Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Siân M. Henson

6 Cellular Senescence and Neuroinflammation Following Controlled Cortical Impact Traumatic Brain Injury in Juvenile Mice

Authors: Zahra F. Al-Khateeb, Shenel Shekerzade, Hasna Boumenar, Siân M. Henson, Jordi L. Tremoleda, A. T. Michael-Titus

Abstract:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and death in young adults and also increases the risk ofneurodegeneration. The mechanisms linking moderate to severe TBI to neurodegeneration are not known. It has been proposed that cellular senescence inductionpost-injury could amplify neuroinflammation and induce long-term changes. The impact of these processes after injury to an immature brain has not been characterised yet. We carried out a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) in juvenile 1 month-old male CD1 mice. Animals were anesthetised and received a unilateral CCI injury. The sham group received anaesthesia and had a craniotomy. A naïve group had no intervention. The brain tissue was analysed at 5 days and 35 days post-injury using immunohistochemistry and markers for microglia, astrocytes, and senescence. Compared tonaïve animals, injured mice showed an increased microglial and astrocytic reaction early post-injury, as reflected in Iba1 and GFAP markers, respectively; the GFAP increase persisted in the later phase. The senescence analysis showed a significant increase inγH2AX-53BP1 nuclear foci, 8-oxoguanine, p19ARF, p16INK4a, and p53 expression in naïve vs. sham groups and naïve vs. CCI groups, at 5 dpi. At 35 days, the difference was no longer statistically significant in all markers. The injury induced a decrease p21 expression vs. the naïve group, at 35 dpi. These results indicate the induction of a complex senescence response after immature brain injury. Some changes occur early and may reflect the activation/proliferation of non-neuronal cells post-injury that had been hindered, whereas changes such as p21 downregulation may reflect a delayed response and pro-repair processes.

Keywords: cellular senescence, traumatic brain injury, brain injury, controlled cortical impact

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5 Behavior of hFOB 1.19 Cells in Injectable Scaffold Composing of Pluronic F127 and Carboxymethyl Hexanoyl Chitosan

Authors: Lie-Sian Yap, Ming-Chien Yang

Abstract:

This study demonstrated a novel injectable hydrogel scaffold composing of Pluronic F127, carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan (CA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) for encapsulating human fetal osteoblastic cells (hFOB) 1.19. The hydrogel was prepared by mixing F127 and GA in CA solution at 4°C. The mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of this hydrogel were determined through rheological measurements and MTT assay, respectively. After encapsulation process, the hFOB 1.19 cells morphology was examined using fluorescent and confocal imaging. The results indicated that the Tgel of this system was around 30°C, where sol-gel transformation occurred within 90s and F127/CA/GA gel was able to remain intact in the medium for more than 1 month. In vitro cell culture assay revealed that F127/CA/GA hydrogels were non-cytotoxic. Encapsulated hFOB 1.19 cells not only showed the spherical shape and formed colonies, but also reduced their size. Moreover, the hFOB 1.19 cells showed that cells remain alive after the encapsulation process. Based on these results, these F127/CA/GA hydrogels can be used to encapsulate cells for tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan, cell encapsulation, hFOB 1.19, Pluronic F127

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4 Fabrication of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes Paper Electrode for Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Tze-Sian Pui, Aung Than, Song-Wei Loo, Yuan-Li Hoe

Abstract:

A paper-based electrode devised from an array of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) has been successfully developed for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The PDDA/MWNTs electrodes were fabricated by allowing PDDA to absorb onto the surface of carboxylated MWNTs, followed by drop-casting the resulting mixture onto a paper. Cyclic voltammetry performed using 5 mM [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/⁴⁻ as the redox marker showed that the PDDA/MWNTs electrode has higher redox activity compared to non-functionalized carboxylated MWNT electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry was conducted with DA concentration ranging from 2 µM to 500 µM in the presence of 1 mM AA. The distinctive potential of 0.156 and -0.068 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) measured on the surface of the PDDA/MWNTs electrode revealed that both DA and AA were oxidized. The detection limit of DA was estimated to be 0.8 µM. This nanocomposite paper-based electrode has great potential for future applications in bioanalysis and biomedicine.

Keywords: dopamine, differential pulse voltammetry, paper sensor, carbon nanotube

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3 Method Development for the Determination of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in Rice Products by Lc-Ms-Ms

Authors: Cher Rong Matthew Kong, Edmund Tian, Seng Poon Ong, Chee Sian Gan

Abstract:

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that is a functional constituent of certain rice varieties. When consumed, it decreases blood pressure and reduces the risk of hypertension-related diseases. This has led to more research dedicated towards the development of functional food products (e.g. germinated brown rice) with enhanced GABA content, and the development of these functional food products has led to increased demand for instrument-based methods that can efficiently and effectively determine GABA content. Current analytical methods require analyte derivatisation, and have significant disadvantages such as being labour intensive and time-consuming, and being subject to analyte loss due to the increased complexity of the sample preparation process. To address this, an LC-MS-MS method for the determination of GABA in rice products has been developed and validated. This developed method involves a relatively simple sample preparation process before analysis using HILIC LC-MS-MS. This method eliminates the need for derivatisation, thereby significantly reducing the labour and time associated with such an analysis. Using LC-MS-MS also allows for better differentiation of GABA from any potential co-eluting compounds in the sample matrix. Results obtained from the developed method demonstrated high linearity, accuracy, and precision for the determination of GABA (1ng/L to 8ng/L) in a variety of brown rice products. The method can significantly simplify sample preparation steps, improve the accuracy of quantitation, and increase the throughput of analyses, thereby providing a quick but effective alternative to established instrumental analysis methods for GABA in rice.

Keywords: functional food, gamma-aminobutyric acid, germinated brown rice, method development

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2 Fort Conger: A Virtual Museum and Virtual Interactive World for Exploring Science in the 19th Century

Authors: Richard Levy, Peter Dawson

Abstract:

Ft. Conger, located in the Canadian Arctic was one of the most remote 19th-century scientific stations. Established in 1881 on Ellesmere Island, a wood framed structure established a permanent base from which to conduct scientific research. Under the charge of Lt. Greely, Ft. Conger was one of 14 expeditions conducted during the First International Polar Year (FIPY). Our research project “From Science to Survival: Using Virtual Exhibits to Communicate the Significance of Polar Heritage Sites in the Canadian Arctic” focused on the creation of a virtual museum website dedicated to one of the most important polar heritage site in the Canadian Arctic. This website was developed under a grant from Virtual Museum of Canada and enables visitors to explore the fort’s site from 1875 to the present, http://fortconger.org. Heritage sites are often viewed as static places. A goal of this project was to present the change that occurred over time as each new group of explorers adapted the site to their needs. The site was first visited by British explorer George Nares in 1875 – 76. Only later did the United States government select this site for the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition (1881-84) with research to be conducted under the FIPY (1882 – 83). Still later Robert Peary and Matthew Henson attempted to reach the North Pole from Ft. Conger in 1899, 1905 and 1908. A central focus of this research is on the virtual reconstruction of the Ft. Conger. In the summer of 2010, a Zoller+Fröhlich Imager 5006i and Minolta Vivid 910 laser scanner were used to scan terrain and artifacts. Once the scanning was completed, the point clouds were registered and edited to form the basis of a virtual reconstruction. A goal of this project has been to allow visitors to step back in time and explore the interior of these buildings with all of its artifacts. Links to text, historic documents, animations, panorama images, computer games and virtual labs provide explanations of how science was conducted during the 19th century. A major feature of this virtual world is the timeline. Visitors to the website can begin to explore the site when George Nares, in his ship the HMS Discovery, appeared in the harbor in 1875. With the emergence of Lt Greely’s expedition in 1881, we can track the progress made in establishing a scientific outpost. Still later in 1901, with Peary’s presence, the site is transformed again, with the huts having been built from materials salvaged from Greely’s main building. Still later in 2010, we can visit the site during its present state of deterioration and learn about the laser scanning technology which was used to document the site. The Science and Survival at Fort Conger project represents one of the first attempts to use virtual worlds to communicate the historical and scientific significance of polar heritage sites where opportunities for first-hand visitor experiences are not possible because of remote location.

Keywords: 3D imaging, multimedia, virtual reality, arctic

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1 p-Type Multilayer MoS₂ Enabled by Plasma Doping for Ultraviolet Photodetectors Application

Authors: Xiao-Mei Zhang, Sian-Hong Tseng, Ming-Yen Lu

Abstract:

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as MoS₂, have attracted considerable attention owing to the unique optical and electronic properties related to its 2D ultrathin atomic layer structure. MoS₂ is becoming prevalent in post-silicon digital electronics and in highly efficient optoelectronics due to its extremely low thickness and its tunable band gap (Eg = 1-2 eV). For low-power, high-performance complementary logic applications, both p- and n-type MoS₂ FETs (NFETs and PFETs) must be developed. NFETs with an electron accumulation channel can be obtained using unintentionally doped n-type MoS₂. However, the fabrication of MoS₂ FETs with complementary p-type characteristics is challenging due to the significant difficulty of injecting holes into its inversion channel. Plasma treatments with different species (including CF₄, SF₆, O₂, and CHF₃) have also been found to achieve the desired property modifications of MoS₂. In this work, we demonstrated a p-type multilayer MoS₂ enabled by selective-area doping using CHF₃ plasma treatment. Compared with single layer MoS₂, multilayer MoS₂ can carry a higher drive current due to its lower bandgap and multiple conduction channels. Moreover, it has three times the density of states at its minimum conduction band. Large-area growth of MoS₂ films on 300 nm thick SiO₂/Si substrate is carried out by thermal decomposition of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, (NH₄)₂MoS₄, in a tube furnace. A two-step annealing process is conducted to synthesize MoS₂ films. For the first step, the temperature is set to 280 °C for 30 min in an N₂ rich environment at 1.8 Torr. This is done to transform (NH₄)₂MoS₄ into MoS₃. To further reduce MoS₃ into MoS₂, the second step of annealing is performed. For the second step, the temperature is set to 750 °C for 30 min in a reducing atmosphere consisting of 90% Ar and 10% H₂ at 1.8 Torr. The grown MoS₂ films are subjected to out-of-plane doping by CHF₃ plasma treatment using a Dry-etching system (ULVAC original NLD-570). The radiofrequency power of this dry-etching system is set to 100 W and the pressure is set to 7.5 mTorr. The final thickness of the treated samples is obtained by etching for 30 s. Back-gated MoS₂ PFETs were presented with an on/off current ratio in the order of 10³ and a field-effect mobility of 65.2 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹. The MoS₂ PFETs photodetector exhibited ultraviolet (UV) photodetection capability with a rapid response time of 37 ms and exhibited modulation of the generated photocurrent by back-gate voltage. This work suggests the potential application of the mild plasma-doped p-type multilayer MoS₂ in UV photodetectors for environmental monitoring, human health monitoring, and biological analysis.

Keywords: photodetection, p-type doping, multilayers, MoS₂

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