Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: spasticity

16 Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy versus Functional Electrical Stimulation on Spasticity, Function and Gait Parameters in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Mohamed A. Eid, Sobhy M. Aly

Abstract:

Background: About 75% of children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy walk independently, but most still show abnormal gait patterns because of contractures across the joints and muscle spasticity. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) versus functional electrical stimulation (FES) on spasticity, function, and gait parameters in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: A randomized controlled trail was conducted for 45 children with hemiplegic CP ranging in age from 6 to 9 years. They were assigned randomly using opaque envelopes into three groups. Physical Therapy (PT) group consisted of 15 children and received the conventional physical therapy program (CPTP) in addition to ankle foot orthosis (AFO). ESWT group consisted of 15 children and received the CPTP, AFO in addition to ESWT. FES group also consisted of 15 children and received the CPTP, AFO in addition to FES. All groups received the program of treatment 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Evaluation of spasticity by using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), function by using the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI) and gait parameters by using the 3-D gait analysis was conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks of the treatment program. Results: Within groups, significant improvements in spasticity, function, and gait (P = 0.05) were observed in both ESWT and FES groups after treatment. While between groups, ESWT group showed significant improvements in all measured variables compared with FES and PT groups (P ˂ 0.05) after treatment. Conclusion: ESWT induced significant improvement than FES in decreasing spasticity and improving function and gait in children with hemiplegic CP. Therefore, ESWT should be included as an adjunctive therapy in the rehabilitation program of these children.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, functional electrical stimulation, function, gait, spasticity

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15 Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in Alleviating Pain Syndrome in Stroke Patients with Upper Limb Spasticity

Authors: Akulov M. A., Zaharov V. O., Jurishhev P. E., Tomskij A. A.

Abstract:

Introduction: Spasticity is a severe consequence of stroke, leading to profound disability, decreased quality of life and decrease of rehabilitation efficacy [4]. Spasticity is often associated with pain syndrome, arising from joint damage of paretic limbs (postural arthropathy) or painful spasm of paretic limb muscles. It is generally accepted that injection of botulinum toxin into a cramped muscle leads to decrease of muscle tone and improves motion range in paretic limb, which is accompanied by pain alleviation. Study aim: To evaluate the change in pain syndrome intensity after incections of botulinum toxin A (Xeomin) in stroke patients with upper limb spasticity. Patients and methods. 21 patients aged 47-74 years were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were: acute stroke 4-7 months before the inclusion into the study, leading to spasticity of wrist and/or finger flexors, elbow flexor or forearm pronator, associated with severe pain syndrome. Patients received Xeomin as monotherapy 90-300 U, according to spasticity pattern. Efficacy evaluation was performed using Ashworth scale, disability assessment scale (DAS), caregiver burden scale and global treatment benefit assessment on weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12. Efficacy criterion was the decrease of pain syndrome by week 4 on PQLS and VAS. Results: The study revealed a significant improvement of measured indices after 4 weeks of treatment, which persisted until the 12 week of treatment. Xeomin is effective in reducing muscle tone of flexors of wrist, fingers and elbow, forearm pronators. By the 4th week of treatment we observed a significant improvement on DAS (р < 0,05), Ashworth scale (1-2 points) in all patients (р < 0,05), caregiver burden scale (р < 0,05). A significant decrease of pain syndrome by the 4th week of treatment on PQLS (р < 0,05) и VAS (р < 0,05) was observed. No adverse effect were registered. Conclusion: Xeomin is an effective treatment of pain syndrome in postural upper limb spasticity after stroke. Xeomin treatment leads to a significant improvement on PQLS and VAS.

Keywords: botulinum toxin, pain syndrome, spasticity, stroke

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14 Effect of Nitrogen-Based Cryotherapy on the Calf Muscle Spasticity in Stroke Patients

Authors: Engi E. I. Sarhan, Usama M. Rashad, Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda, Mohammed K. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: This study aimed to know the effect of nitrogen-based cryotherapy on the spasticity of calf muscle in stroke patients. Patients were selected from the outpatient clinic of Neurology, Al-Mansoura general hospital, Al-Mansoura University. Subjects and methods: Thirty Stroke Patients of both sexes ranged from 45 to 60 years old were divided randomly into two equal groups, a study group (A) received a nitrogen-based cryotherapy, a selective physical therapy program and ankle foot orthosis (AFO), while as patients in control group (B) received the same program and AFO only. The treatment duration was three times per week for four weeks for both groups. We assessed spasticity of calf muscle before and after treatment subjectively using modified Ashworth scale (MAS) and objectively via measuring H / M ratio on electromyography machine. We also assessed ankle dorsiflexion ROM objectively using two dimensions motion analysis (2D). Results: After treatment, there was a highly significant improvement in the study group compared to the control group regarding the score of MAS, no significant difference in the study group compared to the control group regarding the readings of H / M ratio, highly significant improvement in the study group compared to the control group regarding the 2D motion analysis findings. Conclusion: This modality considers effective in reducing spasticity in the calf muscle and improving ankle dorsiflexion of the affected limb.

Keywords: ankle foot orthosis, nitrogen-based cryotherapy, stroke, spasticity

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13 Investigating the Dynamic Plantar Pressure Distribution in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Hilal Keklicek, Baris Cetin, Yeliz Salci, Ayla Fil, Umut Altinkaynak, Kadriye Armutlu

Abstract:

Objectives and Goals: Spasticity is a common symptom characterized with a velocity dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes (muscle tone) in patient with multiple sclerosis (MS). Hypertonic muscles affect the normal plantigrade contact by disturbing accommodation of foot to the ground while walking. It is important to know the differences between healthy and neurologic foot features for management of spasticity related deformities and/or determination of rehabilitation purposes and contents. This study was planned with the aim of investigating the dynamic plantar pressure distribution in individuals with MS and determining the differences between healthy individuals (HI). Methods: Fifty-five individuals with MS (108 foot with spasticity according to Modified Ashworth Scale) and 20 HI (40 foot) were the participants of the study. The dynamic pedobarograph was utilized for evaluation of dynamic loading parameters. Participants were informed to walk at their self-selected speed for seven times to eliminate learning effect. The parameters were divided into 2 categories including; maximum loading pressure (N/cm2) and time of maximum pressure (ms) were collected from heal medial, heal lateral, mid foot, heads of first, second, third, fourth and fifth metatarsal bones. Results: There were differences between the groups in maximum loading pressure of heal medial (p < .001), heal lateral (p < .001), midfoot (p=.041) and 5th metatarsal areas (p=.036). Also, there were differences between the groups the time of maximum pressure of all metatarsal areas, midfoot, heal medial and heal lateral (p < .001) in favor of HI. Conclusions: The study provided basic data about foot pressure distribution in individuals with MS. Results of the study primarily showed that spasticity of lower extremity muscle disrupted the posteromedial foot loading. Secondarily, according to the study result, spasticity lead to inappropriate timing during load transfer from hind foot to forefoot.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, plantar pressure distribution, gait, norm values

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12 Effects of Virtual Reality on the Upper Extremity Spasticity and Motor Function in Patients with Stroke: A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar, S. Hossein Hosseini, Omid Seyed Esmaeili, Rouzbeh Kezemi, Noushin Mehrbod, Nazanin Vahed, Tahereh Hajiahmad, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari

Abstract:

Background: Stroke is a disabling neurological disease. Rehabilitative therapies are important treatment methods. This clinical trial was done to compare the effects of VR beside conventional rehabilitation versus conventional rehabilitation alone on spasticity and motor function in stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In this open-label randomized controlled clinical trial, 40 consecutive patients with stable first-ever ischemic stroke in the past three to 12 months that were referred to a rehabilitation clinic in Tehran, Iran, in 2020 were enrolled. After signing the informed written consent form, subjects were randomly assigned by block randomization of five in each block as cases with 1:1 into two groups of 20 cases; conventional plus VR therapy group: 45-minute conventional therapy session plus 15-minute VR therapy, and conventional group: 60-minute conventional therapy session. VR rehabilitation is designed and developed with different stages. Outcomes were modified Ashworth scale, recovery stage score for motor function, range of motion (ROM) of shoulder abduction/wrist extension, and patients’ satisfaction rate. Data were compared after study termination. Results: The satisfaction rate among the patients was significantly better in the combination group (P=0.003). Only wrist extension was varied between groups and was better in the combination group. The variables generally had a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Virtual reality plus conventional rehabilitation therapy is superior versus conventional rehabilitation alone on the wrist and elbow spasticity and motor function in patients with stroke.

Keywords: stroke, virtual therapy, rehabilitation, treatment

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11 A Questionnaire-Based Survey: Therapists Response towards Upper Limb Disorder Learning Tool

Authors: Noor Ayuni Che Zakaria, Takashi Komeda, Cheng Yee Low, Kaoru Inoue, Fazah Akhtar Hanapiah

Abstract:

Previous studies have shown that there are arguments regarding the reliability and validity of the Ashworth and Modified Ashworth Scale towards evaluating patients diagnosed with upper limb disorders. These evaluations depended on the raters’ experiences. This initiated us to develop an upper limb disorder part-task trainer that is able to simulate consistent upper limb disorders, such as spasticity and rigidity signs, based on the Modified Ashworth Scale to improve the variability occurring between raters and intra-raters themselves. By providing consistent signs, novice therapists would be able to increase training frequency and exposure towards various levels of signs. A total of 22 physiotherapists and occupational therapists participated in the study. The majority of the therapists agreed that with current therapy education, they still face problems with inter-raters and intra-raters variability (strongly agree 54%; n = 12/22, agree 27%; n = 6/22) in evaluating patients’ conditions. The therapists strongly agreed (72%; n = 16/22) that therapy trainees needed to increase their frequency of training; therefore believe that our initiative to develop an upper limb disorder training tool will help in improving the clinical education field (strongly agree and agree 63%; n = 14/22).

Keywords: upper limb disorder, clinical education tool, inter/intra-raters variability, spasticity, modified Ashworth scale

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10 Does Mirror Therapy Improve Motor Recovery After Stroke? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Hassan Abo Salem, Guo Feng, Xiaolin Huang

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy on motor recovery and functional abilities after stroke. The following databases were searched from inception to May 2014: Cochrane Stroke, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently screened and selected all randomized controlled trials that evaluate the effect of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation.12 randomized controlled trials studies met the inclusion criteria; 10 studies utilized the effect of mirror therapy for the upper limb and 2 studies for the lower limb. Mirror therapy had a positive effect on motor recover and function; however, we found no consistent influence on activity of daily living, Spasticity and balance. This meta-analysis suggests that, Mirror therapy has additional effect on motor recovery but has a small positive effect on functional abilities after stroke. Further high-quality studies with greater statistical power are required in order to accurately determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy following stroke.

Keywords: mirror therapy, motor recovery, stroke, balance

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9 Modeling of a Pendulum Test Including Skin and Muscles under Compression

Authors: M. J. Kang, Y. N. Jo, H. H. Yoo

Abstract:

Pendulum tests were used to identify a stretch reflex and diagnose spasticity. Some researches tried to make a mathematical model to simulate the motions. Thighs are subject to compressive forces due to gravity during a pendulum test. Therefore, it affects knee trajectories. However, the most studies on the pendulum tests did not consider that conditions. We used Kelvin-Voight model as compression model of skin and muscles. In this study, we investigated viscoelastic behaviors of skin and muscles using gelatin blocks from experiments of the vibration of the compliantly supported beam. Then we calculated a dynamic stiffness and loss factors from the experiment and estimated a damping coefficient of the model. We also did pendulum tests of human lower limbs to validate the stiffness and damping coefficient of a skin model. To simulate the pendulum motion, we derive equations of motion. We used stretch reflex activation model to estimate muscle forces induced by the stretch reflex. To validate the results, we compared the activation with electromyography signals during experiments. The compression behavior of skin and muscles in this study can be applied to analyze sitting posture as wee as developing surgical techniques.

Keywords: Kelvin-Voight model, pendulum test, skin and muscles under compression, stretch reflex

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8 A Literature Review on Bladder Management in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Elif Ates, Naile Bilgili

Abstract:

Background: One of the most important medical complications that individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face are the neurogenic bladder. Objectives: To review methods used for management of neurogenic bladder and their effects. Methods: The study was conducted by searching CINAHL, Ebscohost, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, Web of Science, and ULAKBİM National Databases for studies published between 2005 and 2015. Key words used during the search included ‘spinal cord injury’, ‘bladder injury’, ‘nursing care’, ‘catheterization’ and ‘intermittent urinary catheter’. After examination of 551 studies, 21 studies which met inclusion criteria were included in the review. Results: Mean age of individuals in all study samples was 42 years. The most commonly used bladder management method was clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Compliance with CIC was found to be significantly related to spasticity, maximum cystometric capacity, and the person performing catheterization (p < .05). The main reason for changing the existing bladder management method was urinary tract infections (UTI). Individuals who performed CIC by themselves and who voided spontaneously had better life quality. Patient age, occupation status and whether they performed CIC by themselves or not were found to be significantly associated with depression level (p ≤ .05). Conclusion: As the most commonly used method for bladder management, CIC is a reliable and effective method, and reduces the risk of UTI development. Individuals with neurogenic bladder have a higher prevalence of depression symptoms than the normal population.

Keywords: bladder management, catheterization, nursing, spinal cord injury

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7 Designing and Using a 3-D Printed Dynamic Upper Extremity Orthosis (DUEO) with Children with Cerebral Palsy and Severe Upper Extremity Involvement

Authors: Justin Lee, Siraj Shaikh, Alice Chu MD

Abstract:

Children with cerebral palsy (CP) commonly present with upper extremity impairment, affecting one or both extremities, and are classified using the Manual Ability Classification Scale (MACS). The MACS defines bimanual hand abilities for children ages 4-18 years in everyday tasks and is a gradient scale, with I being nearly normal and V requiring total assistance. Children with more severe upper extremity impairment (MACS III-V) are often underrepresented, and relatively few effective therapies have been identified for these patients. Current orthoses are static and are only meant to prevent the progression of contractures in these patients. Other limitations include cost, comfort, accessibility, and longevity of the orthoses. Taking advantage of advances in 3D printing technology, we have created a highly customizable upper extremity orthotic that can be produced at a low cost. Iterations in our design have resulted in an orthotic that is custom fit to the patient based on scans of their arm, made of rigid polymer when needed to provide support, flexible material where appropriate to allow for comfort, and designed with a mechanical pulley system to allow for some functional use of the arm while in the orthotic. Preliminary data has shown that our orthotic can be built at a fraction of the cost of current orthoses and provide clinically significant improvement in assisting hand assessment (AHA) and pediatric quality of life scores (PedsQL).

Keywords: upper extremity orthosis, upper extremity, orthosis, 3-D printing, cerebral palsy, occupational therapy, spasticity, customizable

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6 Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Acupoints in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Blood Glucose Analysis

Authors: Asif Arsalan

Abstract:

The mortality rate of type 2 diabetes increasing day by day at an alarming rate. Changing lifestyle and environment have contributory effect in increase rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study introduces a new method in physiotherapy field of treating a disease like diabetes, and gives the new way to control the diabetes without medicines.50 patients were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria and were assigned to receive either TENS (group A) on the bilateral ST36 acupoints at a frequency of 25 Hz with intensity of 9 mA or placebo (group B) treatment for 5 minutes for 7 days. The blood glucose level was measured at both pre and post stimulation. Stimulation was given after 3 hours of food on every day regularly on stipulated time.There was significant improvement (P<0.05) in random blood sugar level of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been found TENS on bilateral ST36 acupoints have an effect to control plasma glucose level for type 2 diabetic mellitus patients and can be used without having any side effect. This study gives new idea to treat the type 2 diabetes conservatively with the TENS. As there are some study that TENS had been used to treat nausea, spasticity etc. condition by stimulating the acupoint but it is the very first time that TENS has been used to treat diabetes like disease. This study help the physiotherapy community to spread the physiotherapy treatment in other branches of the medical field and this gives a new identity for the physiotherapy. This also gives the benefit to patients to take a safe and cost effective treatment for the diabetes, and make the new use of TENS to treat other condition rather than pain.

Keywords: acupoint, plasma glucose level, type 2 diabetic mellitus, TENS

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5 Design and Construction of a Device to Facilitate the Stretching of a Plantiflexors Muscles in the Therapy of Rehabilitation for Patients with Spastic Hemiplegia

Authors: Nathalia Andrea Calderon Lesmes, Eduardo Barragan Parada, Diego Fernando Villegas Bermudez

Abstract:

Spasticity in the plantiflexor muscles as a product of stroke (CVA-Cerebrovascular accident) restricts the mobility and independence of the affected people. Commonly, physiotherapists are in charge of manually performing the rehabilitation therapy known as Sustained Mechanical Stretching, rotating the affected foot of the patient in the sagittal plane. However, this causes a physical wear on the professional because it is a fatiguing movement. In this article, a mechanical device is developed to implement this rehabilitation therapy more efficiently. The device consists of a worm-crown mechanism that is driven by a crank to gradually rotate a platform in the sagittal plane of the affected foot, in order to achieve dorsiflexion. The device has a range of sagittal rotation up to 150° and has velcro located on the footplate that secures the foot. The design of this device was modeled by using CAD software and was checked structurally with a general purpose finite element software to be sure that the device is safe for human use. As a measurement system, a goniometer is used in the lateral part of the device and load cells are used to measure the force in order to determine the opposing torque exerted by the muscle. Load cells sensitivity is 1.8 ± 0.002 and has a repeatability of 0.03. Validation of the effectiveness of the device is measured by reducing the opposition torque and increasing mobility for a given patient. In this way, with a more efficient therapy, an improvement in the recovery of the patient's mobility and therefore in their quality of life can be achieved.

Keywords: biomechanics, mechanical device, plantiflexor muscles, rehabilitation, spastic hemiplegia, sustained mechanical stretching

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4 Portable Palpation Probe for Diabetic Foot Ulceration Monitoring

Authors: Bummo Ahn

Abstract:

Palpation is widely used to measure soft tissue firmness or stiffness in the living condition in order to apply detection, diagnosis, and treatment of tumors, scar tissue, abnormal muscle tone, or muscle spasticity. Since these methods are subjective and depend on the proficiency level, it is concluded that there are other diagnoses depending on the condition of the experts and the results are not objective. The mechanical property obtained by using the elasticity of the tissue is important to calculate a predictive variable for monitoring abnormal tissues. If the mechanical load such as reaction force on the foot increases in the same region under the same conditions, the mechanical property of the tissue is changed. Therefore, objective diagnosis is possible not only for experts but also for patients using this quantitative information. Furthermore, the portable system also allows non-experts to easily diagnose at home, not in hospitals or institutions. In this paper, we introduce a portable palpation system that can be used to measure the mechanical properties of human tissue, which can be applied to monitor diabetic foot ulceration patients with measuring the mechanical property change of foot tissue. The system was designed to be smaller and portable in comparison with the conventional palpation systems. It is consists of the probe, the force sensor, linear actuator, micro control unit, the display module, battery, and housing. Using this system, we performed validation experiments by applying different palpations (3 and 5 mm) to soft tissue (silicone rubber) and measured reaction forces. In addition, we estimated the elastic moduli of the soft tissue against different palpations and compare the estimated elastic moduli that show similar value even if the palpation depths are different.

Keywords: palpation probe, portable, diabetic foot ulceration, monitoring, mechanical property

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3 Neuron Point-of-Care Stem Cell Therapy: Intrathecal Transplant of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: F. Ruiz-Navarro, M. Matzner, G. Kobinia

Abstract:

Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) encompasses the largest group of childhood movement disorders, the patterns and severity varies widely. Today, the management focuses only on a rehabilitation therapy that tries to secure the functions remained and prevents complications. However the treatments are not aimed to cure the disease. Stem cells (SCs) transplant via intrathecal is a new approach to the disease. Method: Our aim was to performed a pilot study under the condition of unproven treatment on clinical practice to assessed the safety and efficacy of Neuron Point-of-care Stem cell Therapy (N-POCST), an ambulatory procedure of autologous bone marrow derived SCs (BM-SCs) harvested from the posterior superior iliac crest undergo an on-site cell separation for intrathecal infusion via lumbar puncture. Results: 82 patients were treated in a period of 28 months, with a follow-up after 6 months. They had a mean age of 6,2 years old and male predominance (65,9%). Our preliminary results show that: A. No patient had any major side effects, B. Only 20% presented mild headache due to LP, C. 53% of the patients had an improvement in spasticity, D. 61% improved the coordination abilities, 23% improved the motor function, 15% improved the speech, 23% reduced the number of convulsive events with the same doses or less doses of anti-convulsive medication and 94% of the patients report a subjective general improvement. Conclusions: These results support previous worldwide publications that described the safety and effectiveness of autologous BM-SCs transplant for patients wit CP.

Keywords: autologous transplant, cerebral palsy, point of care, childhood movement disorders

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2 The Association Between CYP2C19 Gene Distribution and Medical Cannabis Treatment

Authors: Vichayada Laohapiboolkul

Abstract:

Introduction: As the legal use of cannabis is being widely accepted throughout the world, medical cannabis has been explored in order to become an alternative cure for patients. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are natural cannabinoids found in the Cannabis plant which is proved to have positive treatment for various diseases and symptoms such as chronic pain, neuropathic pain, spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis, reduce cancer-associated pain, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), dementia, cannabis and opioid dependence, psychoses/schizophrenia, general social anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Tourette's disorder. Regardless of all the medical benefits, THC, if not metabolized, can lead to mild up to severe adverse drug reactions (ADR). The enzyme CYP2C19 was found to be one of the metabolizers of THC. However, the suballele CYP2C19*2 manifests as a poor metabolizer which could lead to higher levels of THC than usual, possibly leading to various ADRs. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of CYP2C19, specifically CYP2C19*2, genes in Thai patients treated with medical cannabis along with adverse drug reactions. Materials and Methods: Clinical data and EDTA whole blood for DNA extraction and genotyping were collected from patients for this study. CYP2C19*2 (681G>A, rs4244285) genotyping was conducted using the Real-time PCR (ABI, Foster City, CA, USA). Results: There were 42 medical cannabis-induced ADRs cases and 18 medical cannabis tolerance controls who were included in this study. A total of 60 patients were observed where 38 (63.3%) patients were female and 22 (36.7%) were male, with a range of age approximately 19 - 87 years. The most apparent ADRs for medical cannabis treatment were dry mouth/dry throat (76.7%), followed by tachycardia (70%), nausea (30%) and a few arrhythmias (10%). In the total of 27 cases, we found a frequency of 18 CYP2C19*1/*1 alleles (normal metabolizers, 66.7%), 8 CYP2C19*1/*2 alleles (intermediate metabolizers, 29.6%) and 1 CYP2C19*2/*2 alleles (poor metabolizers, 3.7%). Meanwhile, 63.6% of CYP2C19*1/*1, 36.3% and 0% of CYP2C19*1/*2 and *2/*2 in the tolerance controls group, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first study to confirm the distribution of CYP2C19*2 allele and the prevalence of poor metabolizer genes in Thai patients who received medical cannabis for treatment. Thus, CYP2C19 allele might serve as a pharmacogenetics marker for screening before initiating treatment.

Keywords: medical cannabis, adverse drug reactions, CYP2C19, tetrahydrocannabinol, poor metabolizer

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1 The Role of Dynamic Ankle Foot Orthosis on Temporo-Spatial Parameters of Gait and Balance in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis: Six-Months Follow Up

Authors: Suat Erel, Gozde Gur

Abstract:

Background: Recently a supramalleolar type of dynamic ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) has been increasingly used to support all of the dynamic arches of the foot and redistribute the pressure under the plantar surface of the foot to reduce the muscle tone. DAFO helps to maintain balance and postural control by providing stability and proprioceptive feedback in children with disease like Cerebral Palsy, Muscular Dystrophies, Down syndrome, and congenital hypotonia. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Dynamic ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) on temporo-spatial parameters of gait and balance in three children with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). Material Method: 13, 14, and 8 years old three children with HSP were included in the study. To provide correction on weight bearing and to improve gait, DAFO was made. Lower extremity spasticity (including gastocnemius, hamstrings and hip adductor muscles) using modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) (0-5), The temporo-spatial gait parameters (walking speed, cadence, base of support, step length) and Timed Up & Go test (TUG) were evaluated. All of the assessments about gait were compared with (with DAFO and shoes) and without DAFO (with shoes only) situations. Also after six months follow up period, assessments were repeated by the same physical therapist. Results: MAS scores for lower extremity were between “2-3” for the first child, “0-2” for the second child and “1-2” for the third child. TUG scores (sec) decreased from 20.2 to 18 for case one, from 9.4 to 9 for case two and from 12,4 to 12 for case three in the condition with shoes only and also from 15,2 to 14 for case one, from 7,2 to 7,1 for case two and from 10 to 7,3 for case three in the condition with DAFO and shoes. Gait speed (m/sec) while wearing shoes only was similar but while wearing DAFO and shoes increased from 0,4 to 0,5 for case one, from 1,5 to 1,6 for case two and from 1,0 to 1,2 for case three. Base of support scores (cm) wearing shoes only decreased from 18,5 to 14 for case one, from 13 to 12 for case three and were similar as 11 for case two. While wearing DAFO and shoes, base of support decreased from 10 to 9 for case one, from 11,5 to 10 for case three and was similar as 8 for case two. Conclusion: The use of a DAFO in a patient with HSP normalized the temporo-spatial gait parameters and improved balance. Walking speed is a gold standard for evaluating gait quality. With the use of DAFO, walking speed increased in this three children with HSP. With DAFO, better TUG scores shows that functional ambulation improved. Reduction in base of support and more symmetrical step lengths with DAFO indicated better balance. These encouraging results warrant further study on wider series.

Keywords: dynamic ankle foot orthosis, gait, hereditary spastic paraparesis, balance in patient

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