Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 152

Search results for: Benjamin Sullivan

152 Using Reservoir Models for Monitoring Geothermal Surface Features

Authors: John P. O’Sullivan, Thomas M. P. Ratouis, Michael J. O’Sullivan

Abstract:

As the use of geothermal energy grows internationally more effort is required to monitor and protect areas with rare and important geothermal surface features. A number of approaches are presented for developing and calibrating numerical geothermal reservoir models that are capable of accurately representing geothermal surface features. The approaches are discussed in the context of cases studies of the Rotorua geothermal system and the Orakei-korako geothermal system, both of which contain important surface features. The results show that models are able to match the available field data accurately and hence can be used as valuable tools for predicting the future response of the systems to changes in use.

Keywords: geothermal reservoir models, surface features, monitoring, TOUGH2

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151 Chicago School of Architecture 1900

Authors: Lula Chou

Abstract:

At the turn of the 20th century, Chicago faced a large real estate boom and technological advances through industrialization that led to the rise of the commercial skyscrapers. Focusing on creating a Midwest regional character and new functional meanings of structural art, architects like Sullivan, Adler, Burnham, and Root dominated the first Chicago School of Architecture. After they spearheaded the arena of modern skyscrapers, other cities in the United States like New York soon followed the trend. While battling with eclecticism and Beaux-Arts beliefs in decorative style, Chicago architects adapted Classical monumentality into their modern expressions that emphasized organicism and functionalism. With various experiments of material possibilities in the steel-framed constructions, Chicago architecture succeeded in forming humanitarian aesthetics alongside fulfilling functional requirements of the new generation.

Keywords: Chicago school, modernity, monumentality, skyscrapers, Sullivan

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150 Interface Designer as Cultural Producer: A Dialectic Materialist Approach to the Role of Visual Designer in the Present Digital Era

Authors: Cagri Baris Kasap

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In this study, how interface designers can be viewed as producers of culture in the current era will be interrogated from a critical theory perspective. Walter Benjamin was a German Jewish literary critical theorist who, during 1930s, was engaged in opposing and criticizing the Nazi use of art and media. ‘The Author as Producer’ is an essay that Benjamin has read at the Communist Institute for the Study of Fascism in Paris. In this article, Benjamin relates directly to the dialectics between base and superstructure and argues that authors, normally placed within the superstructure should consider how writing and publishing is production and directly related to the base. Through it, he discusses what it could mean to see author as producer of his own text, as a producer of writing, understood as an ideological construct that rests on the apparatus of production and distribution. So Benjamin concludes that the author must write in ways that relate to the conditions of production, he must do so in order to prepare his readers to become writers and even make this possible for them by engineering an ‘improved apparatus’ and must work toward turning consumers to producers and collaborators. In today’s world, it has become a leading business model within Web 2.0 services of multinational Internet technologies and culture industries like Amazon, Apple and Google, to transform readers, spectators, consumers or users into collaborators and co-producers through platforms such as Facebook, YouTube and Amazon’s CreateSpace Kindle Direct Publishing print-on-demand, e-book and publishing platforms. However, the way this transformation happens is tightly controlled and monitored by combinations of software and hardware. In these global-market monopolies, it has become increasingly difficult to get insight into how one’s writing and collaboration is used, captured, and capitalized as a user of Facebook or Google. In the lens of this study, it could be argued that this criticism could very well be considered by digital producers or even by the mass of collaborators in contemporary social networking software. How do software and design incorporate users and their collaboration? Are they truly empowered, are they put in a position where they are able to understand the apparatus and how their collaboration is part of it? Or has the apparatus become a means against the producers? Thus, when using corporate systems like Google and Facebook, iPhone and Kindle without any control over the means of production, which is closed off by opaque interfaces and licenses that limit our rights of use and ownership, we are already the collaborators that Benjamin calls for. For example, the iPhone and the Kindle combine a specific use of technology to distribute the relations between the ‘authors’ and the ‘prodUsers’ in ways that secure their monopolistic business models by limiting the potential of the technology.

Keywords: interface designer, cultural producer, Walter Benjamin, materialist aesthetics, dialectical thinking

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149 Modeling and Design of E-mode GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Samson Mil'shtein, Dhawal Asthana, Benjamin Sullivan

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The wide energy gap of GaN is the major parameter justifying the design and fabrication of high-power electronic components made of this material. However, the existence of a piezo-electrics in nature sheet charge at the AlGaN/GaN interface complicates the control of carrier injection into the intrinsic channel of GaN HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistors). As a result, most of the transistors created as R&D prototypes and all of the designs used for mass production are D-mode devices which introduce challenges in the design of integrated circuits. This research presents the design and modeling of an E-mode GaN HEMT with a very low turn-on voltage. The proposed device includes two critical elements allowing the transistor to achieve zero conductance across the channel when Vg = 0V. This is accomplished through the inclusion of an extremely thin, 2.5nm intrinsic Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N spacer layer. The added spacer layer does not create piezoelectric strain but rather elastically follows the variations of the crystal structure of the adjacent GaN channel. The second important factor is the design of a gate metal with a high work function. The use of a metal gate with a work function (Ni in this research) greater than 5.3eV positioned on top of n-type doped (Nd=10¹⁷cm⁻³) Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N creates the necessary built-in potential, which controls the injection of electrons into the intrinsic channel as the gate voltage is increased. The 5µm long transistor with a 0.18µm long gate and a channel width of 30µm operate at Vd=10V. At Vg =1V, the device reaches the maximum drain current of 0.6mA, which indicates a high current density. The presented device is operational at frequencies greater than 10GHz and exhibits a stable transconductance over the full range of operational gate voltages.

Keywords: compound semiconductors, device modeling, enhancement mode HEMT, gallium nitride

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148 Carl Schmitt in the Age of Immanence: A Critical Reading

Authors: Manuel Iretzberger

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This paper aims to uncover the ideological aspects in the political thought of Carl Schmitt, who is enjoying an ever-increasing popularity in various academic fields, following in the wake of rising interest in questions of sovereignty and legitimacy. Given Schmitt’s biography, i.e. his role as the ‘Crown Jurist of the Third Reich’ (Gurian), an extraordinarily thorough examination is necessary; however, instead of merely ‘deconstructing’ his works, certain ontological truths he might have attained, shall be taken seriously. To this end, his notions of politics and the state of exception are scrutinized, which are indeed considered intriguing, yet prove to be enigmatic and impalpable at the core when read closely. In order to explain this conjuncture, both Schmitt’s philosophy of history and his ‘secret discussion’ (Agamben) with Walter Benjamin are depicted. As it turns out – it is argued – his concept of the Political has to be conceived of as embedded in a much broader context: In a post-transcendental, immanent age, he regards traditional modes of representation as no longer feasible and clings to authoritarianism as a surrogate – his Catholicism plays a decisive role here, forcing him to inject normatively biased assumptions into his political writings. Seeing Schmitt perform ‘rearguard action’ not only serves to disarm his work of most of its menacing aura, it also allows drawing conclusions about ways of legitimatizing democratic rule in modern times, as the paper tries to outline in its last section.

Keywords: Benjamin, history, immanence, Schmitt, sovereignty

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147 Battery Grading Algorithm in 2nd-Life Repurposing LI-Ion Battery System

Authors: Ya L. V., Benjamin Ong Wei Lin, Wanli Niu, Benjamin Seah Chin Tat

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This article introduces a methodology that improves reliability and cyclability of 2nd-life Li-ion battery system repurposed as an energy storage system (ESS). Most of the 2nd-life retired battery systems in the market have module/pack-level state-of-health (SOH) indicator, which is utilized for guiding appropriate depth-of-discharge (DOD) in the application of ESS. Due to the lack of cell-level SOH indication, the different degrading behaviors among various cells cannot be identified upon reaching retired status; in the end, considering end-of-life (EOL) loss and pack-level DOD, the repurposed ESS has to be oversized by > 1.5 times to complement the application requirement of reliability and cyclability. This proposed battery grading algorithm, using non-invasive methodology, is able to detect outlier cells based on historical voltage data and calculate cell-level historical maximum temperature data using semi-analytic methodology. In this way, the individual battery cell in the 2nd-life battery system can be graded in terms of SOH on basis of the historical voltage fluctuation and estimated historical maximum temperature variation. These grades will have corresponding DOD grades in the application of the repurposed ESS to enhance system reliability and cyclability. In all, this introduced battery grading algorithm is non-invasive, compatible with all kinds of retired Li-ion battery systems which lack of cell-level SOH indication, as well as potentially being embedded into battery management software for preventive maintenance and real-time cyclability optimization.

Keywords: battery grading algorithm, 2nd-life repurposing battery system, semi-analytic methodology, reliability and cyclability

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146 Attitudes Towards the Supernatural in Benjamin Britten’s The Turn of the Screw

Authors: Yaou Zhang

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Background: Relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to the production of Benjamin Britten’s chamber opera The Turn of the Screw. As one of Britten’s most remarkable operas. The story of the libretto was from Henry James’s novella of the same name. The novella was created in 1898 and one of the primary questions addressed to people in the story is “how real the ghosts are,” which leads the story to a huge ambiguity in readers’ minds. Aims: This research focuses on the experience of seeing the opera on stage over several decades. This study of opera productions over time not only provides insight into how stage performances can alter audience members' perceptions of the opera in the present but also reveals a landscape of shifting aesthetics and receptions. Methods: To examine the hypotheses in interpretation and reception, the qualitative analysis is used to examine the figures of ghosts in different productions across the time from 1954 to 2021 in the UK: by accessing recordings, newspapers, and reviews for the productions that are sourced from online and physical archives. For instance, the field research is conducted on the topic by arranging interviews with the creative team and visiting Opera North in Leeds and Britten-Pears Foundation. The collected data reveals the “hidden identity” in creative teams’ interpretations, social preferences, and rediscover that have previously remained unseen. Results: This research presents an angle of Britten’s Screw by using the third position; it shows how the attention moved from the stage of “do the ghosts really exist” to “traumatised children.” Discussion: Critics and audiences have debated whether the governess hallucinates the ghosts in the opera for decades. While, in recent years, directors of new productions have given themselves the opportunity to go deeper into Britten's musical structure and offer the opera more space to be interpreted, rather than debating if "ghosts actually exist" or "the psychological problems of the governess." One can consider and reflect that the questionable actions of the children are because they are suffering from trauma, whether the trauma comes from the ghosts, the hallucinating governess, or some prior experiences: various interpretations cause one result that children are the recipients of trauma. Arguably, the role of the supernatural is neither simply one of the elements of a ghost story nor simply one of the parts of the ambiguity between the supernatural and the hallucination of the governess; rather, the ghosts and the hallucinating governess can exist at the same time - the combination of the supernatural’s and the governess’s behaviours on stage generates a sharper and more serious angle that draws our attention to the traumatized children.

Keywords: benjamin britten, chamber opera, production, reception, staging, the turn of the screw

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145 The Characterisation of TLC NAND Flash Memory, Leading to a Definable Endurance/Retention Trade-Off

Authors: Sorcha Bennett, Joe Sullivan

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Triple-Level Cell (TLC) NAND Flash memory at, and below, 20nm (nanometer) is still largely unexplored by researchers, and with the ever more commonplace existence of Flash in consumer and enterprise applications there is a need for such gaps in knowledge to be filled. At the time of writing, there was little published data or literature on TLC, and more specifically reliability testing, with a further emphasis on both endurance and retention. This paper will give an introduction to NAND Flash memory, followed by an overview of the relevant current research on the reliability of Flash memory, along with the planned future work which will provide results to help characterise the reliability of TLC memory.

Keywords: endurance, patterns, raw flash, reliability, retention, TLC NAND flash memory, trade-off

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144 Constellating Images: Bilderatlases as a Tool to Develop Criticality towards Visual Culture

Authors: Quirijn Menken

Abstract:

Menken, Q. Author  Constellating Images Abstract—We live in a predominantly visual era. Vastly expanded quantities of imagery influence us on a daily basis, in contrast to earlier days where the textual prevailed. The increasing producing and reproducing of images continuously compete for our attention. As such, how we perceive images and in what way images are framed or mediate our beliefs, has become of even greater importance than ever before. Especially in art education a critical awareness and approach of images as part of visual culture is of utmost importance. The Bilderatlas operates as a mediation, and offers new Ways of Seeing and knowing. It is mainly known as result of the ground-breaking work of the cultural theorist Aby Warburg, who intended to present an art history without words. His Mnemosyne Bilderatlas shows how the arrangement of images - and the interstices between them, offers new perspectives and ways of seeing. The Atlas as a medium to critically address Visual Culture is also practiced by the German artist Gerhard Richter, and it is in written form used in the Passagen Werk of Walter Benjamin. In order to examine the use of the Bilderatlas as a tool in art education, several experiments with art students have been conducted. These experiments have lead to an exploration of different Pedagogies, which help to offer new perspectives and trajectories of learning. To use the Bilderatlas as a tool to develop criticality towards Visual Culture, I developed and tested a new pedagogy; a Pedagogy of Difference and Repetition, based on the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. Furthermore, in offering a new pedagogy - based on the rhizomatic work of Gilles Deleuze – the Bilderatlas as a tool to develop criticality has found a firm basis. Keywords—Art Education, Walter Benjamin, Bilderatlas, Gilles Deleuze, Difference and Repetition, Pedagogy, Rhizomes, Visual Culture,

Keywords: Art Education, Bilderatlas, Pedagogy, Aby Warburg

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143 Optics Meets Microfluidics for Highly Sensitive Force Sensing

Authors: Iliya Dimitrov Stoev, Benjamin Seelbinder, Elena Erben, Nicola Maghelli, Moritz Kreysing

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Despite the revolutionizing impact of optical tweezers in materials science and cell biology up to the present date, trapping has so far extensively relied on specific material properties of the probe and local heating has limited applications related to investigating dynamic processes within living systems. To overcome these limitations while maintaining high sensitivity, here we present a new optofluidic approach that can be used to gently trap microscopic particles and measure femtoNewton forces in a contact-free manner and with thermally limited precision.

Keywords: optofluidics, force measurements, microrheology, FLUCS, thermoviscous flows

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142 Mechanical Characterization of Banana by Inverse Analysis Method Combined with Indentation Test

Authors: Juan F. P. Ramírez, Jésica A. L. Isaza, Benjamín A. Rojano

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This study proposes a novel use of a method to determine the mechanical properties of fruits by the use of the indentation tests. The method combines experimental results with a numerical finite elements model. The results presented correspond to a simplified numerical modeling of banana. The banana was assumed as one-layer material with an isotropic linear elastic mechanical behavior, the Young’s modulus found is 0.3Mpa. The method will be extended to multilayer models in further studies.

Keywords: finite element method, fruits, inverse analysis, mechanical properties

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141 Identity-Based Encryption: A Comparison of Leading Classical and Post-Quantum Implementations in an Enterprise Setting

Authors: Emily Stamm, Neil Smyth, Elizabeth O'Sullivan

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In Identity-Based Encryption (IBE), an identity, such as a username, email address, or domain name, acts as the public key. IBE consolidates the PKI by eliminating the repetitive process of requesting public keys for each message encryption. Two of the most popular schemes are Sakai-Kasahara (SAKKE), which is based on elliptic curve pairings, and the Ducas, Lyubashevsky, and Prest lattice scheme (DLP- Lattice), which is based on quantum-secure lattice cryptography. In or- der to embed the schemes in a standard enterprise setting, both schemes are implemented as shared system libraries and integrated into a REST service that functions at the enterprise level. The performance of both schemes as libraries and services is compared, and the practicalities of implementation and application are discussed. Our performance results indicate that although SAKKE has the smaller key and ciphertext sizes, DLP-Lattice is significantly faster overall and we recommend it for most enterprise use cases.

Keywords: identity-based encryption, post-quantum cryptography, lattice-based cryptography, IBE

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140 Application of Modulo-2 Arithmetic in Securing Communicated Messages throughout the Globe

Authors: Ejd Garba, Okike Benjamin

Abstract:

Today, the word encryption has become very popular even among non-computer professionals. There is no doubt that some works have been carried out in this area, but more works need to be done. Presently, most of the works on encryption is concentrated on the sender of the message without paying any attention to the message recipient. However, it is a good practice if any message sent to someone is received by the particular person whom the message is sent to. This work seeks to ensure that at the receiving end of the message, there is a security to ensure that the recipient computes a key that would enable the encrypted message to be accessed. This key would be in form of password. This would make it possible for a given message to be sent to several people at the same time. When this happens, it is only those people who computes the key correctly that would be given the opportunity to access even the encrypted message, which can in turn be decrypted using the appropriate key.

Keywords: arithmetic, cyber space, modulo-2, information security

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139 Comparative Studies of Modified Clay/Polyaniline Nanocomposites

Authors: Fatima Zohra Zeggai, Benjamin Carbonnier, Aïcha Hachemaoui, Ahmed Yahiaoui, Samia Mahouche-Chergui, Zakaria Salmi

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A series of polyaniline (PANI)/modified Montmorillonite (MMT) Clay nanocomposite materials have been successfully prepared by In-Situ polymerization in the presence of modified MMT-Clay or Diazonium-MMT-Clay. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized and compared by various physicochemical techniques. The presence of physicochemical interaction, probably hydrogen bonding, between clay and polyaniline, which was confirmed by FTIR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of neat PANI and a series of the obtained nanocomposites were also studied by cyclic voltammograms.

Keywords: polyaniline, clay, nanocomposites, in-situ polymerization, polymers conductors, diazonium salt

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138 Metrics and Methods for Improving Resilience in Agribusiness Supply Chains

Authors: Golnar Behzadi, Michael O'Sullivan, Tava Olsen, Abraham Zhang

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By definition, increasing supply chain resilience improves the supply chain’s ability to return to normal, or to an even more desirable situation, quickly and efficiently after being hit by a disruption. This is especially critical in agribusiness supply chains where the products are perishable and have a short life-cycle. In this paper, we propose a resilience metric to capture and improve the recovery process in terms of both performance and time, of an agribusiness supply chain following either supply or demand-side disruption. We build a model that determines optimal supply chain recovery planning decisions and selects the best resilient strategies that minimize the loss of profit during the recovery time window. The model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem and solved with a branch-and-cut algorithm. The results show that the optimal recovery schedule is highly dependent on the duration of the time-window allowed for recovery. In addition, the profit loss during recovery is reduced by utilizing the proposed resilient actions.

Keywords: agribusiness supply chain, recovery, resilience metric, risk management

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137 A Correlational Study: Dark Triad and Self-Restraint among Criminology Students

Authors: Mary Heather Lee T. Walker, Audilon Benjamin Madamba, Mizheal Vstrechnny Vidal, Rogelio Angeles, John Rhey Banag, Lorraine Martin

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Criminology students are the future police officers of the country that plays a major role in protecting the citizens. Their behavior must be thoroughly assessed before given a badge of responsibility. Therefore, it is important to highlight their Dark Triad that is composed of Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy which are considered to be controversial variables in the present while self-restraint is considered to be their way of controlling themselves especially in their line of work. The researchers used convenience and random sampling and found the respondents from a private school. Thus, the study’s aim is to determine whether there is a relationship among these variables. Machiavellianism and Psychopathy is linked to Self-Restraint except Narcissism. There are lots of factors that resulted into this.

Keywords: criminology, dark triad, self-restraint, students

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136 Planning of Construction Material Flow Using Hybrid Simulation Modeling

Authors: A. M. Naraghi, V. Gonzalez, M. O'Sullivan, C. G. Walker, M. Poshdar, F. Ying, M. Abdelmegid

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Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Agent Based Simulation (ABS) are two simulation approaches that have been proposed to support decision-making in the construction industry. Despite the wide use of these simulation approaches in the construction field, their applications for production and material planning is still limited. This is largely due to the dynamic and complex nature of construction material supply chain systems. Moreover, managing the flow of construction material is not well integrated with site logistics in traditional construction planning methods. This paper presents a hybrid of DES and ABS to simulate on-site and off-site material supply processes. DES is applied to determine the best production scenarios with information of on-site production systems, while ABS is used to optimize the supply chain network. A case study of a construction piling project in New Zealand is presented illustrating the potential benefits of using the proposed hybrid simulation model in construction material flow planning. The hybrid model presented can be used to evaluate the impact of different decisions on construction supply chain management.

Keywords: construction supply-chain management, simulation modeling, decision-support tools, hybrid simulation

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135 Misleading Node Detection and Response Mechanism in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

Authors: Earleen Jane Fuentes, Regeene Melarese Lim, Franklin Benjamin Tapia, Alexis Pantola

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Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is an infrastructure-less network of mobile devices, also known as nodes. These nodes heavily rely on each other’s resources such as memory, computing power, and energy. Thus, some nodes may become selective in forwarding packets so as to conserve their resources. These nodes are called misleading nodes. Several reputation-based techniques (e.g. CORE, CONFIDANT, LARS, SORI, OCEAN) and acknowledgment-based techniques (e.g. TWOACK, S-TWOACK, EAACK) have been proposed to detect such nodes. These techniques do not appropriately punish misleading nodes. Hence, this paper addresses the limitations of these techniques using a system called MINDRA.

Keywords: acknowledgment-based techniques, mobile ad-hoc network, selfish nodes, reputation-based techniques

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134 Poetry as Valuable Tool for Tackling Climate Change and Environmental Pollution

Authors: Benjamin Anabaraonye

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Our environment is our entitlement, and it is our duty to guard it for the safety of our society. It is, therefore, in our best interest to explore the necessary tools required to tackle the issues of environmental pollution which are major causes of climate change. Poetry has been discovered through our study as a valuable tool for tackling climate change and environmental pollution. This study explores the science of poetry and how important it is for scientists and engineers to develop their creativity to obtain relevant skills needed to tackle these global challenges. Poetry has been discovered as a great tool for climate change education which in turn brings about climate change adaptation and mitigation. This paper is, therefore, a clarion and urgent call for us to rise to our responsibility for a sustainable future.

Keywords: climate change, education, environment, poetry

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133 Evaluating 8D Reports Using Text-Mining

Authors: Benjamin Kuester, Bjoern Eilert, Malte Stonis, Ludger Overmeyer

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Increasing quality requirements make reliable and effective quality management indispensable. This includes the complaint handling in which the 8D method is widely used. The 8D report as a written documentation of the 8D method is one of the key quality documents as it internally secures the quality standards and acts as a communication medium to the customer. In practice, however, the 8D report is mostly faulty and of poor quality. There is no quality control of 8D reports today. This paper describes the use of natural language processing for the automated evaluation of 8D reports. Based on semantic analysis and text-mining algorithms the presented system is able to uncover content and formal quality deficiencies and thus increases the quality of the complaint processing in the long term.

Keywords: 8D report, complaint management, evaluation system, text-mining

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132 Model Estimation and Error Level for Okike’s Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher

Authors: Okike Benjamin, Garba E. J. D.

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The researcher has developed a new encryption technique known as Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher. In this cipher method of encryption, a message to be encrypted is split into parts and each part encrypted separately. Before the encrypted message is transmitted to the recipient(s), the positions of the split in the encrypted messages could be swapped to ensure more security. This work seeks to develop a model by considering the split number, S and the average number of characters per split, L as the message under consideration is split from 2 through 10. Again, after developing the model, the error level in the model would be determined.

Keywords: merged irregular transposition, error level, model estimation, message splitting

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131 Development of Enhanced Data Encryption Standard

Authors: Benjamin Okike

Abstract:

There is a need to hide information along the superhighway. Today, information relating to the survival of individuals, organizations, or government agencies is transmitted from one point to another. Adversaries are always on the watch along the superhighway to intercept any information that would enable them to inflict psychological ‘injuries’ to their victims. But with information encryption, this can be prevented completely or at worst reduced to the barest minimum. There is no doubt that so many encryption techniques have been proposed, and some of them are already being implemented. However, adversaries always discover loopholes on them to perpetuate their evil plans. In this work, we propose the enhanced data encryption standard (EDES) that would deploy randomly generated numbers as an encryption method. Each time encryption is to be carried out, a new set of random numbers would be generated, thereby making it almost impossible for cryptanalysts to decrypt any information encrypted with this newly proposed method.

Keywords: encryption, enhanced data encryption, encryption techniques, information security

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130 A Security Study for Smart Metering Systems

Authors: Musaab Hasan, Farkhund Iqbal, Patrick C. K. Hung, Benjamin C. M. Fung, Laura Rafferty

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In modern societies, the smart cities concept raised simultaneously with the projection towards adopting smart devices. A smart grid is an essential part of any smart city as both consumers and power utility companies benefit from the features provided by the power grid. In addition to advanced features presented by smart grids, there may also be a risk when the grids are exposed to malicious acts such as security attacks performed by terrorists. Considering advanced security measures in the design of smart meters could reduce these risks. This paper presents a security study for smart metering systems with a prototype implementation of the user interfaces for future works.

Keywords: security design, smart city, smart meter, smart grid, smart metering system

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129 Reliability of Eyewitness Statements in Fire and Explosion Investigations

Authors: Jeff Colwell, Benjamin Knox

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While fire and explosion incidents are often observed by eyewitnesses, the weight that fire investigators should place on those observations in their investigations is a complex issue. There is no doubt that eyewitness statements can be an important component to an investigation, particularly when other evidence is sparse, as is often the case when damage to the scene is severe. However, it is well known that eyewitness statements can be incorrect for a variety of reasons, including deception. In this paper, we reviewed factors that can have an effect on the complex processes associated with the perception, retention, and retrieval of an event. We then review the accuracy of eyewitness statements from unique criminal and civil incidents, including fire and explosion incidents, in which the accuracy of the statements could be independently evaluated. Finally, the motives for deceptive eyewitness statements are described, along with techniques that fire and explosion investigators can employ, to increase the accuracy of the eyewitness statements that they solicit.

Keywords: fire, explosion, eyewitness, reliability

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128 Community Based Participatory Research in Opioid Use: Design of an Informatics Solution

Authors: Sue S. Feldman, Bradley Tipper, Benjamin Schooley

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Nearly every community in the US has been impacted by opioid related addictions/deaths; it is a national problem that is threatening our social and economic welfare. Most believe that tackling this problem from a prevention perspective advances can be made toward breaking the chain of addiction. One mechanism, community based participatory research, involves the community in the prevention approach. This project combines that approach with a design science approach to develop an integrated solution. Findings suggested accountable care communities, transpersonal psychology, and social exchange theory as product kernel theories. Evaluation was conducted on a prototype.

Keywords: substance use and abuse recovery, community resource centers, accountable care communities, community based participatory research

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127 Pattern in Splitting Sequence in Okike’s Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher for Encrypting Cyberspace Messages

Authors: Okike Benjamin, E. J. D. Garba

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The protection of sensitive information against unauthorized access or fraudulent changes has been of prime concern throughout the centuries. Modern communication techniques, using computers connected through networks, make all data even more vulnerable to these threats. The researchers in this work propose a new encryption technique to be known as Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher. In this proposed encryption technique, a message to be encrypted will first of all be split into multiple parts depending on the length of the message. After the split, different keywords are chosen to encrypt different parts of the message. After encrypting all parts of the message, the positions of the encrypted message could be swapped to other position thereby making it very difficult to decrypt by any unauthorized user.

Keywords: information security, message splitting, pattern, sequence

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126 Predicting the Uniaxial Strength Distribution of Brittle Materials Based on a Uniaxial Test

Authors: Benjamin Sonnenreich

Abstract:

Brittle fracture failure probability is best described using a stochastic approach which is based on the 'weakest link concept' and the connection between a microstructure and macroscopic fracture scale. A general theoretical and experimental framework is presented to predict the uniaxial strength distribution according to independent uniaxial test data. The framework takes as input the applied stresses, the geometry, the materials, the defect distributions and the relevant random variables from uniaxial test results and gives as output an overall failure probability that can be used to improve the reliability of practical designs. Additionally, the method facilitates comparisons of strength data from several sources, uniaxial tests, and sample geometries.

Keywords: brittle fracture, strength distribution, uniaxial, weakest link concept

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125 Determination of Complexity Level in Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher

Authors: Okike Benjamin, Garba Ejd

Abstract:

Today, it has been observed security of information along the superhighway is often compromised by those who are not authorized to have access to such information. In order to ensure the security of information along the superhighway, such information should be encrypted by some means to conceal the real meaning of the information. There are many encryption techniques out there in the market. However, some of these encryption techniques are often easily decrypted by adversaries. The researcher has decided to develop an encryption technique that may be more difficult to decrypt. This may be achieved by splitting the message to be encrypted into parts and encrypting each part separately and swapping the positions before transmitting the message along the superhighway. The method is termed Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher. Also, the research would determine the complexity level in respect to the number of splits of the message.

Keywords: transposition cipher, merged irregular cipher, encryption, complexity level

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124 Isothermal Solid-Phase Amplification System for Detection of Yersinia pestis

Authors: Olena Mayboroda, Angel Gonzalez Benito, Jonathan Sabate Del Rio, Marketa Svobodova, Sandra Julich, Herbert Tomaso, Ciara K. O'Sullivan, Ioanis Katakis

Abstract:

DNA amplification is required for most molecular diagnostic applications but conventional PCR has disadvantages for field testing. Isothermal amplification techniques are being developed to respond to this problem. One of them is the Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) that operates at isothermal conditions without sacrificing specificity and sensitivity in easy-to-use formats. In this work RPA was used for the optical detection of solid-phase amplification of the potential biowarfare agent Yersinia pestis. Thiolated forward primers were immobilized on the surface of maleimide-activated microtitre plates for the quantitative detection of synthetic and genomic DNA, with elongation occurring only in the presence of the specific template DNA and solution phase reverse primers. Quantitative detection was achieved via the use of biotinylated reverse primers and post-amplification addition of streptavidin-HRP conjugate. The overall time of amplification and detection was less than 1 hour at a constant temperature of 37oC. Single-stranded and double-stranded DNA sequences were detected achieving detection limits of 4.04*10-13 M and 3.14*10-16 M, respectively. The system demonstrated high specificity with negligible responses to non-specific targets.

Keywords: recombinase polymerase amplification, Yersinia pestis, solid-phase detection, ELONA

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123 Deployment of Matrix Transpose in Digital Image Encryption

Authors: Okike Benjamin, Garba E J. D.

Abstract:

Encryption is used to conceal information from prying eyes. Presently, information and data encryption are common due to the volume of data and information in transit across the globe on daily basis. Image encryption is yet to receive the attention of the researchers as deserved. In other words, video and multimedia documents are exposed to unauthorized accessors. The authors propose image encryption using matrix transpose. An algorithm that would allow image encryption is developed. In this proposed image encryption technique, the image to be encrypted is split into parts based on the image size. Each part is encrypted separately using matrix transpose. The actual encryption is on the picture elements (pixel) that make up the image. After encrypting each part of the image, the positions of the encrypted images are swapped before transmission of the image can take place. Swapping the positions of the images is carried out to make the encrypted image more robust for any cryptanalyst to decrypt.

Keywords: image encryption, matrices, pixel, matrix transpose

Procedia PDF Downloads 283