Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: Carl Wernicke

39 Carl Wernicke and the Origin of Neurolinguistics in Breslau: A Case Study in the Domain of the History of Linguistics

Authors: Aneta Daniel

Abstract:

The subject of the study is the exploration of the origins and dynamics of the development of language studies, which have been labelled as neurolinguistics. It is worth mentioning that the origins of neurolinguistics are to be found in the research conducted by German scientists before the Second World War in Breslau Universität (presently Wroclaw). The dominant figure in these studies was professor Carl Wernicke, whose students continued and creatively developed projects of their master within this area. Professor Carl Wernicke, a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist, and neuropathologist, is primarily known for his influential research on aphasia. His research, as well as those conducted by professor Paul Broca, has led to breakthroughs in the location of brain functions, particularly speech. Years later the theses of the pioneers of cognitive neurology (Carl Wernicke and Paul Broca) were developed by other neurolinguists. The main objective of the investigation is the reconstruction of the group of scientists –the students of Carl Wernicke– who contributed to the development of neurolinguistics. The scholars were mainly neurologists and psychiatrists and dealt with the branch of science that had not been named neurolinguistics at that time. The profiles of the scholars will be analysed and presented as the members of the group of researchers who have contributed to the breakthroughs in psychology and neuroscience. The research material consists of archival records documenting the research of professor Carl Wernicke and the researchers from Breslau (presently Wroclaw) which is one of the fastest growing cities in Europe. In 1870, when Carl Wernicke became the medical doctor, Breslau was full of cultural events: festivals and circus shows were held in the city center. Today we can come back to these events due to 'Breslauer Zeitung (1870)', which precisely describes all the events that took place on particular days. It is worth noting that those were the beginnings of antisemitism in Breslau. Many theses and articles that have survived in the libraries in Wroclaw and all over the world contribute to the development of neuroscience. The history of research on the brain and speech analysis, including the history of psychology and neuroscience, areas from which neurolinguistics is derived, will be presented.

Keywords: Aphasia, brain injury, Carl Wernicke, language, neurolinguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
38 Optimized Brain Computer Interface System for Unspoken Speech Recognition: Role of Wernicke Area

Authors: Nassib Abdallah, Pierre Chauvet, Abd El Salam Hajjar, Bassam Daya

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an optimized brain computer interface (BCI) system for unspoken speech recognition, based on the fact that the constructions of unspoken words rely strongly on the Wernicke area, situated in the temporal lobe. Our BCI system has four modules: (i) the EEG Acquisition module based on a non-invasive headset with 14 electrodes; (ii) the Preprocessing module to remove noise and artifacts, using the Common Average Reference method; (iii) the Features Extraction module, using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT); (iv) the Classification module based on a one-hidden layer artificial neural network. The present study consists of comparing the recognition accuracy of 5 Arabic words, when using all the headset electrodes or only the 4 electrodes situated near the Wernicke area, as well as the selection effect of the subbands produced by the WPT module. After applying the articial neural network on the produced database, we obtain, on the test dataset, an accuracy of 83.4% with all the electrodes and all the subbands of 8 levels of the WPT decomposition. However, by using only the 4 electrodes near Wernicke Area and the 6 middle subbands of the WPT, we obtain a high reduction of the dataset size, equal to approximately 19% of the total dataset, with 67.5% of accuracy rate. This reduction appears particularly important to improve the design of a low cost and simple to use BCI, trained for several words.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, speech recognition, artificial neural network, electroencephalography, EEG, wernicke area

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
37 Trauma in the Unconsoled: A Crisis of the Self

Authors: Assil Ghariri

Abstract:

This article studies the process of rewriting the self through memory in Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel, the Unconsoled (1995). It deals with the journey that the protagonist Mr. Ryder takes through the unconscious, in search for his real self, in which trauma stands as an obstacle. The article uses Carl Jung’s theory of archetypes. Trauma, in this article, is discussed as one of the true obstacles of the unconscious that prevent people from realizing the truth about their selves.

Keywords: Carl Jung, Kazuo Ishiguro, memory, trauma

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
36 The Aesthetic and Critiques of Weimar Democracy: The Counter and Complement to Carl Schmitt’s Political Myth

Authors: Peter Jin

Abstract:

Ever since the recent resurgence of interest in political theorist Carl Schmitt’s work, much of the current analysis on Schmitt has fo-cused on evaluating Schmitt’s legacy by exposing contradictions in his rationale. Rather than condemn such contradictions, this paper instead seeks to analyze these contradictions in an effort to better understand the radical shift in Schmitt’s intellectual trajectory from an astute critic of liberal democracy to a fascist apologist towards the end of the Weimar period. An essential part of this change is his interest in what Schmitt called ‘the emergence of aesthetics.’ Schmitt diagnosed the underlying issue with the aesthetic in the political sphere to be its irrationalism, indifference, and indeci-siveness. For Schmitt, the latter two of these were especially prob-lematic for two of his key concepts: the ‘political’ and ‘the shared historical reality.’ Schmitt’s radical depiction of ‘the political’ as an existential opposition of allegiances that necessitated a state of emergency and a decisionist sovereign political struggle required an equally radical justification, or Schmitt’s call for ‘a shared his-torical reality’ not based in historical fact yet able to mobilize the masses. In this way, Schmitt clearly condemns the indifferent, indecisive aesthetic that runs against his decisionist, action-oriented political theory. Yet despite his firm stance against aestheticism, Schmitt himself used the evocative and irrational power of aesthet-icism as a tool to present his own ‘political myth’ that compelled believers to join in decisive unity against a common enemy. In short, Schmitt’s contradictions on aestheticism and his creation of a ‘political myth’ suggest that Schmitt’s underlying conflict with aestheticism was not as much of an issue of irrationality as it was a chronic preoccupation with coercing concrete action at the expense of rational deliberation.

Keywords: aesthetics of the political, Carl Schmitt, political myth, Weimar democracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
35 Carl Schmitt in the Age of Immanence: A Critical Reading

Authors: Manuel Iretzberger

Abstract:

This paper aims to uncover the ideological aspects in the political thought of Carl Schmitt, who is enjoying an ever-increasing popularity in various academic fields, following in the wake of rising interest in questions of sovereignty and legitimacy. Given Schmitt’s biography, i.e. his role as the ‘Crown Jurist of the Third Reich’ (Gurian), an extraordinarily thorough examination is necessary; however, instead of merely ‘deconstructing’ his works, certain ontological truths he might have attained, shall be taken seriously. To this end, his notions of politics and the state of exception are scrutinized, which are indeed considered intriguing, yet prove to be enigmatic and impalpable at the core when read closely. In order to explain this conjuncture, both Schmitt’s philosophy of history and his ‘secret discussion’ (Agamben) with Walter Benjamin are depicted. As it turns out – it is argued – his concept of the Political has to be conceived of as embedded in a much broader context: In a post-transcendental, immanent age, he regards traditional modes of representation as no longer feasible and clings to authoritarianism as a surrogate – his Catholicism plays a decisive role here, forcing him to inject normatively biased assumptions into his political writings. Seeing Schmitt perform ‘rearguard action’ not only serves to disarm his work of most of its menacing aura, it also allows drawing conclusions about ways of legitimatizing democratic rule in modern times, as the paper tries to outline in its last section.

Keywords: Benjamin, history, immanence, Schmitt, sovereignty

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
34 'Freud and Jung: Dissenting Friends'; An Analysis of the Foundations of the Psychoanalytical Theory in Theirs Letters

Authors: Laurence Doremus

Abstract:

Freud as the builder of psychoanalysis as a discipline had created the science with Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), a psychiatry specialist from Zurich who was very important in the Freudian theory. The knowledge about the foundation of psychoanalysis is often focused on the influence of the works from Breuer or Charcot in the Freudian praxis, at least at the beginning of his career, and Jung's influence is often under-estimated. The paper focuses on the importance of the Jungian contributions in Freud's theories at the beginning of the creation of the discipline in the 1910s. We often meet Jungian schools on the first hand and Freudian schools, on the other hand in the academic field, but the Freudian field has to admit the importance of the Jungian theories in Freudian science. And also, the dialectical energy which appears in the letters exchanged between both of the fathers of psychoanalysis is important to understand the foundations of Freud Theory. That's why the paper will analyze in detail the correspondence between them in an epistemological and historical approach. Effectively the letters were translated and published (in French but also in English and other languages) lately in history and are still not well knew by the researchers in the psychoanalytical field. We well explain how Freud was helped by Jung despite his desire to build the theory. We analyze how the second topic named 'unconscious, preconscious, and conscious', is the result of the first topic that Jung built with Freud. The paper is a contribution to the knowledge we should have about the intense friendship between the two protagonists.

Keywords: Carl Gustav Jung, correspondence, Freud's letters, psychoanalytic theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
33 Physiology of Temporal Lobe and Limbic System

Authors: Khaled A. Abdel-Sater

Abstract:

There are four areas of the temporal lobe. Primary auditory area (areas 41 and 42); it is for the perception of auditory impulse, auditory association area (area 22, 21, and 20): Areas 21 and 20 are for understanding and interpretation of auditory sensation, recognition of language, and long-term memories. Area 22, also called Wernicke’s area, and a sensory speech centre. It is for interpretation of auditory and visual information, formation of thoughts in the mind, and choice of words to be used. Ideas and thoughts originate in it. The limbic system is a part of cortical and subcortical structure forming a ring around the brainstem. Cortical structures are the orbitofrontal area, subcallosal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and uncus. Subcortical structures are the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, septum, paraolfactory area, anterior nucleus of the thalamus portions of the basal ganglia. There are several physiological functions of the limbic system, including regulation of behavior, motivation, and emotion.

Keywords: limbic system, motivation, emotions, temporal lobe

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
32 Beyond Possibilities: Re-Reading Republican Ankara

Authors: Zelal Çınar

Abstract:

This paper aims to expose the effects of the ideological program of Turkish Republic on city planning, through the first plan of Ankara. As the new capital, Ankara was planned to be the ‘showcase’ of modern Turkey. It was to represent all new ideologies and the country’s cultural similarities with the west. At the same time it was to underline the national identity and independence of Turkish republic. To this end, a new plan for the capital was designed by German city planner Carl Christopher Lörcher. Diametrically opposed with the existing fabric of the city, this plan was built on the basis of papers and plans, on ideological aims. On the contrary, this paper argues that the city is a machine of possibilities, rather than a clear, materialized system.

Keywords: architecture, ideology, modernization, urban planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
31 GIS-Based Topographical Network for Minimum “Exertion” Routing

Authors: Katherine Carl Payne, Moshe Dror

Abstract:

The problem of minimum cost routing has been extensively explored in a variety of contexts. While there is a prevalence of routing applications based on least distance, time, and related attributes, exertion-based routing has remained relatively unexplored. In particular, the network structures traditionally used to construct minimum cost paths are not suited to representing exertion or finding paths of least exertion based on road gradient. In this paper, we introduce a topographical network or “topograph” that enables minimum cost routing based on the exertion metric on each arc in a given road network as it is related to changes in road gradient. We describe an algorithm for topograph construction and present the implementation of the topograph on a road network of the state of California with ~22 million nodes.

Keywords: topograph, RPE, routing, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
30 An Implementation of Meshless Method for Modeling an Elastoplasticity Coupled to Damage

Authors: Sendi Zohra, Belhadjsalah Hedi, Labergere Carl, Saanouni Khemais

Abstract:

The modeling of mechanical problems including both material and geometric nonlinearities with Finite Element Method (FEM) remains challenging. Meshless methods offer special properties to get rid of well-known drawbacks of the FEM. The main objective of Meshless Methods is to eliminate the difficulty of meshing and remeshing the entire structure by simply insertion or deletion of nodes, and alleviate other problems associated with the FEM, such as element distortion, locking and others. In this study, a robust numerical implementation of an Element Free Galerkin Method for an elastoplastic coupled to damage problem is presented. Several results issued from the numerical simulations by a DynamicExplicit resolution scheme are analyzed and critically compared with Element Finite Method results. Finally, different numerical examples are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of this method.

Keywords: damage, dynamic explicit, elastoplasticity, isotropic hardening, meshless

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
29 Disinfestation of Harvest Celery Apium graveolens var. dulce Using Low Temperature as Quarantine Treatment for Springtails Hypogastrura vernalis (Carl) (Collembola: Hypogastruridae)

Authors: Q. Ahmed, Y. Ren, R. Emery, J. Newman, M. Agarwal

Abstract:

Celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) is grown in Australia for domestic consumption and export markets. Quarantine treatment enables export of celery to the world that enforces quarantine against springtails. In the field, celery bunches become host to the Australian native springtail (Hypogastrura vernalis) (Collembola: Hypogastruridae). Springtails live inside the celery bunch and do not cause damage to the product. Springtails are, however, considered a quarantine pest and have had a significant impact on celery exports. In this experiment, cold treatments were conducted on fresh celery to investigate their effect on springtail mortality. Four low-temperature treatments were used (3, 5, 10, and 15 ºC) over four treatment periods (3, 5, 7, and 14 days). Springtail mortality was not affected by the 3, 5, 10 and 15 ºC treatments for the treatment periods of 3, 5, 7, and 14 days. Low-temperature damage was observed most noticeably on celery in the 3 and 5 ºC treatments.

Keywords: springtails, fresh celery, cold treatment, quarantine treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
28 Indigenous Storytelling: Transformation for Health, Emotions and Spirituality

Authors: Annabelle Nelson

Abstract:

This literature review documents indigenous storytelling as it functions to help humans face adversity and find emotional strength by aligning with nature. Archetypes in stories can transform the inner world from a Jungian perspective. Joseph Campbell’s hero-heroine cycle depicts the structure of stories to include a call to adventure, tests, helpers, and a return as the transformed person can help him or herself and even help their communities. By showcasing certain character traits, such as bravery or perseverance or humility, stories give maps for humans to face adversity. The main characters or archetypes in stories, as Carl Jung posited, provide a vehicle that can open consciousness if a listener identifies with the character. As documented in the review, this has many benefits. First, it can open consciousness to the collective unconscious for insight and intuitive clarity, as well as healing and release emotional trauma. The resultant spacious quality of consciousness allows the spiritual self to present insights to conscious awareness. Research in applied youth development programs demonstrates the utility of storytelling to prompt healthy choices and transform difficult life experience into success.

Keywords: archetypes, learning, storytelling, transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
27 The Role of Spiritual Experience, Gerotranscendence and Social Engagement on Successful Aging among Incarcerated Filipino Elderly: A Structural Equation Model

Authors: Les Paul Valdez, Rowena Manzarate, Joseph Carl Lunizo, Mary Thereze Mabaquiao, Mary Deo Luigi Mabunay

Abstract:

Background: Across the literature, varying definitions of successful aging can be found. As a result, several determinants have been associated with successful aging. However, there is a paucity of literature exploring the relationship between successful aging and factors such as spiritual experience, gerotranscendence, and social engagement. Objective: Thus, this study purports to ascertain the relationship between and among spiritual experience, gerotranscendence, social engagement and successful aging. Methods: The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), Social Engagement Scale (SES), Gerotranscendence Scale Revised (GS-R) and Expectations Regarding Aging (ERA) were fielded to 349 incarcerated elderly to measure spiritual experience, social engagement, gerotranscendence and successful aging respectively. Data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling through AMOS 21. The hypothesized model was evaluated using the goodness of fit and parsimony indices. Results: Social engagement (β= .179, p=.128) and spiritual experience (β= .375, p=.262) contribute to successful aging through the mediating effect of gerotranscendence (β= .973, p=.718). Conclusion: Today more than ever, healthcare providers in penal institutions are challenged to ensure that incarcerated elderly are socially and spiritually engaged; and have high levels of gerotranscendence.

Keywords: elderly, Filipino, gerotranscendence, social engagement, spiritual experience, successful aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
26 Neurological Complication of Bariatric Surgery: A Cross-sectional Study from Saudi Arabia

Authors: H. A. Algahtani, A. S. Khan, O. Alzahrani, N. Hussein, M. A. Khan, Loudhi Y. I. Soliman

Abstract:

Objective: To report on the Saudi experience (developing country) of neurological complications from bariatric surgery. The literature on the subject is reviewed. Method: This is a cross sectional study done in King Abdul Aziz Medical City Jeddah, WR, where we reviewed all charts of the patients who underwent bariatric surgery between January 1st, 2009 to December 31st , 2014. Personal and clinical data including age, sex, BMI, comorbidities, type of procedure, duration of stay in hospital, complications and postoperative follow up were collected. In addition follow up visit and remote complication if present were collected. All patients with neurological complications were reviewed in details including their clinical examination, laboratory and imaging results, treatment and prognosis. This report is essentially descriptive with no statistical analysis performed. Results: Fifteen cases were collected in this study (3%). Axonal polyneuropathy was the most frequent neurological complica¬tion, but cases of Wernicke syndrome, vitamin B12 deficiency, Guillain-Barre syndrome and cupper deficiency were also identified. Fourteen patients (93.3%) had full recovery from the neurological signs and symptoms but unfortunately one patient died. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery, a procedure that is continuously increasing in popularity, is not free of potential neurological complications. A clear education, guidelines and follow-up program should be planned and practiced. Facts should be clearly presented to the individual undergoing this type of surgery. Although a clear cause-effect relation cannot be established for the present cases, the cumulative literature on the subject makes it important to warn the patient of the potential risks of this procedure.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, neurological complications, neuropathy, Wenicke syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
25 Unexpected Acute Respiratory Failure following Administration of Rocuronium Bromide during Cesarean Delivery in a Severely Preeclamptic Parturient Treated with Magnesium Sulfate

Authors: Joseph Carl Macalintal, Erlinda Armovit

Abstract:

Magnesium sulfate has been a mainstay in the management of preeclampsia and is associated with a decreased incidence of morbidity and mortality. The syndrome has an unpredictable course, sometimes rapidly evolving to full-blown disease. In patients with deteriorating status, it is indicated to terminate the pregnancy via cesarean section. The anesthesiologists would prefer to have the procedure done under regional anesthesia; however, there may be cases when neuraxial anesthesia is contraindicated, or a general anesthesia would permit prompt delivery of the fetus. A patient with severe preeclampsia was given magnesium sulfate intrapartum, wherein a primary cesarean section was indicated for arrest in cervical dilatation, and was performed under general anesthesia. The patient developed acute respiratory failure and the causes of this occurrence were investigated in this report. It was later found out that neither the hypermagnesemia nor the muscle relaxant alone caused the patient’s condition but the interaction between the two. The patient was managed expectantly at the intensive care unit (ICU) and was eventually extubated during the 1st post-operative day. Knowledge of this drug interaction would allow obstetricians to advise their patients and their family about the possibility of prolonged intubation and ICU admission. This would also bring to the anesthesiologists’ attention the need to decrease the dose of muscle relaxant and to prepare drugs for immediate decurarisation.

Keywords: eclampsia, magnesium sulfate, preeclampsia, rocuronium bromide

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
24 The Effect of Mood and Normative Conformity on Prosocial Behavior

Authors: Antoine Miguel Borromeo, Kristian Anthony Menez, Moira Louise Ordonez, David Carl Rabaya

Abstract:

This study aimed to test if induced mood and normative conformity have any effect specifically on prosocial behavior, which was operationalized as the willingness to donate to a non-government organization. The effect of current attitude towards the object of the prosocial behavior was also considered with a covariate test. Undergraduates taking an introductory course on psychology (N = 132) from the University of the Philippines Diliman were asked how much money they were willing to donate after being presented a video about coral reef destruction and a website that advocates towards saving the coral reefs. A 3 (Induced mood: Positive vs Fear and Sadness vs Anger, Contempt, and Disgust) x 2 (Normative conformity: Presence vs Absence) between-subjects analysis of covariance was used for experimentation. Prosocial behavior was measured by presenting a circumstance wherein participants were given money and asked if they were willing to donate an amount to the non-government organization. An analysis of covariance revealed that the mood induced has no significant effect on prosocial behavior, F(2,125) = 0.654, p > 0.05. The analysis also showed how normative conformity has no significant effect on prosocial behavior, F(1,125) = 0.238, p > 0.05, as well as their interaction F(2, 125) = 1.580, p > 0.05. However, the covariate, current attitude towards corals was revealed to be significant, F(1,125) = 8.778, p < 0.05. From this, we speculate that inherent attitudes of people have a greater effect on prosocial behavior than temporary factors such as mood and conformity.

Keywords: attitude, induced mood, normative conformity, prosocial behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
23 The Impact of Teacher's Emotional Intelligence on Students' Motivation to Learn

Authors: Marla Wendy Spergel

Abstract:

The purpose of this qualitative study is to showcase graduated high school students’ to voice on the impact past teachers had on their motivation to learn, and if this impact has affected their post-high-school lives. Through a focus group strategy, 21 graduated high school alumni participated in three separate focus groups. Participants discussed their former teacher’s emotional intelligence skills, which influenced their motivation to learn or not. A focused review of the literature revealed that teachers are a major factor in a student’s motivation to learn. This research was guided by Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory of Motivation and constructs related to learning and motivation from Carl Rogers’ Humanistic Views of Personality, and from Brain-Based Learning perspectives with a major focus on the area of Emotional Intelligence. Findings revealed that the majority of participants identified teachers who most motivated them to learn and demonstrated skills associated with emotional intelligence. An important and disturbing finding relates to the saliency of negative experiences. Further work is recommended to expand this line of study in Higher Education, perform a long-term study to better gain insight into long-term benefits attributable to experiencing positive teachers, study the negative impact teachers have on students’ motivation to learn, specifically focusing on student anxiety and acquired helplessness.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, learning, motivation, pedagogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
22 Comparison of Corneal Curvature Measurements Conducted with Tomey AO-2000® and the Current Standard Biometer IOL Master®

Authors: Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Che Azemin Mohd Zulfaezal, Ariffin Azrin Esmady

Abstract:

Purpose: Corneal curvature (CC) is an important anterior segment parameter. This study compared CC measurements conducted with two optical devices in phakic eyes. Methods: Sixty phakic eyes of 30 patients were enrolled in this study. CC was measured three times with the optical biometer and topography-keratometer Tomey AO-2000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan), then with the standard partial optical coherence interferometry (PCI) IOL Master (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) and data were statistically analysed. Results: The measurements resulted in a mean CC of 43.86 ± 1.57 D with Tomey AO-2000 and 43.84 ± 1.55 D with IOL Master. Distribution of data is normal, and no significance difference in CC values was detected (P = 0.952) between the two devices. Correlation between CC measurements was highly significant (r = 0. 99; P < 0.0001). The mean difference of CC values between devices was 0.017 D and 95% limit of agreement was -0.088 to 0.12. Duration taken for measurements with the standard biometer IOL Master was longer (55.17 ± 2.24 seconds) than with Tomey AO-2000 (39.88 ± 2.38 seconds) in automatic mode. Duration of manual measurement with Tomey AO-2000 in manual mode was the shortest (28.57 ± 2.71 seconds). Conclusion: In phakic eyes, CC measured with Tomey AO-2000 and IOL Master showed similar values, and high correlation was observed between these two devices. This shows that both devices can be used interchangeably. Tomey AO-2000 is better in terms of faster to operate and has its own topography systems.

Keywords: corneal topography, corneal curvature, IOL Master, Tomey AO2000

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
21 Plantlet Regeneration from Zygotic Embryos of Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen

Authors: Uche C. Okafor, Nwanneka M. Okpokwu, Felix Nwafor, Carl E. A. Okezie

Abstract:

Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Violet tree) belongs to the family Polygalaceae characterised by papillionaceous purplish flowers. This medicinally valued plant disappears at an alarming rate due to intensified anthropopressure particularly the unregulated manner of subterranean plant parts' collection from natural stands. Some indiscriminately harvested plants bear seeds containing both mature and immature zygotic embryos that are often discarded. Here, such seeds are collected for this experiment. Seeds were collected, washed, de-coated, and dipped in 70 % (v/v) ethanol for 30 s followed by rising in 5 % solution sodium hypochlorite, containing two drops of tween 20, for another 25 min. Mature zygotic embryos (MZEs) were excised from seeds and cultured in two basal media (MS and B5), three carbon sources (sucrose, glucose and fructose) at five concentrations (0-40 g/L) while immature zygotic embryos (iMZEs) were composed on similar basal media and carbon source supplemented with 0-2 mg/L Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0-2 mg/L Indole acetic acid (IAA). MZEs cultured on MS + 30g/L sucrose differed significantly from other treatments at p≤0.05 with maximum percent sprouting (85.24± 5.67 %) and shoot length (7.53±0.67 cm). MZEs culture had the maximum percent sprouting (85.24± 5.67 %) and shoot length (7.53±0.67 cm) in medium containing MS+ 30g L-1 sucrose. iMZEs on the other hand had maximum growth on MS + 40g/L sucrose supplemented with 1.5 mg/L IAA+ 1.0 mg/L BAP. This study is a geared towards creating an alternative path for the maximum production of plants in vitro, thereby, preventing the plants from disappearing.

Keywords: Gamborg's medium, Murashige and Skoog medium, Securidaca longepedunculata, zygotic embryos

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
20 Introduction to Political Psychoanalysis of a Group in the Middle East

Authors: Seyedfateh Moradi, Abas Ali Rahbar

Abstract:

The present study focuses on investigating group psychoanalysis in the Middle East. The study uses a descriptive-analytic method and library resources have been used to collect the data. Additionally, the researcher’s observations of people’s everyday behavior have played an important role in the production and analysis of the study. Group psychoanalysis in the Middle East can be conducted through people’s daily behaviors, proverbs, poetry, mythology, etc., and some of the general characteristics of people in the Middle East include: xenophobia, revivalism, fatalism, nostalgic, wills and so on. Members of the group have often failed to achieve Libido wills and it is very important in unifying and reproduction violence. Therefore, if libidinal wills are irrationally fixed, it will be important in forming fundamentalist and racist groups, a situation that is dominant among many groups in the Middle East. Adversities, from early childhood and afterwards, in the subjects have always been influential in the political behavior of group members, and it manifests itself as counter-projections. Consequently, it affects the foreign policy of the governments. On the other hand, two kinds of subjects are identifiable in the Middle East, one; classical subject that is related to nostalgia and mythology and, two; modern subjects which is self-alienated. As a result, both subjects are seeking identity and self-expression in public in relation to forming groups. Therefore, collective unconscious in the Middle East shows itself as extreme boundaries and leads to forming groups characterized with violence. Psychoanalysis shows important aspects to identify many developments in the Middle East; totally analysis of Freud, Carl Jung and Reich about groups can be applied in the present Middle East.

Keywords: political, psychoanalysis, group, Middle East

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
19 Obesity, Leptin Levels and Leptin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Afro-Caribbean Subjects

Authors: Lydia Foucan, Christine Rambhojan, Rachel Billy, Christophe Armand, Carl-Thony Michel, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Laurent Larifla

Abstract:

Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, modulates insulin secretion and action via the leptin receptor (LEPR) that is expressed in pancreatic beta cells, adipose tissue, and muscle. Several polymorphisms have been described in the human LEPR gene including p.K109R (rs1137100), p.Q223R (rs1137101) and p.K656N (rs1805094) polymorphisms. The role of these polymorphisms is not yet studied in Guadeloupian population. Our aim was to explore the association of LEPR polymorphisms (K109R, Q223R and K656N) with leptin levels and obesity in non-diabetic Afro-Caribbean subjects. Genotypic analysis of the three polymorphisms was performed in 425 subjects using TaqMan and KASPar Assays. Serum leptin was measured with ELISA kits Biovendor® (RD191001100). Logistic regressions were used for assessment of statistical associations. Mean age was 47.6 ± 12.7 years. Among the participants, 238 (56 %) were women, 124 (30%) were obese and 155 (36.5%) had abdominal obesity. Carriers of LEPR K656N rs1805094 rare allele had significant higher frequencies of obesity (P = 0.007), abdominal obesity (P = 0.004) and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.021) but mean leptin level was not significantly different between both groups (P = 0.075). Odds ratios, adjusted for age and sex associated with presence of rs1805094 rare allele were 1.8 (1.1-2.9), P = 0.012 for obesity, 2.0 (1.2-3.3), P = 0.008 for abdominal obesity and 1.8 (1.1-3.0), P = 0.031 for MetS. No significant association was found with K109R, Q223R. These findings suggest that the K656N polymorphism (but not the K109R or Q223R polymorphism) of LEPR is associated with obesity, abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in this Afro-Caribbean non-diabetic population.

Keywords: Afro-Caribbean, leptin levels, leptin receptor gene polymorphisms, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
18 Confess Your Sins to One Another: An Exploration of the Biblical Validity and the Psychological Efficacy of the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the Catholic Church

Authors: M. B. Peter

Abstract:

The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation has long been upheld, by the Catholic Church, as one of the Sacraments of healing, mainly due to the sense of peace, tranquility and psychological quiescence it accords the penitent upon receiving Sacramental absolution of sin through the action of the priest. This paper explores the Sacramental character of this practice and the psychological benefits of the celebration of the Sacrament. This is achieved in two parts: firstly, by the intellectual engagement of Sacred Scripture and the consolidated Sacred Tradition that the Catholic magisterium protects and, secondly, via a broad survey of the works of Carl Gustav Jung and Orval Hobart Mowrer regarding confession and forgiveness. The former will serve to demonstrate the Catholic belief of the divine institution of the Sacrament whilst the latter will demonstrate how this belief, coupled with the existing benefit of confessing guilt, collectively bolsters the Sacrament’s overall psychological efficacy. Fundamentally, the analysis of Jung and Mowrer’s works demonstrate that man, as a naturally religious being, has an inherent need for the confession of his wrong that he might be alleviated of psychological guilt in obtaining forgiveness of a (divinely ordained) minister who is sanctioned to absolve, i.e. the priest. The paper also presents the curative effect of the celebration of this Sacrament, illustrating how, without the act of confession, man remains in moral isolation from God and man; and, that with it, man is relieved of the mysterious feeling of guilt which lies at the root of his disquiet of mind and disturbance of will. Thus, the paper penultimately establishes how the Sacrament of Reconciliation is positioned in that place where psychology and theology meet: man’s sense of guilt. It is Jung’s views on confession and forgiveness that ultimately bridge the chasm between psychology and Christianity.

Keywords: Catholic, confession, Jung, Mowrer, penance, psychology, Sacrament of Reconciliation

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
17 Quantum Cum Synaptic-Neuronal Paradigm and Schema for Human Speech Output and Autism

Authors: Gobinathan Devathasan, Kezia Devathasan

Abstract:

Objective: To improve the current modified Broca-Wernicke-Lichtheim-Kussmaul speech schema and provide insight into autism. Methods: We reviewed the pertinent literature. Current findings, involving Brodmann areas 22, 46, 9,44,45,6,4 are based on neuropathology and functional MRI studies. However, in primary autism, there is no lucid explanation and changes described, whether neuropathology or functional MRI, appear consequential. Findings: We forward an enhanced model which may explain the enigma related to autism. Vowel output is subcortical and does need cortical representation whereas consonant speech is cortical in origin. Left lateralization is needed to commence the circuitry spin as our life have evolved with L-amino acids and left spin of electrons. A fundamental species difference is we are capable of three syllable-consonants and bi-syllable expression whereas cetaceans and songbirds are confined to single or dual consonants. The 4 key sites for speech are superior auditory cortex, Broca’s two areas, and the supplementary motor cortex. Using the Argand’s diagram and Reimann’s projection, we theorize that the Euclidean three dimensional synaptic neuronal circuits of speech are quantized to coherent waves, and then decoherence takes place at area 6 (spherical representation). In this quantum state complex, 3-consonant languages are instantaneously integrated and multiple languages can be learned, verbalized and differentiated. Conclusion: We postulate that evolutionary human speech is elevated to quantum interaction unlike cetaceans and birds to achieve the three consonants/bi-syllable speech. In classical primary autism, the sudden speech switches off and on noted in several cases could now be explained not by any anatomical lesion but failure of coherence. Area 6 projects directly into prefrontal saccadic area (8); and this further explains the second primary feature in autism: lack of eye contact. The third feature which is repetitive finger gestures, located adjacent to the speech/motor areas, are actual attempts to communicate with the autistic child akin to sign language for the deaf.

Keywords: quantum neuronal paradigm, cetaceans and human speech, autism and rapid magnetic stimulation, coherence and decoherence of speech

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
16 Archetypes in the Rorschach Inkblots: Imparting Universal Meaning in the Face of Ambiguity

Authors: Donna L. Roberts

Abstract:

The theory of archetypes contends that themes based on universal foundational images reside in and are transmitted generationally through the collective unconscious, which is referenced throughout an individual’s experience in order to make sense of that experience. There is then, a profoundly visceral and instinctive agreement on the gestalt of these universal themes and how they apply to the human condition throughout space and time. The inherent nature of projective tests, such as the Rorschach Inkblot, necessitates that the stimulus is ambiguous and thus elicits responses that reflect the unconscious inner psyche of the respondent. As the development of the Rorschach inkblots was relatively random and serendipitous - i.e., the inkblots were not engineered to elicit a specifically defined response - it would stand to reason that without a collective unconscious, every individual would interpret the inkblots in an individualized and unique way. Yet this is not the case. Instead, common themes appear in the images of the inkblots and their interpretation that reflect this deeper iconic understanding. This study analyzed the ten Rorschach inkblots in terms of Jungian archetypes, both with respect to the form of images on each plate and the commonly observed themes in responses. Examples of the archetypes were compared to each of the inkblots, with subsequent descriptions matched to the standard responses. The findings yielded clear and distinct instances of the universal symbolism intrinsic in the inkblot images as well as ubiquitous throughout the responses. This project illustrates the influence of the theories of psychologist Carl Gustav Jung on the interpretation of the ambiguous stimuli. It further serves to demonstrate the merit of Jungian psychology as a valuable tool with which to understand the nature of projective tests in general, Rorschach’s work specifically, and ultimately the broader implications for our collective unconscious and common humanity.

Keywords: archetypes, inkblots, projective tests, Rorschach

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
15 Physical Activity, Exercise and Physical Fitness in Different Generation

Authors: Carl J. Caspersen, Kenneth E. Powell, Gregory M. Christenson, Kirupa V. Patel

Abstract:

‘Physical activity’, ‘exercise’, and ‘physical fitness’ are terms that describe different concepts. However, they are often confused with one another, and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. This paper proposes definitions to distinguish them. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in energy expenditure. The energy expenditure can be measured in kilocalories. Physical activity in daily life can be categorized into occupational, sports, Conditioning, household, or other activities. Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and has as a final or an intermediate objective the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness. Physical fitness is a set of attributes that are either health- or skill-related. The degree to which people have these attributes can be measured with specific tests. These definitions are offered as an interpretational framework for comparing studies that relate physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness to health. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated 3.2 million deaths globally. Regular moderate intensity physical activity – such as walking, cycling, or participating in sports – has significant benefits for health. For instance, it can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, colon and breast cancer, and depression. Moreover, adequate levels of physical activity will decrease the risk of a hip or vertebral fracture and help control weight. Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level. In these guidelines, physical activity generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health.

Keywords: physical activity, exercise, physical fitness, sports

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
14 Stimulus-Response and the Innateness Hypothesis: Childhood Language Acquisition of “Genie”

Authors: Caroline Kim

Abstract:

Scholars have long disputed the relationship between the origins of language and human behavior. Historically, behaviorist psychologist B. F. Skinner argued that language is one instance of the general stimulus-response phenomenon that characterizes the essence of human behavior. Another, more recent approach argues, by contrast, that language is an innate cognitive faculty and does not arise from behavior, which might develop and reinforce linguistic facility but is not its source. Pinker, among others, proposes that linguistic defects arise from damage to the brain, both congenital and acquired in life. Much of his argument is based on case studies in which damage to the Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas of the brain results in loss of the ability to produce coherent grammatical expressions when speaking or writing; though affected speakers often utter quite fluent streams of sentences, the words articulated lack discernible semantic content. Pinker concludes on this basis that language is an innate component of specific, classically language-correlated regions of the human brain. Taking a notorious 1970s case of linguistic maladaptation, this paper queries the dominant materialist paradigm of language-correlated regions. Susan “Genie” Wiley was physically isolated from language interaction in her home and beaten by her father when she attempted to make any sort of sound. Though without any measurable resulting damage to the brain, Wiley was never able to develop the level of linguistic facility normally achieved in adulthood. Having received a negative reinforcement of language acquisition from her father and lacking the usual language acquisition period, in adulthood Wiley was able to develop language only at a quite limited level in later life. From a contemporary behaviorist perspective, this case confirms the possibility of language deficiency without brain pathology. Wiley’s potential language-determining areas in the brain were intact, and she was exposed to language later in her life, but she was unable to achieve the normal level of communication skills, deterring socialization. This phenomenon and others like it in the case limited literature on linguistic maladaptation pose serious clinical, scientific, and indeed philosophical difficulties for both of the major competing theories of language acquisition, innateness, and linguistic stimulus-response. The implications of such cases for future research in language acquisition are explored, with a particular emphasis on the interaction of innate capacity and stimulus-based development in early childhood.

Keywords: behaviorism, innateness hypothesis, language, Susan "Genie" Wiley

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
13 Behavior of Common Philippine-Made Concrete Hollow Block Structures Subjected to Seismic Load Using Rigid Body Spring-Discrete Element Method

Authors: Arwin Malabanan, Carl Chester Ragudo, Jerome Tadiosa, John Dee Mangoba, Eric Augustus Tingatinga, Romeo Eliezer Longalong

Abstract:

Concrete hollow blocks (CHB) are the most commonly used masonry block for walls in residential houses, school buildings and public buildings in the Philippines. During the recent 2013 Bohol earthquake (Mw 7.2), it has been proven that CHB walls are very vulnerable to severe external action like strong ground motion. In this paper, a numerical model of CHB structures is proposed, and seismic behavior of CHB houses is presented. In modeling, the Rigid Body Spring-Discrete Element method (RBS-DEM)) is used wherein masonry blocks are discretized into rigid elements and connected by nonlinear springs at preselected contact points. The shear and normal stiffness of springs are derived from the material properties of CHB unit incorporating the grout and mortar fillings through the volumetric transformation of the dimension using material ratio. Numerical models of reinforced and unreinforced walls are first subjected to linearly-increasing in plane loading to observe the different failure mechanisms. These wall models are then assembled to form typical model masonry houses and then subjected to the El Centro and Pacoima earthquake records. Numerical simulations show that the elastic, failure and collapse behavior of the model houses agree well with shaking table tests results. The effectiveness of the method in replicating failure patterns will serve as a basis for the improvement of the design and provides a good basis of strengthening the structure.

Keywords: concrete hollow blocks, discrete element method, earthquake, rigid body spring model

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
12 Food Insecurity and Mental Health among Adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia: Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

Authors: Mulusew G. Jebena, David Lindstrom, Tefera Belachew, Craig Hadley, Carl Lachat, Patrick Kolsteren

Abstract:

Background: The biological and psychosocial consequence of food insecurity on physical health and nutritional status has been reported. But, its effect on mental health during adolescence remains unexplored. Thus, the main aim of this analysis is to examine the mechanism by which food insecurity is linked to mental health among adolescents living in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: We used data from third round observation of Jimma Longitudinal Family and Youth Survey (JLFSY). A total of 1,521 adolescents included for the main analysis. Food insecurity was measured using 5-items scale and The Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to measure mental distress. Structural equation modeling analysis was done using maximum likelihood estimation method. Model diagnostics test was reported. All p values were two tailed and P value ≤ 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results: The prevalence of mental distress was 20.8%, 95% CI: (18.8, 22.9). After adjusted for covariates, the final model depicts food insecurity was associated with adolescent mental distress (β=.324). This analysis showed 94.1% of the effect of food insecurity on mental distress is direct. By contrast, 5.9% of the food insecurity effect is mediated by physical health. In addition, Self-rated health (β=.356), socioeconomic status (β=-.078) parental educational (β= .170), living in urban (β= .193) and female headed household (β=.205) were associated with adolescent mental distress. Conclusions: This finding highlights the direct effect of food insecurity on adolescent mental distress. Therefore, any intervention aimed to improve mental distress of adolescents should consider strategies to improve access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food. Beside this, prevention of underlying factors such as psychosomatic health illness and improving socio economic status is also very critical. Furthermore longitudinal relationship of the long term effect of food insecurity on mental health should be investigated.

Keywords: adolescent, Ethiopia, food insecurity, mental health

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
11 Evidence of Natural Selection Footprints among Some African Chicken Breeds and Village Ecotypes

Authors: Ahmed Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chris Ashwell, Carl Schmidt, Donald Kugonza, Susan Lamont, Max Rothschild

Abstract:

The major factor in shaping genomic variation of the African indigenous rural chicken is likely natural selection drives the development genetic footprints in the chicken genomes. To investigate such a hypothesis of a selection footprint, a total of 292 birds were randomly sampled from three indigenous ecotypes from East Africa (Uganda, Rwanda) and North Africa (Egypt) and two registered Egyptian breeds (Fayoumi and Dandarawi), and from the synthetic Kuroiler breed. Samples were genotyped using the Affymetrix 600K Axiom® Array. A total of 526,652 SNPs were utilized in the downstream analysis after quality control measures. The intra-population runs of homozygosity (ROH) that were consensuses in > 50% of individuals of an ecotype or > 75% of a breed were studied. To identify inter-population differentiation due to genetic structure, FST was calculated for North- vs. East- African populations in addition to population-pairwise combinations for overlapping windows (500Kb with an overlap of 250Kb). A total of 28,563 ROH were determined and were classified into three length categories. ROH and Fst detected sweeps were identified on several autosomes. Several genes in these regions are likely to be related to adaptation to local environmental stresses that include high altitude, diseases resistance, poor nutrition, oxidative and heat stresses and were linked to gene ontology terms (GO) related to immune response, oxygen consumption and heme binding, carbohydrate metabolism, oxidation-reduction, and behavior. Results indicated a possible effect of natural selection forces on shaping genomic structure for adaptation to local environmental stresses.

Keywords: African Chicken, runs of homozygosity, FST, selection footprints

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
10 E-Government Development in Nigeria, 'Bank Verification No': An Anti-Corruption Tool

Authors: Ernest C. Nwadinobi, Amanda Peart, Carl Adams

Abstract:

The leading countries like the USA, UK and some of the European countries have moved their focus away from just developing the e-government platform towards just the electronic services which aim at providing access to information to its citizens or customers, but they have gone to make significant backroom changes that can accommodate this electronic service being provided to its customers or citizens. E-government has moved from just providing electronic information to citizens and customers alike to serving their needs. In developing countries like Nigeria, the enablement of e-government is being used as an anti-corruption tool. The introduction of the Bank verification number (BVN) scheme by the Central Bank of Nigeria, has helped the government in not just saving money but also protecting customer’s transaction and enhancing confidence in the banking sector. This has helped curtail the high rate of cyber and financial crime that has been part of the system. The use of BVN as an anti-corruption tool in Nigeria came at a time there was need for openness, accountability, and discipline, after years of robbing the treasury and recklessness in handling finances. As there has not been a defined method for measuring the strength or success of e-government development, in this case BVN, in Nigeria, progress will remain at the same level. The implementation strategy of the BVN in Nigeria has mostly been a quick fix, quick win solution. In fact, there is little or no indication to show evidence of a framework for e-government. Like other leading countries, there is the need for proper implementation of strategy and framework especially towards a customer orientated process, which will accommodate every administrative body of the government institution including private business rather than focusing on a non-flexible organisational structure. The development of e-government must have a strategy and framework for it to work, and this strategy must enclose every public administration and will not be limited to any individual bodies or organization. A defined framework or monitoring method must be put in place to help evaluate and benchmark government development in e-government. This framework must follow the same concept or principles. In censorious analyses of the existing methods, this paper will denote areas that must be included in the existing approach to be able to channel e-government development towards its defined strategic objectives.

Keywords: Bank Verification No (BVN), quick-fix, anti-corruption, quick-win

Procedia PDF Downloads 80