Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6098

Search results for: natural gas liquid

6098 Affectivity of Smoked Edible Sachet in Preventing Oxidation of Natural Condiment Stored in Ambient Temperature

Authors: Feny Mentang, Roike Iwan Montolalu, Henny Adeleida Dien, Kristhina P. Rahael, Tomy Moga, Ayub Meko, Siegfried Berhimpon

Abstract:

Smoked fish is one of the famous fish products in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Research in producing smoked fish using smoke liquid, and the use of that product as main taste for a new “natural condiment” have been done, including a series of researches to find materials for sachet. Research aims are to determine the effectiveness of smoked edible sachets, in preventing oxidation of natural condiment, stored in ambient temperature. Two kinds of natural condiment flavors were used, i.e. smoked Skipjack flavor, and Sea Food flavor. Three variables of edible sachets were used for the natural condiments, i.e. non-sachet, edible sachet without smoke liquid, and edible sachet with smoke liquid. The natural condiments were then stored in ambient temperature, for 0, 10, 20, and 30 days. To determine the effectiveness of edible sachets in preventing oxidation, analysis of TBA, water content, and pH were conducted. The results shown that natural condiment with smoked seafood taste had TBA values higher than that of smoked Skipjack. Edible sachet gave a highly significant effect (P > 0.01) on TBA. Natural condiment in smoked edible sachet has a lower TBA than natural condiment non-sachet, and with sachet without smoke liquid. The longer storing time, the higher TBA, especially for non-sachet and with sachet without smoke liquid. There were no significant effect (P > 0.05) of edible sachet on water content and pH.

Keywords: edible sachet, smoke liquid, natural condiment, oxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
6097 Synthesis of Iso-Amyl, Benzyl and Cinnamyl Esters over Active, Selective, Reusable and Eco-Friendly Natural Silica Catalyst

Authors: Abd El-Aziz Said

Abstract:

In this study, natural silica was used as an active, selective, reusable and eco-friendly catalyst for the liquid phase synthesis of iso-amyl, benzyl and cinnamyl esters. The original and calcined natural silica were characterized by TG-DTA, XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and N2-sorption analysis. The surface acidity of the catalysts was determined using isopropanol dehydration and the strength of available acid sites was measured using chemisorption of pyridine (PY) and dimethyl pyridine (DMPY). The results of acidity specified that the acidic sites are of Brönsted type, while PY-TPD demonstrated that almost of the acidic sites over the surface of natural silica are of weak and intermediate strength. The catalytic activity of natural silica towards esterification of acetic acid with alcohols was extensively studied. The results revealed that natural silica had high catalytic activity with 100% selectivity to all targeted esters. In addition, the yields obtained in batch methods were 83, 81, and 80%, respectively, whereas these yields after simple distillation were improved 97, 99.5, and 90%, respectively.

Keywords: liquid-phase esterification, natural silica, acidity esters, characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
6096 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Hybrid Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: B. Vinod, L. J. Sudev

Abstract:

Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material are gaining lot of attention in recent years. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites are gaining importance. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen temperature, polymer composite, tensile properties, flexural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
6095 Numerical Study on the Urea Melting and Induced Natural Convection in a Urea Sender Module

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

The Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system is considered to be the most promising technology to fulfill the stringent emission regulation. In the Urea-SCR system, the urea solutions are used as the reducing agent, which is a eutectic composition (32.5wt% of urea). The advantage of this eutectic compositions is that it has a low freezing point approximately at -11 ℃, however, the problem of freezing occurs at low-temperature levels below that freezing point. To prevent freezing of urea solutions, we need heating systems that can melt by heating the frozen urea solutions in urea storage tank at low-temperature environment. In this study, therefore, a numerical investigation of three-dimensional unsteady heating problems analyzed to find the melting characteristics of the urea solutions on melting process. In this work, it can be found that the urea melting initiated by heat conduction from the heater is enhanced by the natural convection inside the melted liquid urea solutions due to the temperature difference. Also, liquid urea solutions are initially concentrated on the upper parts of the urea sender module.

Keywords: urea solution, melting, heat conduction, natural convection, liquid fraction, phase change

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
6094 Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Hemp/Jute Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature

Authors: B. Vinod, L. Jsudev

Abstract:

Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material is gaining lot of attention in recent years, as they are light in weight, less in cost, and ecologically advanced surrogate material to glass and carbon fibers in composites. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites like cryogenic wind tunnels, cryogenic transport vessels, support structures in space shuttles and rockets are gaining importance. In these unique cryogenic applications, the requirements of polymer composites are extremely severe and complicated. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures such as liquid helium (4.2 K), liquid hydrogen (20 K), liquid nitrogen (77 K), and liquid oxygen (90 K) temperatures, etc., to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hemp and Jute fibers are used as reinforcement material as they have high specific strength, stiffness and good adhering property and has the potential to replace the synthetic fibers. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen temperature, polymer composite, tensile properties, flexural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
6093 Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger

Authors: Wenjing Ding, Weiwei Shan, Zijuan, Wang, Chao He

Abstract:

Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen spray, temperature regulating system, heat exchanger, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
6092 Chemical Risk Posed by Hospital Liquid Effluents Example CHU Beni Messous Algiers

Authors: Laref Nabil

Abstract:

Ecology is at the center of many debates and international regulations. It therefore becomes a necessity and a privileged axis in many countries policy. The rise of environmental problems, the particularism of the hospital as an actor Public Health must lead by example in hygiene, prevention of risks to man and his environment. In this, it seemed interesting to make a poster on hospital liquid effluents in order to know not only the regulatory aspects but also their degree of pollution and their management in health institutions. Materials and methods: Samples taken at several looks, analysis performed at STEP Reghaia Algiers. Discussion and / or findings: In general, central gaze analysis results of water we can conclude that the contents of the various physico-chemical parameters greatly exceed the standards. Although the hypothesis of assimilating hospital liquid effluents domestic waters is confirmed, the liquid effluent from the University Hospital of Beni Messous and dumped in the natural environment still represent ecotoxicological risk.

Keywords: health, hospital, liquid effluents, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
6091 Study of NGL Feed Price Calculation for a Typical NGL Fractionation Plant

Authors: Simin Eydivand, Ali Ghanadieslami, Reza Amiri

Abstract:

Natural gas liquids (NGLs) are light hydrocarbons that are dissolved in associated or non‐associated natural gas in a hydrocarbon reservoir and are produced within a gas stream. There are different ways to calculate the price of NGL. In this study, a spreadsheet calculation method is used for calculation of NGL price with an attractive economy of IRR 25%. For a typical NGL Plant with 3,200,000 t/y capacity of investment and operation of 90% capacity to have IRR 25%, the price of NGL is calculated 277 $/t.

Keywords: natural gas liquid, NGL, LPG, price, NGL fractionation, NF, investment, IRR, NPV

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
6090 Study of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in Overhead Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

Abstract:

During the period storage of liquefied natural gas, stability is necessarily affected by natural convection along the walls of the tank with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the numerical simulation of heat transfert by natural convection double diffusion,in unsteady laminar regime in a storage tank. The storage tank contains a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in its gaseous phase. Fluent, a commercial CFD package, based on the numerical finite volume method, is used to simulate the flow. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
6089 Study of Natural Convection in Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

Abstract:

Heat transfer by natural convection in storage tanks for LNG is extremely related to heat gains through the walls with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the study of natural convection in the unsteady regime for natural gas in aware phase using the fluent software. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. The CFD numerical method used to solve the system of equations is based on the finite volume method. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
6088 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of the Bacteria and Yeast from the Fermented Stevia Extract

Authors: Asato Takaishi, Masashi Nasuhara, Ayuko Itsuki, Kenichi Suga

Abstract:

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a composite plant native to Paraguay. Stevia sweetener is derived from a hot water extract of Stevia (Stevia extract), which has some effects such as histamine decomposition, antioxidative effect, and blood sugar level-lowering function. The steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract are considered to contribute to these effects. In addition, these effects increase by the fermentation. However, it takes a long time for fermentation of Stevia extract and the fermentation liquid sometimes decays during the fermentation process because natural fermentation method is used. The aim of this study is to perform the fermentation of Stevia extract in a shorter period, and to produce the fermentation liquid in stable quality. From the natural fermentation liquid of Stevia extract, the four strains of useful (good taste) microorganisms were isolated using dilution plate count method and some properties were determined. The base sequences of 16S rDNA and 28S rDNA revealed three bacteria (two Lactobacillus sp. and Microbacterium sp.) and one yeast (Issatchenkia sp.). This result has corresponded that several kinds of lactic bacterium such as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus buchneri were isolated from Stevia leaves. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometory (LC/MS/MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine the contents of steviol glycosides and neutral sugars. When these strains were cultured in the sterile Stevia extract, the steviol and stevioside were increased in the fermented Stevia extract. So, it was suggested that the rebaudioside A and the mixture of steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract were decomposed into stevioside and steviol by microbial metabolism.

Keywords: fermentation, lactobacillus, Stevia, steviol glycosides, yeast

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
6087 Measurement of Liquid Film Thickness in a Vertical Annular Two Phase Flow Changing the Gas-Liquid Density Ratio

Authors: Shoji Mori, Kunito Okuyama

Abstract:

Annular two phase flow is encountered in many industrial equipments, including flow near nuclear fuel rods in boiling water reactor (BWR). Especially, disturbance waves play important roles in the pressure drop, the generation of entrainments, and the dryout of the liquid film. Therefore, it is important to clarify the behavior of disturbance waves and base film. However, most of the previous studies have been performed under atmospheric pressure conditions that provides the properties of liquid and gas which are significantly different from those of a BWR. Therefore, the effect of properties in gas and liquid on liquid film characteristics should be clarified. In this paper we focus on the effect of gas-liquid density ratio on liquid film thickness characteristics. The experiments have been conducted at four density ratio conditions (ρL/ρG =763, 451, 231, and 31). As a result, it is found that and interfacial shear stress collapse not only tF ave but also tF max and tF min successfully under the same liquid mass flow rate conditions irrespective of ρL/ρG, and moreover a non-dimensional parameter tends to collapse tF max,tF ave,and tF min in the wide range of experimental conditions (ρL/ρG:31~763,We:10~1800,ReL:500 ~ 2200).

Keywords: two phase flow, liquid film, annular flow, disturbance wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
6086 Cytotoxic Activity of Marine-derived Fungi Trichoderma Longibrachiatum Against PANC-1 Cell Lines

Authors: Elin Julianti, Marlia Singgih, Masayoshi Arai, Jianyu Lin, Masteria Yunovilsa Putra, Muhammad Azhari, Agnia S. Muharam

Abstract:

The search for a source of new medicinal compounds with anticancer activity from natural products has become important to resolve the ineffectiveness problem of pancreatic cancer therapy. Fungal marine microorganisms are prolific sources of bioactive natural products. In this present study, the ethyl acetate extract of cultured broth of Trichoderma longibrachiatum marine sponge-derived fungi exhibited selective cytotoxicity against human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells cultured under glucose-deficient conditions (IC50 = 98,4 µg/mL). The T. longibrachiatum was fermented by the static method at room temperature for 60 days. The culture broth was extracted using ethyl acetate by liquid-liquid extraction method. The liquid-liquid extraction was conducted toward the ethyl extract by using 90% MeOH-H₂O and n-|Hexane as a solvent. The extract of 90% MeOH-H₂O was fractionated by liquid extraction using by C₁₈ reversed-phase vacuum flash chromatography using mixtures of MeOH-H₂O, from 50:50 to 100:0, and 1% TFA MeOH as the eluents to yield six fractions. The fraction 2 (MeOH-H2O, 70:30) and fraction 3 (MeOH-H2O, 80:20) showed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 119.3 and 274.7 µg/mL, respectively. Fraction 4 (MeOH-H₂O, 90:10) showed the highest cytotoxicity activity with IC₅₀value of < 10 µg/mL. The chemical compounds of the fractions that are responsible for cytotoxic activity are potent for further investigation.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, trichoderma longibrachiatum, marine-derived fungi, PANC-1 cell line

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
6085 Removal Cobalt (II) and Copper (II) by Solvent Extraction from Sulfate Solutions by Capric Acid in Chloroform

Authors: A. Bara, D. Barkat

Abstract:

Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the most useful techniques for selective removal and recovery of metal ions from aqueous solutions, applied in purification processes in numerous chemical and metallurgical industries. In this work, The liquid-liquid extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution by capric acid (HL) in chloroform at 25°C has been studied. Our interest in this paper is to study the effect of concentration of capric acid on the extraction of Co(II) and Cu(II) to see the complexes could be formed in the organic phase using various concentration of capric acid. The extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) is extracted as the complex CoL2 (HL )2, CuL2 (HL)2.

Keywords: capric acid, Cobalt(II), copper(II), liquid-liquid extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
6084 Experimental Quantification and Modeling of Dissolved Gas during Hydrate Crystallization: CO₂ Hydrate Case

Authors: Amokrane Boufares, Elise Provost, Veronique Osswald, Pascal Clain, Anthony Delahaye, Laurence Fournaison, Didier Dalmazzone

Abstract:

Gas hydrates have long been considered as problematic for flow assurance in natural gas and oil transportation. On the other hand, they are now seen as future promising materials for various applications (i.e. desalination of seawater, natural gas and hydrogen storage, gas sequestration, gas combustion separation and cold storage and transport). Nonetheless, a better understanding of the crystallization mechanism of gas hydrate and of their formation kinetics is still needed for a better comprehension and control of the process. To that purpose, measuring the real-time evolution of the dissolved gas concentration in the aqueous phase during hydrate formation is required. In this work, CO₂ hydrates were formed in a stirred reactor equipped with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) probe coupled to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy analyzer. A method was first developed to continuously measure in-situ the CO₂ concentration in the liquid phase during solubilization, supersaturation, hydrate crystallization and dissociation steps. Thereafter, the measured concentration data were compared with those of equilibrium concentrations. It was observed that the equilibrium is instantly reached in the liquid phase due to the fast consumption of dissolved gas by the hydrate crystallization. Consequently, it was shown that hydrate crystallization kinetics is limited by the gas transfer at the gas-liquid interface. Finally, we noticed that the liquid-hydrate equilibrium during the hydrate crystallization is governed by the temperature of the experiment under the tested conditions.

Keywords: gas hydrate, dissolved gas, crystallization, infrared spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
6083 Quality of Bali Beef and Broiler after Immersion in Liquid Smoke on Different Concentrations and Storage Times

Authors: E. Abustam, M. Yusuf, H. M. Ali, M. I. Said, F. N. Yuliati

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to improve the durability and quality of Bali beef (M. Longissimus dorsi) and broiler carcass through the addition of liquid smoke as a natural preservative. This study was using Longissimus dorsi muscle from male Bali beef aged 3 years, broiler breast and thigh aged 40 days. Three types of meat were marinated in liquid smoke with concentrations of 0, 5, and 10% for 30 minutes at the level of 20% of the sample weight (w/w). The samples were storage at 2-5°C for 1 month. This study designed as a factorial experiment 3 x 3 x 4 based on a completely randomized design with 5 replications; the first factor was meat type (beef, chicken breast and chicken thigh); the 2nd factor was liquid smoke concentrations (0, 5, and 10%), and the 3rd factor was storage duration (1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks). Parameters measured were TBA value, total bacterial colonies, water holding capacity (WHC), shear force value both before and after cooking (80°C – 15min.), and cooking loss. The results showed that the type of meat produced WHC, shear force value, cooking loss and TBA differed between the three types of meat. Higher concentration of liquid smoke, the WHC, shear force value, TBA, and total bacterial colonies were decreased; at a concentration of 10% of liquid smoke, the total bacterial colonies decreased by 57.3% from untreated with liquid smoke. Longer storage, the total bacterial colonies and WHC were increased, while the shear force value and cooking loss were decreased. It can be concluded that a 10% concentration of liquid smoke was able to maintain fat oxidation and bacterial growth in Bali beef and chicken breast and thigh.

Keywords: Bali beef, chicken meat, liquid smoke, meat quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
6082 The Effect of CPU Location in Total Immersion of Microelectronics

Authors: A. Almaneea, N. Kapur, J. L. Summers, H. M. Thompson

Abstract:

Meeting the growth in demand for digital services such as social media, telecommunications, and business and cloud services requires large scale data centres, which has led to an increase in their end use energy demand. Generally, over 30% of data centre power is consumed by the necessary cooling overhead. Thus energy can be reduced by improving the cooling efficiency. Air and liquid can both be used as cooling media for the data centre. Traditional data centre cooling systems use air, however liquid is recognised as a promising method that can handle the more densely packed data centres. Liquid cooling can be classified into three methods; rack heat exchanger, on-chip heat exchanger and full immersion of the microelectronics. This study quantifies the improvements of heat transfer specifically for the case of immersed microelectronics by varying the CPU and heat sink location. Immersion of the server is achieved by filling the gap between the microelectronics and a water jacket with a dielectric liquid which convects the heat from the CPU to the water jacket on the opposite side. Heat transfer is governed by two physical mechanisms, which is natural convection for the fixed enclosure filled with dielectric liquid and forced convection for the water that is pumped through the water jacket. The model in this study is validated with published numerical and experimental work and shows good agreement with previous work. The results show that the heat transfer performance and Nusselt number (Nu) is improved by 89% by placing the CPU and heat sink on the bottom of the microelectronics enclosure.

Keywords: CPU location, data centre cooling, heat sink in enclosures, immersed microelectronics, turbulent natural convection in enclosures

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
6081 Biocompatible Ionic Liquids in Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lactic Acid: A Comparative Study

Authors: Konstantza Tonova, Ivan Svinyarov, Milen G. Bogdanov

Abstract:

Ionic liquids consisting of pairs of imidazolium or phosphonium cation and chloride or saccharinate anion were synthesized and compared with respect to their extraction efficiency towards the fermentative L-lactic acid. The acid partitioning in the equilibrated biphasic systems of ionic liquid and water was quantified through the extraction degree and the partition coefficient. The water transfer from the aqueous into the ionic liquid-rich phase was also always followed. The effect of pH, which determines the state of lactic acid in the aqueous source was studied. The effect of other salting-out substances that modify the ionic liquid/water equilibrium was also investigated in view to reveal the best liquid-liquid system with respect to low toxicity, high extraction and back extraction efficiencies and performance simplicity.

Keywords: ionic liquids, biphasic system, extraction, lactic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
6080 Development of a Smart Liquid Level Controller

Authors: Adamu Mudi, Ibrahim Wahab Fawole, Abubakar Abba Kolo

Abstract:

In this research paper, we present a microcontroller-based liquid level controller that identifies the various levels of a liquid, carries out certain actions, and is capable of communicating with the human being and other devices through the GSM network. This project is useful in ensuring that a liquid is not wasted. It also contributes to the internet of things paradigm, which is the future of the internet. The method used in this work includes designing the circuit and simulating it. The circuit is then implemented on a solderless breadboard, after which it is implemented on a strip board. A C++ computer program is developed and uploaded into the microcontroller. This program instructs the microcontroller on how to carry out its actions. In other to determine levels of the liquid, an ultrasonic wave is sent to the surface of the liquid similar to radar or the method for detecting the level of sea bed. Message is sent to the phone of the user similar to the way computers send messages to phones of GSM users. It is concluded that the routine of observing the levels of a liquid in a tank, refilling the tank when the liquid level is too low can be entirely handled by a programmable device without wastage of the liquid or bothering a human being with such tasks.

Keywords: Arduino Uno, HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor, internet of things, IoT, SIM900 GSM module

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
6079 Separation of Some Pyrethroid Insecticides by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Fairouz Tazerouti, Samira Ihadadene

Abstract:

Pyrethroids are synthetic pesticides that originated from the modification of natural pyrethrins to improve their biological activity and stability. They are a family of chiral pesticides with a large number of stereoisomers. Enantiomers of synthetic pyretroids present different insecticidal activity, toxicity against aquatic invertebrates and persistence in the environment so the development of rapid and sensitive chiral methods for the determination of different enantiomers is necessary. In this study, the separation of enantiomers of pyrethroid insecticides has been systematically studied using three commercially chiral high-performance liquid chromatography columns. Useful resolution was obtained for compounds with a variety of acid and alcohol moieties, and containing one to four chiral centres. The chromatographic behaviour of the diastereomers of some of these insecticides by using normal, polar and reversed mobile phase mode were also examined.

Keywords: pesticides, analysis, liquid chromatography, pyrethroids

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
6078 Sustainable Separation of Nicotine from Its Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Zoran Visak, Joana Lopes, Vesna Najdanovic-Visak

Abstract:

Within this study, the separation of nicotine from its aqueous solutions, using inorganic salt sodium chloride or ionic liquid (molten salt) ECOENG212® as salting-out media, was carried out. Thus, liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary solutions (nicotine+water+NaCl) and (nicotine+water+ECOENG212®) were determined at ambient pressure, 0.1 MPa, at three temperatures. The related phase diagrams were constructed in two manners: by adding the determined cloud-points and by the chemical analysis of phases in equilibrium (tie-line data). The latter were used to calculate two important separation parameters - partition coefficients of nicotine and separation factors. The impacts of the initial compositions of the mother solutions and of temperature on the liquid-liquid phase separation and partition coefficients were analyzed and discussed. The results obtained clearly showed that both investigated salts are good salting-out media for the efficient and sustainable separation of nicotine from its solutions with water. However, when compared, sodium chloride exhibited much better separation performance than the ionic liquid.

Keywords: nicotine, liquid-liquid separation, inorganic salt, ionic liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
6077 Perceptions of Farmers against Liquid Fertilizer Benefits of Beef Cattle Urine

Authors: Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Ikrar Moh. Saleh, Kasmiyati Kasim

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to know the perception of livestock farmers on the use of liquid organic fertilizer from urine of cattle at Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The choice of location for a farmer group manufactures and markets liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine. This research was conducted in May to July 2013.The population were all livestock farmers who use organic liquid fertilizer from cattle urine samples while livestock farmers who are directly involved in the manufacture of liquid organic fertilizer totaled 42 people. Data were collected through observation and interview. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the perception of livestock farmers of using liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine provide additional revenue benefits, cost minimization farming, reducing environmental pollution which not contrary to the customs.

Keywords: liquid organic fertilizer, perceptions, farmers, beef cattle

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
6076 Sensitive Detection of Nano-Scale Vibrations by the Metal-Coated Fiber Tip at the Liquid-Air Interface

Authors: A. J. Babajanyan, T. A. Abrahamyan, H. A. Minasyan, K. V. Nerkararyan

Abstract:

Optical radiation emitted from a metal-coated fiber tip apex at liquid-air interface was measured. The intensity of the output radiation was strongly depending on the relative position of the tip to a liquid-air interface and varied with surface fluctuations. This phenomenon permits in-situ real-time investigation of nano-metric vibrations of the liquid surface and provides a basis for development of various origin ultrasensitive vibration detecting sensors. The described method can be used for detection of week seismic vibrations.

Keywords: fiber-tip, liquid-air interface, nano vibration, opto-mechanical sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
6075 Wash Fastness of Textile Fibers Dyed with Natural Dye from Eucalyptus Wood Steaming Waste

Authors: Ticiane Rossi, Maurício C. Araújo, José O. Brito, Harold S. Freeman

Abstract:

Natural dyes are gaining interest due their expected low risk to human health and to the environment. In this study, the wash fastness of a natural coloring matter from the liquid waste produced in the steam treatment of eucalyptus wood in textile fabrics was investigated. Specifically, eucalyptus wood extract was used to dye cotton, nylon and wool in an exhaust dyeing process without the addition of the traditional mordanting agents and then submitted to wash fastness analysis. The resulting dyed fabrics were evaluated for color fastness. It was found that wash fastness of dyed fabrics was very good to cotton and excellent to nylon and wool.

Keywords: eucalyptus, natural dye, textile fibers, wash fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 523
6074 Colloidal Gas Aphron Generated by a Cationic Surfactant as an Alternative Technique to Recovery Natural Colorants from Fermented Broth

Authors: V. C. Santos-Ebinuma, J. F. B. Pereira, M. F. S. Teixeira, A. Pessoa Jr., P. Jauregi

Abstract:

There is worldwide interest in process development for colorants production from natural sources. Microorganisms provide an alternative source of natural colorants which can be produced by cultivation technology and extracted from fermented broth. The aim of the present work was to study the recovery of red colorants from fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275 using the technique of Colloidal Gas Aphrons (CGA); CGA are surfactant-stabilized microbubbles generated by intense stirring of a surfactant solution. CGA were generated by the cationic, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Firstly, experiments were carried out at different surfactant/fermented broth volumetric ratios (VCGA/VFB, VRATIO) varying between 3 and 18 at pH 6.9. Secondly, the experiments were carried out at VRATIO of 6 and 12 in different pH, namely, 6.9, 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0. The first results of recovery showed that an increase in the VRATIO from 3 to 6 and 12 promoted an increase as recovery as partition coefficient. However, at VRATIO of 18 the lowest partition coefficient was obtained. The best results were achieved at VRATIO of 6 and 12, namely recovery, Re, around 60% and partition coefficient, K, of 2.5 and 3.0 to 6 and 12 VRATIO, respectively. The second set of experiments showed that the pH 9.0 promoted the best results at VRATIO of 12 as follow: Re=70%, K=5.39, proteins and sugar selectivity (SePROT, 3.75 and SeSUGAR, 7.20, respectively). These results indicate that with CTAB the recovery is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions. In conclusion, the results above show that CGA employing a cationic surfactant is a promissory technique and it can be used as the first step of purification to recovery red colorants from fermented broth.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, colloidal gas aphrons, recovery, natural colorants

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
6073 Ionic Liquid 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Bromide as Reaction Medium for the Synthesis of Flavanones under Solvent-Free Conditions

Authors: Cecilia Espindola, Juan Carlos Palacios

Abstract:

Flavonoids are a large group of natural compounds which are found in many fruits and vegetables. A subgroup of these called flavanones display a wide range of biological activities, and they also have an important physiological role in plants. The ionic liquid (ILs) are compounds consisting of an organic cation with an organic or inorganic anion. Due to its unique properties such as high electrical conductivity, wide temperature range of the liquid state, thermal and electrochemical stability, high ionic density and low volatility and flammability, are considered as ecological solvents in organic synthesis, catalysis, electrolytes in accumulators, and electrochemistry, non-volatile plasticizers, and chemical separation. It was synthesized ionic liquid IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide free-solvent and used as reaction medium for flavanones synthesis, under several reaction conditions of temperature, time and production. The obtained compounds were analyzed by melting point, elemental analysis, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy.

Keywords: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, flavonoids, free-solvent, IR spectroscopy

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6072 Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Study in Solvent Extraction of o-Cresol from Coal Tar

Authors: Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti, Astrilia Damayanti

Abstract:

Coal tar is a liquid by-product of the process of coal gasification and carbonation, also in some industries such as steel, power plant, cement, and others. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. This research investigates thermodynamic modelling of liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) in solvent extraction of o-Cresol from the coal tar. The equilibria are modeled by ternary components of Wohl, Van Laar, and Three-Suffix Margules models. The values of the parameters involved are obtained by curve-fitting to the experimental data. Based on the comparison between calculated and experimental data, it turns out that among the three models studied, the Three-Suffix Margules seems to be the best to predict the LLE of o-Cresol for those system.

Keywords: coal tar, o-Cresol, Wohl, Van Laar, three-suffix margules

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6071 Numerical Validation of Liquid Nitrogen Phase Change in a Star-Shaped Ambient Vaporizer

Authors: Yusuf Yilmaz, Gamze Gediz Ilis

Abstract:

Gas Nitrogen where has a boiling point of -189.52oC at atmospheric pressure widely used in the industry. Nitrogen that used in the industry should be transported in liquid form to the plant area. Ambient air vaporizer (AAV) generally used for vaporization of cryogenic gases such as liquid nitrogen (LN2), liquid oxygen (LOX), liquid natural gas (LNG), and liquid argon (LAR) etc. AAV is a group of star-shaped fin vaporizer. The design and the effect of the shape of fins of the vaporizer is one of the most important criteria for the performance of the vaporizer. In this study, the performance of AAV working with liquid nitrogen was analyzed numerically in a star-shaped aluminum finned pipe. The numerical analysis is performed in order to investigate the heat capacity of the vaporizer per meter pipe length. By this way, the vaporizer capacity can be predicted for the industrial applications. In order to achieve the validation of the numerical solution, the experimental setup is constructed. The setup includes a liquid nitrogen tank with a pressure of 9 bar. The star-shaped aluminum finned tube vaporizer is connected to the LN2 tank. The inlet and the outlet pressure and temperatures of the LN2 of the vaporizer are measured. The mass flow rate of the LN2 is also measured and collected. The comparison of the numerical solution is performed by these measured data. The ambient conditions of the experiment are given as boundary conditions to the numerical model. The surface tension and contact angle have a significant effect on the boiling of liquid nitrogen. Average heat transfer coefficient including convective and nucleated boiling components should be obtained for liquid nitrogen saturated flow boiling in the finned tube. Fluent CFD module is used to simulate the numerical solution. The turbulent k-ε model is taken to simulate the liquid nitrogen flow. The phase change is simulated by using the evaporation-condensation approach used with user-defined functions (UDF). The comparison of the numerical and experimental results will be shared in this study. Besides, the performance capacity of the star-shaped finned pipe vaporizer will be calculated in this study. Based on this numerical analysis, the performance of the vaporizer per unit length can be predicted for the industrial applications and the suitable pipe length of the vaporizer can be found for the special cases.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen, numerical modeling, two-phase flow, cryogenics

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6070 Electricity Production from Vermicompost Liquid Using Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Pratthana Ammaraphitak, Piyachon Ketsuwan, Rattapoom Prommana

Abstract:

Electricity production from vermicompost liquid was investigated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The aim of this study was to determine the performance of vermicompost liquid as a biocatalyst for electricity production by MFCs. Chemical and physical parameters of vermicompost liquid as total nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, potassium, organic matter, C:N ratio, pH, and electrical conductivity in MFCs were studied. The performance of MFCs was operated in open circuit mode for 7 days. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) was 0.45 V. The maximum power density of 5.29 ± 0.75 W/m² corresponding to a current density of 0.024 2 ± 0.0017 A/m² was achieved by the 1000 Ω on day 2. Vermicompost liquid has efficiency to generate electricity from organic waste.

Keywords: vermicompost liquid, microbial fuel cell, nutrient, electricity production

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6069 Prediction for the Pressure Drop of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone in Sub-Sea Production System

Authors: Xu Rumin, Chen Jianyi, Yue Ti, Wang Yaan

Abstract:

With the rapid development of subsea oil and gas exploitation, the demand for the related underwater process equipment is increasing fast. In order to reduce the energy consuming, people tend to separate the gas and oil phase directly on the seabed. Accordingly, an advanced separator is needed. In this paper, the pressure drop of a new type of separator named Gas Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) which is used in the subsea system is investigated by both experiments and numerical simulation. In the experiments, the single phase flow and gas-liquid two phase flow in GLCC were tested. For the simulation, the performance of GLCC under both laboratory and industrial conditions was calculated. The Eulerian model was implemented to describe the mixture flow field in the GLCC under experimental conditions and industrial oil-natural gas conditions. Furthermore, a relationship among Euler number (Eu), Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) is generated according to similarity analysis and simulation data, which can present the GLCC separation performance of pressure drop. These results can give reference to the design and application of GLCC in deep sea.

Keywords: dimensionless analysis, gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone, numerical simulation, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 95