Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Dhawal Asthana

16 Design and Modelling of Ge/GaAs Hetero-structure Bipolar Transistor

Authors: Samson Mil'shtein, Dhawal N. Asthana

Abstract:

The presented heterostructure n-p-n bipolar transistor is comprised of Ge/GaAs heterojunctions consisting of 0.15µm thick emitter and 0.65µm collector junctions. High diffusivity of carriers in GaAs base was major motivation of current design. We avoided grading of the base which is common in heterojunction bipolar transistors, in order to keep the electron diffusivity as high as possible. The electrons injected into the 0.25µm thick p-type GaAs base with not very high doping (1017cm-3). The designed HBT enables cut off frequency on the order of 150GHz. The Ge/GaAs heterojunctions presented in our paper have proved to work better than comparable HBTs having GaAs bases and emitter/collector junctions made, for example, of AlGaAs/GaAs or other III-V compound semiconductors. The difference in lattice constants between Ge and GaAs is less than 2%. Therefore, there is no need of transition layers between Ge emitter and GaAs base. Significant difference in energy gap of these two materials presents new scope for improving performance of the emitter. With the complete structure being modelled and simulated using TCAD SILVACO, the collector/ emitter offset voltage of the device has been limited to a reasonable value of 63 millivolts by the dint of low energy band gap value associated with Ge emitter. The efficiency of the emitter in our HBT is 86%. Use of Germanium in the emitter and collector regions presents new opportunities for integration of this vertical device structure into silicon substrate.

Keywords: Germanium, Gallium Arsenide, heterojunction bipolar transistor, high cut-off frequency

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15 Modeling and Design of E-mode GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Samson Mil'shtein, Dhawal Asthana, Benjamin Sullivan

Abstract:

The wide energy gap of GaN is the major parameter justifying the design and fabrication of high-power electronic components made of this material. However, the existence of a piezo-electrics in nature sheet charge at the AlGaN/GaN interface complicates the control of carrier injection into the intrinsic channel of GaN HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistors). As a result, most of the transistors created as R&D prototypes and all of the designs used for mass production are D-mode devices which introduce challenges in the design of integrated circuits. This research presents the design and modeling of an E-mode GaN HEMT with a very low turn-on voltage. The proposed device includes two critical elements allowing the transistor to achieve zero conductance across the channel when Vg = 0V. This is accomplished through the inclusion of an extremely thin, 2.5nm intrinsic Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N spacer layer. The added spacer layer does not create piezoelectric strain but rather elastically follows the variations of the crystal structure of the adjacent GaN channel. The second important factor is the design of a gate metal with a high work function. The use of a metal gate with a work function (Ni in this research) greater than 5.3eV positioned on top of n-type doped (Nd=10¹⁷cm⁻³) Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N creates the necessary built-in potential, which controls the injection of electrons into the intrinsic channel as the gate voltage is increased. The 5µm long transistor with a 0.18µm long gate and a channel width of 30µm operate at Vd=10V. At Vg =1V, the device reaches the maximum drain current of 0.6mA, which indicates a high current density. The presented device is operational at frequencies greater than 10GHz and exhibits a stable transconductance over the full range of operational gate voltages.

Keywords: compound semiconductors, device modeling, enhancement mode HEMT, gallium nitride

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14 Formulation Development and Characterization of Oligonucleotide Containing Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Gyati Shilakari Asthana, Abhay Asthana

Abstract:

Purpose: The therapeutic potential of oligonucleotide (ODN) is primarily dependent upon its safe and efficient delivery to specific cells overcoming degradation and maximizing cellular uptake in vivo. The present study is focused to design low molecular weight chitosan nanoconstructs to meet the requirements of safe and effectual delivery of ODNs. LMW-chitosan is a biodegradable, water soluble, biocompatible polymer and is useful as a non-viral vector for gene delivery due to its better stability in water. Methods: LMW chitosan ODN nanoparticles (CHODN NPs) were formulated by self assembled method using various N/P ratios (moles ratio of amine groups of CH to phosphate moieties of ODNs; 0.5:1, 1:1, 3:1, 5:1 and 7:1) of CH to ODN. The developed CHODN NPs were evaluated with respect to gel retardation assay, particle size, zeta potential and cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency. Results: Complete complexation of CH/ODN was achieved at the charge ratio of 0.5:1 or above and CHODN NPs displayed resistance against DNase I. On increasing the N/P ratio of CH/ODN, particle size of the NPs decreased whereas zeta potential (ZV) value increased. No significant toxicity was observed at all CH concentrations. The transfection efficiency was increased on increasing N/P ratio from 1:1 to 3:1, whereas it was decreased with further increment in N/P ratio upto 7:1. Maximum transfection of CHODN NPs with both the cell lines (Raw 267.4 cells and Hela cells) was achieved at N/P ratio of 3:1. The results suggest that transfection efficiency of CHODN NPs is dependent on N/P ratio. Conclusion: Thus the present study states that LMW chitosan nanoparticulate carriers would be acceptable choice to improve transfection efficiency in vitro as well as in vivo delivery of oligonucleotide.

Keywords: LMW-chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles, biocompatibility, cytotoxicity study, transfection efficiency, oligonucleotide

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13 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Nanoparticles for Delivery of Oligonucleotides

Authors: Gyati Shilakari Asthana, Abhay Asthana, Dharm Veer Kohli, Suresh Prasad Vyas

Abstract:

Purpose: The therapeutic potential of oligonucleotide (ODN) is primarily dependent upon its safe and efficient delivery to specific cells overcoming degradation and maximizing cellular uptake in vivo. The present study is focused to design low molecular weight chitosan nanoconstructs to meet the requirements of safe and effectual delivery of ODNs. LMW-chitosan is a biodegradable, water soluble, biocompatible polymer and is useful as a non-viral vector for gene delivery due to its better stability in water. Methods: LMW chitosan ODN nanoparticles (CHODN NPs) were formulated by self-assembled method using various N/P ratios (moles ratio of amine groups of CH to phosphate moieties of ODNs; 0.5:1, 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, and 7:1) of CH to ODN. The developed CHODN NPs were evaluated with respect to gel retardation assay, particle size, zeta potential and cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency. Results: Complete complexation of CH/ODN was achieved at the charge ratio of 0.5:1 or above and CHODN NPs displayed resistance against DNase I. On increasing the N/P ratio of CH/ODN, the particle size of the NPs decreased whereas zeta potential (ZV) value increased. No significant toxicity was observed at all CH concentrations. The transfection efficiency was increased on increasing N/P ratio from 1:1 to 3:1, whereas it was decreased with further increment in N/P ratio upto 7:1. Maximum transfection of CHODN NPs with both the cell lines (Raw 267.4 cells and Hela cells) was achieved at N/P ratio of 3:1. The results suggest that transfection efficiency of CHODN NPs is dependent on N/P ratio. Conclusion: Thus the present study states that LMW chitosan nanoparticulate carriers would be acceptable choice to improve transfection efficiency in vitro as well as in vivo delivery of oligonucleotide.

Keywords: LMW-chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles, biocompatibility, cytotoxicity study, transfection efficiency, oligonucleotide

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12 Collaborative Planning and Forecasting

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad

Abstract:

Collaborative planning and forecasting are the innovative and systematic approaches towards productive integration and assimilation of data synergized into information. The changing and variable market dynamics have persuaded global business chains to incorporate collaborative planning and forecasting as an imperative tool. Thus, it is essential for the supply chains to constantly improvise, update its nature, and mould as per changing global environment.

Keywords: information transfer, forecasting, optimization, supply chain management

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11 Polymeric Sustained Biodegradable Patch Formulation for Wound Healing

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Gyati Shilakari Asthana

Abstract:

It’s the patient compliance and stability in combination with controlled drug delivery and biocompatibility that forms the core feature in present research and development of sustained biodegradable patch formulation intended for wound healing. The aim was to impart sustained degradation, sterile formulation, significant folding endurance, elasticity, biodegradability, bio-acceptability and strength. The optimized formulation was developed using component including polymers including Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin, and Citric Acid PEG Citric acid (CPEGC) triblock dendrimers and active Curcumin. Polymeric mixture dissolved in geometric order in suitable medium through continuous stirring under ambient conditions. With continued stirring Curcumin was added with aid of DCM and Methanol in optimized ratio to get homogenous dispersion. The dispersion was sonicated with optimum frequency and for given time and later casted to form a patch form. All steps were carried out under under strict aseptic conditions. The formulations obtained in the acceptable working range were decided based on thickness, uniformity of drug content, smooth texture and flexibility and brittleness. The patch kept on stability using butter paper in sterile pack displayed folding endurance in range of 20 to 23 times without any evidence of crack in an optimized formulation at room temperature (RT) (24 ± 2°C). The patch displayed acceptable parameters after stability study conducted in refrigerated conditions (8±0.2°C) and at RT (24 ± 2°C) upto 90 days. Further, no significant changes were observed in critical parameters such as elasticity, biodegradability, drug release and drug content during stability study conducted at RT 24±2°C for 45 and 90 days. The drug content was in range 95 to 102%, moisture content didn’t exceeded 19.2% and patch passed the content uniformity test. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation factor R2>0.9. The biodegradable patch based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.

Keywords: sustained biodegradation, wound healing, polymers, stability

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10 Silver Nanoparticles Impregnated Zeolitic Composites: Effect of the Silver Loading on Adsorption of Mercury (II)

Authors: Zhandos Tauanov, Dhawal Shah, Grigorios Itskos, Vasileios Inglezakis

Abstract:

Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous phase is of utmost importance, as it is highly toxic and hazardous to the environment and human health. One way of removal of mercury (II) ions from aqueous solutions is by using adsorbents derived from coal fly ash (CFA), such as synthetic zeolites. In this work, we present the hydrothermal production of synthetic zeolites from CFA with conversion rate of 75%. In order to produce silver containing nanocomposites, synthetic zeolites are subsequently impregnated with various amounts of silver nanoparticles, from 0.2 to 2wt.%. All produced zeolites and parent materials are characterized by XRD, XRF, BET, SEM, and TEM to obtain morphological and microstructural data. Moreover, mercury (II) ions removal from aqueous solutions with initial concentration of 10 ppm is studied. According to results, zeolites and Ag-nanocomposites demonstrate much higher removal than parent CFA (up to 98%). In addition to this, we could observe a distinct adsorption behavior depending on the loading of Ag NPs in nanocomposites. A possible reaction mechanism for both zeolites and Ag-nanocomposites is discussed.

Keywords: coal fly ash, mercury (II) removal, nanocomposites, silver nanoparticles, synthetic zeolite

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9 Reverse Logistics, Green Supply Chain, and Carbon Trading

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad

Abstract:

Reverse logistics and green supply chain form an interconnected and interwoven network of parameters that contribute to enhancement and incremental exchange in the triple bottom line in the consistently changing and fragmenting markets of the globalizing markets of today. Reverse logistics not only contributes to completing the supply chain in a comprehensive and synchronized manner but also contributes to a significant degree in optimizing green supply chains through procedures such as recycling, refurbishing etc. contributing to waste reduction. Carbon trading, owing to its limitations in the global context and being in a nascent stage seeks plethora of research to determine its full application in synergy with reverse logistics and green supply chain.

Keywords: reverse logistics, carbon trading, carbon emissions, green supply chain

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8 Analyzing the Effect of Design of Pipe in Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger by Measuring Its Heat Transfer Rate by Computation Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Approach

Authors: Dhawal Ladani

Abstract:

Shell and tube type heat exchangers are predominantly used in heat exchange between two fluids and other applications. This paper projects the optimal design of the pipe used in the heat exchanger in such a way to minimize the vibration occurring in the pipe. Paper also consists of the comparison of the different design of the pipe to get the maximize the heat transfer rate by converting laminar flow into the turbulent flow. By the updated design the vibration in the pipe due to the flow is also decreased. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Heat Transfer analysis are done to justifying the result. Currently, the straight pipe is used in the shell and tube type of heat exchanger where as per the paper the pipe consists of the curvature along with the pipe. Hence, the heat transfer area is also increased and result in the increasing in heat transfer rate. Curvature type design is useful to create turbulence and minimizing the vibration, also. The result will give the output comparison of the effect of laminar flow and the turbulent flow in the heat exchange mechanism, as well as, inverse effect of the boundary layer in heat exchanger is also justified.

Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer rate, laminar and turbulent effect, shell and tube

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7 Metal-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents for Extractive Desulfurization of Fuels: Analysis from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Authors: Aibek Kukpayev, Dhawal Shah

Abstract:

Combustion of sour fuels containing high amount of sulfur leads to the formation of sulfur oxides, which adversely harm the environment and has a negative impact on human health. Considering this, several legislations have been imposed to bring down the sulfur content in fuel to less than 10 ppm. In recent years, novel deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been developed to achieve deep desulfurization, particularly to extract thiophenic compounds from liquid fuels. These novel DESs, considered as analogous to ionic liquids are green, eco-friendly, inexpensive, and sustainable. We herein, using molecular dynamic simulation, analyze the interactions of metal-based DESs with model oil consisting of thiophenic compounds. The DES used consists of polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) as a hydrogen bond donor, choline chloride (ChCl) or tetrabutyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) as a hydrogen bond acceptor, and cobalt chloride (CoCl₂) as metal salt. In particular, the combination of ChCl: PEG-200:CoCl₂ at a ratio 1:2:1 and the combination of TBAC:PEG-200:CoCl₂ at a ratio 1:2:0.25 were simulated, separately, with model oil consisting of octane and thiophenes at 25ᵒC and 1 bar. The results of molecular dynamics simulations were analyzed in terms of interaction energies between different components. The simulations revealed a stronger interaction between DESs/thiophenes as compared with octane/thiophenes, suggestive of an efficient desulfurization process. In addition, our analysis suggests that the choice of hydrogen bond acceptor strongly influences the efficiency of the desulfurization process. Taken together, the results also show the importance of the metal ion, although present in small amount, in the process, and the role of the polymer in desulfurization of the model fuel.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, desulfurization, molecular dynamics simulations, thiophenes

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6 How Different Are We After All: A Cross-Cultural Study Using the International Affective Picture System

Authors: Manish Kumar Asthana, Alicia Bundis, Zahn Xu, Braj Bhushan

Abstract:

Despite ample cross-cultural studies with emotional valence, it is unclear if the emotions are universal or particular. Previous studies have shown that the individualist culture favors high-valence emotions compared to low-valence emotions. In contrast, collectivist culture favors low-valence emotions compared to high-valence emotions. In this current study, Chinese, Mexicans, and Indians reported valence and semantic-contingency. In total, 120 healthy participants were selected by ethnicity and matched for age and education. Each participant was presented 45 non-chromatic pictures, which were converted from chromatic pictures selected from International Affective Picture Database (IAPS) belonging to five-categories, i.e. (i) less pleasant, (ii) high pleasant, (iii) less unpleasant (iv) high unpleasant (v) neutral. The valence scores assigned to neutral, less-unpleasant, and high-pleasant pictures differed significantly between Chinese, Indian, and Mexicans participants. Significant effects demonstrated from the two-way ANOVAs, confirmed main significant effects of valence (F(1,117) = 24.83, p =0.000) and valence x country (F(2,117) = 2.74, p = 0.035). Significant effects emerging from the one-way ANOVAs were followed up through Bonferroni’s test post-hoc comparisons (p < 0.01). This analysis showed significant effect of neutral (F(2,119) = 6.50, p =0.002), less-unpleasant (F(2,119) = 13.79, p =0.000), and high-unpleasant (F(2,119) = 5.99, p =0.003). There were no significant differences in valence scores for the less-pleasant and more-pleasant between participants from three countries. The IAPS norms require modification for their appropriate application in individualist and collectivist cultures.

Keywords: cultural difference, affective processing, valence, non-chromatic, international affective picture system (IAPS)

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5 Novel Wound Healing Biodegradable Patch of Bioactive

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari

Abstract:

The present research was aimed to develop a biodegradable dermal patch formulation for wound healing in a novel, sustained and systematic manner. The goal is to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and thereby enhance therapeutic performance. In present study optimized formulation was designed using component polymers and excipients (e.g. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity and strength. Gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in suitable medium was mixed with stirring to gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added in optimized ratio to get homogeneous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12 h and matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation factor R2 > 0.9. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.

Keywords: biodegradable, patch, bioactive, polymer

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4 Development of Biodegradable Wound Healing Patch of Curcumin

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari

Abstract:

The objective of the present research work is to develop a topical biodegradable dermal patch based formulation to aid accelerated wound healing. It is always better for patient compliance to be able to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and overall therapeutic efficacy. In present study optimized formulation using biodegradable components was obtained evaluating polymers and excipients (HPMC K4M, Ethylcellulose, Povidone, Polyethylene glycol and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity, and strength. Molten gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in acidic medium was mixed with stirring to Gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added with the aid of DCM and Methanol in an optimized ratio of 60:40 to get homogenous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in the final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23°C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2°C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2°C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2°C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as tested in vivo with correlation factor R2>0.9. In in vivo study administration of one dose in equivalent quantity per 2 days was applied topically. The data demonstrated a significant improvement with percentage wound contraction in contrast to control and plain drug respectively in given period. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and in vivo performance.

Keywords: wound healing, biodegradable, polymers, patch

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3 Biological Control of Karnal Bunt by Pseudomonas fluorescens

Authors: Geetika Vajpayee, Sugandha Asthana, Pratibha Kumari, Shanthy Sundaram

Abstract:

Pseudomonas species possess a variety of promising properties of antifungal and growth promoting activities in the wheat plant. In the present study, Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC-9768 is tested against plant pathogenic fungus Tilletia indica, causing Karnal bunt, a quarantine disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affecting kernels of wheat. It is one of the 1/A1 harmful diseases of wheat worldwide under EU legislation. This disease develops in the growth phase by the spreading of microscopically small spores of the fungus (teliospores) being dispersed by the wind. The present chemical fungicidal treatments were reported to reduce teliospores germination, but its effect is questionable since T. indica can survive up to four years in the soil. The fungal growth inhibition tests were performed using Dual Culture Technique, and the results showed inhibition by 82.5%. The interaction of antagonist bacteria-fungus causes changes in the morphology of hyphae, which was observed using Lactophenol cotton blue staining and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The rounded and swollen ends, called ‘theca’ were observed in interacted fungus as compared to control fungus (without bacterial interaction). This bacterium was tested for its antagonistic activity like protease, cellulose, HCN production, Chitinase, etc. The growth promoting activities showed increase production of IAA in bacteria. The bacterial secondary metabolites were extracted in different solvents for testing its growth inhibiting properties. The characterization and purification of the antifungal compound were done by Thin Layer Chromatography, and Rf value was calculated (Rf value = 0.54) and compared to the standard antifungal compound, 2, 4 DAPG (Rf value = 0.54). Further, the in vivo experiments showed a significant decrease in the severity of disease in the wheat plant due to direct injection method and seed treatment. Our results indicate that the extracted and purified compound from the antagonist bacteria, P. fluorescens MTCC-9768 may be used as a potential biocontrol agent against T. indica. This also concludes that the PGPR properties of the bacteria may be utilized by incorporating it into bio-fertilizers.

Keywords: antagonism, Karnal bunt, PGPR, Pseudomonas fluorescens

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2 Formulation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash from Some Herbal Extracts for Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

Authors: Reenu Yadav, Abhay Asthana, S. K. Yadav

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of the present work was to develop an oral gel for brushing with an antimicrobial activity which will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases such as periodontitis, gingivitis, and pyorrhea. Methods: Plant materials procured from local suppliers, extracted and standardized. Screening of antimicrobial activity was carried out with the help of disk diffusion method. The gel was formulated by dried extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliquus. Gels were evaluated on various parameters and standardization of the formulation was performed. The release of drugs was studied in pH 6.8 using a mastication device.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride method, and stability studies were performed (40°C and RH 75% ± 5% for 90 days) to assess the effect of temperature and humidity on the concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. The results of accelerated stability conditions were compared with that of samples kept at controlled conditions (RT). The control samples were kept at room temperature (25°C, 35% RH for 180 days). Results: Results are encouraging; extracts possess significant antimicrobial activity at very low concentration (15µg/disc, 20µg/disc and 15 µg/ disc) on oral pathogenic bacteria. The formulation has optimal characteristics, as well as has a pleasant appearance, fragrance, texture, and taste, is highly acceptable by the volunteers. The diffusion coefficient values ranged from 0.6655 to 0.9164. Since the R values of korsmayer papas were close to 1, Drug release from formulation follows matrix diffusion kinetics. Hence, diffusion was the mechanism of the drug release. Formulation follows non-Fickian transport mechanism. Most Formulations released 50 % of their contents within 25-30 minutes. Results obtained from the accelerated stability studies are indicative of a slight reduction in flavonoids and phenolic contents with time on long time storage. When measured degradation under ambient conditions, degradation was significantly lower than in accelerated stability study. Conclusion: Plant extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties can be used as. Developed formulation will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases. Further development and evaluations oral gel including the isolated compounds on the commercial scale and their clinical and toxicological studies are the future challenges.

Keywords: herbal gel, dental care, ambient conditions, commercial scale

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1 Isolation and Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria against Wheat Pathogenic Fungus Tilletia indica

Authors: Sugandha Asthana, Geetika Vajpayee, Pratibha Kumari, Shanthy Sundaram

Abstract:

An economically important disease of wheat in North Western region of India is Karnal Bunt caused by smut fungus Tilletia indica. This fungal pathogen spreads by air, soil and seed borne sporodia at the time of flowering, which ultimately leads to partial bunting of wheat kernels with fishy odor and taste to wheat flour. It has very serious effects due to quarantine measures which have to be applied for grain exports. Chemical fungicides such as mercurial compounds and Propiconazole applied to the control of Karnal bunt have been only partially successful. Considering the harmful effects of chemical fungicides on man as well as environment, many countries are developing biological control as the superior substitute to chemical control. Repeated use of fungicides can be responsible for the development of resistance in fungal pathogens against certain chemical compounds. The present investigation is based on the isolation and evaluation of antifungal properties of some isolated (from natural manure) and commercial bacterial strains against Tilletia indica. Total 23 bacterial isolates were obtained and antagonistic activity of all isolates and commercial bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis MTCC8601, Bacillus pumilus MTCC 8743, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were tested against T. indica by dual culture plate assay (pour plate and streak plate). Test for the production of antifungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by antagonistic bacteria was done by sealed plate method. Amongst all s1, s3, s5, and B. subtilis showed more than 80% inhibition. Production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such as protease, beta 1, 4 glucanase, HCN and ammonia was studied for confirmation of antifungal activity. s1, s3, s5 and B. subtilis were found to be the best for protease activity and s5 and B. subtilis for beta 1, 4 glucanase activity. Bacillus subtilis was significantly effective for HCN whereas s3, s5 and Bacillus subtilis for ammonia production. Isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (s1) and B. licheniformis (s3, s5) by various biochemical assays and confirmed by16s rRNA sequencing. Use of microorganisms or their secretions as biocontrol agents to avoid plant diseases is ecologically safe and may offer long term of protection to crop. The above study reports the promising effects of these strains in better pathogen free crop production and quality maintenance as well as prevention of the excessive use of synthetic fungicides.

Keywords: antagonistic, antifungal, biocontrol, Karnal bunt

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