Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 684

Search results for: cellular senescence

684 Decreased Autophagy Contributes to Senescence Induction in HS68 Cells

Authors: Byeal-I Han, Michael Lee


Ageing is associated with an increased risk of diseases such as cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Increased autophagy delays ageing and extends longevity. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy in longevity using human foreskin fibroblast HS68 cells, in which a senescence-like growth arrest can be induced. In particular, cellular senescence is manifested by the irreversible cell cycle arrest, and may contribute to the ageing of organisms. The senescence state was measured with staining for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity that represents a sensitive and reliable marker to quantify senescent cells. We detected a significantly increased percentage (%) of SA-β-gal positive cells in HS68 cultures at passage 40 (63%) when compared with younger ones at passage 15 (0.5%). As expected, HS68 cells at passage 40 exhibited much lower proliferation rate than cells at passage 15. The basal levels of LC3 were measured by immunoblotting showing a comparison of LC3-I and LC3-II levels at 3 age-points in serially passaged HS68 cells. LC3-II/LC3-I ratio at different passage levels relative to β-actin levels of each band confirmed that cells at passage 34 showed lower conversion of non-autophagic LC3-I to autophagic LC3-II than the cells at passage 16. Furthermore, Cyto-ID autophagy assay also revealed that late passage cells showed lower autophagy than the early passage cells. Together, our findings suggest that senescence induction might be associated with decreased autophagy.

Keywords: ageing, autophagy, senescence, HS68

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683 Cellular Senescence and Neuroinflammation Following Controlled Cortical Impact Traumatic Brain Injury in Juvenile Mice

Authors: Zahra F. Al-Khateeb, Shenel Shekerzade, Hasna Boumenar, Siân M. Henson, Jordi L. Tremoleda, A. T. Michael-Titus


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and death in young adults and also increases the risk ofneurodegeneration. The mechanisms linking moderate to severe TBI to neurodegeneration are not known. It has been proposed that cellular senescence inductionpost-injury could amplify neuroinflammation and induce long-term changes. The impact of these processes after injury to an immature brain has not been characterised yet. We carried out a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) in juvenile 1 month-old male CD1 mice. Animals were anesthetised and received a unilateral CCI injury. The sham group received anaesthesia and had a craniotomy. A naïve group had no intervention. The brain tissue was analysed at 5 days and 35 days post-injury using immunohistochemistry and markers for microglia, astrocytes, and senescence. Compared tonaïve animals, injured mice showed an increased microglial and astrocytic reaction early post-injury, as reflected in Iba1 and GFAP markers, respectively; the GFAP increase persisted in the later phase. The senescence analysis showed a significant increase inγH2AX-53BP1 nuclear foci, 8-oxoguanine, p19ARF, p16INK4a, and p53 expression in naïve vs. sham groups and naïve vs. CCI groups, at 5 dpi. At 35 days, the difference was no longer statistically significant in all markers. The injury induced a decrease p21 expression vs. the naïve group, at 35 dpi. These results indicate the induction of a complex senescence response after immature brain injury. Some changes occur early and may reflect the activation/proliferation of non-neuronal cells post-injury that had been hindered, whereas changes such as p21 downregulation may reflect a delayed response and pro-repair processes.

Keywords: cellular senescence, traumatic brain injury, brain injury, controlled cortical impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
682 Mechanical Properties of Young and Senescence Fibroblast Cells Using Passive Microrheology

Authors: Samira Khalaji, , Fenneke Klein Jan, Kay-E. Gottschalk, Eugenia Makrantonaki, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek


Biological aging is a multi-dimensional process that takes place over a whole range of scales from the nanoscopic alterations within individual cells, over transformations in tissues and organs and to changes of the whole organism. On the single cell level, aging involves mutation of genes, differences in gene expression levels as well as altered posttranslational modifications of proteins. A variety of proteins is affected, including proteins of the cell cytoskeleton and migration machinery. Previous work quantified the expression of cytoskeleton proteins on the gene and protein levels in senescent and young fibroblasts. Their results show that senescent skin fibroblasts have an upregulated expression of the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin in contrast to actin and tubulin, which are downregulated. IFs play an important role in providing mechanical stability of cells. However, the mechanical properties of IFs depending on cellular senescence or age of the donor has not been studied so far. Hence, we employed passive microrheology on primary human dermal fibroblasts from female donors with age of 28 years (young) and 86 years (old) as model of in vivo aging and human normal dermal fibroblast from 11-year old male with CPD 17-35 (young) and CPD 58-59 (senescence) as a model of in vitro replicative senescence. In contrast to the expectations, our primary results show no significant differences in the viscoelastic properties of fibroblasts depending on age of the donor or cellular replicative senescence.

Keywords: aging, cytoskeleton, fibroblast, mechanical properties

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681 Comparison of Physical and Chemical Effects on Senescent Cells

Authors: Svetlana Guryeva, Inna Kornienko, Andrey Usanov, Dmitry Usanov, Elena Petersen


Every day cells in our organism are exposed to various factors: chemical agents, reactive oxygen species, ionizing radiation, and others. These factors can cause damage to DNA, cellular membrane, intracellular compartments, and proteins. The fate of cells depends on the exposure intensity and duration. The prolonged and intense exposure causes the irreversible damage accumulation, which triggers the permanent cell cycle arrest (cellular senescence) or cell death programs. In the case of low dose of impacts, it can lead to cell renovation and to cell functional state improvement. Therefore, it is a pivotal question to investigate the factors and doses that result in described positive effects. In order to estimate the influence of different agents, the proliferation index and levels of cell death markers (annexin V/propidium iodide), senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and lipofuscin were measured. The experiments were conducted on primary human fibroblasts of the 8th passage. According to the levels of mentioned markers, these cells were defined as senescent cells. The effect of low-frequency magnetic field was investigated. Different modes of magnetic field exposure were tested. The physical agents were compared with chemical agents: metformin (10 mM) and taurine (0.8 mM and 1.6 mM). Cells were incubating with chemicals for 5 days. The highest decrease in the level of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (21%) and lipofuscin (17%) was observed in the primary senescent fibroblasts after 5 days after double treatments with 48 h intervals with low-frequency magnetic field. There were no significant changes in the proliferation index after magnetic field application. The cytotoxic effect of magnetic field was not observed. The chemical agent taurine (1.6 mM) decreased the level of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (23%) and lipofuscin (22%). Metformin improved the activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase on 15% and the level of lipofuscin on 19% in this experiment. According to these results, the effect of double treatment with 48 h interval with low-frequency magnetic field and the effect of taurine (1.6 mM) were comparable to the effect of metformin, for which anti-aging properties are proved. In conclusion, this study can become the first step towards creation of the standardized system for the investigation of different effects on senescent cells.

Keywords: biomarkers, magnetic field, metformin, primary fibroblasts, senescence, taurine

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680 Establishment and Aging Process Analysis in Dermal Fibroblast Cell Culture of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas)

Authors: Yemima Dani Riani, Anggraini Barlian


Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is one of well known long-lived turtle. Its age can reach 100 years old. Senescence in green turtle is an interesting process to study because until now no clear explanation has been established about senescence at cellular or molecular level in this species. Since 1999, green turtle announced as an endangered species. Hence, establishment of fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtle may be material for future study of senescence. One common marker used for detecting senescence is telomere shortening. Reduced telomerase activity, the reverse transcriptase enzyme which adds TTAGGG DNA sequence to telomere end, may also cause senescence. The purpose of this research are establish and identify green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture and also compare telomere length and telomerase activity from passage 5 and 14. Primary cell culture made with primary explant method then cultured in Leibovitz-15 (Sigma) supplemented by 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (Sigma) and 100 U/mL Penicillin/Streptomycin (Sigma) at 30 ± 1oC. Cells identified with Rabbit Anti-Vimentin Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) and Goat Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) using confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 170). Telomere length obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay (Roche) while telomerase activity obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomerase PCR ElisaPlus (Roche). Primary cell culture from green turtle skin had fibroblastic morphology and immunocytochemistry test with vimentin antibody proved the culture was fibroblast cell. Measurement of telomere length and telomerase activity showed that telomere length and telomerase activity of passage 14 was greater than passage 5. However, based on morphology, green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture showed senescent morphology. Based on the analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity, suspected fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtles is not undergo aging through telomere shortening.

Keywords: cell culture, chelonia mydas, telomerase, telomere, senescence

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679 Effect of Oxidative Stress from Smoking on Erythrocyte Phosphatidylserine Externalization

Authors: Ratchaneewan Maneemaroj, Paveena Noisuwan, Chonlada Lakhonphon


The smoking is one of the major risk factors in Non-Communicable Disease. Free radicals from cigarette smoke can cause oxidative stress. The oxidative insults can lead to red blood cell (RBC) senescence and are involved in the clearance of red blood cells. The objective of the present study is to assess the association between smoke, oxidative stress evaluated with serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (biomarker of RBC senescence) evaluated with annexin V binding. A total of sixty-four male volunteers aged 25-60 years old were recruited in this study. MDA was measured by colorimetric method. Annexin V binding was detected by flow cytometry. Our results show that there was a significant increase in MDA levels in cigarette smokers as compared to non-smokers (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant different between annexin V binding (% gate) in cigarette smokers and non-smokers (p = 0.978). These results provide evidence of free radical from smoking is associated with oxidative damage to erythrocytes. However, our results suggest that PS externalization is unlikely to have a role in RBC senescence pathway of stressed erythrocytes from cigarette smoke. The other biomarker of RBC senescence should be determined on cigarette smoker erythrocytes.

Keywords: malondialdehyde, phosphatidylserine, RBC senescence, annexin V

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678 Anti-Aging Effects of Two Agricultural Plant Extracts and Their Underlying Mechanism

Authors: Shwu-Ling Peng, Chiung-Man Tsai, Chia-Jui Weng


Chronic micro-inflammation is a hallmark of many aging-related neurodegenerative and metabolic syndrome-driven diseases. In high glucose (HG) environment, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is generated and the ROS induced inflammation, cytokines secretion, DNA damage, and cell cycle arrest to lead to cellular senescence. Water chestnut shell (WCS) is a plant hull which containing polyphenolic compounds and showed antioxidant and anticancer activities. Orchid, which containing a natural polysaccharide compound, possesses many physiological activities including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. These agricultural plants might be able to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. This study was used HG-induced human normal dermal fibroblasts (HG-HNDFs) as an in vitro model to disclose the effects of water extract of Phalaenopsis orchid flower (WEPF) and ethanol extract of water chestnut shell (EEWCS) on the anti-aging and their underlying molecular mechanisms. The toxicity of extracts on human normal dermal fibroblasts (HNDFs) was determined by MTT method. The senescence of cells was assayed by β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) kit. ROS and nitrate production was analyzed by Intracellular ROS contents and ELISA, respectively. Western blotting was used to detect the proteins in cells. The results showed that the exposure of HNDFs to HG (30 mM) for 72 h were caused cellular senescence and arrested cells at G0/G1 phase. Indeed, the treatment of HG-HNDFs with WEPF (200 μg/ml) and EEWCS (10 μg/ml) significantly released cell cycle arrest and promoted cell proliferation. The G1/S phase transition regulatory proteins such as protein retinoblastoma (pRb), p53, and p16ᴵᴺᴷ⁴ᵃ depressed by WEPF and EEWCS were also observed. Additionally, the treatment of WEPF and EEWCS increased the activity of HO-1 through upregulating Nrf2 as well as decreased the ROS and NO of HG-HNDFs. Therefore, the senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) in cells was diminished. In conclusion, the WEPF and EEWCS might inhibit HG-induced aging of HNDFs by reducing oxidative stress and free radicals.

Keywords: agricultural plant extract, anti-aging, high glucose, Phalaenopsis orchid flower, water chestnut shell

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677 Determining Cellular Biomarkers Sensitive to Low Damaging Exposure

Authors: Svetlana Guryeva, Inna Kornienko, Elena Petersen


At present, translational medicine is a rapidly developing branch of biomedicine. The main idea of translational medicine is a practical application of fundamental research. One of the possible applications for translational medicine is researching therapies that improve human age-related organism condition. To fill the gap between experiments and clinical practice, it is necessary to create the standardized system for the investigation of different effects on cellular aging models. In this study, primary human fibroblasts derived from patients of different ages were used as a cellular aging model. The senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, lipofuscin, γ-H2AX, the reactive oxygen species level, and cell death markers (annexin V/propidium iodide) were used as biomarkers of the cell functional state. The effects of damaging exposures (oxidative stress and heat shock), potential positive factors (metformin and acetaminophen), and their combinations were investigated using the described biomarkers. Oxidative stress and heat shock caused the increase in the levels of all biomarkers, and only the cells from young patients partly coped with stress 3 days after the exposures. Metformin improved the state of pretreatment cells from young and old patients. The acetaminophen did not show significant changes in the biomarker levels compare to the action of metformin. This study proved the opportunity to develop a standardized screening system based on biomarkers of the cell functional state to identify potential positive or negative effects of some physical and chemical exposures. Moreover, such a system can be useful for the aims of regenerative medicine to determine the effect of cell pretreatment before transplantation.

Keywords: biomarkers, primary fibroblasts, regenerative medicine, senescence, test system, translational medicine

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676 Stress-Controlled Senescence and Development in Arabidopsis thaliana by Root Associated Factor (RAF), a NAC Transcription Regulator

Authors: Iman Kamranfar, Gang-Ping Xue, Salma Balazadeh, Bernd Mueller-Roeber


Adverse environmental conditions such as salinity stress, high temperature and drought limit plant growth and typically lead to precocious tissue degeneration and leaf senescence, a process by which nutrients from photosynthetic organs are recycled for the formation of flowers and seeds to secure reaching the next generation under such harmful conditions. In addition, abiotic stress affects developmental patterns that help the plant to withstand unfavourable environmental conditions. We discovered an NAC (for NAM, ATAF1, 2, and CUC2) transcription factor (TF), called RAF in the following, which plays a central role in abiotic drought stress-triggered senescence and the control of developmental adaptations to stressful environments. RAF is an ABA-responsive TF; RAF overexpressors are hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and exhibit precocious senescence while knock-out mutants show delayed senescence. To explore the RAF gene regulatory network (GRN), we determined its preferred DNA binding sites by binding site selection assay (BSSA) and performed microarray-based expression profiling using inducible RAF overexpression lines and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR. Our studies identified several direct target genes, including those encoding for catabolic enzymes acting during stress-induced senescence. Furthermore, we identified various genes controlling drought stress-related developmental changes. Based on our results, we conclude that RAF functions as a central transcriptional regulator that coordinates developmental programs with stress-related inputs from the environment. To explore the potential agricultural applications of our findings, we are currently extending our studies towards crop species.

Keywords: abiotic stress, Arabidopsis, development, transcription factor

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675 The Improved Therapeutic Effect of Trans-Cinnamaldehyde on Adipose-Derived Stem Cells without Chemical Induction

Authors: Karthyayani Rajamani, Yi-Chun Lin, Tung-Chou Wen, Jeanne Hsieh, Yi-Maun Subeq, Jen-Wei Liu, Po-Cheng Lin, Horng-Jyh Harn, Shinn-Zong Lin, Tzyy-Wen Chiou


Assuring cell quality is an essential parameter for the success of stem cell therapy, utilization of various components to improve this potential has been the primary goal of stem cell research. The aim of this study was not only to demonstrate the capacity of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) to reverse stress-induced senescence but also improve the therapeutic abilities of stem cells. Because of the availability and the promising application potential in regenerative medicine, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were chosen for the study. We found that H2O2 treatment resulted in the expression of senescence characteristics in the ADSCs, including decreased proliferation rate, increased senescence-associated- β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, decreased SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homologs) expression and decreased telomerase activity. However, TC treatment was sufficient to rescue or reduce the effects of H2O2 induction, ultimately leading to an increased proliferation rate, a decrease in the percentage of SA-β-gal positive cells, upregulation of SIRT1 expression, and increased telomerase activity of the senescent ADSCs at the cellular level. Further recently it was observed that the ADSCs were treated with TC without induction of senescence, all the before said positives were observed. Moreover, a chemically induced liver fibrosis animal model was used to evaluate the functionality of these rescued cells in vivo. Liver dysfunction was established by injecting 200 mg/kg thioacetamide (TAA) intraperitoneally into Wistar rats every third day for 60 days. The experimental rats were separated into groups; normal group (rats without TAA induction), sham group (without ADSC transplantation), positive control group (transplanted with normal ADSCs); H2O2 group (transplanted with H2O2 -induced senescent ADSCs), H2O2+TC group (transplanted with ADSCs pretreated with H2O2 and then further treated with TC) and TC group (ADSC treated with TC without H2O2 treatment). In the transplantation group, 1 × 106 human ADSCs were introduced into each rat via direct liver injection. Based on the biochemical analysis and immunohistochemical staining results, it was determined that the therapeutic effects on liver fibrosis by the induced senescent ADSCs (H2O2 group) were not as significant as those exerted by the normal ADSCs (the positive control group). However, the H2O2+TC group showed significant reversal of liver damage when compared to the H2O2 group 1 week post-transplantation. Further ADSCs without H2O2 treatment but with just TC treatment performed much better than all the groups. These data confirmed that the TC treatment had the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of ADSCs. It is therefore suggested that TC has potential applications in maintaining stem cell quality and could possibly aid in the treatment of senescence-related disorders.

Keywords: senescence, SIRT1, adipose derived stem cells, liver fibrosis

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674 Non-Canonical Beclin-1-Independent Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cell Death Induced by Rhus coriaria in Human Colon HT-29 Cancer Cells

Authors: Rabah Iratni, Husain El Hasasna, Khawlah Athamneh, Halima Al Sameri, Nehla Benhalilou, Asma Al Rashedi


Background: Cancer therapies have witnessed great advances in the recent past, however, cancer continues to be a leading cause of death, with colorectal cancer being the fourth cause of cancer-related deaths. Colorectal cancer affects both sexes equally with poor survival rate once it metastasizes. Phytochemicals, which are plant derived compounds, have been on a steady rise as anti-cancer drugs due to the accumulation of evidences that support their potential. Here, we investigated the anticancer effect of Rhus coriaria on colon cancer cells. Material and Method: Human colon cancer HT-29 cell line was used. Protein expression and protein phosphorylation were examined using Western blotting. Transcription activity was measure using Quantitative RT-PCR. Human tumoral clonogenic assay was used to assess cell survival. Senescence was assessed by the senescence-associated beta-galactosidase assay. Results: Rhus coriaria extract (RCE) was found to significantly inhibit the viability and colony growth of human HT-29 colon cancer cells. RCE induced senescence and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. These changes were concomitant with upregulation of p21, p16, downregulation of cyclin D1, p27, c-myc and expression of Senescence-associated-β-Galactosidase activity. Moreover, RCE induced non-canonical beclin-1independent autophagy and subsequent apoptotic cell death through activation of activation caspase 8 and caspase 7. The blocking of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ) reduced RCE-induced cell death. Further, RCE induced DNA damage, reduced mutant p53 protein level and downregulated phospho-AKT and phospho-mTOR, events that preceded autophagy. Mechanistically, we found that RCE inhibited the AKT and mTOR pathway, a regulator of autophagy, by promoting the proteasome-dependent degradation of both AKT and mTOR proteins. Conclusion: Our findings provide strong evidence that Rhus coriaria possesses strong anti-colon cancer activity through induction of senescence and autophagic cell death, making it a promising alternative or adjunct therapeutic candidate against colon cancer.

Keywords: autophagy, proteasome degradation, senescence, mTOR, apoptosis, Beclin-1

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673 Classification Based on Deep Neural Cellular Automata Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


Deep learning structure is a branch of machine learning science and greet achievement in research and applications. Cellular neural networks are regarded as array of nonlinear analog processors called cells connected in a way allowing parallel computations. The paper discusses how to use deep learning structure for representing neural cellular automata model. The proposed learning technique in cellular automata model will be examined from structure of deep learning. A deep automata neural cellular system modifies each neuron based on the behavior of the individual and its decision as a result of multi-level deep structure learning. The paper will present the architecture of the model and the results of simulation of approach are given. Results from the implementation enrich deep neural cellular automata system and shed a light on concept formulation of the model and the learning in it.

Keywords: cellular automata, neural cellular automata, deep learning, classification

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672 Cellular Automata Using Fractional Integral Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


In this paper, a proposed model of cellular automata is studied by means of fractional integral function. A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. The paper discusses how using fractional integral function for representing cellular automata memory or state. The architecture of computing and learning model will be given and the results of calibrating of approach are also given.

Keywords: fractional integral, cellular automata, memory, learning

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671 Ethylene Sensitivity in Orchids and Its Control Using 1-MCP: A Review

Authors: Parviz Almasi


Ethylene is produced as a gaseous growth regulator in all plants and their constructive parts such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. It is considered a multifunctional phytohormone that regulates both growths including flowering, fruit ripening, inhibition of root growth, and senescence such as senescence of leaves and flowers and etc. In addition, exposure to external ethylene is caused some changes that are often undesirable and harmful. Some flowers are more sensitive to others and when exposed to ethylene; their aging process is hastened. 1-MCP is an exogenous and endogenous ethylene action inhibitor, which binds to the ethylene receptors in the plants and prevents ethylene-dependent reactions. The binding affinity of 1- MCP for the receptors is about 10 times more than ethylene. Hence, 1-MCP can be a potential candidate for controlling of ethylene injury in horticultural crops. This review integrates knowledge of ethylene biosynthesis in the plants and also a mode of action of 1-MCP in preventing of ethylene injury.

Keywords: ethylene injury, biosynthesis, ethylene sensitivity, 1-MCP

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670 Application of Strength Criteria for Cellular Pressure Vessels

Authors: Antanas Žiliukas, Mindaugas Kukis


The work deals with cellular pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure. Their cellular insert can be used for placing liquids or gases, which is necessary to carry out technological processes, and the vessel itself has a good bearing capacity. Numerical calculations of the three core structures, which measure the influence of the inner cylinder thickness on maximum bearing capacity are presented. The calculations are compared using strength criteria and they show the different strength safety level.

Keywords: pressure, strength criterion, sandwich plate, cellular vessel

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669 An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications

Authors: Hyun-Jun Shin, Jae-Jeong Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive signals from both broadcasting base station and cellular base station. The proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.

Keywords: cooperative communication, diversity, STBC, CDD, channel condition, broadcasting system, cellular system

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668 Improved Performance Using Adaptive Pre-Coding in the Cellular Network

Authors: Yong-Jun Kim, Jae-Hyun Ro, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song


This paper proposes the cooperative transmission scheme with pre-coding because the cellular communication requires high reliability. The cooperative transmission scheme uses pre-coding method with limited feedback information among small cells. Particularly, the proposed scheme has adaptive mode according to the position of mobile station. Thus, demand of recent wireless communication is resolved by this scheme. From the simulation results, the proposed scheme has better performance compared to the conventional scheme in the cellular network.

Keywords: CDD, cellular network, pre-coding, SPC

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667 Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Cellular Automata and Fuzzy Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh


The particle swarm optimization are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Particle swarm optimization is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems. The fuzzy cellular automata is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the Particle swarm optimization algorithms.

Keywords: cellular automata, cellular learning automata, local search, optimization, particle swarm optimization

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666 Performance Evaluation of Vertical Handover on Silom Line BTS

Authors: Silumpa Suboonsan, Suwat Pattaramalai


In this paper, the performance of internet usage by using Vertical Handover (VHO) between cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) on Silom line Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) is evaluated. In the evaluation model, there is the WLAN on every BTS station and there are cellular base stations along the BTS path. The maximum data rates for cellular network are 7.2, 14.4, 42, and 100Mbps and for WLAN are 54, 150, and 300Mbps. The simulation are based on users using internet, watching VDOs and browsing web pages, on the BTS train from first station to the last station (full time usage) and on the BTS train for traveling some number of stations (random time). The results shows that VHO system has throughput a lot more than using only cellular network when the data rate of WLAN is more than one of cellular network. Lastly, the number of watching HD VDO and Full HD VDO is higher on VHO system on both regular time and rush hour of BTS travelling.

Keywords: vertical handover, WLAN, cellular, silom line BTS

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665 A Graph SEIR Cellular Automata Based Model to Study the Spreading of a Transmittable Disease

Authors: Natasha Sharma, Kulbhushan Agnihotri


Cellular Automata are discrete dynamical systems which are based on local character and spatial disparateness of the spreading process. These factors are generally neglected by traditional models based on differential equations for epidemic spread. The aim of this work is to introduce an SEIR model based on cellular automata on graphs to imitate epidemic spreading. Distinctively, it is an SEIR-type model where the population is divided into susceptible, exposed, infected and recovered individuals. The results obtained from simulations are in accordance with the spreading behavior of a real time epidemics.

Keywords: cellular automata, epidemic spread, graph, susceptible

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664 Postharvest Studies Beyond Fresh Market Eating Quality: Phytochemical Changes in Peach Fruit During Ripening and Advanced Senescence

Authors: Mukesh Singh Mer, Brij Lal Attri, Raj Narayan, Anil Kumar


Postharvest studies were conducted under the concept that fruit do not qualify for the fresh market may be used as a source of bioactive compounds. One peach (Prunus persica cvs Red June) were evaluated for their photochemical content and antioxidant capacity during the ripening and over ripening periods (advanced senescence) for 12 and 15 d, respectively. Firmness decreased rapidly during this period from an initial pre –ripe stage of 5.85 lb/in2 for peach until the fruit reached the fully ripe stage of lb/in2. In this study we evaluate the varietal performance in respect of the quality beyond fresh market eating and nutrition levels. The varieties are (T-1 F-16-23), (T-2 Florda king), (T-3 Nectarine), (T-4 Red June). The result pertaining are there the highest fruit length (68.50 mm), fruit breadth (71.38 mm), fruit weight (186.11 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (8.74 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (1.66 %), ascorbic acid (440 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (19.77 %) and total sugar (51.73 %) found in T4- Red June, T-2 Florda King, T-3 Nectarine at harvesting time but decrease in fruit length ( 60.81 mm), fruit breadth (51.84 mm), fruit weight (143.03 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (6.29 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (0.80 %), ascorbic acid (329.50 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (34.03 %) and total sugar (26.97 %) found in T1- F-16-23, T-2 Florda King, T-1 F-16-23 and T-3 Nectarine after 15 days in freeze conditions when will have been since reached beyond market. The study reveals that the size and yield good in Red June and the nutritional value higher in Florda King and Nectarine peach. Fruit firmness remained unchanged afterwards. In addition, total soluble solids in peach were basically similar during the ripening and over ripening periods. Further research on secondary metabolism regulation during ripening and advanced senescence is needed to obtain fruit as enriched dietary sources of bioactive compounds or for its use in alternative high value health markets including dietary supplements, functional foods cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: metabolism, acidity, ascorbic acid, pharmaceuticals

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663 Analysis of Beams with Web Opening Subject to Vertical Loads

Authors: P. Chantarawitoon, H. Askarinejad


The steel beams with web opening including the cellular and castellated I-beams are fabricated from a solid web I-beam through a double cutting method to a specific shape and size along the beam. The two halves of the beams are then welded together, increasing the overall depth of the web section. In this paper, the deflection of the cellular and castellated beams subject to uniform vertical loads are investigated using Finite Element Autodesk simulation package. The structural response of the beams with web opening are compared with regular solid beams. Additionally, parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the geometric properties of a cellular beam to its structural responses.

Keywords: beams with web opening, cellular and castellated beams, finite element analysis, vertical deflection

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662 Analysis of User Data Usage Trends on Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks

Authors: Jayesh M. Patel, Bharat P. Modi


The availability of on mobile devices that can invoke the demonstrated that the total data demand from users is far higher than previously articulated by measurements based solely on a cellular-centric view of smart-phone usage. The ratio of Wi-Fi to cellular traffic varies significantly between countries, This paper is shown the compression between the cellular data usage and Wi-Fi data usage by the user. This strategy helps operators to understand the growing importance and application of yield management strategies designed to squeeze maximum returns from their investments into the networks and devices that enable the mobile data ecosystem. The transition from unlimited data plans towards tiered pricing and, in the future, towards more value-centric pricing offers significant revenue upside potential for mobile operators, but, without a complete insight into all aspects of smartphone customer behavior, operators will unlikely be able to capture the maximum return from this billion-dollar market opportunity.

Keywords: cellular, Wi-Fi, mobile, smart phone

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661 2D Hexagonal Cellular Automata: The Complexity of Forms

Authors: Vural Erdogan


We created two-dimensional hexagonal cellular automata to obtain complexity by using simple rules same as Conway’s game of life. Considering the game of life rules, Wolfram's works about life-like structures and John von Neumann's self-replication, self-maintenance, self-reproduction problems, we developed 2-states and 3-states hexagonal growing algorithms that reach large populations through random initial states. Unlike the game of life, we used six neighbourhoods cellular automata instead of eight or four neighbourhoods. First simulations explained that whether we are able to obtain sort of oscillators, blinkers, and gliders. Inspired by Wolfram's 1D cellular automata complexity and life-like structures, we simulated 2D synchronous, discrete, deterministic cellular automata to reach life-like forms with 2-states cells. The life-like formations and the oscillators have been explained how they contribute to initiating self-maintenance together with self-reproduction and self-replication. After comparing simulation results, we decided to develop the algorithm for another step. Appending a new state to the same algorithm, which we used for reaching life-like structures, led us to experiment new branching and fractal forms. All these studies tried to demonstrate that complex life forms might come from uncomplicated rules.

Keywords: hexagonal cellular automata, self-replication, self-reproduction, self- maintenance

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660 Rough Neural Networks in Adapting Cellular Automata Rule for Reducing Image Noise

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


The reduction or removal of noise in a color image is an essential part of image processing, whether the final information is used for human perception or for an automatic inspection and analysis. This paper describes the modeling system based on the rough neural network model to adaptive cellular automata for various image processing tasks and noise remover. In this paper, we consider the problem of object processing in colored image using rough neural networks to help deriving the rules which will be used in cellular automata for noise image. The proposed method is compared with some classical and recent methods. The results demonstrate that the new model is capable of being trained to perform many different tasks, and that the quality of these results is comparable or better than established specialized algorithms.

Keywords: rough sets, rough neural networks, cellular automata, image processing

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659 Drying Modeling of Banana Using Cellular Automata

Authors: M. Fathi, Z. Farhaninejad, M. Shahedi, M. Sadeghi


Drying is one of the oldest preservation methods for food and agriculture products. Appropriate control of operation can be obtained by modeling. Limitation of continues models for complex boundary condition and non-regular geometries leading to appearance of discrete novel methods such as cellular automata, which provides a platform for obtaining fast predictions by rule-based mathematics. In this research a one D dimensional CA was used for simulating thin layer drying of banana. Banana slices were dried with a convectional air dryer and experimental data were recorded for validating of final model. The model was programmed by MATLAB, run for 70000 iterations and von-Neumann neighborhood. The validation results showed a good accordance between experimental and predicted data (R=0.99). Cellular automata are capable to reproduce the expected pattern of drying and have a powerful potential for solving physical problems with reasonable accuracy and low calculating resources.

Keywords: banana, cellular automata, drying, modeling

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658 Cellular Energy Metabolism Decreases with Age in the Trophocytes and Oenocytes of Honeybees (Apis Mellifera)

Authors: Chin-Yuan Hsu, Yu-Lung Chuang


The expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules and cellular energy-regulated molecules decreased with age in the trophocytes and oenocytes of honeybees (Apis mellifera), but those of cellular energy-metabolized molecules is unknown. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of cellular energy-metabolized molecules were assayed in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old worker bees by using the techniques of cell and biochemistry. The results showed that (i) the •-hydroxylacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio, non-esterified fatty acids concentrations, the expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and the expression of phosphorylated eIF4E binding protein 1 decreased with age; (ii) fat and glycogen accumulation increased with age; and (iii) the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio was not correlated with age. These finding indicated that •-oxidation (HOAD/CS) and protein synthsis decreased with age. Glycolysis (PDH/CS) was unchanged with age. The most likely reason is that sugars are the vital food of worker bees. Taken together these data reveal that young workers have higher cellular energy metabolism than old workers and that aging results in a decline in the cellular energy metabolism in worker honeybees.

Keywords: aging, energy, honeybee, metabolism

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657 Plant Layout Analysis by Computer Simulation for Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant

Authors: D. Visuwan, B. Phruksaphanrat


In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyse and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyse and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It is found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout. In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyse and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyse and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout.

Keywords: layout, electronic manufacturing service plant, computer simulation, cellular manufacturing system

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656 Characteristics of Cement Pastes Incorporating Different Amounts of Waste Cellular Concrete Powder

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes


In this study different amounts of waste cellular concrete powder (WCCP) as replacement of cement have been investigated as an attempt to produce green binder, which is useful for sustainable construction applications. From zero to up to 60% of WCCP by mass replacement amounts of cement has been conducted. Consistency, compressive strength, bending strength and the activity index of WCCP through seven to ninety days old specimens have been examined, where the optimum WCCP replacement was up to 30%, depending on which the activity index still increased to the end of test period (90 days) and this could be an evidence for its continuity to increase for longer age. Also up to 30% of WCCP increased the bending strength to be higher than the control one. The main point in the present study that there is a possibility of replacing cement by 30% of WCCP, however, it is preferable to be less than this amount.

Keywords: cellular concrete powder, waste cellular concrete powder (WCCP), supplementary cementatious material, SCM, activity index, mechanical properties

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655 Problems of Innovation Development of Wireless Data Transfer Branch in the Cellular Market of Kazakhstan

Authors: Yessengeldy Kuanyshpayev


Now in some countries of the world the cellular market is on the point of saturation, in others - positive dynamics of development kept on. The reasons for it are also different, but there are united by their general susceptibility to innovation changes, if they are really innovative. If to take as an example the cellular market of Kazakhstan it is defined by the low percent of smart phones at consumers, the low population density, undercapacity of the 3G channel, and absence of universal access to the LTE technology that limits dynamical growth of this branch. These moments are aggravated by failures of starting commercial projects by private companies which prevent to be implemented and widely adopted to a new product among consumers. The object of the research is possible integration of wireless and program technologies at which introduction the idea can regenerate in an innovation. The analysis of existing projects in the market and the possible union of the technologies through a prism of theoretical bases of innovative activity shows that efficiency of the company by development and introduction of innovations is possible only thanks to strict observance of all terms and conditions of the innovative process which main term is profit. Despite that fact that on a global scale the innovativeness issue of companies is very popular, there are no research about possibility of innovative breaks in the field of wireless access to the Internet in the cellular market of Kazakhstan.

Keywords: innovation, the effectiveness of company, commercialization, cellular market

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