Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: retinopathy of prematurity

51 Learning from Small Amount of Medical Data with Noisy Labels: A Meta-Learning Approach

Authors: Gorkem Algan, Ilkay Ulusoy, Saban Gonul, Banu Turgut, Berker Bakbak


Computer vision systems recently made a big leap thanks to deep neural networks. However, these systems require correctly labeled large datasets in order to be trained properly, which is very difficult to obtain for medical applications. Two main reasons for label noise in medical applications are the high complexity of the data and conflicting opinions of experts. Moreover, medical imaging datasets are commonly tiny, which makes each data very important in learning. As a result, if not handled properly, label noise significantly degrades the performance. Therefore, a label-noise-robust learning algorithm that makes use of the meta-learning paradigm is proposed in this article. The proposed solution is tested on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) dataset with a very high label noise of 68%. Results show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the classification algorithm's performance in the presence of noisy labels.

Keywords: deep learning, label noise, robust learning, meta-learning, retinopathy of prematurity

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
50 Clinical Efficacy of Indigenous Software for Automatic Detection of Stages of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

Authors: Joshi Manisha, Shivaram, Anand Vinekar, Tanya Susan Mathews, Yeshaswini Nagaraj


Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is abnormal blood vessel development in the retina of the eye in a premature infant. The principal object of the invention is to provide a technique for detecting demarcation line and ridge detection for a given ROP image that facilitates early detection of ROP in stage 1 and stage 2. The demarcation line is an indicator of Stage 1 of the ROP and the ridge is the hallmark of typically Stage 2 ROP. Thirty Retcam images of Asian Indian infants obtained during routine ROP screening have been used for the analysis. A graphical user interface has been developed to detect demarcation line/ridge and to extract ground truth. This novel algorithm uses multilevel vessel enhancement to enhance tubular structures in the digital ROP images. It has been observed that the orientation of the demarcation line/ridge is normal to the direction of the blood vessels, which is used for the identification of the ridge/ demarcation line. Quantitative analysis has been presented based on gold standard images marked by expert ophthalmologist. Image based analysis has been based on the length and the position of the detected ridge. In image based evaluation, average sensitivity and positive predictive value was found to be 92.30% and 85.71% respectively. In pixel based evaluation, average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value achieved were 60.38%, 99.66%, 52.77% and 99.75% respectively.

Keywords: ROP, ridge, multilevel vessel enhancement, biomedical

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49 Co-Existence of Central Serous Retinopathy and Diabetic Retinopathy: A Diagnostic Dilemma

Authors: Avantika Verma


Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and Central serous retinopathy (CSR) are 2 distinct entities, with difference in age of presentation, eitiopathogenesis and clinical features, but when occurring together, can be a diagnostic dilemma and requires careful evaluation. Case study of 3 patients with long standing diabetes (>15yrs) and features of Central serous retinopathy was done at Bangalore West Lions Superspeciality Eye Hospital, Bangalore, India in 2013. Even though diabetic retinopathy and CSR have different pathologies, they can coexist. The reason for coexistence could be the following: A patient with CSR as a young adult could develop DR in later years. Stress could be the contributing factor in older patient with diabetes.Stress could be a common factor for both, as it is one of the important factors in the pathogenesis of Maturity Onset Diabetes Miletus (MODY). In any situation, a careful evaluation is necessary to differentiate the cause of fundus picture, as treatment differs for the two diseases.

Keywords: central serous retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, existence, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
48 Computer-Aided Exudate Diagnosis for the Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Shu-Min Tsao, Chung-Ming Lo, Shao-Chun Chen


Most diabetes patients tend to suffer from its complication of retina diseases. Therefore, early detection and early treatment are important. In clinical examinations, using color fundus image was the most convenient and available examination method. According to the exudates appeared in the retinal image, the status of retina can be confirmed. However, the routine screening of diabetic retinopathy by color fundus images would bring time-consuming tasks to physicians. This study thus proposed a computer-aided exudate diagnosis for the screening of diabetic retinopathy. After removing vessels and optic disc in the retinal image, six quantitative features including region number, region area, and gray-scale values etc… were extracted from the remaining regions for classification. As results, all six features were evaluated to be statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). The accuracy of classifying the retinal images into normal and diabetic retinopathy achieved 82%. Based on this system, the clinical workload could be reduced. The examination procedure may also be improved to be more efficient.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis, diabetic retinopathy, exudate, image processing

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47 The Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Tectorigenin in a Mouse Model of Retinopathy of Prematurity

Authors: KuiDong Kang, Hye Bin Yim, Su Ah Kim


Purpose: Tectorigenin is an isoflavone derived from the rhizome of Belamacanda chinensis. In this study, oxygen-induced retinopathy was used to characterize the anti-angiogenic properties of tectorigenin in mice. Methods: ICR neonatal mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from postnatal day P7 until P12 and returned to room air (21% oxygen) for five days (P12 to P17). Mice were subjected to daily intraperitoneal injection of tectorigenin (1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg) and vehicle from P12 to P17. Retro-orbital injection of FITC-dextran was performed and retinal flat mounts were viewed by fluorescence microscopy. The Central avascular area was quantified from the digital images in a masked fashion using image analysis software (NIH ImageJ). Neovascular tufts were quantified by using SWIFT_NV and neovascular lumens were quantified from a histologic section in a masked fashion. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were also performed to demonstrate the anti-angiogenic activity of this compound in vivo. Results: In the retina of tectorigenin injected mouse (10mg/kg), the central non-perfusion area was significantly decreased compared to the vehicle injected group (1.76±0.5 mm2 vs 2.85±0.6 mm2, P<0.05). In vehicle-injected group, 33.45 ± 5.51% of the total retinal area was avascular, whereas the retinas of pups treated with high-dose (10 mg/kg) tectorigenin showed avascular retinal areas of 21.25 ±4.34% (P<0.05). High dose of tectorigenin also significantly reduced the number of vascular lumens in the histologic section. Tectorigenin (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and angiotensin II compared to the vehicle injected group. Tectorigenin did not affect CD31 abundance at any tested dose. Conclusions: Our results show that tectorigenin possesses powerful anti-angiogenic properties and can attenuate new vessel formation in the retina after systemic administration. These results imply that this compound can be considered as a candidate substance for therapeutic inhibition of retinal angiogenesis.

Keywords: tectorigenin, anti-angiogenic, retinopathy, Belamacanda chinensis

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46 Autogenous Diabetic Retinopathy Censor for Ophthalmologists - AKSHI

Authors: Asiri Wijesinghe, N. D. Kodikara, Damitha Sandaruwan


The Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a rapidly growing interrogation around the world which can be annotated by abortive metabolism of glucose that causes long-term infection in human retina. This is one of the preliminary reason of visual impairment and blindness of adults. Information on retinal pathological mutation can be recognized using ocular fundus images. In this research, we are mainly focused on resurrecting an automated diagnosis system to detect DR anomalies such as severity level classification of DR patient (Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy approach) and vessel tortuosity measurement of untwisted vessels to assessment of vessel anomalies (Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy approach). Severity classification method is obtained better results according to the precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy (exceeds 94%) in all formats of cross validation. In ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves also visualized the higher AUC (Area Under Curve) percentage (exceeds 95%). User level evaluation of severity capturing is obtained higher accuracy (85%) result and fairly better values for each evaluation measurements. Untwisted vessel detection for tortuosity measurement also carried out the good results with respect to the sensitivity (85%), specificity (89%) and accuracy (87%).

Keywords: fundus image, exudates, microaneurisms, hemorrhages, tortuosity, diabetic retinopathy, optic disc, fovea

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45 Multi-Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Network Models for Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Using Video-Oculography Signals

Authors: Ceren Kaya, Okan Erkaymaz, Orhan Ayar, Mahmut Özer


Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, discrete wavelet transform, multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function, video-oculography (VOG)

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44 Genistein Treatment Confers Protection Against Gliopathy & Vasculopathy of the Diabetic Retina in Rats

Authors: Sanaa AM Elgayar, Sohair A Eltony, Maha Mahmoud Abd El Rouf


Background: Retinopathy remains an important complication of diabetes. Aim of work: This work was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of genistein from diabetic retinopathy in rat. Material and Methods: Fifteen adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; Group I: control (n=5) and Group II: streptozotocin induced diabetic group (n=10), which is equally divided into two subgroups; IIa (diabetic vehicle control) and IIb (diabetic genistein-treated). Specimens were taken from the retina 12 weeks post induction, processed and examined using light, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural techniques. Blood samples were assayed for the levels of glucose. Results: In comparison with the diabetic non-treated group, the histological changes in macro and microglial glial cells reactivity and retinal blood capillaries were improved in genistein-treated groups. In addition, GFAP and iNOS expressions in the retina and the blood glucose level were reduced. Conclusion: Genistein ameliorates the histological changes of diabetic retinopathy reaching healing features, which resemble that of a normal retina.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, genistein, glia, capillaries.

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43 Prevalence of Microalbuminuria and Its Relation with Various Risk Factors in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Singh Baljinder, Sharma Navneet


Microalbuminuria is the earliest detectable marker of diabetic nephropathy. We planned to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetics and correlate with various risk factor. We randomly selected 100 type 1 diabetic patients after inclusion and exclusion criteria from DCRC, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner. Clinical examinations for anthropometeric parameters, hypertension, retinopathy, glycaemic status, lipid profile were done and microalbuminuria was estimated by micral test. Microalbuminuria was seen in 38% patients. The mean urinary albumin concentration was 96.61 mg/l in microalbuminuria positive cases, 134 mg/L in hypertensive patients while 74.5 mg/L in normal patients. Mean diabetic duration was 6.43 years in microalbuminurics. Albumin excretion increased significantly with age at onset of 10-18 years and declined thereafter. Microalbuminuria cases exhibited mean cholesterol 181.63 mg%, TG 130.94 mg%, LDL 109.87 mg%, HDL 57.5 mg% and VLDL 30.64 mg%. Mean urinary albumin concentration in patients with retinopathy was 160.52 mg/L while 78.66 mg/L without retinopathy. In multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis, a strong positive association was seen between microalbuminuria and hypertension (OR=5.087, CI=2.1319-12.101), fasting blood sugar (OR=3. 491, CI=1.138-10.70), duration of diabetes (OR=3.41, CI=1.360-8.55) and HbA1c (OR=2.381, CI-=1.1-5.64). The present study indicates that microalbuminuria is a common complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus and can be prevented by careful management of risk factors.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, microalbuminuria, diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, hypertension

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
42 Automatic Detection and Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: A. Biran, P. Sobhe Bidari, A. Almazroe, V. Lakshminarayanan, K. Raahemifar


Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a severe retinal disease which is caused by diabetes mellitus. It leads to blindness when it progress to proliferative level. Early indications of DR are the appearance of microaneurysms, hemorrhages and hard exudates. In this paper, an automatic algorithm for detection of DR has been proposed. The algorithm is based on combination of several image processing techniques including Circular Hough Transform (CHT), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Gabor filter and thresholding. Also, Support Vector Machine (SVM) Classifier is used to classify retinal images to normal or abnormal cases including non-proliferative or proliferative DR. The proposed method has been tested on images selected from Structured Analysis of the Retinal (STARE) database using MATLAB code. The method is perfectly able to detect DR. The sensitivity specificity and accuracy of this approach are 90%, 87.5%, and 91.4% respectively.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, fundus images, STARE, Gabor filter, support vector machine

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41 Comparing SVM and Naïve Bayes Classifier for Automatic Microaneurysm Detections

Authors: A. Sopharak, B. Uyyanonvara, S. Barman


Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the development of retinal microaneurysms. The damage can be prevented if disease is treated in its early stages. In this paper, we are comparing Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naïve Bayes (NB) classifiers for automatic microaneurysm detection in images acquired through non-dilated pupils. The Nearest Neighbor classifier is used as a baseline for comparison. Detected microaneurysms are validated with expert ophthalmologists’ hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy of each method are also compared.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, microaneurysm, naive Bayes classifier, SVM classifier

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40 Feature Weighting Comparison Based on Clustering Centers in the Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Kemal Polat


In this paper, three feature weighting methods have been used to improve the classification performance of diabetic retinopathy (DR). To classify the diabetic retinopathy, features extracted from the output of several retinal image processing algorithms, such as image-level, lesion-specific and anatomical components, have been used and fed them into the classifier algorithms. The dataset used in this study has been taken from University of California, Irvine (UCI) machine learning repository. Feature weighting methods including the fuzzy c-means clustering based feature weighting, subtractive clustering based feature weighting, and Gaussian mixture clustering based feature weighting, have been used and compered with each other in the classification of DR. After feature weighting, five different classifier algorithms comprising multi-layer perceptron (MLP), k- nearest neighbor (k-NN), decision tree, support vector machine (SVM), and Naïve Bayes have been used. The hybrid method based on combination of subtractive clustering based feature weighting and decision tree classifier has been obtained the classification accuracy of 100% in the screening of DR. These results have demonstrated that the proposed hybrid scheme is very promising in the medical data set classification.

Keywords: machine learning, data weighting, classification, data mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
39 Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Preventing the Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Yunzi Chen, James Laybourne, Sarah Steven, Peter Carey, David Steel, Maria Sandinha


Introduction: Bariatric surgery is popular with the rising incidence of obesity. Its well-known benefits include significant and rapid glycaemic control. However, cases of paradoxical worsening in diabetic retinopathy (DR) despite improved glycaemic control have been reported. Purpose: clarification on the evolution of diabetic retinopathy after bariatric surgery. Method: retrospective study of 40 patients with Type 2 diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery in a UK specialist bariatric unit between 2009 and 2011. Pre-operative and post-operative visual acuity (VA), weight, HbA1c and annual DRSS screening results were analysed. Median follow up was 50 months. Results: No significant change in VA was found during the post-operative period. 85% of patients improved HbA1c post-operatively of which 53% achieved non-diabetic HbA1c of <6.1% - despite this, 2 patients developed new DR. First post-operative screening showed 80% of patients experienced no change, 8% improved but 13% of patients developed new DR (1 case with sight-threatening maculopathy). 80% of these cases persisted up to 24 months. The proportion of patients developing new or worse DR fluctuated over time, peaking at the 3rd annual screening with 26% (15% regressed, 56% stable). The probability of developing new or worse DR postoperatively was significantly associated with a high pre-operative HbA1c (>8%) and male gender. Conclusions: bariatric surgery does not guarantee long-term improvement or prevention of DR. Asymptomatic changes in DR occurred up to 5 years postoperatively. We therefore consider it prudent to continue screening in this cohort of patients.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, diabetic retinopathy, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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38 Attention Based Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Simultaneous Detection and Segmentation of Optic Disc in Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Gautam Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara


Accurate segmentation of the optic disc is very important for computer-aided diagnosis of several ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertensive retinopathy. The paper presents an accurate and fast optic disc detection and segmentation method using an attention based fully convolutional network. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of extended MESSIDOR database and the trained model is used for segmentation of optic disc. The false positives are removed based on morphological operation and shape features. The result is evaluated using three-fold cross-validation on six public fundus image databases such as DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, AV-INSPIRE, CHASE DB1 and MESSIDOR. The attention based fully convolutional network is robust and effective for detection and segmentation of optic disc in the images affected by diabetic retinopathy and it outperforms existing techniques.

Keywords: attention-based fully convolutional network, optic disc detection and segmentation, retinal fundus image, screening of ocular diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
37 Identifying Diabetic Retinopathy Complication by Predictive Techniques in Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Faiz N. K. Yusufi, Aquil Ahmed, Jamal Ahmad


Predicting the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Indian type 2 diabetes patients is immensely necessary. India, being the second largest country after China in terms of a number of diabetic patients, to the best of our knowledge not a single risk score for complications has ever been investigated. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious complication and is the topmost reason for visual impairment across countries. Any type or form of DR has been taken as the event of interest, be it mild, back, grade I, II, III, and IV DR. A sample was determined and randomly collected from the Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, J.N.M.C., A.M.U., Aligarh, India. Collected variables include patients data such as sex, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood sugar fasting (BSF), post prandial sugar (PP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking, alcohol habits, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), physical activity, duration of diabetes, diet control, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, family history of diabetes, waist circumference, hip circumference, medications, central obesity and history of DR. Cox proportional hazard regression is used to design risk scores for the prediction of retinopathy. Model calibration and discrimination are assessed from Hosmer Lemeshow and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Overfitting and underfitting of the model are checked by applying regularization techniques and best method is selected between ridge, lasso and elastic net regression. Optimal cut off point is chosen by Youden’s index. Five-year probability of DR is predicted by both survival function, and Markov chain two state model and the better technique is concluded. The risk scores developed can be applied by doctors and patients themselves for self evaluation. Furthermore, the five-year probabilities can be applied as well to forecast and maintain the condition of patients. This provides immense benefit in real application of DR prediction in T2DM.

Keywords: Cox proportional hazard regression, diabetic retinopathy, ROC curve, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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36 Novel Algorithm for Restoration of Retina Images

Authors: P. Subbuthai, S. Muruganand


Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the complicated diseases and it is caused by the changes in the blood vessels of the retina. Extraction of retina image through Fundus camera sometimes produced poor contrast and noises. Because of this noise, detection of blood vessels in the retina is very complicated. So preprocessing is needed, in this paper, a novel algorithm is implemented to remove the noisy pixel in the retina image. The proposed algorithm is Extended Median Filter and it is applied to the green channel of the retina because green channel vessels are brighter than the background. Proposed extended median filter is compared with the existing standard median filter by performance metrics such as PSNR, MSE and RMSE. Experimental results show that the proposed Extended Median Filter algorithm gives a better result than the existing standard median filter in terms of noise suppression and detail preservation.

Keywords: fundus retina image, diabetic retinopathy, median filter, microaneurysms, exudates

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35 Automatic Method for Exudates and Hemorrhages Detection from Fundus Retinal Images

Authors: A. Biran, P. Sobhe Bidari, K. Raahemifar


Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is an eye disease that leads to blindness. The earliest signs of DR are the appearance of red and yellow lesions on the retina called hemorrhages and exudates. Early diagnosis of DR prevents from blindness; hence, many automated algorithms have been proposed to extract hemorrhages and exudates. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented to extract hemorrhages and exudates separately from retinal fundus images using different image processing techniques including Circular Hough Transform (CHT), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Gabor filter and thresholding. Since Optic Disc is the same color as the exudates, it is first localized and detected. The presented method has been tested on fundus images from Structured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) and Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE) databases by using MATLAB codes. The results show that this method is perfectly capable of detecting hard exudates and the highly probable soft exudates. It is also capable of detecting the hemorrhages and distinguishing them from blood vessels.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, fundus, CHT, exudates, hemorrhages

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34 Information System for Early Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnostics Based on Multiscale Texture Gradient Method

Authors: L. S. Godlevsky, N. V. Kresyun, V. P. Martsenyuk, K. S. Shakun, T. V. Tatarchuk, K. O. Prybolovets, L. F. Kalinichenko, M. Karpinski, T. Gancarczyk


Structures of eye bottom were extracted using multiscale texture gradient method and color characteristics of macular zone and vessels were verified in CIELAB scale. The difference of average values of L*, a* and b* coordinates of CIE (International Commision of Illumination) scale in patients with diabetes and healthy volunteers was compared. The average value of L* in diabetic patients exceeded such one in the group of practically healthy persons by 2.71 times (P < 0.05), while the value of a* index was reduced by 3.8 times when compared with control one (P < 0.05). b* index exceeded such one in the control group by 12.4 times (P < 0.05). The integrated index on color difference (ΔE) exceeded control value by 2.87 times (P < 0.05). More pronounced differences with ΔE were followed by a shorter period of MA appearance with a correlation level at -0.56 (P < 0.05). The specificity of diagnostics raised by 2.17 times (P < 0.05) and negative prognostic index exceeded such one determined with the expert method by 2.26 times (P < 0.05).

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, multiscale texture gradient, color spectrum analysis, medical diagnostics

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33 Digital Retinal Images: Background and Damaged Areas Segmentation

Authors: Eman A. Gani, Loay E. George, Faisel G. Mohammed, Kamal H. Sager


Digital retinal images are more appropriate for automatic screening of diabetic retinopathy systems. Unfortunately, a significant percentage of these images are poor quality that hinders further analysis due to many factors (such as patient movement, inadequate or non-uniform illumination, acquisition angle and retinal pigmentation). The retinal images of poor quality need to be enhanced before the extraction of features and abnormalities. So, the segmentation of retinal image is essential for this purpose, the segmentation is employed to smooth and strengthen image by separating the background and damaged areas from the overall image thus resulting in retinal image enhancement and less processing time. In this paper, methods for segmenting colored retinal image are proposed to improve the quality of retinal image diagnosis. The methods generate two segmentation masks; i.e., background segmentation mask for extracting the background area and poor quality mask for removing the noisy areas from the retinal image. The standard retinal image databases DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, STARE, DRIVE and some images obtained from ophthalmologists have been used to test the validation of the proposed segmentation technique. Experimental results indicate the introduced methods are effective and can lead to high segmentation accuracy.

Keywords: retinal images, fundus images, diabetic retinopathy, background segmentation, damaged areas segmentation

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32 Comparison of Visual Acuity Outcome and Complication after Phacoemulsification between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand

Authors: Luksanaporn Krungkraipetch


One hundred cataract patients with phacoemulsification were enrolled in the study to compare of visual acuity outcome and complication after phacoemulsification between diabetic and non-diabetic patients at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand. Fifty patients were diabetic (type II) group and 50 patients were non-diabetic group. All cases were operated by one doctor with the same pre-operative care, operation (phacoemulsification), and post-operative care. Visual acuity and complication after surgery were assessed after the operation for two years. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the two groups. The visual outcome values ≥ 2 lines and ≥ 20/40 had no significant differences between two groups after two years of surgery. The complication rate in diabetic group had cystoid macular edema 16%, rupture posterior capsule 8%, posterior capsule opacity 2%, uveitis 2 %, and 2% endophthalmitis. The non-diabetic group had cystoid macular edema 12%, rupture posterior capsule 8%, uveitis 2%, posterior capsule opacity 2%, and 2% wound leak. Comparison of visual acuity outcome and complication after phacoemulsification between diabetic and non-diabetic patients had no statistical significant differences between these two groups. It was found that cystoid macular edema was the most common complication in both groups and 10% of retinopathy progression was seen.

Keywords: cataract, visual acuity, cataract extraction, phacoemulsification, diabetic retinopathy

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31 Association of Severe Preeclampsia with Offspring Neurodevelopmental and Psychiatric Disorders: A Finnish Population-Based Cohort Study

Authors: Linghua Kong, Xinxia Chen, Mika Gissler, Catharina Lavebratt


Background: Prenatal exposure to preeclampsia has been associated with an increased risk of offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and intellectual disability. However, little is known about the association between prenatal exposure to severe preeclampsia and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk of maternal preeclampsia combined with perinatal problems, specifically low birth weight and prematurity, on offspring neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: All singleton live births in Finland between 1996 and 2014 (n=1 012 723) were followed up in nation-wide registries until 2018. Main exposures included pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age, and delivery before 34 gestational weeks. Offspring neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders (ICD-10 codes) were examined as outcomes variables. Offspring birth year, sex, maternal age at delivery, parity, marital status at birth, mother's country of birth, maternal smoking, maternal gestational diabetes, maternal use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy, and maternal systemic inflammatory diseases were used as covariates. Risks for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders were estimated using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results: Of the 1 012 723 offspring, 25 901 (2.6%) were exposed to preeclampsia, and 93 281 (9.2%) were diagnosed with a neuropsychiatric disorder. Compared to births unexposed to preeclampsia, small for gestational age or delivery before 34 gestational weeks, those exposed to preeclampsia only had a 21% increase in the likelihood of any neuropsychiatric disorders after adjusting for potential confounding (adjusted HR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.26), while exposure to preeclampsia combined with small for gestational age or delivery before 34 gestational weeks had a more than twofold increased risk of having a child with neuropsychiatric disorders (adjusted HR=2.16, 95% CI: 2.02-2.32). The adjusted HR for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring with small for gestational age or delivery before 34 gestational weeks only was 1.79 (95% CI: 1.73-1.83). In addition, the risk estimate in offspring exposed to both preeclampsia and perinatal problems was greater than those only exposed to preeclampsia for having personality disorders (adjusted HR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.07-2.57), intellectual disabilities (adjusted HR=3.47; 95% CI: 2.86-4.22), specific developmental disorders (adjusted HR=2.91; 95% CI: 2.69-3.15), ASD (adjusted HR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.42-2.17), ADHD and conduct disorders (adjusted HR=2.00; 95%CI: 1.76-2.27), and other behavioral and emotional disorders (adjusted HR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.84-2.37). Conclusion: In utero exposure to severe preeclampsia increased the risk of several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. Our findings are relevant to women with hypertensive disorders with regard to pregnancy consultation and management and may yield effective clues for the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in childhood.

Keywords: low birth weight, neurodevelopmental disorders, preeclampsia, prematurity, psychiatric disorders

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30 Predictability of Pupil Mydriasis as a Biomarker for Diabetes

Authors: Naveen Kumar Challa, Pavan Verıkıcherla, Madhubalan, Ashısh Sharma


Aim: Aim of the study was to find whether any difference exists in pupil mydriasis measured with Orbscan in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients at various intervals after installation of Tropicamide 0.8% and Phenylephrine 5%. Methods: the Observational study conducted at a tertiary care eye hospital during September 2014 to March 2015. 240 eyes from 120 patients (40 non-diabetic, 80 diabetic) were dilated with Tropicamide 0.8% and Phenylephrine 5%. One drop of a drug was installed twice. The second drop is installed at 20 minutes after installation of the first drop. In two groups’ pupil diameter was measured before installation of drops and also at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after installation of the first drop using both Orbscan. Result: Mean age of the non-diabetic group is 48.67 ± 7.93 years; Diabetic group is 59.97 ± 8.77 years. Mean duration of Diabetes was 7.01 ± 5.05 years. Mean pupil diameter measured with Orbscan before installation of the drops and also at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after installation of first drop in non-diabetic group was 4.18 ± 0.64mm, 6.15 ± 0.41mm, 7.76 ±0.34, 9.59 ± 0.30, and 9.97 ± 0.10 mm respectively and for the diabetic group it was 4.00 ± 0.56 mm, 5.53 ± 0.52 mm, 7.018 ± 0.58mm, 8.25±0.51mm and 9.18 ± 0.46mm respectively. The mean difference between the mean pupil diameters of the non-diabetic and diabetic group shows a significant difference (P< 0.01) at all intervals except before dilatation. There is a significant negative correlation (r = 0.78 – 0.92) between the duration of diabetes and pupil dilatation at all intervals after installation of the drops. There is also significant difference (P< 0.005) in the mean values of pupil diameter between non retinopathy diabetic subjects and diabetic retinopathy subjects at all intervals after installation of drops. Conclusion: People attending eye clinic, whose pupil mydriasis values falls below the normal may be referred for diabetic evaluation. If normative data is established for the pupil size in Indian population using Orbscan then the values fall under normative data could be a predictor for diabetes. This would in turn help ophthalmologist to detect the diabetes at an early stage and prevent the complications resulting from the diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, pupil diameter, orbscan, tropicamide

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29 The Effect of Age on the Outcome of Teenage Pregnancy in Nigeria: A Demographic Study

Authors: Chinelo Igwenagu


Teenage childbearing in developing countries has been a thing of great concern as it has often led to a number of socioeconomic problems both to the society and to the families affected. The outcome of teenage pregnancy has been generally associated with higher rates of maternal morbidity and mortality, greater risks for delivery complications, low-birth weight infants and child mortality. As a result of teenagers’ physiological and social immaturity and their lack of adequate prenatal care, health risks associated with their pregnancies and childbearing are more pronounced than those of older women. Therefore this study has examined the relationship between the age of teenagers and the outcome of teenage pregnancy. Based on this study, the result of the analysis shows that both teenagers and older mothers suffer similarly during child bearing. Hence improve medical care is paramount in all the situations.

Keywords: childbearing, mortality, Nigeria, pregnancy, prematurity, teenagers

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28 Comparative Economic Evaluation of Additional Respiratory Resources Utilized after Methylxanthine Initiation for the Treatment of Apnea of Prematurity in a South Asian Country

Authors: Shivakumar M, Leslie Edward S Lewis, Shashikala Devadiga, Sonia Khurana


Introduction: Methylxanthines are used for the treatment of AOP, to facilitate extubation and as a prophylactic agent to prevent apnea. Though the popularity of Caffeine has risen, it is expensive in a resource constrained developing countries like India. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Caffeine compared with Aminophylline treatment for AOP with respect to additional ventilatory resource utilized in different birth weight categorization. Design, Settings and Participants – Single centered, retrospective economic evaluation was done. Participants included preterm newborns with < 34 completed weeks of gestation age that were recruited under an Indian Council of Medical Research funded randomized clinical trial. Per protocol data was included from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India between April 2012 and December 2014. Exposure: Preterm neonates were randomly allocated to either Caffeine or Aminophylline as per the trial protocol. Outcomes and Measures – We assessed surfactant requirement, duration of Invasive and Non-Invasive Ventilation, Total Methylxanthine cost and additional cost for respiratory support bared by the payers per day during hospital stay. For the purpose of this study Newborns were stratified as Category A – < 1000g, Category B – 1001 to 1500g and Category C – 1501 to 2500g. Results: Total 146 (Caffeine -72 and Aminophylline – 74) babies with Mean ± SD gestation age of 29.63 ± 1.89 weeks were assessed. 32.19% constitute of Category A, 55.48% were B and 12.33% were C. The difference in median duration of additional NIV and IMV support was statistically insignificant. However 60% of neonates who received Caffeine required additional surfactant therapy (p=0.02). The total median (IQR) cost of Caffeine was significantly high with Rs.10535 (Q3-6317.50, Q1-15992.50) where against Aminophylline cost was Rs.352 (Q3-236, Q1-709) (p < 0.001). The additional costs spent on respiratory support per day in neonates on either Methylxanthines were found to be statistically insignificant in the entire weight based category of our study. Whereas in Category B, the median O2 charges per day were found to have more in Caffeine treated newborns (p=0.05) with border line significance. In category A, providing one day NIV or IMV support significantly increases the unit log cost of Caffeine by 13.6% (CI – 95% ranging from 4 to 24; p=0.005) over log cost of Aminophylline. Conclusion: Cost of Caffeine is expensive than Aminophylline. It was found to be equally efficacious in reducing the number duration of NIV or IMV support. However adjusted with the NIV and IMV days of support, neonates fall in category A and category B who were on Caffeine pays excess amount of respiratory charges per day over aminophylline. In perspective of resource poor settings Aminophylline is cost saving and economically approachable.

Keywords: methylxanthines include caffeine and aminophylline, AOP (apnea of prematurity), IMV (invasive mechanical ventilation), NIV (non invasive ventilation), category a – <1000g, category b – 1001 to 1500g and category c – 1501 to 2500g

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27 Oct to Study Efficacy of Avastin in Recurrent Wet Age Related Macular Degeneration and Persistent Diffuse DME

Authors: Srinivasarao Akuthota, Rajasekhar Pabolu, Bharathi Hepattam


Purpose: To assess the efficacy of intravitreal Avastin in subjects with recurrent wet AMD and persistent diffuse DME on the basis of OCT. Design: Retrospective, non-comparative, observational study,single center study. Conclusion: The study showed that intravitreal Avastin has an equivalent effect on recurrent AMD and in persistent diffuse DME.

Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diffuse diabetic retinopathy (DME), intravitreal Avastin (IVA), optical coherence tomography (OCT)

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26 Similarity Based Retrieval in Case Based Reasoning for Analysis of Medical Images

Authors: M. Dasgupta, S. Banerjee


Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) coupled with Case Based Reasoning (CBR) is a paradigm that is becoming increasingly popular in the diagnosis and therapy planning of medical ailments utilizing the digital content of medical images. This paper presents a survey of some of the promising approaches used in the detection of abnormalities in retina images as well in mammographic screening and detection of regions of interest in MRI scans of the brain. We also describe our proposed algorithm to detect hard exudates in fundus images of the retina of Diabetic Retinopathy patients.

Keywords: case based reasoning, exudates, retina image, similarity based retrieval

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25 Telemedicine Services in Ophthalmology: A Review of Studies

Authors: Nasim Hashemi, Abbas Sheikhtaheri


Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide health care services that would often not be consistently available in distant rural communities to people at these remote areas. Teleophthalmology is a branch of telemedicine that delivers eye care through digital medical equipment and telecommunications technology. Thus, teleophthalmology can overcome geographical barriers and improve quality, access, and affordability of eye health care services. Since teleophthalmology has been widespread applied in recent years, the aim of this study was to determine the different applications of teleophthalmology in the world. To this end, three bibliographic databases (Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus) were comprehensively searched with these keywords: eye care, eye health care, primary eye care, diagnosis, detection, and screening of different eye diseases in conjunction with telemedicine, telehealth, teleophthalmology, e-services, and information technology. All types of papers were included in the study with no time restriction. We conducted the search strategies until 2015. Finally 70 articles were surveyed. We classified the results based on the’type of eye problems covered’ and ‘the type of telemedicine services’. Based on the review, from the ‘perspective of health care levels’, there are three level for eye health care as primary, secondary and tertiary eye care. From the ‘perspective of eye care services’, the main application of teleophthalmology in primary eye care was related to the diagnosis of different eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, strabismus and aged related macular degeneration. The main application of teleophthalmology in secondary and tertiary eye care was related to the screening of eye problems i.e. diabetic retinopathy, astigmatism, glaucoma screening. Teleconsultation between health care providers and ophthalmologists and also education and training sessions for patients were other types of teleophthalmology in world. Real time, store–forward and hybrid methods were the main forms of the communication from the perspective of ‘teleophthalmology mode’ which is used based on IT infrastructure between sending and receiving centers. In aspect of specialists, early detection of serious aged-related ophthalmic disease in population, screening of eye disease processes, consultation in an emergency cases and comprehensive eye examination were the most important benefits of teleophthalmology. Cost-effectiveness of teleophthalmology projects resulted from reducing transportation and accommodation cost, access to affordable eye care services and receiving specialist opinions were also the main advantages of teleophthalmology for patients. Teleophthalmology brings valuable secondary and tertiary care to remote areas. So, applying teleophthalmology for detection, treatment and screening purposes and expanding its use in new applications such as eye surgery will be a key tool to promote public health and integrating eye care to primary health care.

Keywords: applications, telehealth, telemedicine, teleophthalmology

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24 A Paradigm Shift in the Cost of Illness of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus over a Decade in South India: A Prevalence Based Study

Authors: Usha S. Adiga, Sachidanada Adiga


Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most common non-communicable diseases which imposes a large economic burden on the global health-care system. Cost of illness studies in India have assessed the health care cost of DM, but have certain limitations due to lack of standardization of the methods used, improper documentation of data, lack of follow up, etc. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost of illness of uncomplicated versus complicated type 2 diabetes mellitus in Coastal Karnataka, India. The study also aimed to find out the trend of cost of illness of the disease over a decade. Methodology: A prevalence based bottom-up approach study was carried out in two tertiary care hospitals located in Coastal Karnataka after ethical approval. Direct Medical costs like annual laboratory costs, pharmacy cost, consultation charges, hospital bed charges, surgical /intervention costs of 238 diabetics and 340 diabetic patients respectively from two hospitals were obtained from the medical record sections. Patients were divided into six groups, uncomplicated diabetes, diabetic retinopathy(DR), nephropathy(DN), neuropathy(DNeu), diabetic foot(DF), and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Different costs incurred in 2008 and 2017 in these groups were compared, to study the trend of cost of illness. Kruskal Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test were used to compare median costs between the groups and Spearman's correlation test was used for correlation studies. Results: Uncomplicated patients had significantly lower costs (p <0.0001) compared to other groups. Patients with IHD had highest Medical expenses (p < 0.0001), followed by DN and DF (p < 0.0001 ). Annual medical costs incurred were 1.8, 2.76, 2.77, 1.76, and 4.34 times higher in retinopathy, nephropathy, diabetic foot, neuropathy and IHD patients as compared to the cost incurred in managing uncomplicated diabetics. Other costs also showed a similar pattern of rising. A positive correlation was observed between the costs incurred and duration of diabetes, a negative correlation between the glycemic status and cost incurred. The cost incurred in the management of DM in 2017 was found to be elevated 1.4 - 2.7 times when compared to that in 2008. Conclusion: It is evident from the study that the economic burden due to diabetes mellitus is substantial. It poses a significant financial burden on the healthcare system, individual and society as a whole. There is a need for the strategies to achieve optimal glycemic control and operationalize regular and early screening methods for complications so as to reduce the burden of the disease.

Keywords: COI, diabetes mellitus, a bottom up approach, economics

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23 Mastery and Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Preterm Birth among Latinas

Authors: Kathie Records, R. Jeanne Ruiz, Kimberly Ayers, Rebecca Pasillas


Background: Preterm births of less than 37 weeks gestation occur disproportionately to Hispanics living along the U.S.-Mexico border. Prematurity has devastating and costly effects on children, families and the health care system. Few preventive interventions have been tested for this vulnerable group. Objectives: To present the modeling and pilot testing of the theory-based Mastery Lifestyle Intervention (MLI), designed to reduce and prevent PTB among Mexican American women (the terms Hispanics or Latinas will also be used to represent this group) living in the United States. Design and Methods: The conceptualization of the problem of preterm births and the available literature underpinning the mastery lifestyle intervention will be reviewed. The lifestyle intervention includes foundational components of problem solving therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy. Findings from implementation of a one-group pilot test and focus group evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of the MLI. Summary: Participants found the MLI to be feasible and acceptable, and reported perceiving improved health status and familial relationships. Suggestions were provided for modifications prior to efficacy testing. The MLI appears to be a theoretically and empirically grounded intervention that holds promise for preventing preterm births among Latinas.

Keywords: birth, Hispanic, intervention, stress

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22 Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Detection of Microaneurysms in Retinal Fundus Images at Early Stage

Authors: Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, G. Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara


Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in all countries and continues to increase in numbers significantly. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is damage to the retina that occurs with long-term diabetes. DR is a major cause of blindness in the Indian population. Therefore, its early diagnosis is of utmost importance towards preventing progression towards imminent irreversible loss of vision, particularly in the huge population across rural India. The barriers to eye examination of all diabetic patients are socioeconomic factors, lack of referrals, poor access to the healthcare system, lack of knowledge, insufficient number of ophthalmologists, and lack of networking between physicians, diabetologists and ophthalmologists. A few diabetic patients often visit a healthcare facility for their general checkup, but their eye condition remains largely undetected until the patient is symptomatic. This work aims to focus on the design and development of a fully automated intelligent decision system for screening retinal fundus images towards detection of the pathophysiology caused by microaneurysm in the early stage of the diseases. Automated detection of microaneurysm is a challenging problem due to the variation in color and the variation introduced by the field of view, inhomogeneous illumination, and pathological abnormalities. We have developed aconvolutional neural network for efficient detection of microaneurysm. A loss function is also developed to handle severe class imbalance due to very small size of microaneurysms compared to background. The network is able to locate the salient region containing microaneurysms in case of noisy images captured by non-mydriatic cameras. The ground truth of microaneurysms is created by expert ophthalmologists for MESSIDOR database as well as private database, collected from Indian patients. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of MESSIDOR database. The proposed method is evaluated on DIARETDB1 and the private database. The method is successful in detection of microaneurysms for dilated and non-dilated types of fundus images acquired from different medical centres. The proposed algorithm could be used for development of AI based affordable and accessible system, to provide service at grass root-level primary healthcare units spread across the country to cater to the need of the rural people unaware of the severe impact of DR.

Keywords: retinal fundus image, deep convolutional neural network, early detection of microaneurysms, screening of diabetic retinopathy

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