finally, the AlGaN film formed by lateral growth. This work contributed to carrying out GaN DFB laser by fabricating grating and overgrowth on the nano-grating patterned substrate by wafer scale, moreover, growth dynamics had been analyzed as well.

Keywords: DFB laser, MOCVD, nanoepitaxy, III-niitride

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21 Linearly Polarized Single Photon Emission from Nonpolar, Semipolar and Polar Quantum Dots in GaN/InGaN Nanowires

Authors: Snezana Lazic, Zarko Gacevic, Mark Holmes, Ekaterina Chernysheva, Marcus Müller, Peter Veit, Frank Bertram, Juergen Christen, Yasuhiko Arakawa, Enrique Calleja

Abstract:

The study reports how the pencil-like morphology of a homoepitaxially grown GaN nanowire can be exploited for the fabrication of a thin conformal InGaN nanoshell, hosting nonpolar, semipolar and polar single photon sources (SPSs). All three SPS types exhibit narrow emission lines (FWHM~0.35 - 2 meV) and high degrees of linear optical polarization (P > 70%) in the low-temperature micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) experiments and are characterized by a pronounced antibunching in the photon correlation measurements (gcorrected(2)(0) < 0.3). The quantum-dot-like exciton localization centers induced by compositional fluctuations within the InGaN nanoshell are identified as the driving mechanism for the single photon emission. As confirmed by the low-temperature transmission electron microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (TEM-CL) study, the crystal region (i.e. non-polar m-, semi-polar r- and polar c-facets) hosting the single photon emitters strongly affects their emission wavelength, which ranges from ultra-violet for the non-polar to visible for the polar SPSs. The photon emission lifetime is also found to be facet-dependent and varies from sub-nanosecond time scales for the non- and semi-polar SPSs to a few nanoseconds for the polar ones. These differences are mainly attributed to facet-dependent indium content and electric field distribution across the hosting InGaN nanoshell. The hereby reported pencil-like InGaN nanoshell is the first single nanostructure able to host all three types of single photon emitters and is thus a promising building block for tunable quantum light devices integrated into future photonic and optoelectronic circuits.

Keywords: GaN nanowire, InGaN nanoshell, linear polarization, nonpolar, semipolar, polar quantum dots, single-photon sources

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20 An in vitro Evaluation of the Anthelmintic Activities of the Decoction and the Hexane-Soluble Extract and Its Fractions of the Aerial Part of Ruellia tuberosa Linn

Authors: Jeanne Phyre Lagare, Kirstin Rhys Pueblos

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This study was conducted to evaluate the possible anthelmintic activities of the decoction and the nonpolar constituents of the aerial part of Ruellia tuberosa Linn. against Eudrilus eugeniae or African Night Crawler earthworms as test organism which are of anatomic and physiological resemblance to the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. The in vitro anthelmintic assay of each extract was done by determining the time of paralysis and death of the test organisms at three concentrations (3, 25, 50 mg/mL). The hexane-soluble extract (RTH) showed better results compared to the decoction (RTD) at all concentrations employed. All the fractions of RTH showed significantly higher anthelmintic activities (111.43, 48.19, and 62.3 minutes, respectively) compared to their mother extract (164.56 minutes) at 3-mg/mL concentration. Moreover, RTH5 showed a comparable activity with the positive control mebendazole at 3-mg/mL concentration. Remarkably, fraction RTH4 exhibited the best anthelmintic activity at 3-mg/mL concentration for it showed the strongest anthelmintic activity than the rest of the test solutions tested. The study demonstrated the promising anthelmintic activity of the nonpolar constituent of the ethanolic extract of R. tuberosa Linn.

Keywords: anthelmintic activity, Eudrillus eugenia, mebendazole, Ruellia tuberosa Linn

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19 Al2O3-Dielectric AlGaN/GaN Enhancement-Mode MOS-HEMTs by Using Ozone Water Oxidization Technique

Authors: Ching-Sung Lee, Wei-Chou Hsu, Han-Yin Liu, Hung-Hsi Huang, Si-Fu Chen, Yun-Jung Yang, Bo-Chun Chiang, Yu-Chuang Chen, Shen-Tin Yang

Abstract:

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been intensively studied due to their intrinsic advantages of high breakdown electric field, high electron saturation velocity, and excellent chemical stability. They are also suitable for ultra-violet (UV) photodetection due to the corresponding wavelengths of GaN bandgap. To improve the optical responsivity by decreasing the dark current due to gate leakage problems and limited Schottky barrier heights in GaN-based HEMT devices, various metal-oxide-semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs) have been devised by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase deposition (LPD), and RF sputtering. The gate dielectrics include MgO, HfO2, Al2O3, La2O3, and TiO2. In order to provide complementary circuit operation, enhancement-mode (E-mode) devices have been lately studied using techniques of fluorine treatment, p-type capper, piezoneutralization layer, and MOS-gate structure. This work reports an Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMT design by using a cost-effective ozone water oxidization technique. The present ozone oxidization method advantages of low cost processing facility, processing simplicity, compatibility to device fabrication, and room-temperature operation under atmospheric pressure. It can further reduce the gate-to-channel distance and improve the transocnductance (gm) gain for a specific oxide thickness, since the formation of the Al2O3 will consume part of the AlGaN barrier at the same time. The epitaxial structure of the studied devices was grown by using the MOCVD technique. On a Si substrate, the layer structures include a 3.9 m C-doped GaN buffer, a 300 nm GaN channel layer, and a 5 nm Al0.25Ga0.75N barrier layer. Mesa etching was performed to provide electrical isolation by using an inductively coupled-plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). Ti/Al/Au were thermally evaporated and annealed to form the source and drain ohmic contacts. The device was immersed into the H2O2 solution pumped with ozone gas generated by using an OW-K2 ozone generator. Ni/Au were deposited as the gate electrode to complete device fabrication of MOS-HEMT. The formed Al2O3 oxide thickness 7 nm and the remained AlGaN barrier thickness is 2 nm. A reference HEMT device has also been fabricated in comparison on the same epitaxial structure. The gate dimensions are 1.2 × 100 µm 2 with a source-to-drain spacing of 5 μm for both devices. The dielectric constant (k) of Al2O3 was characterized to be 9.2 by using C-V measurement. Reduced interface state density after oxidization has been verified by the low-frequency noise spectra, Hooge coefficients, and pulse I-V measurement. Improved device characteristics at temperatures of 300 K-450 K have been achieved for the present MOS-HEMT design. Consequently, Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMTs by using the ozone water oxidization method are reported. In comparison with a conventional Schottky-gate HEMT, the MOS-HEMT design has demonstrated excellent enhancements of 138% (176%) in gm, max, 118% (139%) in IDS, max, 53% (62%) in BVGD, 3 (2)-order reduction in IG leakage at VGD = -60 V at 300 (450) K. This work is promising for millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) and three-terminal active UV photodetector applications.

Keywords: MOS-HEMT, enhancement mode, AlGaN/GaN, passivation, ozone water oxidation, gate leakage

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18 Fabrication of Aluminum Nitride Thick Layers by Modified Reactive Plasma Spraying

Authors: Cécile Dufloux, Klaus Böttcher, Heike Oppermann, Jürgen Wollweber

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Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising candidate for several wide band gap semiconductor compound applications such as deep UV light emitting diodes (UVC LED) and fast power transistors (HEMTs). To date, bulk AlN single crystals are still commonly grown from the physical vapor transport (PVT). Single crystalline AlN wafers obtained from this process could offer suitable substrates for a defect-free growth of ultimately active AlGaN layers, however, these wafers still lack from small sizes, limited delivery quantities and high prices so far.Although there is already an increasing interest in the commercial availability of AlN wafers, comparatively cheap Si, SiC or sapphire are still predominantly used as substrate material for the deposition of active AlGaN layers. Nevertheless, due to a lattice mismatch up to 20%, the obtained material shows high defect densities and is, therefore, less suitable for high power devices as described above. Therefore, the use of AlN with specially adapted properties for optical and sensor applications could be promising for mass market products which seem to fulfill fewer requirements. To respond to the demand of suitable AlN target material for the growth of AlGaN layers, we have designed an innovative technology based on reactive plasma spraying. The goal is to produce coarse grained AlN boules with N-terminated columnar structure and high purity. In this process, aluminum is injected into a microwave stimulated nitrogen plasma. AlN, as the product of the reaction between aluminum powder and the plasma activated N2, is deposited onto the target. We used an aluminum filament as the initial material to minimize oxygen contamination during the process. The material was guided through the nitrogen plasma so that the mass turnover was 10g/h. To avoid any impurity contamination by an erosion of the electrodes, an electrode-less discharge was used for the plasma ignition. The pressure was maintained at 600-700 mbar, so the plasma reached a temperature high enough to vaporize the aluminum which subsequently was reacting with the surrounding plasma. The obtained products consist of thick polycrystalline AlN layers with a diameter of 2-3 cm. The crystallinity was determined by X-ray crystallography. The grain structure was systematically investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, we performed a Raman spectroscopy to provide evidence of stress in the layers. This paper will discuss the effects of process parameters such as microwave power and deposition geometry (specimen holder, radiation shields, ...) on the topography, crystallinity, and stress distribution of AlN.

Keywords: aluminum nitride, polycrystal, reactive plasma spraying, semiconductor

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17 Carbonaceous Monolithic Multi-Channel Denuders as a Gas-Particle Partitioning Tool for the Occupational Sampling of Aerosols from Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds

Authors: Vesta Kohlmeier, George C. Dragan, Juergen Orasche, Juergen Schnelle-Kreis, Dietmar Breuer, Ralf Zimmermann

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Aerosols from hazardous semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) may occur in workplace air and can simultaneously be found as particle and gas phase. For health risk assessment, it is necessary to collect particles and gases separately. This can be achieved by using a denuder for the gas phase collection, combined with a filter and an adsorber for particle collection. The study focused on the suitability of carbonaceous monolithic multi-channel denuders, so-called Novacarb™-Denuders (MastCarbon International Ltd., Guilford, UK), to achieve gas-particle separation. Particle transmission efficiency experiments were performed with polystyrene latex (PSL) particles (size range 0.51-3 µm), while the time dependent gas phase collection efficiency was analysed for polar and nonpolar SVOC (mass concentrations 7-10 mg/m3) over 2 h at 5 or 10 l/min. The experimental gas phase collection efficiency was also compared with theoretical predictions. For n-hexadecane (C16), the gas phase collection efficiency was max. 91 % for one denuder and max. 98 % for two denuders, while for diethylene glycol (DEG), a maximal gas phase collection efficiency of 93 % for one denuder and 97 % for two denuders was observed. At 5 l/min higher gas phase collection efficiencies were achieved than at 10 l/min. The deviations between the theoretical and experimental gas phase collection efficiencies were up to 5 % for C16 and 23 % for DEG. Since the theoretical efficiency depends on the geometric shape and length of the denuder, flow rate and diffusion coefficients of the tested substances, the obtained values define an upper limit which could be reached. Regarding the particle transmission through the denuders, the use of one denuder showed transmission efficiencies around 98 % for 1-3 µm particle diameters. The use of three denuders resulted in transmission efficiencies from 93-97 % for the same particle sizes. In summary, NovaCarb™-Denuders are well applicable for sampling aerosols of polar/nonpolar substances with particle diameters ≤3 µm and flow rates of 5 l/min or lower. These properties and their compact size make them suitable for use in personal aerosol samplers. This work is supported by the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV), research contract FP371.

Keywords: gas phase collection efficiency, particle transmission, personal aerosol sampler, SVOC

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16 Characterization of Double Shockley Stacking Fault in 4H-SiC Epilayer

Authors: Zhe Li, Tao Ju, Liguo Zhang, Zehong Zhang, Baoshun Zhang

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In-grow stacking-faults (IGSFs) in 4H-SiC epilayers can cause increased leakage current and reduce the blocking voltage of 4H-SiC power devices. Double Shockley stacking fault (2SSF) is a common type of IGSF with double slips on the basal planes. In this study, a 2SSF in the 4H-SiC epilayer grown by chemical vaper deposition (CVD) is characterized. The nucleation site of the 2SSF is discussed, and a model for the 2SSF nucleation is proposed. Homo-epitaxial 4H-SiC is grown on a commercial 4 degrees off-cut substrate by a home-built hot-wall CVD. Defect-selected-etching (DSE) is conducted with melted KOH at 500 degrees Celsius for 1-2 min. Room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) is conducted at a 20 kV acceleration voltage. Low-temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) is conducted at 3.6 K with the 325 nm He-Cd laser line. In the CL image, a triangular area with bright contrast is observed. Two partial dislocations (PDs) with a 20-degree angle in between show linear dark contrast on the edges of the IGSF. CL and LTPL spectrums are conducted to verify the IGSF’s type. The CL spectrum shows the maximum photoemission at 2.431 eV and negligible bandgap emission. In the LTPL spectrum, four phonon replicas are found at 2.468 eV, 2.438 eV, 2.420 eV and 2.410 eV, respectively. The Egx is estimated to be 2.512 eV. A shoulder with a red-shift to the main peak in CL, and a slight protrude at the same wavelength in LTPL are verified as the so called Egx- lines. Based on the CL and LTPL results, the IGSF is identified as a 2SSF. Back etching by neutral loop discharge and DSE are conducted to track the origin of the 2SSF, and the nucleation site is found to be a threading screw dislocation (TSD) in this sample. A nucleation mechanism model is proposed for the formation of the 2SSF. Steps introduced by the off-cut and the TSD on the surface are both suggested to be two C-Si bilayers height. The intersections of such two types of steps are along [11-20] direction from the TSD, while a four-bilayer step at each intersection. The nucleation of the 2SSF in the growth is proposed as follows. Firstly, the upper two bilayers of the four-bilayer step grow down and block the lower two at one intersection, and an IGSF is generated. Secondly, the step-flow grows over the IGSF successively, and forms an AC/ABCABC/BA/BC stacking sequence. Then a 2SSF is formed and extends by the step-flow growth. In conclusion, a triangular IGSF is characterized by CL approach. Base on the CL and LTPL spectrums, the estimated Egx is 2.512 eV and the IGSF is identified to be a 2SSF. By back etching, the 2SSF nucleation site is found to be a TSD. A model for the 2SSF nucleation from an intersection of off-cut- and TSD- introduced steps is proposed.

Keywords: cathodoluminescence, defect-selected-etching, double Shockley stacking fault, low-temperature photoluminescence, nucleation model, silicon carbide

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15 Evaluation of the Phenolic Composition of Curcumin from Different Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Extracts: A Comprehensive Study Based on Chemical Turmeric Extract, Turmeric Tea and Fresh Turmeric Juice

Authors: Beyza Sukran Isik, Gokce Altin, Ipek Yalcinkaya, Evren Demircan, Asli Can Karaca, Beraat Ozcelik

Abstract:

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), is used as a food additive (spice), preservative and coloring agent in Asian countries, including China and South East Asia. It is also considered as a medicinal plant. Traditional Indian medicine evaluates turmeric powder for the treatment of biliary disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. It has rich polyphenol content. Turmeric has yellow color mainly because of the presence of three major pigments; curcumin 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1, 6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), demethoxy-curcumin and bis demothoxy-curcumin. These curcuminoids are recognized to have high antioxidant activities. Curcumin is the major constituent of Curcuma species. Method: To prepare turmeric tea, 0.5 gram of turmeric powder was brewed with 250 ml of water at 90°C, 10 minutes. 500 grams of fresh turmeric washed and shelled prior to squeezing. Both turmeric tea and turmeric juice pass through 45 lm filters and stored at -20°C in the dark for further analyses. Curcumin was extracted from 20 grams of turmeric powder by 70 ml ethanol solution (95:5 ethanol/water v/v) in a water bath at 80°C, 6 hours. Extraction was contributed for 2 hours at the end of 6 hours by addition of 30 ml ethanol. Ethanol was removed by rotary evaporator. Remained extract stored at -20°C in the dark. Total phenolic content and phenolic profile were determined by spectrophotometric analysis and ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC), respectively. Results: The total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of turmeric, turmeric juice, and turmeric tea were determined 50.72, 31.76 and 29.68 ppt, respectively. The ethanolic extract of turmeric, turmeric juice, and turmeric tea have been injected into UFLC and analyzed for curcumin contents. The curcumin content in ethanolic extract of turmeric, turmeric juice, and turmeric tea were 4067.4, 156.7 ppm and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Significance: Turmeric is known as a good source of curcumin. According to the results, it can be stated that its tea is not sufficient way for curcumin consumption. Turmeric juice can be preferred to turmeric tea for higher curcumin content. Ethanolic extract of turmeric showed the highest content of turmeric in both spectrophotometric and chromatographic analyses. Nonpolar solvents and carriers which have polar binding sites have to be considered for curcumin consumption due to its nonpolar nature.

Keywords: phenolic compounds, spectrophotometry, turmeric, UFLC

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14 Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Oxide with Aliphatic Polyisocyanate

Authors: E. Changizi, E. Ghasemi, B. Ramezanzadeh, M. Mahdavian

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In this study, the graphene oxide was functionalized with polyisocyanate (piGO). The functionalization was carried out at 45⁰C for 24 hrs under nitrogen atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were utilized in order to evaluate the GO functionalization. The GO and piGO stability were then investigated in polar and nonpolar solvents. Results obtained showed that polyisocyanate was successfully grafted on the surface of graphen oxide sheets through covalent bonds formation. The surface nature of the graphen oxide was changed into the hydrophobic after functionalization. Moreover, the graphen oxide sheets interlayer distance increased after modification.

Keywords: graphen oxide, functionalization, polyisocyanate, XRD, TGA, FTIR

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13 Synchrotron Based Techniques for the Characterization of Chemical Vapour Deposition Overgrowth Diamond Layers on High Pressure, High Temperature Substrates

Authors: T. N. Tran Thi, J. Morse, C. Detlefs, P. K. Cook, C. Yıldırım, A. C. Jakobsen, T. Zhou, J. Hartwig, V. Zurbig, D. Caliste, B. Fernandez, D. Eon, O. Loto, M. L. Hicks, A. Pakpour-Tabrizi, J. Baruchel

Abstract:

The ability to grow boron-doped diamond epilayers of high crystalline quality is a prerequisite for the fabrication of diamond power electronic devices, in particular high voltage diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors. Boron and intrinsic diamond layers are homoepitaxially overgrown by microwave assisted chemical vapour deposition (MWCVD) on single crystal high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) grown bulk diamond substrates. Various epilayer thicknesses were grown, with dopant concentrations ranging from 1021 atom/cm³ at nanometer thickness in the case of 'delta doping', up 1016 atom/cm³ and 50µm thickness or high electric field drift regions. The crystalline quality of these overgrown layers as regards defects, strain, distortion… is critical for the device performance through its relation to the final electrical properties (Hall mobility, breakdown voltage...). In addition to the optimization of the epilayer growth conditions in the MWCVD reactor, other important questions related to the crystalline quality of the overgrown layer(s) are: 1) what is the dependence on the bulk quality and surface preparation methods of the HPHT diamond substrate? 2) how do defects already present in the substrate crystal propagate into the overgrown layer; 3) what types of new defects are created during overgrowth, what are their growth mechanisms, and how can these defects be avoided? 4) how can we relate in a quantitative manner parameters related to the measured crystalline quality of the boron doped layer to the electronic properties of final processed devices? We describe synchrotron-based techniques developed to address these questions. These techniques allow the visualization of local defects and crystal distortion which complements the data obtained by other well-established analysis methods such as AFM, SIMS, Hall conductivity…. We have used Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) at the ID01 beamline of the ESRF to study lattice parameters and damage (strain, tilt and mosaic spread) both in diamond substrate near surface layers and in thick (10–50 µm) overgrown boron doped diamond epi-layers. Micro- and nano-section topography have been carried out at both the BM05 and ID06-ESRF) beamlines using rocking curve imaging techniques to study defects which have propagated from the substrate into the overgrown layer(s) and their influence on final electronic device performance. These studies were performed using various commercially sourced HPHT grown diamond substrates, with the MWCVD overgrowth carried out at the Fraunhofer IAF-Germany. The synchrotron results are in good agreement with low-temperature (5°K) cathodoluminescence spectroscopy carried out on the grown samples using an Inspect F5O FESEM fitted with an IHR spectrometer.

Keywords: synchrotron X-ray diffaction, crystalline quality, defects, diamond overgrowth, rocking curve imaging

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12 Effect of Catalyst on Castor Oil Based Polyurethane with Different Hard/Soft Segment Ratio

Authors: Swarnalata Sahoo, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak

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Environmentally friendly Polyurethane(PU) synthesis from Castor oil(CO) has been studied extensively. Probably due to high proportion of fatty hydroxy acids and unsaturated bond, CO showed better performance than other oil, can be easily utilized as commercial applications. In this work, cured PU polymers having different –NCO/OH ratio with and without catalyst were synthesized by using partially biobased Isocyanate with castor oil (CO). Curing time has been studied by observing at the time of reaction, which can be confirmed by AT-FTIR. DSC has been studied to monitor the reaction between CO & Isocyanates using non Isothermal process. Curing kinetics have also been studied to investigate the catalytic effect of the NCO / OH ratio of Polyurethane. Adhesion properties were evaluated from Lapshear test. Tg of the PU polymer was evaluated by DSC which can be compared by DMA. Surface Properties were studied by contact angle measurement. Improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the nonpolar surface of Aluminum substrate and the polar adhesive has been studied by modifying surface.

Keywords: polyurethane, partially bio-based isocyanate, castor oil, catalyst

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11 Learning from Small Amount of Medical Data with Noisy Labels: A Meta-Learning Approach

Authors: Gorkem Algan, Ilkay Ulusoy, Saban Gonul, Banu Turgut, Berker Bakbak

Abstract:

Computer vision systems recently made a big leap thanks to deep neural networks. However, these systems require correctly labeled large datasets in order to be trained properly, which is very difficult to obtain for medical applications. Two main reasons for label noise in medical applications are the high complexity of the data and conflicting opinions of experts. Moreover, medical imaging datasets are commonly tiny, which makes each data very important in learning. As a result, if not handled properly, label noise significantly degrades the performance. Therefore, a label-noise-robust learning algorithm that makes use of the meta-learning paradigm is proposed in this article. The proposed solution is tested on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) dataset with a very high label noise of 68%. Results show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the classification algorithm's performance in the presence of noisy labels.

Keywords: deep learning, label noise, robust learning, meta-learning, retinopathy of prematurity

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10 Electromagnetically-Vibrated Solid-Phase Microextraction for Organic Compounds

Authors: Soo Hyung Park, Seong Beom Kim, Wontae Lee, Jin Chul Joo, Jungmin Lee, Jongsoo Choi

Abstract:

A newly-developed electromagnetically vibrated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device for extracting nonpolar organic compounds from aqueous matrices was evaluated in terms of sorption equilibrium time, precision, and detection level relative to three other more conventional extraction techniques involving SPME, viz., static, magnetic stirring, and fiber insertion/retraction. Electromagnetic vibration at 300~420 cycles/s was found to be the most efficient extraction technique in terms of reducing sorption equilibrium time and enhancing both precision and linearity. The increased efficiency for electromagnetic vibration was attributed to a greater reduction in the thickness of the stagnant-water layer that facilitated more rapid mass transport from the aqueous matrix to the SPME fiber. Electromagnetic vibration less than 500 cycles/s also did not detrimentally impact the sustainability of the extracting performance of the SPME fiber. Therefore, electromagnetically vibrated SPME may be a more powerful tool for rapid sampling and solvent-free sample preparation relative to other more conventional extraction techniques used with SPME.

Keywords: electromagnetic vibration, organic compounds, precision, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), sorption equilibrium time

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9 Electrokinetic Remediation of Nickel Contaminated Clayey Soils

Authors: Waddah S. Abdullah, Saleh M. Al-Sarem

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Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils has undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar contaminants (such as heavy metals) and nonpolar organic contaminants. It can efficiently be used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. EK processes have proved to be superior to other conventional methods, such as the pump and treat, and soil washing, since these methods are ineffective in such cases. This paper describes the use of electrokinetic remediation to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Open cells, as well as advanced cylindrical cells, were used to perform electrokinetic experiments. Azraq green clay (low permeability soil, taken from the east part of Jordan) was used for the experiments. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel. The EK experiments were conducted under direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA. Chelating agents (NaEDTA), disodium ethylene diamine-tetra-ascetic acid was used to enhance the electroremediation processes. The effect of carbonates presence in soils was, also, investigated by use of sodium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by using buffer solutions. The results showed that the average removal efficiency was 64%, for the Nickel spiked saturated clayey soil.Experiment results have shown that carbonates retarded the remediation process of nickel contaminated soils. Na-EDTA effectively enhanced the decontamination process, with removal efficiency increased from 64% without using the NaEDTA to over 90% after using Na-EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, contaminated soils, EDTA enhancement, electrokinetic processes, Nickel contaminated soil, soil remediation

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8 High-Frequency Modulation of Light-Emitting Diodes for New Ultraviolet Communications

Authors: Meng-Chyi Wu, Bonn Lin, Jyun-Hao Liao, Chein-Ju Chen, Yu-Cheng Jhuang, Mau-Phon Houng, Fang-Hsing Wang, Min-Chu Liu, Cheng-Fu Yang, Cheng-Shong Hong

Abstract:

Since the use of wireless communications has become critical nowadays, the available RF spectrum has become limited. Ultraviolet (UV) communication system can alleviate the spectrum constraint making UV communication system a potential alternative to future communication demands. Also, UV links can provide faster communication rate and can be used in combination with existing RF communication links, providing new communications diversity with higher user capacity. The UV region of electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to detector, imaging and communication technologies because the stratospheric ozone layer effectively absorbs some solar UV radiation from reaching the earth surface. The wavebands where most of UV radiation is absorbed by the ozone are commonly known as the solar blind region. By operating in UV-C band (200-280 nm) the communication system can minimize the transmission power consumption since it will have less radiation noise. UV communication uses the UV ray as the medium. Electric signal is carried on this band after being modulated and then be transmitted within the atmosphere as channel. Though the background noise of UV-C communication is very low owing to the solar-blind feature, it leads to a large propagation loss. The 370 nm UV provides a much lower propagation loss than that the UV-C does and the recent device technology for UV source on this band is more mature. The fabricated 370 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an aperture size of 45 m exhibit a modulation bandwidth of 165 MHz at 30 mA and a high power of 7 W/cm2 at 230 A/cm2. In order to solve the problem of low power in single UV LED, a UV LED array is presented in.

Keywords: ultraviolet (UV) communication, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), modulation bandwidth, LED array, 370 nm

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7 Quartz Crystal Microbalance Based Hydrophobic Nanosensor for Lysozyme Detection

Authors: F. Yılmaz, Y. Saylan, A. Derazshamshir, S. Atay, A. Denizli

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Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), high-resolution mass-sensing technique, measures changes in mass on oscillating quartz crystal surface by measuring changes in oscillation frequency of crystal in real time. Protein adsorption techniques via hydrophobic interaction between protein and solid support, called hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), can be favorable in many cases. Some nanoparticles can be effectively applied for HIC. HIC takes advantage of the hydrophobicity of proteins by promoting its separation on the basis of hydrophobic interactions between immobilized hydrophobic ligands and nonpolar regions on the surface of the proteins. Lysozyme is found in a variety of vertebrate cells and secretions, such as spleen, milk, tears, and egg white. Its common applications are as a cell-disrupting agent for extraction of bacterial intracellular products, as an antibacterial agent in ophthalmologic preparations, as a food additive in milk products and as a drug for treatment of ulcers and infections. Lysozyme has also been used in cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this study is the synthesis of hydrophobic nanoparticles for Lysozyme detection. For this purpose, methacryoyl-L-phenylalanine was chosen as a hydrophobic matrix. The hydrophobic nanoparticles were synthesized by micro-emulsion polymerization method. Then, hydrophobic QCM nanosensor was characterized by Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and zeta size analysis. Hydrophobic QCM nanosensor was tested for real-time detection of Lysozyme from aqueous solution. The kinetic and affinity studies were determined by using Lysozyme solutions with different concentrations. The responses related to a mass (Δm) and frequency (Δf) shifts were used to evaluate adsorption properties.

Keywords: nanosensor, HIC, lysozyme, QCM

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6 Modeling and Design of E-mode GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Samson Mil'shtein, Dhawal Asthana, Benjamin Sullivan

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The wide energy gap of GaN is the major parameter justifying the design and fabrication of high-power electronic components made of this material. However, the existence of a piezo-electrics in nature sheet charge at the AlGaN/GaN interface complicates the control of carrier injection into the intrinsic channel of GaN HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistors). As a result, most of the transistors created as R&D prototypes and all of the designs used for mass production are D-mode devices which introduce challenges in the design of integrated circuits. This research presents the design and modeling of an E-mode GaN HEMT with a very low turn-on voltage. The proposed device includes two critical elements allowing the transistor to achieve zero conductance across the channel when Vg = 0V. This is accomplished through the inclusion of an extremely thin, 2.5nm intrinsic Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N spacer layer. The added spacer layer does not create piezoelectric strain but rather elastically follows the variations of the crystal structure of the adjacent GaN channel. The second important factor is the design of a gate metal with a high work function. The use of a metal gate with a work function (Ni in this research) greater than 5.3eV positioned on top of n-type doped (Nd=10¹⁷cm⁻³) Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N creates the necessary built-in potential, which controls the injection of electrons into the intrinsic channel as the gate voltage is increased. The 5µm long transistor with a 0.18µm long gate and a channel width of 30µm operate at Vd=10V. At Vg =1V, the device reaches the maximum drain current of 0.6mA, which indicates a high current density. The presented device is operational at frequencies greater than 10GHz and exhibits a stable transconductance over the full range of operational gate voltages.

Keywords: compound semiconductors, device modeling, enhancement mode HEMT, gallium nitride

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5 Preparation, Characterisation, and Measurement of the in vitro Cytotoxicity of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Cytotoxic Pt(II) Oxadiazoline Complexes

Authors: G. Wagner, R. Herrmann

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Cytotoxic platinum compounds play a major role in the chemotherapy of a large number of human cancers. However, due to the severe side effects for the patient and other problems associated with their use, there is a need for the development of more efficient drugs and new methods for their selective delivery to the tumours. One way to achieve the latter could be in the use of nanoparticular substrates that can adsorb or chemically bind the drug. In the cell, the drug is supposed to be slowly released, either by physical desorption or by dissolution of the particle framework. Ideally, the cytotoxic properties of the platinum drug unfold only then, in the cancer cell and over a longer period of time due to the gradual release. In this paper, we report on our first steps in this direction. The binding properties of a series of cytotoxic Pt(II) oxadiazoline compounds to mesoporous silica particles has been studied by NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy. High loadings were achieved when the Pt(II) compound was relatively polar, and has been dissolved in a relatively nonpolar solvent before the silica was added. Typically, 6-10 hours were required for complete equilibration, suggesting the adsorption did not only occur to the outer surface but also to the interior of the pores. The untreated and Pt(II) loaded particles were characterised by C, H, N combustion analysis, BET/BJH nitrogen sorption, electron microscopy (REM and TEM) and EDX. With the latter methods we were able to demonstrate the homogenous distribution of the Pt(II) compound on and in the silica particles, and no Pt(II) bulk precipitate had formed. The in vitro cytotoxicity in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) has been determined for one of the new platinum compounds adsorbed to mesoporous silica particles of different size, and compared with the corresponding compound in solution. The IC50 data are similar in all cases, suggesting that the release of the Pt(II) compound was relatively fast and possibly occurred before the particles reached the cells. Overall, the platinum drug is chemically stable on silica and retained its activity upon prolonged storage.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, mesoporous silica, nanoparticles, platinum compounds

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4 Cost-Effective Materials for Hydrocarbons Recovery from Produced Water

Authors: Fahd I. Alghunaimi, Hind S. Dossary, Norah W. Aljuryyed, Tawfik A. Saleh

Abstract:

Produced water (PW) is one of the largest by-volume waste streams and one of the most challenging effluents in the oil and gas industry. This is due to the variation of contaminants that make up PW. Severalmaterialshavebeen developed, studied, and implemented to remove hydrocarbonsfrom PW. Adsorption is one of the most effective ways ofremoving oil fromPW. In this work, three new and cost-effective hydrophobic adsorbentmaterials based on 9-octadecenoic acid grafted graphene (POG) were synthesized for oil/water separation. Graphene derived from graphite was modified with 9-octadecenoic acid to yield 9-octadecenoic acid grafted graphene (OG). The newsynthesized materials which called POG25, POG50, and POG75 were characterized by using N₂-physisorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The BET surface area of POG75 was the highest with 288 m²/g, whereas POG50 was 225 m²/g and POG25 was lowest 79 m²/g. These three materials were also evaluated for their oil-water separation efficiency using a model mixture, whichdemonstrated that POG-75 has the highest oil removal efficiency and the faster rate of the adsorption (Figure-1). POG75 was regenerated, and its performance was verified again with a little reduced adsorption rate compared to the fresh material. The mixtures that used in the performance test were prepared by mixing nonpolar organic liquids such as heptane, dodecane, or hexadecane into the colored water. In general, the new materials showed fast uptake of the certain quantity of the oildue to the high hydrophobicity nature of the materials, which repel water as confirmed by the contact angle of approximately 150˚. Besides that, novel superhydrophobic material was also synthesized by introducing hydrophobic branches of laurate on the surface of the stainless steel mesh (SSM). This novel mesh could help to hold the novel adsorbent materials in a column to remove oil from PW. Both BOG-75 and the novel mesh have the potential to remove oil contaminants from produced water, which will help to provide an opportunity to recover useful components, in addition, to reduce the environmental impact and reuse produced water in several applications such as fracturing.

Keywords: graphite to graphene, oleophilic, produced water, separation

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3 On the Thermodynamics of Biological Cell Adhesion

Authors: Ben Nadler

Abstract:

Cell adhesion plays a vital role in many cell activities. The motivation to model cell adhesion is to study important biological processes, such as cell spreading, cell aggregation, tissue formation, and cell adhesion, which are very challenging to study by experimental methods alone. This study provides important insight into cell adhesion, which can lead to improve regenerative medicine and tissue formation techniques. In this presentation the biological cells adhesion is mediated by receptors–ligands binding and the diffusivity of the receptor on the cell membrane surface. The ability of receptors to diffuse on the cell membrane surface yields a very unique and complicated adhesion mechanism, which is exclusive to cells. The phospholipid bilayer, which is the main component in the cell membrane, shows fluid-like behavior associated with the molecules’ diffusivity. The biological cell is modeled as a fluid-like membrane with negligible bending stiffness enclosing the cytoplasm fluid. The in-plane mechanical behavior of the cell membrane is assumed to depend only on the area change, which is motivated by the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer. In addition, the presence of receptors influences on the local mechanical properties of the cell membrane is accounted for by including stress-free area change, which depends on the receptor density. Based on the physical properties of the receptors and ligands the attraction between the receptors and ligands is modeled as a charged-nonpolar which is a noncovalent interaction. Such interaction is a short-range type, which decays fast with distance. The mobility of the receptor on the cell membrane is modeled using the diffusion equation and Fick’s law is used to model the receptor–receptor interactions. The resultant interaction force, which includes receptor–ligand and receptor–receptor interaction, is decomposed into tangential part, which governs the receptor diffusion, and normal part, which governs the cell deformation and adhesion. The formulation of the governing equations and numerical simulations will be presented. Analysis of the adhesion characteristic and properties are discussed. The roles of various thermomechanical properties of the cell, receptors and ligands on the cell adhesion are investigated.

Keywords: cell adhesion, cell membrane, receptor-ligand interaction, receptor diffusion

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2 Influence of Gamma-Radiation Dosimetric Characteristics on the Stability of the Persistent Organic Pollutants

Authors: Tatiana V. Melnikova, Lyudmila P. Polyakova, Alla A. Oudalova

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As a result of environmental pollution, the production of agriculture and foodstuffs inevitably contain residual amounts of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP). The special attention must be given to organic pollutants, including various organochlorinated pesticides (OCP). Among priorities, OCP is DDT (and its metabolite DDE), alfa-HCH, gamma-HCH (lindane). The control of these substances spends proceeding from requirements of sanitary norms and rules. During too time often is lost sight of that the primary product can pass technological processing (in particular irradiation treatment) as a result of which transformation of physicochemical forms of initial polluting substances is possible. The goal of the present work was to study the OCP radiation degradation at a various gamma-radiation dosimetric characteristics. The problems posed for goal achievement: to evaluate the content of the priority of OCPs in food; study the character the degradation of OCP in model solutions (with micro concentrations commensurate with the real content of their agricultural and food products) depending upon dosimetric characteristics of gamma-radiation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of OCP in food and model solutions by gas chromatograph Varian 3400 (Varian, Inc. (USA)); chromatography-mass spectrometer Varian Saturn 4D (Varian, Inc. (USA)) was carried out. The solutions of DDT, DDE, alpha- and gamma- isomer HCH (0.01, 0.1, 1 ppm) were irradiated on "Issledovatel" (60Co) and "Luch - 1" (60Co) installations at a dose 10 kGy with a variation of dose rate from 0.0083 up to 2.33 kGy/sec. It was established experimentally that OCP residual concentration in individual samples of food products (fish, milk, cereal crops, meat, butter) are evaluated as 10-1-10-4 mg/kg, the value of which depends on the factor-sensations territory and natural migration processes. The results were used in the preparation of model solutions OCP. The dependence of a degradation extent of OCP from a dose rate gamma-irradiation has complex nature. According to our data at a dose 10 kGy, the degradation extent of OCP at first increase passes through a maximum (over the range 0.23 – 0.43 Gy/sec), and then decrease with the magnification of a dose rate. The character of the dependence of a degradation extent of OCP from a dose rate is kept for various OCP, in polar and nonpolar solvents and does not vary at the change of concentration of the initial substance. Also in work conditions of the maximal radiochemical yield of OCP which were observed at having been certain: influence of gamma radiation with a dose 10 kGy, in a range of doses rate 0.23 – 0.43 Gy/sec; concentration initial OCP 1 ppm; use of solvent - 2-propanol after preliminary removal of oxygen. Based on, that at studying model solutions of OCP has been established that the degradation extent of pesticides and qualitative structure of OCP radiolysis products depend on a dose rate, has been decided to continue researches radiochemical transformations OCP into foodstuffs at various of doses rate.

Keywords: degradation extent, dosimetric characteristics, gamma-radiation, organochlorinated pesticides, persistent organic pollutants

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1 Effects of Abiotic Stress on the Phytochemical Content and Bioactivity of Pistacia lentiscus L.

Authors: S. Mamoucha, N. Tsafantakis, Α. Ioannidis, S. Chatzipanagiotou, C. Nikolaou, L. Skaltsounis, N. Fokialakis, N. Christodoulakis

Abstract:

Introduction: Plant secondary metabolites (SM) can be grouped into three chemically distinct groups: terpenes, phenolics, and nitrogen-containing compounds. For many years the adaptive significance of SM was unknown. They were thought to be functionless end-products. Currently it is accepted that many secondary metabolites (also known as natural products) have important ecological roles in plants. For instance, they serve as attractants (odor, color, taste) for pollinators and seed-dispersing animals. Moreover, they protect plants from herbivores, microbial pathogens and from environmental stress (high and low temperatures, drought, alkalinity, salinity, radiation etc). It is well known that both biotic and abiotic stress often increase the accumulation of SM. The local climatic conditions, seasonal changes, external factors such as light, temperature, humidity affect the biosynthesis and composition of secondary metabolites. A well known dioecious evergreen plant, Pistacia lentiscus L. (mastic tree), was selected in order to study the metabolic variations occur in response to the different climate conditions, due to the seasonal variation and its effect on the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. Materials-methods: Young and mature leaves were collected in January and July 2014, dried and extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (Dionex ASE™ 350) using solvents of increased polarity (DCM, MeOH, and H2O). GC-MS and UHPLC-HRMS analysis were carried out in order to define the nature and the relative abundance of SM. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by using the Agar Disc Diffusion Assay against ATCC and clinical isolates strains: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All tests were carried out in duplicate and the average radii of the inhibition zones were calculated for each extract. Results: According to the phytochemical profile obtained from each extract, the biosynthesis of SM varied both qualitatively and quantitatively under the two different types of seasonal stress. With exception of the biologically inactive nonpolar DCM extract of July, all extracts inhibited the growth of most of the investigated microorganisms. A clear positive correlation has been observed between the relative abundance of SM and the bioactivity of the DCM extracts of January and July. Observed changes during phytochemical analysis were mainly focused on the triterpenoid content. On the other hand, the bioactivity of the polar extracts (MeOH and H2O) of January and July resulted practically invariable against most of the microorganisms, besides the significant variation of the SM content due to the seasonal variation. Conclusion: Our results clearly confirmed the hypothesis of abiotic stress as an important regulating factor that significantly affects the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and thus the presence of bioactive compounds. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by IKY - State Scholarship Foundation, Athens, Greece.

Keywords: antibacterial screening, phytochemical profile, Pistacia lentiscus, abiotic stress

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