Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 980

Search results for: compound semiconductors

980 Mathematical Model of a Compound Gear Pump

Authors: Hsueh-Cheng Yang

Abstract:

The generation and design of compound involute spur gearings can be used in gear pump. A compound rack cutter with asymmetric involute teeth is presented for determining the mathematical model of compound gear pumps. This paper covers the following topics: (a) generation and geometry of compound rack cutter is presented and used to generate a compound gear and a compound pinion. (b) Based on the developed compound gears, stress analysis was performed for the symmetric gears and the asymmetric gears. Comparing the results of the stress analysis for the asymmetric involute teeth is superior to the symmetric involute teeth. A numerical example that illustrates the developed compound rack cutter is represented.

Keywords: compound, involute teeth, gear pump, rack cutter

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
979 Two-Dimensional WO₃ and TiO₂ Semiconductor Oxides Developed by Atomic Layer Deposition with Controllable Nano-Thickness on Wafer-Scale

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Z. Wei

Abstract:

Conformal defect-free two-dimensional (2D) WO₃ and TiO₂ semiconductors have been developed by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique on wafer scale with unique approach to the thickness control with precision of ± 10% from the monolayer of nanomaterial (less than 1.0 nm thick) to the nano-layered 2D structures with thickness of ~3.0-7.0 nm. Developed 2D nanostructures exhibited unique, distinguishable properties at nanoscale compare to their thicker counterparts. Specifically, 2D TiO₂-Au bilayer demonstrated improved photocatalytic degradation of palmitic acid under UV and visible light illumination. Improved functional capabilities of 2D semiconductors would be advantageous to various environmental, nano-energy and bio-sensing applications. The ALD-enabled approach is proven to be versatile, scalable and applicable to the broader range of 2D semiconductors.

Keywords: two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, ALD, WO₃, TiO₂, wafer scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
978 Thermal Diffusion of Photovoltaic Organic Semiconductors Determined by Scanning Photothermal Deflection Technique

Authors: K.L. Chiu, Johnny K. W. Ho, M. H. Chan, S. H. Cheung, K. H. Chan, S.K. So

Abstract:

Thermal diffusivity is an important quantity in heat conduction. It measures the rate of heat transfer from the hot side to the cold side of a material. In solid-state materials, thermal diffusivity reveals information related to morphologies and solid quality, as thermal diffusivity can be affected by microstructures. However, thermal diffusivity studies on organic semiconductors are very limited. In this study, scanning photothermal deflection (SPD) technique is used to study the thermal diffusivities of different classes of semiconducting polymers. The reliability of the technique was confirmed by crossing-checking our SPD derived experimental values of different reference materials with their known diffusivities from the literature. To show that thermal diffusivity determination is a potential tool for revealing microscopic properties of organic photovoltaic semiconductors, SPD measurements were applied to various organic semiconducting films with different crystallinities. It is observed that organic photovoltaic semiconductors possess low thermal diffusivity, with values in the range of 0.3mm²/s to 1mm²/s. It is also discovered that polymeric photovoltaic semiconductors with greater molecular planarity, stronger stacking and higher crystallinity would possess greater thermal diffusivities. Correlations between thermal, charge transport properties will be discussed.

Keywords: polymer crystallinity, photovoltaic organic semiconductors, photothermal deflection technique, thermal diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
977 Comparison of Silica-Filled Rubber Compound Prepared from Unmodified and Modified Silica

Authors: Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Watcharin Rassamee

Abstract:

Silica-filled natural rubber compounds were prepared from unmodified and surface-modified silica. The modified silica was coated by ultrathin film of polyisoprene by admicellar polymerization. FTIR and SEM were applied to characterize the modified silica. The cure, mechanic, and dynamics properties were investigated with the comparison of the compounds. Cure characterization of modified silica rubber compound was shorter than that of unmodified silica compound. Strength and abrasion resistance of modified silica compound were better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound. Wet grip and rolling resistance analyzed by DMA from tanδ at 0°C and 60°C using 5 Hz were also better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound.

Keywords: silica, admicellar polymerization, rubber compounds, mechanical properties, dynamic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
976 Modeling Reflection and Transmission of Elastodiffussive Wave Sata Semiconductor Interface

Authors: Amit Sharma, J. N. Sharma

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This paper deals with the study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor halfspace and elastic solid. The amplitude ratios (reflection and transmission coefficients) of reflected and transmitted waves to that of incident wave varying with the incident angles have been examined for the case of quasi-longitudinal wave. The special cases of normal and grazing incidence have also been derived with the help of Gauss elimination method. The mathematical model consisting of governing partial differential equations of motion and charge carriers diffusion of n-type semiconductors and elastic solid has been solved both analytically and numerically in the study. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients has been carried out by using MATLAB programming software for silicon (Si) semiconductor and copper elastic solid. The computer simulated results have been plotted graphically for Si semiconductors. The study may be useful in semiconductors, geology, and seismology in addition to surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

Keywords: quasilongitudinal, reflection and transmission, semiconductors, acoustics

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
975 The Influence of Concreteness on English Compound Noun Processing: Modulation of Constituent Transparency

Authors: Turgut Coskun

Abstract:

'Concreteness effect' refers to faster processing of concrete words and 'compound facilitation' refers to faster response to compounds. In this study, our main goal was to investigate the interaction between compound facilitation and concreteness effect. The latter might modulate compound processing basing on constituents’ transparency patterns. To evaluate these, we created lists for compound and monomorphemic words, sub-categorized them into concrete and abstract words, and further sub-categorized them basing on their transparency. The transparency conditions were opaque-opaque (OO), transparent-opaque (TO), and transparent-transparent (TT). We used RT data from English Lexicon Project (ELP) for our comparisons. The results showed the importance of concreteness factor (facilitation) in both compound and monomorphemic processing. Important for our present concern, separate concrete and abstract compound analyses revealed different patterns for OO, TO, and TT compounds. Concrete TT and TO conditions were processed faster than Concrete OO, Abstract OO and Abstract TT compounds, however, they weren’t processed faster than Abstract TO compounds. These results may reflect on different representation patterns of concrete and abstract compounds.

Keywords: abstract word, compound representation, concrete word, constituent transparency, processing speed

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974 Affective Transparency in Compound Word Processing

Authors: Jordan Gallant

Abstract:

In the compound word processing literature, much attention has been paid to the relationship between a compound’s denotational meaning and that of its morphological whole-word constituents, which is referred to as ‘semantic transparency’. However, the parallel relationship between a compound’s connotation and that of its constituents has not been addressed at all. For instance, while a compound like ‘painkiller’ might be semantically transparent, it is not ‘affectively transparent’. That is, both constituents have primarily negative connotations, while the whole compound has a positive one. This paper investigates the role of affective transparency on compound processing using two methodologies commonly employed in this field: a lexical decision task and a typing task. The critical stimuli used were 112 English bi-constituent compounds that differed in terms of the effective transparency of their constituents. Of these, 36 stimuli contained constituents with similar connotations to the compound (e.g., ‘dreamland’), 36 contained constituents with more positive connotations (e.g. ‘bedpan’), and 36 contained constituents with more negative connotations (e.g. ‘painkiller’). Connotation of whole-word constituents and compounds were operationalized via valence ratings taken from an off-line ratings database. In Experiment 1, compound stimuli and matched non-word controls were presented visually to participants, who were then asked to indicate whether it was a real word in English. Response times and accuracy were recorded. In Experiment 2, participants typed compound stimuli presented to them visually. Individual keystroke response times and typing accuracy were recorded. The results of both experiments provided positive evidence that compound processing is influenced by effective transparency. In Experiment 1, compounds in which both constituents had more negative connotations than the compound itself were responded to significantly more slowly than compounds in which the constituents had similar or more positive connotations. Typed responses from Experiment 2 showed that inter-keystroke intervals at the morphological constituent boundary were significantly longer when the connotation of the head constituent was either more positive or more negative than that of the compound. The interpretation of this finding is discussed in the context of previous compound typing research. Taken together, these findings suggest that affective transparency plays a role in the recognition, storage, and production of English compound words. This study provides a promising first step in a new direction for research on compound words.

Keywords: compound processing, semantic transparency, typed production, valence

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
973 Extraction of Compound Words in Malay Sentences Using Linguistic and Statistical Approaches

Authors: Zamri Abu Bakar Zamri, Normaly Kamal Ismail Normaly, Mohd Izani Mohamed Rawi Izani

Abstract:

Malay noun compound are phrases that consist of two or more nouns. The key characteristic behind noun compounds lies on its frequent occurrences within the text. Therefore, extracting these noun compounds is essential for several domains of research such as Information Retrieval, Sentiment Analysis and Question Answering. Many research efforts have been proposed in terms of extracting Malay noun compounds using linguistic and statistical approaches. Most of the existing methods have concentrated on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, extracting noun+verb, noun+adjective and noun+prepositional is challenging due to the difficulty of selecting an appropriate method with effective results. Thus, there is still room for improvement in terms of enhancing the effectiveness of compound word extraction. Therefore, this study proposed a combination of linguistic approach and statistical measures in order to enhance the extraction of compound words. Several preprocessing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization, and stemming. The linguistic approach that has been used in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. In addition, a new linguistic pattern for named entities has been utilized using a list of Malays named entities in order to enhance the linguistic approach in terms of noun compound recognition. The proposed statistical measures consists of NC-value, NTC-value and NLC value.

Keywords: Compound Word, Noun Compound, Linguistic Approach, Statistical Approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
972 First Principal Calculation of Structural, Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Yttrium-Copper Intermetallic Compound

Authors: Ammar Benamrani

Abstract:

This work investigates the equation of state parameters, elastic constants, and several other physical properties of (B2-type) Yttrium-Copper (YCu) rare earth intermetallic compound using the projected augmented wave (PAW) pseudopotentials method as implemented in the Quantum Espresso code. Using both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the finding of this research on the lattice parameter of YCu intermetallic compound agree very well with the experimental ones. The obtained results of the elastic constants and the Debye temperature are also in general in good agreement compared to the theoretical ones reported previously in literature. Furthermore, several thermodynamic properties of YCu intermetallic compound have been studied using quasi-harmonic approximations (QHA). The calculated data on the thermodynamic properties shows that the free energy and both isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli decrease gradually with increasing of the temperature, while all other thermodynamic quantities increase with the temperature.

Keywords: Yttrium-Copper intermetallic compound, thermo_pw package, elastic constants, thermodynamic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
971 Cr Induced Magnetization in Zinc-Blende ZnO-Based Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

Authors: Bakhtiar Ul Haq, R. Ahmed, A. Shaari, Mazmira Binti Mohamed, Nisar Ali

Abstract:

The capability of exploiting the electronic charge and spin properties simultaneously in a single material has made diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) remarkable in the field of spintronics. We report the designing of DMS based on zinc-blend ZnO doped with Cr impurity. The full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital FP-L(APW+lo) method in density functional theory (DFT) has been adapted to carry out these investigations. For treatment of exchange and correlation energy, generalized gradient approximations have been used. Introducing Cr atoms in the matrix of ZnO has induced strong magnetic moment with ferromagnetic ordering at stable ground state. Cr:ZnO was found to favor the short range magnetic interaction that reflect the tendency of Cr clustering. The electronic structure of ZnO is strongly influenced in the presence of Cr impurity atoms where impurity bands appear in the band gap.

Keywords: ZnO, density functional theory, diluted agnetic semiconductors, ferromagnetic materials, FP-L(APW+lo)

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
970 Design Optimisation of Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) for Improved Performance

Authors: R. Abd-Rahman, M. M. Isa, H. H. Goh

Abstract:

A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is a well known non-imaging concentrator that will concentrate the solar radiation onto receiver (PV cell). One of disadvantage of CPC is has tall and narrow height compared to its diameter entry aperture area. Therefore, for economic reason, a truncation had been done by removed from the top of the full height CPC. This is also will lead to the decreases of concentration ratio but it will be negligible. In this paper, the flux distribution of untruncated and truncated 2-D hollow compound parabolic trough concentrator (hCPTC) design is presented. The untruncated design has initial height, H=193.4mm with concentration ratio, C_(2-D)=4. This paper presents the optical simulation of compound parabolic trough concentrator using ray-tracing software TracePro. Results showed that, after the truncation, the height of CPC reduced 45% from initial height with the geometrical concentration ratio only decrease 10%. Thus, the cost of reflector and material dielectric usage can be saved especially at manufacturing site.

Keywords: compound parabolic trough concentrator, optical modelling, ray-tracing analysis, improved performance

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969 Double Magnetic Phase Transition in the Intermetallic Compound Gd₂AgSi₃

Authors: Redrisse Djoumessi Fobasso, Baidyanath Sahu, Andre M. Strydom

Abstract:

The R₂TX₃ (R = rare-earth, T = transition, and X = s and p block element) series of compounds are interesting owing to their fascinating structural and magnetic properties. In this present work, we have studied the magnetic and physical properties of the new Gd₂AgSi₃ polycrystalline compound. The sample was synthesized by the arc-melting method and confirmed to crystallize in the tetragonal α-ThSi₂-type crystal structure with space group I4/amd. Dc– and ac–magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and magnetoresistance measurements were performed on the new compound. The structure provides a unique position in the unit cell for the magnetic trivalent Gd ion. Two magnetic phase transitions were consistently found in dc- and ac-magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity at temperatures Tₙ₁ = 11 K and Tₙ₂ = 20 K, which is an indication of the complex magnetic behavior in this compound. The compound is found to be metamagnetic over a range of temperatures below and above Tₙ₁. From field-dependent electrical resistivity, it is confirmed that the compound shows unusual negative magnetoresistance in the antiferromagnetically ordered region. These results contribute to a better understanding of this class of materials.

Keywords: complex magnetic behavior, metamagnetic, negative magnetoresistance, two magnetic phase transitions

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968 Development, Characterization and Properties of Novel Quaternary Rubber Nanocomposites

Authors: Kumar Sankaran, Santanu Chattopadhyay, Golok Behari Nando, Sujith Nair, Sreejesh Arayambath, Unnikrishnan Govindan

Abstract:

Rubber nanocomposites based on Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR), Polyepichlorohydrin rubber (CO), Carbon black (CB) and organically modified montmorillonite clay (NC) were prepared via melt compounding technique. The developed quaternary nanocomposites were characterized analytically and their properties were compared against the standard BIIR compound. BIIR-CO nanocomposites showed improved physico-mechanical properties as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound. Hybrid microstructure (NC-CB) development, clay exfoliation and better filler dispersion in the quaternary nanocomposite significantly contributed to the overall enhancement of properties. Introduction of CO in the system increased the specific gravity and hardness of the compound as compared to that of the standard compound. XRD analysis, AFM imaging and HR-TEM measurements confirmed exfoliation and a good level of dispersion of the NC in the composites. Permeability of developed BIIR-CO nanocomposites decreases significantly as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound.

Keywords: rubber nanocomposites, morphology, permeability, BIIR

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967 Spin-Polarized Investigation of Ferromagnetism on Magnetic Semiconductors MnxCa1-xS in the Rock-salt Phase

Authors: B. Ghebouli, M. A. Ghebouli, H. Choutri, M. Fatmi, L. Louail

Abstract:

The structural, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors MnxCa1-xS in the rock-salt phase have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Features such as lattice constant, bulk modulus, elastic constants, spin-polarized band structure, total and local densities of states have been computed. We predict the values of the exchange constants and the band edge spin splitting of the valence and conduction bands. The hybridization between S-3p and Mn-3d produces small local magnetic moment on the nonmagnetic Ca and S sites. The ferromagnetism is induced due to the exchange splitting of S-3p and Mn-3d hybridized bands. The total magnetic moment per Mn of MnxCa1-xS is 4.4µB and is independent of the Mn concentration. The unfilled Mn -3d levels reduce the local magnetic moment of Mn from its free space charge value of 5µB to 4.4µB due to 3p–3d hybridization.

Keywords: semiconductors, Ab initio calculations, band-structure, magnetic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
966 The Marker Active Compound Identification of Calotropis gigantea Roots Extract as an Anticancer

Authors: Roihatul Mutiah, Sukardiman, Aty Widyawaruyanti

Abstract:

Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae) commonly called as “Biduri” or “giant milk weed” is a well-known weed to many cultures for treating various disorders. Several studies reported that C.gigantea roots has anticancer activity. The main aim of this research was to isolate and identify an active marker compound of C.gigantea roots for quality control purpose of its extract in the development as anticancer natural product. The isolation methods was bioactivity guided column chromatography, TLC, and HPLC. Evaluated anticancer activity of there substances using MTT assay methods. Identification structure active compound by UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, HMBC, HMQC spectral and other references. The result showed that the marker active compound was identical as Calotropin.

Keywords: calotropin, Calotropis gigantea, anticancer, marker active

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
965 First Principle Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of YNi₄Si-Type HoNi₄Si Compound

Authors: D. K. Maurya, S. M. Saini

Abstract:

We investigate theoretically the electronic and optical properties of YNi₄Si-type HoNi₄Si compound from first principle calculations. Calculations are performed using full-potential augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method in the frame work of density functional theory (DFT). The Coulomb corrected local-spin density approximation (LSDA+U) in the self-interaction correction (SIC) has been used for exchange-correlation potential. Analysis of the calculated band structure of HoNi₄Si compound demonstrates their metallic character. We found Ni-3d states mainly contribute to density of states from -5.0 eV to the Fermi level while the Ho-f states peak stands tall in comparison to the small contributions made by the Ni-d and Ho-d states above Fermi level, which is consistent with experiment, in HoNi4Si compound. Our calculated optical conductivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band to band transitions.

Keywords: electronic properties, density of states, optical properties, LSDA+U approximation, YNi₄Si-type HoNi4Si compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
964 Using Nonhomogeneous Poisson Process with Compound Distribution to Price Catastrophe Options

Authors: Rong-Tsorng Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we derive a pricing formula for catastrophe equity put options (or CatEPut) with non-homogeneous loss and approximated compound distributions. We assume that the loss claims arrival process is a nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) representing the clustering occurrences of loss claims, the size of loss claims is a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables, and the accumulated loss distribution forms a compound distribution and is approximated by a heavy-tailed distribution. A numerical example is given to calibrate parameters, and we discuss how the value of CatEPut is affected by the changes of parameters in the pricing model we provided.

Keywords: catastrophe equity put options, compound distributions, nonhomogeneous Poisson process, pricing model

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963 The Effectiveness of Bismuth Addition to Retard the Intermetallic Compound Formation

Authors: I. Siti Rabiatull Aisha, A. Ourdjini, O. Saliza Azlina

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The aim of this paper is to study the effectiveness of bismuth addition in the solder alloy to retard the intermetallic compound formation and growth. In this study, three categories of solders such as Sn-4Ag-xCu (x = 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) and Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu-xBi (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4) were used. Ni/Au surface finish substrates were dipped into the molten solder at a temperature of 180-190 oC and allowed to cool at room temperature. The intermetallic compound (IMCs) were subjected to the characterization in terms of composition and morphology. The IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), whereas the optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe microstructure evolution of the solder joint. The results clearly showed that copper concentration dependency was high during the reflow stage. Besides, only Ni3Sn4 and Ni3Sn2 were detected for all copper concentrations. The addition of Bi was found to have no significant effect on the type of IMCs formed, but yet the grain became further refined.

Keywords: Bismuth addition, intermetallic compound, composition, morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
962 Genotoxicity of 4-Nonylphenol (4NP) on Oreochromus spilurs Fish

Authors: M. M. Alsharif

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4-Nonylphenol Compound is widely used as an element of detergents, paints, insecticides and many others products. It is known that the existence of this compound may lead to the emission of estrogenic responses in mammals, birds and fish. It is described as pollutant since it causes disorder of endocrine glands. In previous studies, it was proven that this compound exists in water and in the materials precipitated in Red Sea coast in Jeddah near the drains of processed drainage water and near the drainage site of the residuals of paper factories. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the cytogenetic aberrations caused by 4-nonylphenol through exposing Talapia Fishes to aquatic solution of the compound with 0, 15, 30 microgram/liter for one month. Samples of gills and liver were collected for micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and measuring DNA and RNA amount in the treated fish. The results pointed out that there is a significant increase in the numbers of micronuclei in the fish exposed to the former concentrations as compared to the control group. Exposing fishes to 4-nonylphenol resulted in an increased amount of both DNA and RNA, compared to the control group. There is a positive correlation between the amount of the compound (i.e. dosage dependent effect) and the inspiring for cytogenetic effect on Talapia fishes in Jeddah. Therefore, micronucleus test, DNA and RNA contents can be considered as an index of cumulative exposure, which appear to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic effects of 4-Nonylphenol compound on fish.

Keywords: genotoxic, 4-nonylphenol, micronuclei, fish, DNA, RNA

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
961 Comparison of Bioactive Compound Content in Egg Yolk Oil Extracted from Eggs Obtained from Different Laying Hen Housing Systems

Authors: Aleksandrs Kovalcuks

Abstract:

Egg yolk oil is a natural source of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins, pigments and others. Bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil depends from its content in eggs, from which oil was extracted. Many studies show that bioactive compound content in egg is correlated to the content of these compounds in hen feed, but there is also an opinion that hen housing systems also have influence on egg chemical content. The aim of this study was to determine which factor, laying hen housing system or hen diet, has a primary influence on bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil. The egg yolk oil was extracted from eggs obtained from 4 different hen housing systems: cage, barn and two groups of free range. All hens were fed with commercially produced compound feed except one group of free range hens which get free diet – pastured hens. Extracted egg yolk oils were analyzed for fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins and β-carotene content. α-tocopherol, ergocalcipherol and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in egg yolk oil was higher from eggs obtained from all housing systems where hens were fed with commercial compound feed. β-carotene and retinol content in egg yolk oils from free range free diet eggs was significantly (p>0.05) higher that from other eggs because hens have access to green forage. Hen physical activity in free range housing systems decreases content of some bioactive compound in egg yolk oil.

Keywords: egg yolk oil, vitamins, caged eggs, free range

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960 Application of Molecular Materials in the Manufacture of Flexible and Organic Devices for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Mariana Gomez Gomez, Maria Elena Sanchez Vergara

Abstract:

Many sustainable approaches to generate electric energy have emerged in the last few decades; one of them is through solar cells. Yet, this also has the disadvantage of highly polluting inorganic semiconductor manufacturing processes. Therefore, the use of molecular semiconductors must be considered. In this work, allene compounds C24H26O4 and C24H26O5 were used as dopants to manufacture semiconductors films based on PbPc by high-vacuum evaporation technique. IR spectroscopy was carried out to determine the phase and any significant chemical changes which may occur during the thermal evaporation. According to UV-visible spectroscopy and Tauc’s model, the deposition process generated thin films with an activation energy range of 1.47 to 1.55 eV for direct transitions and 1.29 to 1.33 eV for indirect transitions. These values place the manufactured films within the range of low bandgap semiconductors. The flexible devices were manufactured: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Indium tin oxide (ITO)/organic semiconductor/ Cubic Close Packed (CCP). The characterization of the devices was carried out by evaluating electrical conductivity using the four-probe collinear method. I-V curves were obtained under different lighting conditions at room temperature. OS1 (PbPc/C24H26O4) showed an Ohmic behavior, while OS2 (PbPc/C24H26O5) reached higher current values ​​at lower voltages. The results obtained show that the semiconductors devices doped with allene compounds can be used in the manufacture of optoelectronic devices.

Keywords: electrical properties, optical gap, phthalocyanine, thin film.

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959 The Effect of Compound Exercises Emphasizing Local and Global Stability on the Dynamic Balance in Elite Taekwondo Athletes

Authors: Elnaz Sabzehparvar, Pouya Rabiei, Houman Rezaei

Abstract:

Few studies have been conducted about the effects of compound exercises emphasizing local stability and global stabilization subsystems on the performance of athletes. The present research aimed to study the effect of 6 weeks of compound exercises emphasizing local and global stability on the dynamic balance of elite male Taekwondo athletes. Twenty-seven elite male Taekwondo athletes (with a mean age, mass, and height of 24.4 ± 4.9 years, 75.7 ± 15.1kg, and 181.4 ± 7.8 cm, respectively) were assigned to two groups of control (n=12) and exercise (n=15). 6 weeks of compound exercises in 2 local and global phases. The first phase included activation exercises which were done separately and locally for 3 weeks. Then, integrative exercises specific to the global stabilization subsystems (longitudinal-depth, posterior oblique and anterior, and lateral) was carried out for next 3 weeks. The dynamic balance of subjects was measured in the pre-test and post-test using the Y Balance Test (YBT). After 6 weeks of compound exercises, scores of the YBT in the exercise group showed a significant improvement in all three anterior (p=0.035), posterolateral (p=0.017) and medial (p=0.001) directions in the post-test compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.05 for all comparisons). The findings of the present study suggested that compound exercises focusing on muscle as separate units and then as interdependent chains (muscular subsystems) can significantly increase YBT on elite male Taekwondo athletes in all three directions.

Keywords: Taekwondo, compound exercises, local and global stability, muscular subsystems

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958 Calculation Of Energy Gap Of (Ga,Mn)As Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor From The Eight-Band k.p Model

Authors: Khawlh A. Alzubaidi, Khadijah B. Alziyadi, Amor M. Alsayari

Abstract:

Now a days (Ga, Mn) is one of the most extensively studied and best understood diluted magnetic semiconductors. Also, the study of (Ga, Mn)As is a fervent research area since it allows to explore of a variety of novel functionalities and spintronics concepts that could be implemented in the future. In this work, we will calculate the energy gap of (Ga, Mn)As using the eight-band model. In the Hamiltonian, the effects of spin-orbit, spin-splitting, and strain will be considered. The dependence of the energy gap on Mn content, and the effect of the strain, which is varied continuously from tensile to compressive, will be studied. Finally, analytical expressions for the (Ga, Mn)As energy band gap, taking into account both parameters (Mn concentration and strain), will be provided.

Keywords: energy gap, diluted magnetic semiconductors, k.p method, strain

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957 Removal of Iron (II) from Wastewater in Oil Field Using 3-(P-Methyl) Phenyl-5-Thionyl-1,2,4-Triazoline Assembled on Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: E. M. S. Azzam, S. A. Ahmed, H. H. Mohamed, M. A. Adly, E. A. M. Gad

Abstract:

In this work we prepared 3-(p-methyl) phenyl-5-thionyl-1,2,4-triazoline (C1). The nanostructure of the prepared C1 compound was fabricated by assembling on silver nanoparticles. The UV and TEM analyses confirm the assembling of C1 compound on silver nanoparticles. The effect of C1 compound on the removal of Iron (II) from Iron contaminated samples and industrial wastewater samples (produced water from oil processing facility) were studied before and after their assembling on silver nanoparticles. The removal of Iron was studied at different concentrations of FeSO4 solution (5, 14 and 39 mg/l) and field sample concentration (661 mg/l). In addition, the removal of Iron (II) was investigated at different times. The Prepared compound and its nanostructure with AgNPs show highly efficient in removing the Iron ions. Quantum chemical descriptors using DFT was discussed. The output of the study pronounces that the C1 molecule can act as chelating agent for Iron (II).

Keywords: triazole derivatives, silver nanoparticles, iron (II), oil field

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956 Isolation and Synthesis of 1’-S-1’-Acetoxycavicol Acetate as Potent Antidandruff Agent

Authors: M. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

Abstract:

The air-dried and powdered methanol solvent extraction of the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal is subjected to bio-assay guided fractionation and isolation yielded a known compound namely, 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (1). The isolated known compound has been identified based on the physical, spectral data (IR, ¹H, ¹³C, NMR and mass spectroscopy) and comparison with an authentic sample. Finally isolated 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (1) was confirmed by synthesis. The crude methanol extract and identified known compound (1) were tested for antidandruff property against Malassezia furfur showed with MIC 1000 µg/mL and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively.

Keywords: Alpinia galanga, isolation, 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, antidandruff activity, Malassezia furfur

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955 Modeling the Compound Interest Dynamics Using Fractional Differential Equations

Authors: Muath Awadalla, Maen Awadallah

Abstract:

Banking sector covers different activities including lending money to customers. However, it is commonly known that customers pay money they have borrowed including an added amount called interest. Compound interest rate is an approach used in determining the interest to be paid. The instant compounded amount to be paid by a debtor is obtained through a differential equation whose main parameters are the rate and the time. The rate used by banks in a country is often defined by the government of the said country. In Switzerland, for instance, a negative rate was once applied. In this work, a new approach of modeling the compound interest is proposed using Hadamard fractional derivative. As a result, it appears that depending on the fraction value used in derivative the amount to be paid by a debtor might either be higher or lesser than the amount determined using the classical approach.

Keywords: compound interest, fractional differential equation, hadamard fractional derivative, optimization

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954 Electronic and Optical Properties of YNi4Si-Type DyNi4Si Compound: A Full Potential Study

Authors: Dinesh Kumar Maurya, Sapan Mohan Saini

Abstract:

A theoretical formalism to calculate the structural, electronic and optical properties of orthorhombic crystals from first principle calculations is described. This is applied first time to new YNi4Si-type DyNi4Si compound. Calculations are performed using full-potential augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The Coulomb corrected local-spin density approximation (LSDA+U) in the self-interaction correction (SIC) has been used for exchange-correlation potential. Our optimized results of lattice parameters show good agreement to the previously reported experimental study. Analysis of the calculated band structure of DyNi4Si compound demonstrates their metallic character. We found Ni-3d states mainly contribute to density of states from -5.0 eV to the Fermi level while the Dy-f states peak stands tall in comparison to the small contributions made by the Ni-d and R-d states above Fermi level, which is consistent with experiment, in DNi4Si compound. Our calculated optical conductivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band-to-band transitions. We also report the frequency-dependent refractive index n(ω) and the extinction coefficient k(ω) of the compound.

Keywords: band structure, density of states, optical properties, LSDA+U approximation, YNi4Si- type DyNi4Si compound

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953 Synthesis of New Analogs of IPS-339, and Study of Their Cardiovascular in Dogs

Authors: Elham Zarenezhad, Ali Zarenezhad, Mehdi Mardkhoshnood

Abstract:

We described the synthesis and biological study of O-oxime ethers having a-amino acid residues as new analogs of IPS-339. In this synthesis, the reaction of fluorene O-oxime with epichlorohydrin or epibromohydrin afforded the corresponding O-oxime ether adducts. The N-alkylation of valine amino acid with O-oxime ether adducts led to the synthesis of new analogs of IPS-339. The cardiovascular properties of the compound have been studied. In this regard, six clinically healthy same sex mongrel dogs were examined. The dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of two members. 1 groups received 2 mg kg-1 body weight of compound (2-(3-(9H-fluoren-9-ylideneaminooxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid) intravenously, whereas group 2 and 3 received only DMSO–water (distil.) and propranolol (Inderal) (2 mg kg-1), respectively. The electrocardiograph (ECG) was recorded with lead II. The recording was run successively by 5 min time interval on each dog before, simultaneously, and after compound infusion. Data after administration were taken from normal sinus beats that were closely related to the arrhythmias whenever they occurred. In general, no detectable arrhythmia was observed in all ECG records regardless of increasing the heart rate that likely caused by stress origin from invasive procedure just after infusion. Compound diminished the heart rate during study especially at 20th minute compared to propranolol as a reference drug. Compound (2-(3-(9H-fluoren-9-ylideneaminooxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid) was the most effective compound with remarkable ability in declining of the heart rate.

Keywords: electrocardiograph (ECG), cardiovascular, IPS-339, dogs

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
952 Control of IL-23 Release in Dendritic Cells Protects Mice from Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis

Authors: Xingxin Wu, Fenli Shao, Tao Tan, Yang Tan, Yang Sun, Qiang Xu

Abstract:

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects about 2% of the world's population. IL-23 signaling plays a key role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Control of IL-23 release by small molecule compounds during developing psoriasis has not been well established. Here, we show that compound 1, a small molecule nature product, protected mice from imiquimod-induced psoriasis with improved skin lesions, reduced skin thickness, and reduced IL-23 mRNA expression in the skin tissue. FACS results showed compound 1 reduced the number of dendritic cells in the skin. Interestingly, compound 1 was not able to ameliorate IL-23-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice. Further, compound 1 inhibited MyD88-dependent IL-23 mRNA expression induced by LPS, CpG and imiquimod in BMDC cells, but not MyD88-independent CD80 and CD86 expression induced by LPS. The methods included real-time PCR, western blot, H & E staining, FACS and ELISA et al. In conclusion, compound 1 regulates MyD88-dependent signaling to control IL-23 release in dendritic cells, which improves imiquimod-induced psoriasis.

Keywords: dendritic cells, IL-23, toll-like receptor signaling, psoriasis

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
951 Performance of Partially Covered N Number of Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Series Connected Water Heating System

Authors: Rohit Tripathi, Sumit Tiwari, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In present study, an approach is adopted where photovoltaic thermal flat plate collector is integrated with compound parabolic concentrator. Analytical expression of temperature dependent electrical efficiency of N number of partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) water collector connected in series has been derived with the help of basic thermal energy balance equations. Analysis has been carried for winter weather condition at Delhi location, India. Energy and exergy performance of N - partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Water collector system has been compared for two cases: (i) 25% area of water collector covered by PV module, (ii) 75% area of water collector covered by PV module. It is observed that case (i) has been best suited for thermal performance and case (ii) for electrical energy as well as overall exergy.

Keywords: compound parabolic concentrator, energy, photovoltaic thermal, temperature dependent electrical efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 309