Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: NGL fractionation

75 Chemical Oxygen Demand Fractionation of Primary Wastewater Effluent for Process Optimization and Modelling

Authors: Thandeka Y. S. Jwara, Paul Musonge

Abstract:

Traditionally, the complexity associated with implementing and controlling biological nutrient removal (BNR) in wastewater works (WWW) has been primarily in terms of balancing competing requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, particularly with respect to the use of influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a carbon source for the microorganisms. Successful BNR optimization and modelling using WEST (Worldwide Engine for Simulation and Training) depend largely on the accurate fractionation of the influent COD. The different COD fractions have differing effects on the BNR process, and therefore, the influent characteristics need to be well understood. This study presents the fractionation results of primary wastewater effluent COD at one of South Africa’s wastewater works treating 65ML/day of mixed industrial and domestic effluent. The method used for COD fractionation was the oxygen uptake rate/respirometry method. The breakdown of the results of the analysis is as follows: 70.5% biodegradable COD (bCOD) and 29.5% of non-biodegradable COD (iCOD) in terms of the total COD. Further fractionation led to a readily biodegradable soluble fraction (SS) of 75%, a slowly degradable particulate fraction (XS) of 24%, a particulate non-biodegradable fraction (XI) of 50.8% and a non-biodegradable soluble fraction (SI) of 49.2%. The fractionation results demonstrate that the primary effluent has good COD characteristics, as shown by the high level of the bCOD fraction with Ss being higher than Xs. This means that the microorganisms have sufficient substrate for the BNR process and that these components can now serve as inputs to the WEST Model for the plant under study.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, COD fractionation, wastewater modelling, wastewater optimization

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74 Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol Using Vacuum Fractionation Technique

Authors: Weeraya Samnuknit, Apichat Boontawan

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A vacuum fractionation technique was introduced to remove ethanol from fermentation broth. The effect of initial glucose and ethanol concentrations were investigated for specific productivity. The inhibitory ethanol concentration was observed at 100 g/L. In order to increase the fermentation performance, the ethanol product was removed as soon as it is produced. The broth was boiled at 35°C by reducing the pressure to 65 mBar. The ethanol/water vapor was fractionated for up to 90 wt% before leaving the column. Ethanol concentration in the broth was kept lower than 25 g/L, thus minimized the product inhibition effect to the yeast cells. For batch extractive fermentation, a high substrate utilization rate was obtained at 26.6 g/L.h and most of glucose was consumed within 21 h. For repeated-batch extractive fermentation, addition of glucose was carried out up to 9 times and ethanol was produced more than 8-fold higher than batch fermentation.

Keywords: ethanol, extractive fermentation, product inhibition, vacuum fractionation

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73 Study of NGL Feed Price Calculation for a Typical NGL Fractionation Plant

Authors: Simin Eydivand, Ali Ghanadieslami, Reza Amiri

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Natural gas liquids (NGLs) are light hydrocarbons that are dissolved in associated or non‐associated natural gas in a hydrocarbon reservoir and are produced within a gas stream. There are different ways to calculate the price of NGL. In this study, a spreadsheet calculation method is used for calculation of NGL price with an attractive economy of IRR 25%. For a typical NGL Plant with 3,200,000 t/y capacity of investment and operation of 90% capacity to have IRR 25%, the price of NGL is calculated 277 $/t.

Keywords: natural gas liquid, NGL, LPG, price, NGL fractionation, NF, investment, IRR, NPV

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72 Organic Carbon Pools Fractionation of Lacustrine Sediment with a Stepwise Chemical Procedure

Authors: Xiaoqing Liu, Kurt Friese, Karsten Rinke

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Lacustrine sediment archives rich paleoenvironmental information in lake and surrounding environment. Additionally, modern sediment is used as an effective medium for the monitoring of lake. Organic carbon in sediment is a heterogeneous mixture with varying turnover times and qualities which result from the different biogeochemical processes in the deposition of organic material. Therefore, the isolation of different carbon pools is important for the research of lacustrine condition in the lake. However, the numeric available fractionation procedures can hardly yield homogeneous carbon pools on terms of stability and age. In this work, a multi-step fractionation protocol that treated sediment with hot water, HCl, H2O2 and Na2S2O8 in sequence was adopted, the treated sediment from each step were analyzed for the isotopic and structural compositions with Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer coupled with element analyzer (IRMS-EA) and Solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), respectively. The sequential extractions with hot-water, HCl, and H2O2 yielded a more homogeneous and C3 plant-originating OC fraction, which was characterized with an atomic C/N ratio shift from 12.0 to 20.8, and 13C and 15N isotopic signatures were 0.9‰ and 1.9‰ more depleted than the original bulk sediment, respectively. Additionally, the H2O2- resistant residue was dominated with stable components, such as the lignins, waxes, cutans, tannins, steroids and aliphatic proteins and complex carbohydrates. 6M HCl in the acid hydrolysis step was much more effective than 1M HCl to isolate a sedimentary OC fraction with higher degree of homogeneity. Owing to the extremely high removal rate of organic matter, the step of a Na2S2O8 oxidation is only suggested if the isolation of the most refractory OC pool is mandatory. We conclude that this multi-step chemical fractionation procedure is effective to isolate more homogeneous OC pools in terms of stability and functional structure, and it can be used as a promising method for OC pools fractionation of sediment or soil in future lake research.

Keywords: 13C-CPMAS-NMR, 13C signature, lake sediment, OC fractionation

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71 The Simulation of Superfine Animal Fibre Fractionation: The Strength Variation of Fibre

Authors: Sepehr Moradi

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This study investigates the contribution of individual Australian Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres strength behaviour to the breaking force variation (CVBF) and minimum fibre diameter (CVₘFD) induced by actual single fibre lengths and the combination of length and diameter groups. Mid-side samples were selected for the ASFW (n = 919) and IMC (n = 691) since it is assumed to represent the average of the whole fleece. The average (LₘFD) varied for ASFW and IMC by 36.6 % and 33.3 % from shortest to longest actual single fibre length and -21.2 % and -21.7 % between longest-coarsest and shortest-finest groups, respectively. The tensile properties of single animal fibres were characterised using Single Fibre Analyser (SIFAN 4). After normalising for diversity in fibre diameter at the position of breakage, the parameters, which explain the strength behaviour within actual fibre lengths and combination of length-diameter groups, were the Intrinsic Fibre Strength (IFS) (MPa), Min IFS (MPa), Max IFS (MPa) and Breaking force (BF) (cN). The average strength of single fibres varied extensively within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups. IFS ranged for ASFW and IMC from 419 to 355 MPa (-15.2 % range) and 353 to 319 (-9.6 % range) and BF from 2.2 to 3.6 (63.6 % range) and 3.2 to 5.3 cN (65.6 % range) from shortest to longest groups, respectively. Single fibre properties showed no differences within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups, or was there a strong interaction between the strength of single fibre (P > 0.05) within remaining and removing length-diameter groups. Longer-coarser fibre fractionation had a significant effect on BF and IFS and all of the length groups showed a considerable variance in single fibre strength that is accounted for by diversity in the diameter variation along the fibre. There are many concepts for the improvement of the stress-strain properties of animal fibres as a means of raising a single fibre strength by simultaneous changes in fibre length and diameter. Fibre fractionation over a given length directly for single fibre strength or using the variation traits of fibre diameter is an important process used to increase the strength of the single fibre.

Keywords: single animal fibre fractionation, actual length groups, strength variation, length-diameter groups, diameter variation along fibre

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70 Investigation of Cytotoxic Compounds in Ethyl Acetate and Chloroform Extracts of Nigella sativa Seeds by Sulforhodamine-B Assay-Guided Fractionation

Authors: Harshani Uggallage, Kapila D. Dissanayaka

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A Sulforhodamine-B assay-guided fractionation on Nigella sativa seeds was conducted to determine the presence of cytotoxic compounds against human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Initially, a freeze-dried sample of Nigella sativa seeds was sequentially extracted into solvents of increasing polarities. Crude extracts from the sequential extraction of Nigella sativa seeds in chloroform and ethyl acetate showed the highest cytotoxicity. The combined mixture of these two extracts was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using a modified Kupchan method of partitioning, followed by Sephadex® LH-20 chromatography. This chromatographic separation process resulted in a column fraction with a convincing IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 13.07µg/ml, which is considerable for developing therapeutic drug leads against human hepatoma. Reversed phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was finally conducted for the same column fraction, and the result indicates the presence of one or several main cytotoxic compounds against human HepG2 cells.

Keywords: cytotoxic compounds, half-maximal inhibitory concentration, high-performance liquid chromatography, human HepG2 cells, nigella sativa seeds, Sulforhodamine-B assay

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69 Isolation, Characterization and Quantitation of Anticancer Constituent from Chloroform Extract of N. arbortristis L. Leaves

Authors: Parul Grover, K. A. Suri, Raj Kumar, Gulshan Bansal

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Background: Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn is traditionally used as anticancer herb in Indian system of medicine, but its introduction into modern system of medicine is still awaited due to lack of systematic scientific studies. Objective: The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize anticancer phytoconstituents from N. arbortristis L. leaves based on bioactivity guided fractionation. Method: Different extracts of the leaves of the plant were prepared by Soxhlet extractor. Each extract was evaluated for anticancer activity against HL-60 cell lines. Chloroform and HA extract showed potent anticancer activity and hence were selected for fractionation. Fraction C1 from chloroform extract was found to be most potent amongst all when tested against three cell lines (HL-60, A-549, and HCT-116) and thus was selected for further fractionation and a pure compound CP-01 was isolated. RP-HPLC method has been developed for quantification of isolated compound by using Kinetex C-18 column with gradient elution at 0.7 mL/min using mobile phase containing potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.01 M, pH 3.0) with acetonitrile. The wavelength of maximum absorption (λₘₐₓ) selected was 210 nm. Results: The structure of potent anticancer CP-01 was determined on the basis spectroscopic methods like IR, 1H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and Mass Spectrometry and it was characterized as 1,1,2-tris(2’,4’-di-tert-butylbenzene)-4,4-dimethyl-pent-1-ene. The content of CP-01 was found to be 0.88 %w/w of chloroform extract and 0.08 %w/w of N.arbortristis leaves. Conclusion: The study supports the traditional use of N. arbortristis as anticancer herb & the identified compound CP-01 can serve as an excellent lead to develop potent and safe anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, HL-60 cell lines, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, RP-HPLC

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68 Evaluation of the Behavior of Micronutrients in Salty Soils of Low Cheliff

Authors: N. Degui, Y. Daoud

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The study investigates the assessment of micronutrient bioavailability and behavior in saline soils based on the determination of three cations and one anion on three soil profiles affected by secondary salinization in Lower Cheliff. The chemical fractionation method was used for the speciation study (different forms) of micronutrients in these soils. The results show that total form quantities of cations are height than norms in agricultural soils, thus the quantities of anion are lows. At the other hand, the quantities of available forms are lows. Statistical analysis reveals that cationic micronutrients localize preferentially in the coarse fraction of the soil in salty conditions and that sodicity causes a decrease in the iron reserve in the soil. The pH range ‘7.49 - 8.76’ represents a constraint for the complexation of micronutrients by organic matter. The study concluded that quantities of total and available forms of micronutrients in salty soils are influenced by soil properties such as: pH, electrical conductivity and exchangeable sodium.

Keywords: chemical fractionation, micronutrients, salty soils, speciation

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67 Comparison of Various Control Methods for an Industrial Multiproduct Fractionator

Authors: Merve Aygün Esastürk, Deren Ataç Yılmaz, Görkem Oğur, Emre Özgen Kuzu, Sadık Ödemiş

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Hydrocracker plants are one of the most complicated and most profitable units in the refinery process. It takes long chain paraffinic hydrocarbons as feed and turns them into smaller and more valuable products, mainly kerosene and diesel under high pressure with the excess amount of hydrogen. Controlling the product qualities well directly contributes to the unit profit. Control of a plant is mainly based on PID and MPC controllers. Controlling the reaction section is important in terms of reaction severity. However, controlling the fractionation section is more crucial since the end products are separated in fractionation section. In this paper, the importance of well-configured base layer control mechanism, composed of PID controllers, is highlighted. For this purpose, two different base layer control scheme is applied in a hydrocracker fractionator column performances of schemes, which is a direct contribution to better product quality, are compared.

Keywords: controller, distillation, configuration selection, hydrocracker, model predictive controller, proportional-integral-derivative controller

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66 Ultrasound Therapy: Amplitude Modulation Technique for Tissue Ablation by Acoustic Cavitation

Authors: Fares A. Mayia, Mahmoud A. Yamany, Mushabbab A. Asiri

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In recent years, non-invasive Focused Ultrasound (FU) has been utilized for generating bubbles (cavities) to ablate target tissue by mechanical fractionation. Intensities >10 kW/cm² are required to generate the inertial cavities. The generation, rapid growth, and collapse of these inertial cavities cause tissue fractionation and the process is called Histotripsy. The ability to fractionate tissue from outside the body has many clinical applications including the destruction of the tumor mass. The process of tissue fractionation leaves a void at the treated site, where all the affected tissue is liquefied to particles at sub-micron size. The liquefied tissue will eventually be absorbed by the body. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive treatment modality. This paper presents a technique for generating inertial cavities at lower intensities (< 1 kW/cm²). The technique (patent pending) is based on amplitude modulation (AM), whereby a low frequency signal modulates the amplitude of a higher frequency FU wave. Cavitation threshold is lower at low frequencies; the intensity required to generate cavitation in water at 10 kHz is two orders of magnitude lower than the intensity at 1 MHz. The Amplitude Modulation technique can operate in both continuous wave (CW) and pulse wave (PW) modes, and the percentage modulation (modulation index) can be varied from 0 % (thermal effect) to 100 % (cavitation effect), thus allowing a range of ablating effects from Hyperthermia to Histotripsy. Furthermore, changing the frequency of the modulating signal allows controlling the size of the generated cavities. Results from in vitro work demonstrate the efficacy of the new technique in fractionating soft tissue and solid calcium carbonate (Chalk) material. The technique, when combined with MR or Ultrasound imaging, will present a precise treatment modality for ablating diseased tissue without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue.

Keywords: focused ultrasound therapy, histotripsy, inertial cavitation, mechanical tissue ablation

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65 HPTLC Fingerprinting of steroidal glycoside of leaves and berries of Solanum nigrum L. (Inab-us-salab/makoh)

Authors: Karishma Chester, Sarvesh K. Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad

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Inab-us-salab also known as Solanum nigrum L. (Family: Solanaceae), is an important Indian medicinal plant and have been used in various unani traditional formulations for hepato-protection. It has been reported to contain significant amount of steroidal glycosides such as solamargine and solasonine as well as their aglycone part solasodine. Being important pharmacologically active metabolites of several members of solanaceae, these markers have been attempted various times for their extraction and quantification but separately for glycoside and aglycone part because of their opposite polarity. Here, we propose for the first time its fractionation and fingerprinting of aglycone (solasodine) and glycosides (solamargine and solasonine) in leaves and berries of S. nigrum using solvent extraction and fractionation followed by HPTLC analysis. The fingerprinting was done using silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates as stationary phase and chloroform: methanol: acetone: 0.5% ammonia (7: 2.5: 1: 0.4 v/v/v/v) as mobile phase at 400 nm, after derivatization with antimony tri chloride reagent for identification of steroidal glycoside. The statistical data obtained can further be validated and can be used routinely for quality control of various solanaceous drugs reported for these markers as well as traditional formulations containing those plants as an ingredient.

Keywords: solanum nigrum, solasodine, solamargine, solasonine, quantification

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64 Geochemistry of Cenozoic basaltic rocks from Jiashan County of Nushan Geopark, China: Implications for Petrogenesis and Tectonic Setting

Authors: Dixon, Lieh-Chi Su, Hsiao-Ling Yu, Ren-Yi Huang, Yung-Tan Lee

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The present paper analyzed the major, trace elements, rare earth elements of these Cenozoic basalts and combined with Sr-Nd isotopic compositions to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts and the tectonic setting of the study area. Based on major, trace elements and fractional crystallization model we suggest that the basaltic magma has experienced olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase fractionation during its evolution. Spidergrams and REE patterns reveal that Cenozoic basalts found in the Jiashan County, Anhui Province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts(OIB) suggesting a derivation related to OIB-like mantle source. The slight positive Nb and Ti anomalies found in basaltic rocks of this study suggest the presence of Ti-bearing minerals in the mantle source and these Ti-bearing minerals had contributed to basaltic magma during partial melting, indicating a metasomatic event might have occurred before the partial melting. Based on 143Nd/144Nd vs. 87Sr/86Sr diagram we suggest that basalts of this study can be produced by MORB and EM-I components mixing and small degree of partial melting may be the major controlling factor during generation of basaltic magma. Some basaltic magma may be derived from partial melting of EM-Ⅰ heated by the upwelling asthenospheric mantle. The basalts fall within the WPB field in the discriminant plot of 2Nb-Zr/4-Y indicate that the volcanic activities in this region may be closely related to deep continental rifting process.

Keywords: geochemistry, cenozoic basalts, Anhui Province, Nushan Geopark, tectonic setting, fractionation

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63 Inhibitory Activity of Podospermum canum and Its Active Components on Collagenase, Elastase and Hyaluronidase Enzymes

Authors: Ozlem Bahadir Acikara, Mert Ilhan, Ekin Kurtul, Karel Smejkal, Esra Kupeli Akkol

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Present study is aimed to investigate in vitro inhibitory effects of the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Podospermum canum (Asteraceae) on hyaluronidase, collagenase, and elastase enzymes using a bioassay-guided fractionation. Inhibitory effects of the extract, sub-extracts, fractions obtained by column chromatography, and isolated compounds on collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase were performed by using in vitro enzyme inhibitory assays based on spectrophotometric evaluation. The ethyl acetate and remaining water extracts prepared from the plant displayed significant inhibitory activities on collagenase and elastase, while petroleum ether and chloroform extracts did not show any inhibitory activity. Eleven known compounds: arbutin, 6'-O-caffeoylarbutin, cichoriin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-rutinoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, procatechuic acid, and compound 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid 4-(6-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranosyl) benzyl ester have been obtained from ethyl acetate sub-extract of the plant through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation. Results of the present study have revealed that among the isolated compounds, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-rutinoside and isoorientin showed potent enzyme inhibitory activities. However, methanolic extract of P. canum displayed a greater inhibitory activity than fractions and isolated compounds both on collagenase and elastase.

Keywords: Asteraceae, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, Podospermum canum

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62 Multi-Institutional Report on Toxicities of Concurrent Nivolumab and Radiation Therapy

Authors: Neha P. Amin, Maliha Zainib, Sean Parker, Malcolm Mattes

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Purpose/Objectives: Combination immunotherapy (IT) and radiation therapy (RT) is an actively growing field of clinical investigation due to promising findings of synergistic effects from immune-mediated mechanisms observed in preclinical studies and clinical data from case reports of abscopal effects. While there are many ongoing trials of combined IT-RT, there are still limited data on toxicity and outcome optimization regarding RT dose, fractionation, and sequencing of RT with IT. Nivolumab (NIVO), an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody, has been rapidly adopted in the clinic over the past 2 years, resulting in more patients being considered for concurrent RT-NIVO. Knowledge about the toxicity profile of combined RT-NIVO is important for both the patient and physician when making educated treatment decisions. The acute toxicity profile of concurrent RT-NIVO was analyzed in this study. Materials/Methods: A retrospective review of all consecutive patients who received NIVO from 1/2015 to 5/2017 at 4 separate centers within two separate institutions was performed. Those patients who completed a course of RT from 1 day prior to initial NIVO infusion through 1 month after last NIVO infusion were considered to have received concurrent therapy and included in the subsequent analysis. Descriptive statistics are reported for patient/tumor/treatment characteristics and observed acute toxicities within 3 months of RT completion. Results: Among 261 patients who received NIVO, 46 (17.6%) received concurrent RT to 67 different sites. The median f/u was 3.3 (.1-19.8) months, and 11/46 (24%) were still alive at last analysis. The most common histology, RT prescription, and treatment site included non-small cell lung cancer (23/46, 50%), 30 Gy in 10 fractions (16/67, 24%), and central thorax/abdomen (26/67, 39%), respectively. 79% (53/67) of irradiated sites were treated with 3D-conformal technique and palliative dose-fractionation. Grade 3, 4, and 5 toxicities were experienced by 11, 1, and 2 patients, respectively. However all grade 4 and 5 toxicities were outside of the irradiated area and attributed to the NIVO alone, and only 4/11 (36%) of the grade 3 toxicities were attributed to the RT-NIVO. The irradiated site in these cases included the brain [2/10 (20%)] and central thorax/abdomen [2/19 (10.5%)], including one unexpected grade 3 pancreatitides following stereotactic body RT to the left adrenal gland. Conclusions: Concurrent RT-NIVO is generally well tolerated, though with potentially increased rates of severe toxicity when irradiating the lung, abdomen, or brain. Pending more definitive data, we recommend counseling patients on the potentially increased rates of side effects from combined immunotherapy and radiotherapy to these locations. Future prospective trials assessing fractionation and sequencing of RT with IT will help inform combined therapy recommendations.

Keywords: combined immunotherapy and radiation, immunotherapy, Nivolumab, toxicity of concurrent immunotherapy and radiation

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61 Screening of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan for Their Protective Properties against Oxidative DNA Damage and Mutagenecity

Authors: Karem H. Alzoubi, Ahmad S. Alkofahi, Omar F. Khabour, Nizar M. Mhaidat

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Herbal medicinal products represent a major focus for drug development and industry and it holds a significant share in drug-market all over the globe. In here, selected medicinal plant extracts from Jordan with high antioxidative capacity were tested for their protective effect against oxidative DNA damage using in vitro 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) assays in cultured human lymphocytes. The following plant extracts were tested Cupressus sempervirens L., Psidium guajava (L.) Gaerth., Silybum marianum L., Malva sylvestris L., Varthemia iphionoides Boiss., Eminium spiculatum L. Blume, Pistachia palaestina Boiss., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Ficus carica L., Morus alba Linn , Cucumis sativus L., Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Salvia triloba L., Zizyphus spina-christi L. Desf., and Laurus nobilis L. A fractionation scheme for the active plant extracts of the above was followed. Plants extract fractions with best protective properties against DNA damage included hexane fraction of S. marianum L. (aerial parts), chloroform fractions of P. palaestina Boiss. (Fruits), ethanolic fractions of E. camaldulensis Dehnh (leaves), S. triloba L. (leaves), and ethanolic fractions of Z. spina-christi L. Desf. (Fruits/leaves). On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts of V. iphionoides Boiss was found to increase oxidative DNA damage. Results of the SCEs are undergoing. In conclusion, plant extracts with antioxidative DNA damage properties might have clinical applications in cancer prevention.

Keywords: medicinal plants extract, fractionation, oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine, SCEs, Jordan

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60 Exploration Tools for Tantalum-Bearing Pegmatites along Kibara Belt, Central and Southwestern Uganda

Authors: Sadat Sembatya

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Tantalum metal is used in addressing capacitance challenge in the 21st-century technology growth. Tantalum is rarely found in its elemental form. Hence it’s often found with niobium and the radioactive elements of thorium and uranium. Industrial processes are required to extract pure tantalum. Its deposits are mainly oxide associated and exist in Ta-Nb oxides such as tapiolite, wodginite, ixiolite, rutile and pyrochlore-supergroup minerals are of minor importance. The stability and chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment and a substitute for platinum. Each period of Tantalum ore formation is characterized by specific mineralogical and geochemical features. Compositions of Columbite-Group Minerals (CGM) are variable: Fe-rich types predominate in the Man Shield (Sierra Leone), the Congo Craton (DR Congo), the Kamativi Belt (Zimbabwe) and the Jos Plateau (Nigeria). Mn-rich columbite-tantalite is typical of the Alto Ligonha Province (Mozambique), the Arabian-Nubian Shield (Egypt, Ethiopia) and the Tantalite Valley pegmatites (southern Namibia). There are large compositional variations through Fe-Mn fractionation, followed by Nb-Ta fractionation. These are typical for pegmatites usually associated with very coarse quartz-feldspar-mica granites. They are young granitic systems of the Kibara Belt of Central Africa and the Older Granites of Nigeria. Unlike ‘simple’ Be-pegmatites, most Ta-Nb rich pegmatites have the most complex zoning. Hence we need systematic exploration tools to find and rapidly assess the potential of different pegmatites. The pegmatites exist as known deposits (e.g., abandoned mines) and the exposed or buried pegmatites. We investigate rocks and minerals to trace for the possibility of the effect of hydrothermal alteration mainly for exposed pegmatites, do mineralogical study to prove evidence of gradual replacement and geochemistry to report the availability of trace elements which are good indicators of mineralisation. Pegmatites are not good geophysical responders resulting to the exclusion of the geophysics option. As for more advanced prospecting, we bulk samples from different zones first to establish their grades and characteristics, then make a pilot test plant because of big samples to aid in the quantitative characterization of zones, and then drill to reveal distribution and extent of different zones but not necessarily grade due to nugget effect. Rapid assessment tools are needed to assess grade and degree of fractionation in order to ‘rule in’ or ‘rule out’ a given pegmatite for future work. Pegmatite exploration is also unique, high risk and expensive hence right traceability system and certification for 3Ts are highly needed.

Keywords: exploration, mineralogy, pegmatites, tantalum

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59 Fractionation of Biosynthetic Mixture of Gentamicins by Reactive Extraction

Authors: L. Kloetzer, M. Poştaru, A. I. Galaction, D. Caşcaval

Abstract:

Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic industrially obtained by biosynthesis of Micromonospora purpurea or echinospora, the product being a complex mixture of components with very similar structures. Among them, three exhibit the most important biological activity: gentamicins C1, C1a, C2, and C2a. The separation of gentamicin from the fermentation broths at industrial scale is rather difficult and it does not allow the fractionation of the complex mixture of gentamicins in order to increase the therapeutic activity of the product. The aim of our experiments is to analyze the possibility to selectively separate the less active gentamicin, namely gentamicin C1, from the biosynthetic mixture by reactive extraction with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in dichloromethane, followed selective re-extraction of the most active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. The experiments on the reactive extraction of gentamicins indicated the possibility to separate selectively the gentamicin C1 from the mixture obtained by biosynthesis. The extraction selectivity is positively influenced by increasing the pH-value of an aqueous solution and by using a D2EHPA concentration in organic phase closer to the value needed for an equimolecular ratio between the extractant and this gentamicin. For quantifying the selectivity of separation, the selectivity factor, calculated as the ratio between the degree of reactive extraction of gentamicin C1 and the overall extraction degree of gentamicins were used. The possibility to remove the gentamicin C1 at an extractant concentration of 10 g l-1 and pH = 8 is presented. In these conditions, it was obtained the maximum value of the selectivity factor of 2.14, which corresponds to the modification of the gentamicin C1 concentration from 31.92% in the biosynthetic mixture to 72% in the extract. The re-extraction of gentamicins C1, C1a, C2, and C2a with sulfuric acid from the extract previously obtained by reactive extraction (mixture A – extract obtained by non-selective reactive extraction; mixture B – extract obtained by selective reactive extraction) allows for separating selectively the most active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. For recovering only the active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a, the re-extraction must be carried out at very low acid concentrations, far below those corresponding to the stoichiometry of its chemical reactions with these gentamicins. Therefore, the mixture resulted by re-extraction contained 92.6% gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. By bringing together the aqueous solutions obtained by reactive extraction and re-extraction, the overall content of the active gentamicins in the final product becomes 89%, their loss reaching 0.3% related to the initial biosynthetic product.

Keywords: di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, gentamicin, reactive extraction, selectivity factor

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58 Valorization of Sargassum: Use of Twin-Screw Extrusion to Produce Biomolecules and Biomaterials

Authors: Bauta J., Raynaud C., Vaca-Medina G., Simon V., Roully A., Vandenbossche V.

Abstract:

Sargassum is a brown algae, originally found in the Sargasso Sea, located in the Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The flow of Sargassum is becoming a critical environmental problem all over the Caribbean islands particularly. In Guadeloupe alone, around 80,000 tons of seaweed are stranded during the season. Since the appearance of the first waves of Sargassum algae, several measures have been taken to collect them to keep the beaches clean. Nevertheless, 90% of the collected algae are currently stored without recovery. The lack of research initiative demands a more in-depth exploration of Sargassum algae chemistry, targeted towards added value applications and their development. In this context, the aim of the study was to develop a biorefinery process to valorize Sargassum as a source of bioactive natural substances and as raw material to produce biomaterials simultaneously. The technology used was the twin-screw extrusion, which allows to achieve continuously in the same machine different unit fractionation operations. After the identification of the molecules of interest in Sargassum algae, different operating conditions of thermo-mechanical treatment were applied in a twin-screw extruder. The nature of the solvent, the configuration of the extruder, the screw profile, and the temperature profile were studied in order to fractionate the algal biomass and to allow the recovery of a bioactive liquid fraction of interest and a solid residue suitable for the production of biomaterials. Each bioactive liquid fraction was characterized and strategic ways of adding value were proposed. In parallel, the possibility of using the solid residue to produce biomaterials was studied by setting up Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) and basic Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) analyses. The solid residue was molded by compression cooking. The obtained materials were finally characterized mechanically. The results obtained were very comforting and gave some perspectives to find an interesting valorization for the Sargassum algae.

Keywords: seaweeds, twin-screw extrusion, fractionation, bioactive compounds, biomaterials, biomass

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57 In situ Immobilization of Mercury in a Contaminated Calcareous Soil Using Water Treatment Residual Nanoparticles

Authors: Elsayed A. Elkhatib, Ahmed M. Mahdy, Mohamed L. Moharem, Mohamed O. Mesalem

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Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal in the environment. However, cheap and effective in situ remediation technology is lacking. In this study, the effects of water treatment residuals nanoparticles (nWTR) on mobility, fractionation and speciation of mercury in an arid zone soil from Egypt were evaluated. Water treatment residual nanoparticles with high surface area (129 m 2 g-1) were prepared using Fritsch planetary mono mill. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nanoparticles of WTR nanoparticles are spherical in shape, and single particle sizes are in the range of 45 to 96 nm. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results ascertained that amorphous iron, aluminum (hydr)oxides and silicon oxide dominating all nWTR, with no apparent crystalline iron–Al (hydr)oxides. Addition of nWTR, greatly increased the Hg sorption capacities of studied soils and greatly reduced the cumulative Hg released from the soils. Application of nWTR at 0.10 and 0.30 % rates reduced the released Hg from the soil by 50 and 85 % respectively. The power function and first order kinetics models well described the desorption process from soils and nWTR amended soils as evidenced by high coefficient of determination (R2) and low SE values. Application of nWTR greatly increased the association of Hg with the residual fraction. Meanwhile, application of nWTR at a rate of 0.3% greatly increased the association of Hg with the residual fraction (>93%) and significantly increased the most stable Hg species (Hg(OH)2 amor) which in turn enhanced Hg immobilization in the studied soils. Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated the involvement of nWTR in the retention of Hg (II) through OH groups which suggest inner-sphere adsorption of Hg ions to surface functional groups on nWTR. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using a low-cost nWTR as best management practice to immobilize excess Hg in contaminated soils.

Keywords: release kinetics, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, Hg fractionation, Hg species

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56 Effect of the Fluid Temperature on the Crude Oil Fouling in the Heat Exchangers of Algiers Refinery

Authors: Rima Harche, Abdelkader Mouheb

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The Algiers refinery as all the other refineries always suffers from the problem of stopping of the tubes of heat exchanger. For that a study experimental of this phenomenon was undertaken in site on the cell of heat exchangers E101 (E101 CBA and E101 EDF) intended for the heating of the crude before its fractionation, which are exposed to the problem of the fouling on the side tubes exchangers. It is of tube-calenders type with head floating. Each cell is made up of three heat exchangers, laid out in series.

Keywords: fouling, fluid temperatue , oil, tubular heat exchanger, fouling resistance, modeling, heat transfer coefficient

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55 Isolation and Synthesis of 1’-S-1’-Acetoxycavicol Acetate as Potent Antidandruff Agent

Authors: M. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

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The air-dried and powdered methanol solvent extraction of the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal is subjected to bio-assay guided fractionation and isolation yielded a known compound namely, 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (1). The isolated known compound has been identified based on the physical, spectral data (IR, ¹H, ¹³C, NMR and mass spectroscopy) and comparison with an authentic sample. Finally isolated 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (1) was confirmed by synthesis. The crude methanol extract and identified known compound (1) were tested for antidandruff property against Malassezia furfur showed with MIC 1000 µg/mL and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively.

Keywords: Alpinia galanga, isolation, 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, antidandruff activity, Malassezia furfur

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54 Combining Bio-Molecular and Isotopic Tools to Determine the Fate of Halogenated Compounds in Polluted Groundwater

Authors: N. Balaban, A. Buernstein, F. Gelman, Z. Ronen

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Brominated flame retardants are widespread pollutants, and are known to be toxic, carcinogenic, endocrinic disrupting as well as recalcitrant. The industrial complex Neot Hovav, in the Northern Negev, Israel, is situated above a fractured chalk aquitard, which is polluted by a wide variety of halogenated organic compounds. Two of the abundant pollutants found in the site are Dibromoneopentyl-glycol (DBNPG) and tribromoneopentyl-alcohol (TBNPA). Due to the elusive nature of the groundwater flow, it is difficult to connect between the spatial changes in contaminant concentrations to degradation. In this study, we attempt to determine whether these compounds are biodegraded in the groundwater, and to gain a better understanding concerning the bacterial community in the groundwater. This was achieved through the application of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of carbon (13^C/12^C) and bromine (81^Br/79^Br), and new-generation MiSeq pyrosequencing. The sampled boreholes were distributed among three main areas of the industrial complex: around the production plant of TBNPA and DBNPG; along the Hovav Wadi (small ephemeral stream) which crosses and drains the industrial complex; and downstream to the industrial area. TBNPA and DBNPG are found in all three areas, with no clear connection to the proximity of the borehole to the production plant. Initial isotopic data of TBNPA from boreholes in the area surrounding the production plant, reveal no changes in the carbon and bromine isotopic values. When observing the microbial groundwater community, the dominant phylum is Proteobacteria. Known anaerobic dehalogenating bacteria such as Dehalococcoides from the Chloroflexi phylum have also been detected. A statistical comparison of the groundwater microbial diversity using a multi-variant ordination of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) reveals three main clusters in accordance to spatial location in the industrial complex: all the boreholes sampled adjacent to the production plant cluster together and separately from the Wadi Hovav boreholes cluster and the downstream to the industrial area borehole cluster. This work provides the basis for the development and implication of an isotopic fractionation based tool for assessing the biodegradation of brominated organic compounds in contaminated environments, and a novel attempt to characterize the spatial microbial diversity in the contaminated site.

Keywords: biodegradation, brominated flame retardants, groundwater, isotopic fractionation, microbial diversity

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53 Screening for Larvicidal Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Fourteen Selected Plants and Formulation of a Larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) Larvae

Authors: Michael Russelle S. Alvarez, Noel S. Quiming, Francisco M. Heralde

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This study aims to: a) obtain ethanolic (95% EtOH) and aqueous extracts of Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus, Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens and screen them for larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae; b) to fractionate the most active extract and determine the most active fraction; c) to determine the larvicidal properties of the most active extract and fraction against by computing their percentage mortality, LC50, and LC90 after 24 and 48 hours of exposure; and d) to determine the nature of the components of the active extracts and fractions using phytochemical screening. Ethanolic (95% EtOH) and aqueous extracts of the selected plants will be screened for potential larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using standard procedures and 1% malathion and a Piper nigrum based ovicide-larvicide by the Department of Science and Technology as positive controls. The results were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s and Dunnett’s test. The most active extract will be subjected to partial fractionation using normal-phase column chromatography, and the fractions subsequently screened to determine the most active fraction. The most active extract and fraction were subjected to dose-response assay and probit analysis to determine the LC50 and LC90 after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. The active extracts and fractions will be screened for phytochemical content. The ethanolic extracts of C. citratus, E. hirta, I. coccinea, G. sepium, M. koenigii, E globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens exhibited significant larvicidal activity, with C. frutescens being the most active. After fractionation, the ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the most active. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. A formulation using talcum powder–300 mg fraction per 1 g talcum powder–was made and again tested for larvicidal activity. At 2 g/L, the formulation proved effective in killing all of the test larvae after 24 hours.

Keywords: larvicidal activity screening, partial purification, dose-response assay, capsicum frutescens

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52 Strategic Metals and Rare Earth Elements Exploration of Lithium Cesium Tantalum Type Pegmatites: A Case Study from Northwest Himalayas

Authors: Auzair Mehmood, Mohammad Arif

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The LCT (Li, Cs and Ta rich)-type pegmatites, genetically related to peraluminous S-type granites, are being mined for strategic metals (SMs) and rare earth elements (REEs) around the world. This study investigates the SMs and REEs potentials of pegmatites that are spatially associated with an S-type granitic suite of the Himalayan sequence, specifically Mansehra Granitic Complex (MGC), northwest Pakistan. Geochemical signatures of the pegmatites and some of their mineral extracts were analyzed using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) technique to explore and generate potential prospects (if any) for SMs and REEs. In general, the REE patterns of the studied whole-rock pegmatite samples show tetrad effect and possess low total REE abundances, strong positive Europium (Eu) anomalies, weak negative Cesium (Cs) anomalies and relative enrichment in heavy REE. Similar features have been observed on the REE patterns of the feldspar extracts. However, the REE patterns of the muscovite extracts reflect preferential enrichment and possess negative Eu anomalies. The trace element evaluation further suggests that the MGC pegmatites have undergone low levels of fractionation. Various trace elements concentrations (and their ratios) including Ta versus Cs, K/Rb (Potassium/Rubidium) versus Rb and Th/U (Thorium/Uranium) versus K/Cs, were used to analyze the economically viable mineral potential of the studied rocks. On most of the plots, concentrations fall below the dividing line and confer either barren or low-level mineralization potential of the studied rocks for both SMs and REEs. The results demonstrate paucity of the MGC pegmatites with respect to Ta-Nb (Tantalum-Niobium) mineralization, which is in sharp contrast to many Pan-African S-type granites around the world. The MGC pegmatites are classified as muscovite pegmatites based on their K/Rb versus Cs relationship. This classification is consistent with the occurrence of rare accessory minerals like garnet, biotite, tourmaline, and beryl. Furthermore, the classification corroborates with an earlier sorting of the MCG pegmatites into muscovite-bearing, biotite-bearing, and subordinate muscovite-biotite types. These types of pegmatites lack any significant SMs and REEs mineralization potentials. Field relations, such as close spatial association with parent granitic rocks and absence of internal zonation structure, also reflect the barren character and hence lack of any potential prospects of the MGC pegmatites.

Keywords: exploration, fractionation, Himalayas, pegmatites, rare earth elements

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51 Influence of Lecithin from Different Sources on Crystallization Properties of Non-Trans Fat

Authors: Ivana Lončarević, Biljana Pajin, Radovan Omorjan, Aleksandra Torbica, Danica Zarić, Jovana Maksimović

Abstract:

Soybean seeds are the main source of lecithin in confectionery industry in Serbia and elsewhere. The extensive production of sunflower and rapeseed oil opens the possibility of using lecithin from these sources, as an alternative. Also, the development of functional foods dictates the use of edible fats with no undesirable trans fatty acids, obtained by fractionation and transesterification instead of common hydrogenation process. Crystallization properties of nontrans vegetable fat with the addition of soybean, sunflower and rapeseed lecithin were investigated in this paper. NMR technique was used for measuring the solid fat content (SFC) of fats at different temperatures, as well as for crystallization rate under static conditions. Also, the possibility of applying Gompertz function to define kinetics of crystallization was investigated.

Keywords: non-trans fat, lecithin, fatty acids, SFC

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50 Structure Elucidation of Isolated Active Compounds from Nigella sativa and Calotropis procera and Their Efficacy for Treatment of Asthma

Authors: Intisar S. A. Elzein

Abstract:

In Saudi Arabia parts of Nigella sativa, and Calotropis procera are commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cough, eczema and other diseases. The purpose of the study is to identify chemical constituents of Nigella sativa seed and Calotropis procera leave isolated by the bioassay guided fractionation process and find out their relevance to the alleged efficacy of the plant in treating asthma. The medicinal properties of both plants for asthma treatment referred to the rich abundance of thymoquinone and phytol compounds isolated from the essential oil of their seed and leave extracts, which they can form a part of molecules of vitamin K.

Keywords: asthma, Calotropis procera, chemical constituents, Nigella sativa, vitamin K

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49 Purification and Characterization of Phycoerythrin from a Mesophilic Cyanobacterium Nostoc piscinale PUPCCC 405.17

Authors: Sandeep Kaur

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Phycoerythrin (PE) from the mesophilic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc piscinale PUPCCC 405.17, a good producer of phycobiliproteins, has been characterized in terms of their unit assembly and stability. The phycoerythrin was extracted by freeze-thawing the cells in water, concentrated by ammonium sulphate fractionation and purified by anion exchange chromatography. The purification process resulted in 2.90 fold increase in phycoerythrin purity reaching to 1.54. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of purified PE demonstrated three protein bands of 14.3, 27.54 and 39.81 kDa. The native PE also showed one band of 125.87 kDa, assumed to be a dimer (αβ)2γ based on results of non-denaturing PAGE. Lyophilized powder PE was more stable compared to phycoerythrin in the solution. The half-life of dry PE is 80 days when stored at 4 °C under dark. The phycoerythrin from this organism has potential applications in food as natural colour and as a fluorescent marker.

Keywords: characterization, Nostoc piscinale, phycoerythrin, purification

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48 A New Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor Isolated from the Stem Bark of Anthocleista Djalonensis

Authors: Oseyemi O. Olubomehin, Edith O. Ajaiyeoba, Kio A. Abo, Eleonora D. Goosen

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Diabetes is a major degenerative disease of global concern and it is the third most lethal disease of mankind, accounting for about 3.2 million deaths annually. Lowering postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme such as alpha-amylase is one of the therapeutic approaches to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Alpha-amylase inhibitors from plants have been found to be effective in managing postprandial hyperglycemia. In continuation of our anti-diabetic activities of this plant, bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation using 0.1-1.0 mg/mL furnished djalonenol, a monoterpene diol with a significant 53.7% α-amylase inhibition (p<0.001) from the stem bark which was comparable to acarbose which gave a 54.9% inhibition. Spectral characterization using Infra-red, Gas Chromatogrphy-Mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR of the isolated compound was done to elucidate the structure of the compound.

Keywords: alpha-amylase inhibitor, hyperglycemia, postprandial, diabetes

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47 The Hidden Mechanism beyond Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Potent in vivo and in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Shahira M. Ezzat, Marwa I. Ezzat, Mona M. Okba, Esther T. Menze, Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim, Shahnas O. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: In order to decrease the burden of the high cost of synthetic drugs, it is important to focus on phytopharmaceuticals. The aim of our study was to search for the mechanism of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) anti-inflammatory potential and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Methods: Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated by assessment of rat paw oedema after carrageenan injection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), certain inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, INFr, MCP-1MIP, RANTES, and Nox) levels and MPO activity in the paw edema exudates were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was also determined. Histopathological alterations of paw tissues were scored. Results: All the tested extracts showed significant (p < 0.1) anti-inflammatory activities. The highest percentage of heat induced albumin denaturation (66%) was exhibited by the 50% ethanol (250 μg/ml). The 70 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) were more potent as membrane stabilizers (34.5 and 37%, respectively) than diclofenac (33%). The 80 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) showed maximum protease inhibition (56%). The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for the AE. It showed more significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125 μg/ml). Fractionation of AE yielded four main fractions (Fr I-IV) which showed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory. Purification of Fr-III and IV led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G2 (62.5 ug/ml), G1 (250 ug/ml), and G8 (250 ug/ml) exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in all studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw oedema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction (60%) of PGE2 production. The AE at different doses (at 25-200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers except for IL-1α. AE (at 25 mg/kg) is superior to indomethacin in reduction of IL-1β. Treatment of animals with the AE (100, 200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (10 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES levels, and MPO activity by about (31, 57 and 32% ) (65, 60 and 57%) (27, 41 and 28%) (23, 32 and 23%) (66, 67 and 67%) respectively. AE at 100 and 200 mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NOₓ level and in increasing the TAC. Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and oedema after administration of AE (200 mg/kg) prior to carrageenan. Conclusion: Ginger anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by inhibiting macrophage and neutrophils activation as well as negatively affecting monocyte and leukocyte migration. Moreover, it produced dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and replenished the total antioxidant capacity. We strongly recommend future investigations of ginger in the potential signal transduction pathways.

Keywords: anti-lipoxygenase activity, inflammatory markers, 1-dehydro-6-gingerol, 6-shogaol

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46 Fischer Tropsch Synthesis in Compressed Carbon Dioxide with Integrated Recycle

Authors: Kanchan Mondal, Adam Sims, Madhav Soti, Jitendra Gautam, David Carron

Abstract:

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a complex series of heterogeneous reactions between CO and H2 molecules (present in the syngas) on the surface of an active catalyst (Co, Fe, Ru, Ni, etc.) to produce gaseous, liquid, and waxy hydrocarbons. This product is composed of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds. The key challenge in applying the Fischer-Tropsch process to produce transportation fuels is to make the capital and production costs economically feasible relative to the comparative cost of existing petroleum resources. To meet this challenge, it is imperative to enhance the CO conversion while maximizing carbon selectivity towards the desired liquid hydrocarbon ranges (i.e. reduction in CH4 and CO2 selectivities) at high throughputs. At the same time, it is equally essential to increase the catalyst robustness and longevity without sacrificing catalyst activity. This paper focuses on process development to achieve the above. The paper describes the influence of operating parameters on Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) from coal derived syngas in supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2). In addition, the unreacted gas and solvent recycle was incorporated and the effect of unreacted feed recycle was evaluated. It was expected that with the recycle, the feed rate can be increased. The increase in conversion and liquid selectivity accompanied by the production of narrower carbon number distribution in the product suggest that higher flow rates can and should be used when incorporating exit gas recycle. It was observed that this process was capable of enhancing the hydrocarbon selectivity (nearly 98 % CO conversion), reducing improving the carbon efficiency from 17 % to 51 % in a once through process and further converting 16 % CO2 to liquid with integrated recycle of the product gas stream and increasing the life of the catalyst. Catalyst robustness enhancement has been attributed to the absorption of heat of reaction by the compressed CO2 which reduced the formation of hotspots and the dissolution of waxes by the CO2 solvent which reduced the blinding of active sites. In addition, the recycling the product gas stream reduced the reactor footprint to one-fourth of the once through size and product fractionation utilizing the solvent effects of supercritical CO2 were realized. In addition to the negative CO2 selectivities, methane production was also inhibited and was limited to less than 1.5%. The effect of the process conditions on the life of the catalysts will also be presented. Fe based catalysts are known to have a high proclivity for producing CO2 during FTS. The data of the product spectrum and selectivity on Co and Fe-Co based catalysts as well as those obtained from commercial sources will also be presented. The measurable decision criteria were the increase in CO conversion at H2:CO ratio of 1:1 (as commonly found in coal gasification product stream) in supercritical phase as compared to gas phase reaction, decrease in CO2 and CH4 selectivity, overall liquid product distribution, and finally an increase in the life of the catalysts.

Keywords: carbon efficiency, Fischer Tropsch synthesis, low GHG, pressure tunable fractionation

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