Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2785

Search results for: enhancement mode HEMT

2785 Al2O3-Dielectric AlGaN/GaN Enhancement-Mode MOS-HEMTs by Using Ozone Water Oxidization Technique

Authors: Ching-Sung Lee, Wei-Chou Hsu, Han-Yin Liu, Hung-Hsi Huang, Si-Fu Chen, Yun-Jung Yang, Bo-Chun Chiang, Yu-Chuang Chen, Shen-Tin Yang

Abstract:

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been intensively studied due to their intrinsic advantages of high breakdown electric field, high electron saturation velocity, and excellent chemical stability. They are also suitable for ultra-violet (UV) photodetection due to the corresponding wavelengths of GaN bandgap. To improve the optical responsivity by decreasing the dark current due to gate leakage problems and limited Schottky barrier heights in GaN-based HEMT devices, various metal-oxide-semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs) have been devised by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase deposition (LPD), and RF sputtering. The gate dielectrics include MgO, HfO2, Al2O3, La2O3, and TiO2. In order to provide complementary circuit operation, enhancement-mode (E-mode) devices have been lately studied using techniques of fluorine treatment, p-type capper, piezoneutralization layer, and MOS-gate structure. This work reports an Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMT design by using a cost-effective ozone water oxidization technique. The present ozone oxidization method advantages of low cost processing facility, processing simplicity, compatibility to device fabrication, and room-temperature operation under atmospheric pressure. It can further reduce the gate-to-channel distance and improve the transocnductance (gm) gain for a specific oxide thickness, since the formation of the Al2O3 will consume part of the AlGaN barrier at the same time. The epitaxial structure of the studied devices was grown by using the MOCVD technique. On a Si substrate, the layer structures include a 3.9 m C-doped GaN buffer, a 300 nm GaN channel layer, and a 5 nm Al0.25Ga0.75N barrier layer. Mesa etching was performed to provide electrical isolation by using an inductively coupled-plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). Ti/Al/Au were thermally evaporated and annealed to form the source and drain ohmic contacts. The device was immersed into the H2O2 solution pumped with ozone gas generated by using an OW-K2 ozone generator. Ni/Au were deposited as the gate electrode to complete device fabrication of MOS-HEMT. The formed Al2O3 oxide thickness 7 nm and the remained AlGaN barrier thickness is 2 nm. A reference HEMT device has also been fabricated in comparison on the same epitaxial structure. The gate dimensions are 1.2 × 100 µm 2 with a source-to-drain spacing of 5 μm for both devices. The dielectric constant (k) of Al2O3 was characterized to be 9.2 by using C-V measurement. Reduced interface state density after oxidization has been verified by the low-frequency noise spectra, Hooge coefficients, and pulse I-V measurement. Improved device characteristics at temperatures of 300 K-450 K have been achieved for the present MOS-HEMT design. Consequently, Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMTs by using the ozone water oxidization method are reported. In comparison with a conventional Schottky-gate HEMT, the MOS-HEMT design has demonstrated excellent enhancements of 138% (176%) in gm, max, 118% (139%) in IDS, max, 53% (62%) in BVGD, 3 (2)-order reduction in IG leakage at VGD = -60 V at 300 (450) K. This work is promising for millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) and three-terminal active UV photodetector applications.

Keywords: MOS-HEMT, enhancement mode, AlGaN/GaN, passivation, ozone water oxidation, gate leakage

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
2784 Modeling and Design of E-mode GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Samson Mil'shtein, Dhawal Asthana, Benjamin Sullivan

Abstract:

The wide energy gap of GaN is the major parameter justifying the design and fabrication of high-power electronic components made of this material. However, the existence of a piezo-electrics in nature sheet charge at the AlGaN/GaN interface complicates the control of carrier injection into the intrinsic channel of GaN HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistors). As a result, most of the transistors created as R&D prototypes and all of the designs used for mass production are D-mode devices which introduce challenges in the design of integrated circuits. This research presents the design and modeling of an E-mode GaN HEMT with a very low turn-on voltage. The proposed device includes two critical elements allowing the transistor to achieve zero conductance across the channel when Vg = 0V. This is accomplished through the inclusion of an extremely thin, 2.5nm intrinsic Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N spacer layer. The added spacer layer does not create piezoelectric strain but rather elastically follows the variations of the crystal structure of the adjacent GaN channel. The second important factor is the design of a gate metal with a high work function. The use of a metal gate with a work function (Ni in this research) greater than 5.3eV positioned on top of n-type doped (Nd=10¹⁷cm⁻³) Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N creates the necessary built-in potential, which controls the injection of electrons into the intrinsic channel as the gate voltage is increased. The 5µm long transistor with a 0.18µm long gate and a channel width of 30µm operate at Vd=10V. At Vg =1V, the device reaches the maximum drain current of 0.6mA, which indicates a high current density. The presented device is operational at frequencies greater than 10GHz and exhibits a stable transconductance over the full range of operational gate voltages.

Keywords: compound semiconductors, device modeling, enhancement mode HEMT, gallium nitride

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
2783 Etude 3D Quantum Numerical Simulation of Performance in the HEMT

Authors: A. Boursali, A. Guen-Bouazza

Abstract:

We present a simulation of a HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) structure with and without a field plate. We extract the device characteristics through the analysis of DC, AC and high frequency regimes, as shown in this paper. This work demonstrates the optimal device with a gate length of 15 nm, InAlN/GaN heterostructure and field plate structure, making it superior to modern HEMTs when compared with otherwise equivalent devices. This improves the ability to bear the burden of the current density passes in the channel. We have demonstrated an excellent current density, as high as 2.05 A/m, a peak extrinsic transconductance of 0.59S/m at VDS=2 V, and cutting frequency cutoffs of 638 GHz in the first HEMT and 463 GHz for Field plate HEMT., maximum frequency of 1.7 THz, maximum efficiency of 73%, maximum breakdown voltage of 400 V, leakage current density IFuite=1 x 10-26 A, DIBL=33.52 mV/V and an ON/OFF current density ratio higher than 1 x 1010. These values were determined through the simulation by deriving genetic and Monte Carlo algorithms that optimize the design and the future of this technology.

Keywords: HEMT, silvaco, field plate, genetic algorithm, quantum

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2782 3D Quantum Simulation of a HEMT Device Performance

Authors: Z. Kourdi, B. Bouazza, M. Khaouani, A. Guen-Bouazza, Z. Djennati, A. Boursali

Abstract:

We present a simulation of a HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) structure with and without a field plate. We extract the device characteristics through the analysis of DC, AC and high frequency regimes, as shown in this paper. This work demonstrates the optimal device with a gate length of 15 nm, InAlN/GaN heterostructure and field plate structure, making it superior to modern HEMTs when compared with otherwise equivalent devices. This improves the ability to bear the burden of the current density passes in the channel. We have demonstrated an excellent current density, as high as 2.05 A/mm, a peak extrinsic transconductance of 590 mS/mm at VDS=2 V, and cutting frequency cutoffs of 638 GHz in the first HEMT and 463 GHz for Field plate HEMT., maximum frequency of 1.7 THz, maximum efficiency of 73%, maximum breakdown voltage of 400 V, DIBL=33.52 mV/V and an ON/OFF current density ratio higher than 1 x 1010. These values were determined through the simulation by deriving genetic and Monte Carlo algorithms that optimize the design and the future of this technology.

Keywords: HEMT, Silvaco, field plate, genetic algorithm, quantum

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
2781 Enhancement of Raman Scattering using Photonic Nanojet and Whispering Gallery Mode of a Dielectric Microstructure

Authors: A. Arya, R. Laha, V. R. Dantham

Abstract:

We report the enhancement of Raman scattering signal by one order of magnitude using photonic nanojet (PNJ) of a lollipop shaped dielectric microstructure (LSDM) fabricated by a pulsed CO₂ laser. Here, the PNJ is generated by illuminating sphere portion of the LSDM with non-resonant laser. Unlike the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, this technique is simple, and the obtained results are highly reproducible. In addition, an efficient technique is proposed to enhance the SERS signal with the help of high quality factor optical resonance (whispering gallery mode) of a LSDM. From the theoretical simulations, it has been found that at least an order of magnitude enhancement in the SERS signal could be achieved easily using the proposed technique. We strongly believe that this report will enable the research community for improving the Raman scattering signals.

Keywords: localized surface plasmons, photonic nanojet, SERS, whispering gallery mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
2780 Power HEMTs Transistors for Radar Applications

Authors: A. boursali, A. Guen Bouazza, M. Khaouani, Z. Kourdi, B. Bouazza

Abstract:

This paper presents the design, development and characterization of the devices simulation for X-Band Radar applications. The effect of an InAlN/GaN structure on the RF performance High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) device. Systematic investigations on the small signal as well as power performance as functions of the drain biases are presented. Were improved for X-band applications. The Power Added Efficiency (PAE) was achieved over 23% for X-band. The developed devices combine two InAlN/GaN HEMTs of 30nm gate periphery and exhibited the output power of over 50W. An InAlN/GaN HEMT with 30nm gate periphery was developed and exhibited the output power of over 120W.

Keywords: InAlN/GaN, HEMT, RF analyses, PAE, X-Band, radar

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
2779 A Genetic-Neural-Network Modeling Approach for Self-Heating in GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Anwar Jarndal

Abstract:

In this paper, a genetic-neural-network (GNN) based large-signal model for GaN HEMTs is presented along with its parameters extraction procedure. The model is easy to construct and implement in CAD software and requires only DC and S-parameter measurements. An improved decomposition technique is used to model self-heating effect. Two GNN models are constructed to simulate isothermal drain current and power dissipation, respectively. The two model are then composed to simulate the drain current. The modeling procedure was applied to a packaged GaN-on-Si HEMT and the developed model is validated by comparing its large-signal simulation with measured data. A very good agreement between the simulation and measurement is obtained.

Keywords: GaN HEMT, computer-aided design and modeling, neural networks, genetic optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
2778 Proton Irradiation Testing on Commercial Enhancement Mode GaN Power Transistor

Authors: L. Boyaci

Abstract:

Two basic equipment of electrical power subsystem of space satellites are Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) and Power Distribution Unit (PDU). Today, the main switching element used in power equipment in satellites is silicon (Si) based radiation-hardened MOSFET. GaNFETs have superior performances over MOSFETs in terms of their conduction and switching characteristics. GaNFET has started to take MOSFET’s place in many applications in industry especially by virtue of its switching performances. If GaNFET can also be used in equipment for space applications, this would be great revolution for future space power subsystem designs. In this study, the effect of proton irradiation on Gallium Nitride based power transistors was investigated. Four commercial enhancement mode GaN power transistors from Efficient Power Conversion Corporation (EPC) are irradiated with 30MeV protons while devices are switching. Flux of 8.2x10⁹ protons/cm²/s is applied for 12.5 seconds to reach ultimate fluence of 10¹¹ protons/cm². Vgs-Ids characteristics are measured and recorded for each device before, during and after irradiation. It was observed that if there would be destructive events. Proton induced permanent damage on devices is not observed. All the devices remained healthy and continued to operate. For two of these devices, further irradiation is applied with same flux for 30 minutes up to a total fluence level of 1.476x10¹³ protons/cm². We observed that GaNFETs are fully functional under this high level of radiation and no destructive events and irreversible failures took place for transistors. Results reveal that irradiated GaNFET in this experiment has radiation tolerance under proton testing and very important candidate for being one of the future power switching element in space.

Keywords: enhancement mode GaN power transistors, proton irradiation effects, radiation tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2777 Fuzzy Logic Based Sliding Mode Controller for a New Soft Switching Boost Converter

Authors: Azam Salimi, Majid Delshad

Abstract:

This paper presents a modified design of a sliding mode controller based on fuzzy logic for a New ZVThigh step up DC-DC Converter . Here a proportional - integral (PI)-type current mode control is employed and a sliding mode controller is designed utilizing fuzzy algorithm. Sliding mode controller guarantees robustness against all variations and fuzzy logic helps to reduce chattering phenomenon due to sliding controller, in that way efficiency increases and error, voltage and current ripples decreases. The proposed system is simulated using MATLAB / SIMULINK. This model is tested under variations of input and reference voltages and it was found that in comparison with conventional sliding mode controllers they perform better.

Keywords: switching mode power supplies, DC-DC converters, sliding mode control, robustness, fuzzy control, current mode control, non-linear behavior

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2776 Optimizing Approach for Sifting Process to Solve a Common Type of Empirical Mode Decomposition Mode Mixing

Authors: Saad Al-Baddai, Karema Al-Subari, Elmar Lang, Bernd Ludwig

Abstract:

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new data-driven of time-series decomposition, has the advantage of supposing that a time series is non-linear or non-stationary, as is implicitly achieved in Fourier decomposition. However, the EMD suffers of mode mixing problem in some cases. The aim of this paper is to present a solution for a common type of signals causing of EMD mode mixing problem, in case a signal suffers of an intermittency. By an artificial example, the solution shows superior performance in terms of cope EMD mode mixing problem comparing with the conventional EMD and Ensemble Empirical Mode decomposition (EEMD). Furthermore, the over-sifting problem is also completely avoided; and computation load is reduced roughly six times compared with EEMD, an ensemble number of 50.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition (EMD), mode mixing, sifting process, over-sifting

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2775 Mode II Fracture Toughness of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: H. S. S Abou El-Mal, A. S. Sherbini, H. E. M. Sallam

Abstract:

Mode II fracture toughness (KIIc) of fiber reinforced concrete has been widely investigated under various patterns of testing geometries. The effect of fiber type, concrete matrix properties, and testing mechanisms were extensively studied. The area of hybrid fiber addition shows a lake of reported research data. In this paper an experimental investigation of hybrid fiber embedded in high strength concrete matrix is reported. Three different types of fibers; namely steel (S), glass (G), and polypropylene (PP) fibers were mixed together in four hybridization patterns, (S/G), (S/PP), (G/PP), (S/G/PP) with constant cumulative volume fraction (Vf) of 1.5%. The concrete matrix properties were kept the same for all hybrid fiber reinforced concrete patterns. In an attempt to estimate a fairly accepted value of fracture toughness KIIc, four testing geometries and loading types are employed in this investigation. Four point shear, Brazilian notched disc, double notched cube, and double edge notched specimens are investigated in a trial to avoid the limitations and sensitivity of each test regarding geometry, size effect, constraint condition, and the crack length to specimen width ratio a/w. The addition of all hybridization patterns of fiber reduced the compressive strength and increased mode II fracture toughness in pure mode II tests. Mode II fracture toughness of concrete KIIc decreased with the increment of a/w ratio for all concretes and test geometries. Mode II fracture toughness KIIc is found to be sensitive to the hybridization patterns of fiber. The (S/PP) hybridization pattern showed higher values than all other patterns, while the (S/G/PP) showed insignificant enhancement on mode II fracture toughness (KIIc). Four point shear (4PS) test set up reflects the most reliable values of mode II fracture toughness KIIc of concrete. Mode II fracture toughness KIIc of concrete couldn’t be assumed as a real material property.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, Hybrid fiber, Mode II fracture toughness, testing geometry

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2774 The Behavior of The Zeros of Bargmann Analytic Functions for Multiple-Mode Systems

Authors: Muna Tabuni

Abstract:

The paper contains an investigation of the behavior of the Zeros of Bargmann functions for one and two-mode systems. A brief introduction to Harmonic oscillator formalism for one and two-mode is given. The Bargmann analytic representation for one and two-mode has been studied. The zeros of Bargmann analytic function for one-mode are considered. The Q Husimi functions are introduced. The Bargmann functions and the Husimi functions have the same zeros. The Bargmann functions f(z) have exactly q zeros. The evolution time of the zeros are discussed. The zeros of Bargmann analytic functions for two-mode are introduced. Various examples have been given.

Keywords: Bargmann functions, two-mode, zeros, harmonic oscillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
2773 A Semiparametric Approach to Estimate the Mode of Continuous Multivariate Data

Authors: Tiee-Jian Wu, Chih-Yuan Hsu

Abstract:

Mode estimation is an important task, because it has applications to data from a wide variety of sources. We propose a semi-parametric approach to estimate the mode of an unknown continuous multivariate density function. Our approach is based on a weighted average of a parametric density estimate using the Box-Cox transform and a non-parametric kernel density estimate. Our semi-parametric mode estimate improves both the parametric- and non-parametric- mode estimates. Specifically, our mode estimate solves the non-consistency problem of parametric mode estimates (at large sample sizes) and reduces the variability of non-parametric mode estimates (at small sample sizes). The performance of our method at practical sample sizes is demonstrated by simulation examples and two real examples from the fields of climatology and image recognition.

Keywords: Box-Cox transform, density estimation, mode seeking, semiparametric method

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2772 Eye Diagram for a System of Highly Mode Coupled PMD/PDL Fiber

Authors: Suad M. Abuzariba, Liang Chen, Saeed Hadjifaradji

Abstract:

To evaluate the optical eye diagram due to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), polarization-dependent loss (PDL), and chromatic dispersion (CD) for a system of highly mode coupled fiber with lumped section at any given optical pulse sequence we present an analytical modle. We found that with considering PDL and the polarization direction correlation between PMD and PDL, a system with highly mode coupled fiber with lumped section can have either higher or lower Q-factor than a highly mode coupled system with same root mean square PDL/PMD values. Also we noticed that a system of two highly mode coupled fibers connected together is not equivalent to a system of highly mode coupled fiber when fluctuation is considered

Keywords: polarization mode dispersion, polarization dependent loss, chromatic dispersion, optical eye diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
2771 Task Distraction vs. Visual Enhancement: Which Is More Effective?

Authors: Huangmei Liu, Si Liu, Jia’nan Liu

Abstract:

The present experiment investigated and compared the effectiveness of two kinds of methods of attention control: Task distraction and visual enhancement. In the study, the effectiveness of task distractions to explicit features and of visual enhancement to implicit features of the same group of Chinese characters were compared based on their effect on the participants’ reaction time, subjective confidence rating, and verbal report. We found support that the visual enhancement on implicit features did overcome the contrary effect of training distraction and led to awareness of those implicit features, at least to some extent.

Keywords: task distraction, visual enhancement, attention, awareness, learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
2770 Fast Terminal Sliding Mode Controller For Quadrotor UAV

Authors: Vahid Tabrizi, Reza GHasemi, Ahmadreza Vali

Abstract:

This paper presents robust nonlinear control law for a quadrotor UAV using fast terminal sliding mode control. Fast terminal sliding mode idea is used for introducing a nonlinear sliding variable that guarantees the finite time convergence in sliding phase. Then, in reaching phase for removing chattering and producing smooth control signal, continuous approximation idea is used. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is robust against parameter uncertainty and has better performance than conventional sliding mode for controlling a quadrotor UAV.

Keywords: quadrotor UAV, fast terminal sliding mode, second order sliding mode t

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
2769 Comparative Study of Different Enhancement Techniques for Computed Tomography Images

Authors: C. G. Jinimole, A. Harsha

Abstract:

One of the key problems facing in the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) images is the poor contrast of the images. Image enhancement can be used to improve the visual clarity and quality of the images or to provide a better transformation representation for further processing. Contrast enhancement of images is one of the acceptable methods used for image enhancement in various applications in the medical field. This will be helpful to visualize and extract details of brain infarctions, tumors, and cancers from the CT image. This paper presents a comparison study of five contrast enhancement techniques suitable for the contrast enhancement of CT images. The types of techniques include Power Law Transformation, Logarithmic Transformation, Histogram Equalization, Contrast Stretching, and Laplacian Transformation. All these techniques are compared with each other to find out which enhancement provides better contrast of CT image. For the comparison of the techniques, the parameters Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE) are used. Logarithmic Transformation provided the clearer and best quality image compared to all other techniques studied and has got the highest value of PSNR. Comparison concludes with better approach for its future research especially for mapping abnormalities from CT images resulting from Brain Injuries.

Keywords: computed tomography, enhancement techniques, increasing contrast, PSNR and MSE

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2768 Effect of Hydrogen-Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Four Stroke-Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: Madhujit Deb, G. R. K. Sastry, R. S. Panua, Rahul Banerjee, P. K. Bose

Abstract:

The present work attempts to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of an existing single-cylinder four-stroke compression-ignition engine operated in dual-fuel mode with hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels like hydrogen for internal combustion (IC) engines. In this experimental investigation, a diesel engine is made to run using hydrogen in dual fuel mode with diesel, where hydrogen is introduced into the intake manifold using an LPG-CNG injector and pilot diesel is injected using diesel injectors. A Timed Manifold Injection (TMI) system has been developed to vary the injection strategies. The optimized timing for the injection of hydrogen was 100 CA after top dead center (ATDC). From the study it was observed that with increasing hydrogen rate, enhancement in brake thermal efficiency (BTHE) of the engine has been observed with reduction in brake specific energy consumption (BSEC). Furthermore, Soot contents decrease with an increase in indicated specific NOx emissions with the enhancement of hydrogen flow rate.

Keywords: diesel engine, hydrogen, BTHE, BSEC, soot, NOx

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
2767 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: the linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure

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2766 Working Mode and Key Technology of Thermal Vacuum Test Software for Spacecraft Test

Authors: Zhang Lei, Zhan Haiyang, Gu Miao

Abstract:

A universal software platform is developed for improving the defects in the practical one. This software platform has distinct advantages in modularization, information management, and the interfaces. Several technologies such as computer technology, virtualization technology, network technology, etc. are combined together in this software platform, and four working modes are introduced in this article including single mode, distributed mode, cloud mode, and the centralized mode. The application area of the software platform is extended through the switch between these working modes. The software platform can arrange the thermal vacuum test process automatically. This function can improve the reliability of thermal vacuum test.

Keywords: software platform, thermal vacuum test, control and measurement, work mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
2765 Compact Low-Voltage Biomedical Instrumentation Amplifiers

Authors: Phanumas Khumsat, Chalermchai Janmane

Abstract:

Low-voltage instrumentation amplifier has been proposed for 3-lead electrocardiogram measurement system. The circuit’s interference rejection technique is based upon common-mode feed-forwarding where common-mode currents have cancelled each other at the output nodes. The common-mode current for cancellation is generated by means of common-mode sensing and emitter or source followers with resistors employing only one transistor. Simultaneously this particular transistor also provides common-mode feedback to the patient’s right/left leg to further reduce interference entering the amplifier. The proposed designs have been verified with simulations in 0.18-µm CMOS process operating under 1.0-V supply with CMRR greater than 80dB. Moreover ECG signals have experimentally recorded with the proposed instrumentation amplifiers implemented from discrete BJT (BC547, BC558) and MOSFET (ALD1106, ALD1107) transistors working with 1.5-V supply.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, common-mode feedback, common-mode feedforward, communication engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2764 Energy Saving Study of Mass Rapid Transit by Optimal Train Coasting Operation

Authors: Artiya Sopharak, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents an energy-saving study of Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) using an optimal train coasting operation. For the dynamic train movement with four modes of operation, including accelerating mode, constant speed or cruising mode, coasting mode, and braking mode are considered in this study. The acceleration rate, the deceleration rate, and the starting coasting point are taken into account the optimal train speed profile during coasting mode with considering the energy saving and acceptable travel time comparison to the based case with no coasting operation. In this study, the mathematical method as a Quadratic Search Method (QDS) is conducted to carry out the optimization problem. A single train of MRT services between two stations with a distance of 2 km and a maximum speed of 80 km/h is taken to be the case study. Regarding the coasting mode operation, the results show that the longer distance of costing mode, the less energy consumption in cruising mode and the less braking energy. On the other hand, the shorter distance of coasting mode, the more energy consumption in cruising mode and the more braking energy.

Keywords: energy saving, coasting mode, mass rapid transit, quadratic search method

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2763 Establishment of Bit Selective Mode Storage Covert Channel in VANETs

Authors: Amarpreet Singh, Kimi Manchanda

Abstract:

Intended for providing the security in the VANETS (Vehicular Ad hoc Network) scenario, the covert storage channel is implemented through data transmitted between the sender and the receiver. Covert channels are the logical links which are used for the communication purpose and hiding the secure data from the intruders. This paper refers to the Establishment of bit selective mode covert storage channels in VANETS. In this scenario, the data is being transmitted with two modes i.e. the normal mode and the covert mode. During the communication between vehicles in this scenario, the controlling of bits is possible through the optional bits of IPV6 Header Format. This implementation is fulfilled with the help of Network simulator.

Keywords: covert mode, normal mode, VANET, OBU, on-board unit

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
2762 Inverse Mode Shape Problem of Hand-Arm Vibration (Humerus Bone) for Bio-Dynamic Response Using Varying Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ajay R, Rammohan B, Sridhar K S S, Gurusharan N

Abstract:

The objective of the work is to develop a numerical method to solve the inverse mode shape problem by determining the cross-sectional area of a structure for the desired mode shape via the vibration response study of the humerus bone, which is in the form of a cantilever beam with anisotropic material properties. The humerus bone is the long bone in the arm that connects the shoulder to the elbow. The mode shape is assumed to be a higher-order polynomial satisfying a prescribed set of boundary conditions to converge the numerical algorithm. The natural frequency and the mode shapes are calculated for different boundary conditions to find the cross-sectional area of humerus bone from Eigenmode shape with the aid of the inverse mode shape algorithm. The cross-sectional area of humerus bone validates the mode shapes of specific boundary conditions. The numerical method to solve the inverse mode shape problem is validated in the biomedical application by finding the cross-sectional area of a humerus bone in the human arm.

Keywords: Cross-sectional area, Humerus bone, Inverse mode shape problem, Mode shape

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2761 Scar Removal Stretegy for Fingerprint Using Diffusion

Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Tariq M. Khan, Yinan Kong

Abstract:

Fingerprint image enhancement is one of the most important step in an automatic fingerprint identification recognition (AFIS) system which directly affects the overall efficiency of AFIS. The conventional fingerprint enhancement like Gabor and Anisotropic filters do fill the gaps in ridge lines but they fail to tackle scar lines. To deal with this problem we are proposing a method for enhancing the ridges and valleys with scar so that true minutia points can be extracted with accuracy. Our results have shown an improved performance in terms of enhancement.

Keywords: fingerprint image enhancement, removing noise, coherence, enhanced diffusion

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2760 Comparative Methods for Speech Enhancement and the Effects on Text-Independent Speaker Identification Performance

Authors: R. Ajgou, S. Sbaa, S. Ghendir, A. Chemsa, A. Taleb-Ahmed

Abstract:

The speech enhancement algorithm is to improve speech quality. In this paper, we review some speech enhancement methods and we evaluated their performance based on Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality scores (PESQ, ITU-T P.862). All method was evaluated in presence of different kind of noise using TIMIT database and NOIZEUS noisy speech corpus.. The noise was taken from the AURORA database and includes suburban train noise, babble, car, exhibition hall, restaurant, street, airport and train station noise. Simulation results showed improved performance of speech enhancement for Tracking of non-stationary noise approach in comparison with various methods in terms of PESQ measure. Moreover, we have evaluated the effects of the speech enhancement technique on Speaker Identification system based on autoregressive (AR) model and Mel-frequency Cepstral coefficients (MFCC).

Keywords: speech enhancement, pesq, speaker recognition, MFCC

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2759 Synchronization of a Perturbed Satellite Attitude Motion using Active Sliding Mode Controller

Authors: Djaouida Sadaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, the design procedure of the active sliding mode controller which is a combination of the active controller and the sliding mode controller is given first and then the problem of synchronization of two satellites systems is discussed for the proposed method. Finally, numerical results are presented to evaluate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

Keywords: active control, sliding mode control, synchronization, satellite attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
2758 UniFi: Universal Filter Model for Image Enhancement

Authors: Aleksei Samarin, Artyom Nazarenko, Valentin Malykh

Abstract:

Image enhancement is becoming more and more popular, especially on mobile devices. Nowadays, it is a common approach to enhance an image using a convolutional neural network (CNN). Such a network should be of significant size; otherwise, a possibility for the artifacts to occur is overgrowing. The existing large CNNs are computationally expensive, which could be crucial for mobile devices. Another important flaw of such models is they are poorly interpretable. There is another approach to image enhancement, namely, the usage of predefined filters in combination with the prediction of their applicability. We present an approach following this paradigm, which outperforms both existing CNN-based and filter-based approaches in the image enhancement task. It is easily adaptable for mobile devices since it has only 47 thousand parameters. It shows the best SSIM 0.919 on RANDOM250 (MIT Adobe FiveK) among small models and is thrice faster than previous models.

Keywords: universal filter, image enhancement, neural networks, computer vision

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2757 A Study of Traditional Mode in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transportation

Authors: Juanita, B. Kombaitan, Iwan Pratoyo Kusumantoro

Abstract:

The traditional mode is a non-motorized vehicle powered by human or animal power. The objective of the study was to define the strategy of using traditional modes by the framework of sustainable urban transport in support of urban tourism activities. The study of the traditional mode does not include a modified mode using the engine power as motor tricycles are often called ‘bentor ‘in Indonesia. The use of non-motorized traditional mode in Indonesia has begun to shift, and its use began to be eliminated by the change of propulsion using the machine. In an effort to push back the use of traditional mode one of them with tourism activities. Strategies for the use of traditional modes within the framework of sustainable urban transport are seen from three dimensions: social, economic and environmental. The social dimension related to accessibility and livability, an economic dimension related to traditional modes can promote products and tourist attractions, while the environmental dimension related to the needs of the users/groups with respect to safety, comfort. The traditional mode is rarely noticed by the policy makers, and public opinion in its use needs attention. The involvement of policy-making between stakeholders and the community is needed in the development of sustainable traditional mode strategies in support of urban tourism activities.

Keywords: traditional mode, sustainable, urban, transportation

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2756 Impact of Instructional Mode and Medium of Instruction on the Learning Outcomes of Secondary Level School Children

Authors: Dipti Parida, Atasi Mohanty

Abstract:

The focus of this research is to examine the interaction effect of flipped teaching and traditional teaching mode across two different medium (English and Odia) of instructional groups. Both Science and History subjects were taken to be taught in the Class- VIII in two different instructional mode/s. In total, 180 students of Class-VIII of both Odia and English medium schools were taken as the samples of this study; 90 participants (each group) were from both English and Odia medium schools ; 45 participants of each of these two groups were again assigned either to flip or traditional teaching method. We have two independent variables and each independent variable with two levels. Medium and mode of instruction are the two independent variables. Medium of instruction has two levels of Odia medium and English medium groups. The mode of instruction has also two levels of flip and traditional teaching method. Here we get 4 different groups, such as Odia medium students with traditional mode of teaching (O.M.T), Odia medium students with flipped mode of teaching (O.M.F), English medium students with traditional mode of teaching (E.M.T) and English medium students with flipped mode of teaching (E.M.F). Before the instructional administration, these four groups were given a test on the concerned topic to be taught. Based on this result, a one-way ANOVA was computed and the obtained result showed that these four groups don’t differ significantly from each other at the beginning. Then they were taught the concerned topic either in traditional or flip mode of teaching method. After that a 2×2×2 repeated measures ANOVA was done to analyze the group differences as well as the learning outcome before and after the teaching. The result table also shows that in post-test the learning outcome is highest in case of English medium students with flip mode of instruction. From the statistical analysis it is clear that the flipped mode of teaching is as effective for Odia medium students as it is for English medium students.

Keywords: medium of instruction, mode of instruction, test mode, vernacular medium

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