Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7131

Search results for: two phase flow

7131 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat


The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20° to +20° using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
7130 Studying Roughness Effects on Flow Regimes in Offshore Pipelines

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Narges, Zahra Ghadampour


Due to the specific condition, offshore pipelines are given careful consideration and care in both design and operation. Most of the offshore pipeline flows are multi-phase. Multi-phase flows construct different pattern or flow regimes (in simultaneous gas-liquid flow, flow regimes like slug flow, wave and …) under different circumstances. One of the influencing factors on the flow regime is the pipeline roughness value. So far, roughness value influences and the sensitivity of the present models to this parameter have not been taken into consideration. Therefore, roughness value influences on the flow regimes in offshore pipelines are discussed in this paper. Results showed that geometry, absolute pipeline roughness value (materials that the pipeline is made of) and flow phases prevailing the system are of the influential parameters on the flow regimes prevailing multi-phase pipelines in a way that a change in any of these parameters results in a change in flow regimes in all or part of the pipeline system.

Keywords: absolute roughness, flow regime, multi-phase flow, offshore pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
7129 Bubble Growth in a Two Phase Upward Flow in a Miniature Tube

Authors: R. S. Hassani, S. Chikh, L. Tadrist, S. Radev


A bubbly flow in a vertical miniature tube is analyzed theoretically. The liquid and gas phase are co-current flowing upward. The gas phase is injected via a nozzle whose inner diameter is 0.11mm and it is placed on the axis of the tube. A force balance is applied on the bubble at its detachment. The set of governing equations are solved by use of Mathematica software. The bubble diameter and the bubble generation frequency are determined for various inlet phase velocities represented by the inlet mass quality. The results show different behavior of bubble growth and detachment depending on the tube size.

Keywords: two phase flow, bubble growth, mini-channel, generation frequency

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7128 Experimental Study on Flooding Phenomena in a Three-Phase Direct Contact Heat Exchanger for the Utilisation in Solar Pond Applications

Authors: Hameed B. Mahood, Ali Sh. Baqir, Alasdair N. Campbell


Experiments to study the limitation of flooding inception of three-phase direct contact condenser have been carried out in a counter-current small diameter vertical condenser. The total column height was 70 cm and 4 cm diameter. Only 48 cm has been used as an active three-phase direct contact condenser height. Vapour pentane with three different initial temperatures (40, 43.5 and 47.5 °C) and water with a constant temperature (19 °C) have been used as a dispersed phase and a continuous phase respectively. Five different continuous phase mass flow rate and four different dispersed phase mass flow rate have been tested throughout the experiments. Dimensionless correlation based on the previous common flooding correlation is proposed to calculate the up flow flooding inception of the three-phase direct contact condenser.

Keywords: Three-phase heat exchanger, condenser, solar energy, flooding phenomena

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
7127 CFD Simulation and Investigation of Critical Two-Phase Flow Rate in Wellhead Choke

Authors: Alireza Rafie Boldaji, Ahmad Saboonchi


Chokes are commonly used in oil and gas production systems. A choke is a restriction basically designed to control flow rates of oil and gas wells, to prevent the downstream disturbances from propagating upstream (critical flow), and to protect the surface equipment facilities against slugging at high flowing pressures. There are different methods to calculate the multiphase flow rate, one of the multiphase flow measurement methods is the separation and measurement by on¬e-phaseFlow meter, another common method is the use of movable separator, their operations are very labor-intensive and costly. The current method used is based on the flow differential pressure on both sides of choke. Three groups of correlations describing two-phase flow through wellhead chokes were examined. The first group involved simple empirical equations similar to those of Gilbert, the second group comprised derived equations of two-phase flow incorporating PVT properties, and third group is computational method. In the article we calculate the flow of oil and gas through choke with simulation of this two phase flow bye computational fluid dynamic method, we use Ansys- fluent for this simulation and finally compared results of computational simulation whit empirical equations, the results show good agreement between experimental and numerical results.

Keywords: CFD, two-phase, choke, critical

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
7126 Comparison of Two-Phase Critical Flow Models for Estimation of Leak Flow Rate through Cracks

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe, Jinya Katsuyama, Akihiro Mano


The estimation of leak flow rates through narrow cracks in structures is of importance for nuclear reactor safety, since the leak flow could be detected before occurrence of loss-of-coolant accidents. The two-phase critical leak flow rates are calculated using the system analysis code, and two representative non-homogeneous critical flow models, Henry-Fauske model and Ransom-Trapp model, are compared. The pressure decrease and vapor generation in the crack, and the leak flow rates are found to be larger for the Henry-Fauske model. It is shown that the leak flow rates are not affected by the structural temperature, but affected largely by the roughness of crack surface.

Keywords: crack, critical flow, leak, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7125 Effect of Velocity Slip on Two Phase Flow in an Eccentric Annular Region

Authors: Umadevi B., Dinesh P. A., Indira. R., Vinay C. V.


A mathematical model is developed to study the simultaneous effects of particle drag and slip parameter on the velocity as well as rate of flow in an annular cross sectional region bounded by two eccentric cylinders. In physiological flows this phenomena can be observed in an eccentric catheterized artery with inner cylinder wall is impermeable and outer cylinder wall is permeable. Blood is a heterogeneous fluid having liquid phase consisting of plasma in which a solid phase of suspended cells and proteins. Arterial wall gets damaged due to aging and lipid molecules get deposited between damaged tissue cells. Blood flow increases towards the damaged tissues in the artery. In this investigation blood is modeled as two phase fluid as one is a fluid phase and the other is particulate phase. The velocity of the fluid phase and rate of flow are obtained by transforming eccentric annulus to concentric annulus with the conformal mapping. The formulated governing equations are analytically solved for the velocity and rate of flow. The numerical investigations are carried out by varying eccentricity parameter, slip parameter and drag parameter. Enhancement of slip parameter signifies loss of fluid then the velocity and rate of flow will be decreased. As particulate drag parameter increases then the velocity as well as rate flow decreases. Eccentricity facilitates transport of more fluid then the velocity and rate of flow increases.

Keywords: catheter, slip parameter, drag parameter, eccentricity

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7124 Heat Transfer from a Cylinder in Cross-Flow of Single and Multiphase Flows

Authors: F. A. Hamad, S. He


In this paper, the average heat transfer characteristics for a cross flow cylinder of 16 mm diameter in a vertical pipe has been studied for single-phase flow (water/oil) and multicomponent (non-boiling) flow (water-air, water-oil, oil-air and water-oil-air). The cylinder is uniformly heated by electrical heater placed at the centre of the element. The results show that the values of average heat transfer coefficients for water are around four times the values for oil flow. Introducing air as a second phase with water has very little effect on heat transfer rate, while the heat transfer increased by 70% in case of oil. For water–oil flow, the heat transfer coefficient values are reflecting the percentage of water up to 50%, but increasing the water more than 50% leads to a sharp increase in the heat transfer coefficients to become close to the values of pure water. The enhancement of heat transfer by mixing two phases may be attributed to the changes in flow structure near to cylinder surface which lead to thinner boundary layer and higher turbulence. For three-phase flow, the heat transfer coefficients for all cases fall within the limit of single-phase flow of water and oil and are very close to pure water values. The net effect of the turbulence augmentation due to the introduction of air and the attenuation due to the introduction of oil leads to a thinner boundary layer of oil over the cylinder surface covered by a mixture of water and air bubbles.

Keywords: circular cylinder, cross flow, hear transfer, multicomponent multiphase flow

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7123 Pressure Gradient Prediction of Oil-Water Two Phase Flow through Horizontal Pipe

Authors: Ahmed I. Raheem


In this thesis, stratified and stratified wavy flow regimes have been investigated numerically for the oil (1.57 mPa s viscosity and 780 kg/m3 density) and water twophase flow in small and large horizontal steel pipes with a diameter between 0.0254 to 0.508 m by ANSYS Fluent software. Volume of fluid (VOF) with two phases flows using two equations family models (Realizable k-

Keywords: CFD, two-phase flow, pressure gradient, volume of fluid, large diameter, horizontal pipe, oil-water stratified and stratified wavy flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
7122 An Experimental Investigation of Air Entrainment Due to Water Jets in Crossflows

Authors: Mina Esmi Jahromi, Mehdi Khiadani


Vertical water jets discharging into free surface turbulent cross flows result in the ingression of a large amount of air in the body of water and form a region of two-phase air-water flow with a considerable interfacial area. This research presents an experimental study of the two-phase bubbly flow using image processing technique. The air ingression and the trajectories of bubble swarms under different experimental conditions are evaluated. The rate of air entrainment and the bubble characteristics such as penetration depth, and dispersion pattern were found to be affected by the most influential parameters of water jet and cross flow including water jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio, water jet falling height, and cross flow depth. This research improves understanding of the underwater flow structure due to the water jet impingement in crossflow and advances the practical applications of water jets such as artificial aeration, circulation, and mixing where crossflow is present.

Keywords: air entrainment, image processing, jet in cross flow, two-phase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
7121 The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems

Authors: Khalid. M. O. Elmabrok, M. L. Burby, G. G. Nasr


Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.

Keywords: gas lift instability, bubbles forming, bubbles collapsing, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
7120 A Two-Phase Flow Interface Tracking Algorithm Using a Fully Coupled Pressure-Based Finite Volume Method

Authors: Shidvash Vakilipour, Scott Ormiston, Masoud Mohammadi, Rouzbeh Riazi, Kimia Amiri, Sahar Barati


Two-phase and multi-phase flows are common flow types in fluid mechanics engineering. Among the basic and applied problems of these flow types, two-phase parallel flow is the one that two immiscible fluids flow in the vicinity of each other. In this type of flow, fluid properties (e.g. density, viscosity, and temperature) are different at the two sides of the interface of the two fluids. The most challenging part of the numerical simulation of two-phase flow is to determine the location of interface accurately. In the present work, a coupled interface tracking algorithm is developed based on Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach using a cell-centered, pressure-based, coupled solver. To validate this algorithm, an analytical solution for fully developed two-phase flow in presence of gravity is derived, and then, the results of the numerical simulation of this flow are compared with analytical solution at various flow conditions. The results of the simulations show good accuracy of the algorithm despite using a nearly coarse and uniform grid. Temporal variations of interface profile toward the steady-state solution show that a greater difference between fluids properties (especially dynamic viscosity) will result in larger traveling waves. Gravity effect studies also show that favorable gravity will result in a reduction of heavier fluid thickness and adverse gravity leads to increasing it with respect to the zero gravity condition. However, the magnitude of variation in favorable gravity is much more than adverse gravity.

Keywords: coupled solver, gravitational force, interface tracking, Reynolds number to Froude number, two-phase flow

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7119 Effect of Radiation on Magnetohydrodynamic Two Phase Stenosed Arterial Blood Flow with Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: Bhavya Tripathi, Bhupendra Kumar Sharma


In blood, the concentration of red blood cell varies with the arterial diameter. In the case of narrow arteries, red blood cells concentrate around the center of the artery and there exists a cell-free plasma layer near the arterial wall due to Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. Due to non- uniformity of the fluid in the narrow arteries, it is preferable to consider the two-phase model of the blood flow. In the present article, coupled nonlinear differential equations have been developed for momentum, energy and concentration of two phase model of the blood flow assuming the Newtonian fluid in both central core and cell free plasma layer and the exact solutions have been found for the problem. For having an adequate insight into the stenosed arterial two-phase blood flow, major components of the flow as flow resistance, total flow rate, and wall shear stress have been estimated for different values of magnetic and radiation parameter. Results show that the increase in the effects of magnetic field decreases the velocity of both cores as well as plasma regions. This result can be helpful to control the blood flow in narrow arteries during surgical process. Temperature of core as well plasma regions decrease as value of radiation parameter increases. The present result is implemented in the form of radiation therapy which is very helpful for cancer patients.

Keywords: two phase blood flow, radiation, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), stenosis

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7118 CFD Simulation of Surge Wave Generated by Flow-Like Landslides

Authors: Liu-Chao Qiu


The damage caused by surge waves generated in water bodies by flow-like landslides can be very high in terms of human lives and economic losses. The complicated phenomena occurred in this highly unsteady process are difficult to model because three interacting phases: air, water and sediment are involved. The problem therefore is challenging since the effects of non-Newtonian fluid describing the rheology of the flow-like landslides, multi-phase flow and free surface have to be included in the simulation. In this work, the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT is used to model the surge waves due to flow-like landslides. The comparison between the numerical results and experimental data reported in the literature confirms the accuracy of the method.

Keywords: flow-like landslide, surge wave, VOF, non-Newtonian fluids, multi-phase flows, free surface flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
7117 Behavior of Droplets in Microfluidic System with T-Junction

Authors: A. Guellati, F-M Lounis, N. Guemras, K. Daoud


Micro droplet formation is considered as a growing emerging area of research due to its wide-range application in chemistry as well as biology. The mechanism of micro droplet formation using two immiscible liquids running through a T-junction has been widely studied. We believe that the flow of these two immiscible phases can be of greater important factor that could have an impact on out-flow hydrodynamic behavior, the droplets generated and the size of the droplets. In this study, the type of the capillary tubes used also represents another important factor that can have an impact on the generation of micro droplets. The tygon capillary tubing with hydrophilic inner surface doesn't allow regular out-flows due to the fact that the continuous phase doesn't adhere to the wall of the capillary inner surface. Teflon capillary tubing, presents better wettability than tygon tubing, and allows to obtain steady and regular regimes of out-flow, and the micro droplets are homogeneoussize. The size of the droplets is directly dependent on the flows of the continuous and dispersed phases. Thus, as increasing the flow of the continuous phase, to flow of the dispersed phase stationary, the size of the drops decreases. Inversely, while increasing the flow of the dispersed phase, to flow of the continuous phase stationary, the size of the droplet increases.

Keywords: microfluidic system, micro droplets generation, t-junction, fluids engineering

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7116 Measurement of Liquid Film Thickness in a Vertical Annular Two Phase Flow Changing the Gas-Liquid Density Ratio

Authors: Shoji Mori, Kunito Okuyama


Annular two phase flow is encountered in many industrial equipments, including flow near nuclear fuel rods in boiling water reactor (BWR). Especially, disturbance waves play important roles in the pressure drop, the generation of entrainments, and the dryout of the liquid film. Therefore, it is important to clarify the behavior of disturbance waves and base film. However, most of the previous studies have been performed under atmospheric pressure conditions that provides the properties of liquid and gas which are significantly different from those of a BWR. Therefore, the effect of properties in gas and liquid on liquid film characteristics should be clarified. In this paper we focus on the effect of gas-liquid density ratio on liquid film thickness characteristics. The experiments have been conducted at four density ratio conditions (ρL/ρG =763, 451, 231, and 31). As a result, it is found that and interfacial shear stress collapse not only tF ave but also tF max and tF min successfully under the same liquid mass flow rate conditions irrespective of ρL/ρG, and moreover a non-dimensional parameter tends to collapse tF max,tF ave,and tF min in the wide range of experimental conditions (ρL/ρG:31~763,We:10~1800,ReL:500 ~ 2200).

Keywords: two phase flow, liquid film, annular flow, disturbance wave

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7115 CFD Studies on Forced Convection Nanofluid Flow Inside a Circular Conduit

Authors: M. Khalid, W. Rashmi, L. L. Kwan


This work provides an overview on the experimental and numerical simulations of various nanofluids and their flow and heat transfer behavior. It was further extended to study the effect of nanoparticle concentration, fluid flow rates and thermo-physical properties on the heat transfer enhancement of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a turbulent flow circular conduit using ANSYS FLUENT™ 14.0. Single-phase approximation (homogeneous model) and two-phase (mixture and Eulerian) models were used to simulate the nanofluid flow behavior in the 3-D horizontal pipe. The numerical results were further validated with experimental correlations reported in the literature. It was found that heat transfer of nanofluids increases with increasing particle volume concentration and Reynolds number, respectively. Results showed good agreement (~9% deviation) with the experimental correlations, especially for a single-phase model with constant properties. Among two-phase models, mixture model (~14% deviation) showed better prediction compared to Eulerian-dispersed model (~18% deviation) when temperature independent properties were used. Non-drag forces were also employed in the Eulerian two-phase model. However, the two-phase mixture model with temperature dependent nanofluid properties gave slightly closer agreement (~12% deviation).

Keywords: nanofluid, CFD, heat transfer, forced convection, circular conduit

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7114 Design of Control Systems for Grid Interconnection and Power Control of a Grid Tie Inverter for Micro-Grid Application

Authors: Deepak Choudhary


COEP-Microgrid, a project by the students of College of Engineering Pune aims at establishing a micro grid in the college campus serving as a living laboratory for research and development of novel grid technologies. Proposed micro grid has an AC-bus and DC-bus, interconnected together with a tie line DC-AC converter. In grid-connected mode AC bus of microgrid is synchronized with utility grid. Synchronization with utility grid requires grid and AC bus to have synchronism in frequency, phase sequence and voltage. Power flow requires phase difference between grid and AC bus. Control System is required to effectively regulate power flow between the grid and AC bus. The grid synchronizing control system is composed of frequency and phase control for regulated power flow and voltage control system for reduction of reactive power flow. The control system involves automatic active power flow control. It takes the feedback of DC link Capacitor and changes the power angle accordingly. Control system incorporating voltage, phase and power control was developed for grid-tie inverter. This paper discusses the design, simulation and practical implementation of control system described in various micro grid scenarios.

Keywords: microgrid, Grid-tie inverter, voltage control, automatic power control

Procedia PDF Downloads 573
7113 3D Numerical Studies on External Aerodynamics of a Flying Car

Authors: Sasitharan Ambicapathy, J. Vignesh, P. Sivaraj, Godfrey Derek Sams, K. Sabarinath, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The external flow simulation of a flying car at take off phase is a daunting task owing to the fact that the prediction of the transient unsteady flow features during its deployment phase is very complex. In this paper 3D numerical simulations of external flow of Ferrari F430 proposed flying car with different NACA 9618 rectangular wings have been carried. Additionally, the aerodynamics characteristics have been generated for optimizing its geometry for achieving the minimum take off velocity with better overall performance in both road and air. The three-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model has been used for capturing the intrinsic flow physics during the take off phase. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations is employed. Through the detailed parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that Ferrari F430 flying car facilitated with high wings having three different deployment histories during the take off phase is the best choice for accomplishing its better performance for the commercial applications.

Keywords: aerodynamics of flying car, air taxi, negative lift, roadable airplane

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7112 Evaluation of Turbulence Modelling of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in a Venturi

Authors: Mengke Zhan, Cheng-Gang Xie, Jian-Jun Shu


A venturi flowmeter is a common device used in multiphase flow rate measurement in the upstream oil and gas industry. Having a robust computational model for multiphase flow in a venturi is desirable for understanding the gas-liquid and fluid-pipe interactions and predicting pressure and phase distributions under various flow conditions. A steady Eulerian-Eulerian framework is used to simulate upward gas-liquid flow in a vertical venturi. The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements of venturi differential pressure and chord-averaged gas holdup in the venturi throat section. The choice of turbulence model is nontrivial in the multiphase flow modelling in a venturi. The performance cross-comparison of the k-ϵ model, Reynolds stress model (RSM) and shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model is made in the study. In terms of accuracy and computational cost, the SST k-ω turbulence model is observed to be the most efficient.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), gas-liquid flow, turbulence modelling, venturi

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7111 Single Phase Fluid Flow in Series of Microchannel Connected via Converging-Diverging Section with or without Throat

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Kaushal Kishor, Wasim Khan, Dhananjay Singh, M. S. Alam


Single phase fluid flow through series of uniform microchannels connected via transition section (converging-diverging section with or without throat) was analytically and numerically studied to characterize the flow within the channel and in the transition sections. Three sets of microchannels of diameters 100, 184, and 249 μm were considered for investigation. Each set contains 10 numbers of microchannels of length 20 mm, connected to each other in series via transition sections. Transition section consists of either converging-diverging section with throat or without throat. The effect of non-uniformity in microchannels on pressure drop was determined by passing water/air through the set of channels for Reynolds number 50 to 1000. Compressibility and rarefaction effects in transition sections were also tested analytically and numerically for air flow. The analytical and numerical results show that these configurations can be used in enhancement of transport processes. However, converging-diverging section without throat shows superior performance over with throat configuration.

Keywords: contraction-expansion flow, integrated microchannel, microchannel network, single phase flow

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7110 Extraction of Dyes Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System in Stratified and Slug Flow Regimes of a Microchannel

Authors: Garima, S. Pushpavanam


In this work, analysis of an Aqueous two-phase (polymer-salt) system for extraction of sunset yellow dye is carried out. A polymer-salt ATPS i.e.; Polyethylene glycol-600 and anhydrous sodium sulfate is used for the extraction. Conditions are chosen to ensure that the extraction results in a concentration of the dye in one of the phases. The dye has a propensity to come to the Polyethylene glycol-600 phase. This extracted sunset yellow dye is degraded photo catalytically into less harmful components. The cloud point method was used to obtain the binodal curve of ATPS. From the binodal curve, the composition of salt and Polyethylene glycol -600 was chosen such that the volume of Polyethylene glycol-600 rich phase is low. This was selected to concentrate the dye from a dilute solution in a large volume of contaminated solution into a small volume. This pre-concentration step provides a high reaction rate for photo catalytic degradation reaction. Experimentally the dye is extracted from the salt phase to Polyethylene glycol -600 phase in batch extraction. This was found to be very fast and all dye was extracted. The concentration of sunset yellow dye in salt and polymer phase is measured at 482nm by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The extraction experiment in micro channels under stratified flow is analyzed to determine factors which affect the dye extraction. Focus will be on obtaining slug flow by adding nanoparticles in micro channel. The primary aim is to exploit the fact that slug flow will help improve mass transfer rate from one phase to another through internal circulation in dispersed phase induced by shear.

Keywords: aqueous two phase system, binodal curve, extraction, sunset yellow dye

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7109 Monthly River Flow Prediction Using a Nonlinear Prediction Method

Authors: N. H. Adenan, M. S. M. Noorani


River flow prediction is an essential to ensure proper management of water resources can be optimally distribute water to consumers. This study presents an analysis and prediction by using nonlinear prediction method involving monthly river flow data in Tanjung Tualang from 1976 to 2006. Nonlinear prediction method involves the reconstruction of phase space and local linear approximation approach. The phase space reconstruction involves the reconstruction of one-dimensional (the observed 287 months of data) in a multidimensional phase space to reveal the dynamics of the system. Revenue of phase space reconstruction is used to predict the next 72 months. A comparison of prediction performance based on correlation coefficient (CC) and root mean square error (RMSE) have been employed to compare prediction performance for nonlinear prediction method, ARIMA and SVM. Prediction performance comparisons show the prediction results using nonlinear prediction method is better than ARIMA and SVM. Therefore, the result of this study could be used to developed an efficient water management system to optimize the allocation water resources.

Keywords: river flow, nonlinear prediction method, phase space, local linear approximation

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7108 Large Eddy Simulations for Flow Blurring Twin-Fluid Atomization Concept Using Volume of Fluid Method

Authors: Raju Murugan, Pankaj S. Kolhe


The present study is mainly focusing on the numerical simulation of Flow Blurring (FB) twin fluid injection concept was proposed by Ganan-Calvo, which involves back flow atomization based on global bifurcation of liquid and gas streams, thus creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The interesting feature of FB injector spray is an insignificant effect of variation in atomizing air to liquid ratio (ALR) on a spray cone angle. Besides, FB injectors produce a nearly uniform spatial distribution of mean droplet diameter and are least susceptible to variation in thermo-physical properties of fuels, making it a perfect candidate for fuel flexible combustor development. The FB injector working principle has been realized through experimental flow visualization techniques only. The present study explores potential of ANSYS Fluent based Large Eddy Simulation(LES) with volume of fluid (VOF) method to investigate two-phase flow just upstream of injector dump plane and spray quality immediate downstream of injector dump plane. Note that, water and air represent liquid and gas phase in all simulations and ALR is varied by changing the air mass flow rate alone. Preliminary results capture two phase flow just upstream of injector dump plane and qualitative agreement is observed with the available experimental literature.

Keywords: flow blurring twin fluid atomization, large eddy simulation, volume of fluid, air to liquid ratio

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7107 PIV Measurements of the Instantaneous Velocities for Single and Two-Phase Flows in an Annular Duct

Authors: Marlon M. Hernández Cely, Victor E. C. Baptistella, Oscar M. H. Rodríguez


Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established technique in the field of fluid flow measurement and provides instantaneous velocity fields over global domains. It has been applied to external and internal flows and in single and two-phase flows. Regarding internal flow, works about the application of PIV in annular ducts are scanty. An experimental work is presented, where flow of water is studied in an annular duct of inner diameter of 60 mm and outer diameter of 155 mm and 10.5-m length, with the goal of obtaining detailed velocity measurements. Depending on the flow rates of water, it can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. In this study, the water flow rate was kept at three different values for the annular duct, allowing the analysis of one laminar and two turbulent flows. Velocity fields and statistic quantities of the turbulent flow were calculated.

Keywords: PIV, annular duct, laminar, turbulence, velocity profile

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7106 Analysis of Two Phase Hydrodynamics in a Column Flotation by Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Balraju Vadlakonda, Narasimha Mangadoddy


The hydrodynamic behavior in a laboratory column flotation was analyzed using particle image velocimetry. For complete characterization of column flotation, it is necessary to determine the flow velocity induced by bubbles in the liquid phase, the bubble velocity and bubble characteristics:diameter,shape and bubble size distribution. An experimental procedure for analyzing simultaneous, phase-separated velocity measurements in two-phase flows was introduced. The non-invasive PIV technique has used to quantify the instantaneous flow field, as well as the time averaged flow patterns in selected planes of the column. Using the novel particle velocimetry (PIV) technique by the combination of fluorescent tracer particles, shadowgraphy and digital phase separation with masking technique measured the bubble velocity as well as the Reynolds stresses in the column. Axial and radial mean velocities as well as fluctuating components were determined for both phases by averaging the sufficient number of double images. Bubble size distribution was cross validated with high speed video camera. Average turbulent kinetic energy of bubble were analyzed. Different air flow rates were considered in the experiments.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry (PIV), bubble velocity, bubble diameter, turbulent kinetic energy

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7105 Numerical Approach for Characterization of Flow Field in Pump Intake Using Two Phase Model: Detached Eddy Simulation

Authors: Rahul Paliwal, Gulshan Maheshwari, Anant S. Jhaveri, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati


Large pumping facility is the necessary requirement of the cooling water systems for power plants, process and manufacturing facilities, flood control and water or waste water treatment plant. With a large capacity of few hundred to 50,000 m3/hr, cares must be taken to ensure the uniform flow to the pump to limit vibration, flow induced cavitation and performance problems due to formation of air entrained vortex and swirl flow. Successful prediction of these phenomena requires numerical method and turbulence model to characterize the dynamics of these flows. In the past years, single phase shear stress transport (SST) Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes Models (like k-ε, k-ω and RSM) were used to predict the behavior of flow. Literature study showed that two phase model will be more accurate over single phase model. In this paper, a 3D geometries simulated using detached eddy simulation (LES) is used to predict the behavior of the fluid and the results are compared with experimental results. Effect of different grid structure and boundary condition is also studied. It is observed that two phase flow model can more accurately predict the mean flow and turbulence statistics compared to the steady SST model. These validate model will be used for further analysis of vortex structure in lab scale model to generate their frequency-plot and intensity at different location in the set-up. This study will help in minimizing the ill effect of vortex on pump performance.

Keywords: grid structure, pump intake, simulation, vibration, vortex

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7104 A Transient Coupled Numerical Analysis of the Flow of Magnetorheological Fluids in Closed Domains

Authors: Wael Elsaady, S. Olutunde Oyadiji, Adel Nasser


The non-linear flow characteristics of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in MR dampers are studied via a coupled numerical approach that incorporates a two-phase flow model. The approach couples the Finite Element (FE) modelling of the damper magnetic circuit, with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the flow field in the damper. The two-phase flow CFD model accounts for the effect of fluid compressibility due to the presence of liquid and gas in the closed domain of the damper. The dynamic mesh model included in ANSYS/Fluent CFD solver is used to simulate the movement of the MR damper piston in order to perform the fluid excitation. The two-phase flow analysis is studied by both Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) model and mixture model that are included in ANSYS/Fluent. The CFD models show that the hysteretic behaviour of MR dampers is due to the effect of fluid compressibility. The flow field shows the distributions of pressure, velocity, and viscosity contours. In particular, it shows the high non-Newtonian viscosity in the affected fluid regions by the magnetic field and the low Newtonian viscosity elsewhere. Moreover, the dependence of gas volume fraction on the liquid pressure inside the damper is predicted by the mixture model. The presented approach targets a better understanding of the complicated flow characteristics of viscoplastic fluids that could be applied in different applications.

Keywords: viscoplastic fluid, magnetic FE analysis, computational fluid dynamics, two-phase flow, dynamic mesh, user-defined functions

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7103 Liquid-Liquid Plug Flow Characteristics in Microchannel with T-Junction

Authors: Anna Yagodnitsyna, Alexander Kovalev, Artur Bilsky


The efficiency of certain technological processes in two-phase microfluidics such as emulsion production, nanomaterial synthesis, nitration, extraction processes etc. depends on two-phase flow regimes in microchannels. For practical application in chemistry and biochemistry it is very important to predict the expected flow pattern for a large variety of fluids and channel geometries. In the case of immiscible liquids, the plug flow is a typical and optimal regime for chemical reactions and needs to be predicted by empirical data or correlations. In this work flow patterns of immiscible liquid-liquid flow in a rectangular microchannel with T-junction are investigated. Three liquid-liquid flow systems are considered, viz. kerosene – water, paraffin oil – water and castor oil – paraffin oil. Different flow patterns such as parallel flow, slug flow, plug flow, dispersed (droplet) flow, and rivulet flow are observed for different velocity ratios. New flow pattern of the parallel flow with steady wavy interface (serpentine flow) has been found. It is shown that flow pattern maps based on Weber numbers for different liquid-liquid systems do not match well. Weber number multiplied by Ohnesorge number is proposed as a parameter to generalize flow maps. Flow maps based on this parameter are superposed well for all liquid-liquid systems of this work and other experiments. Plug length and velocity are measured for the plug flow regime. When dispersed liquid wets channel walls plug length cannot be predicted by known empirical correlations. By means of particle tracking velocimetry technique instantaneous velocity fields in a plug flow regime were measured. Flow circulation inside plug was calculated using velocity data that can be useful for mass flux prediction in chemical reactions.

Keywords: flow patterns, hydrodynamics, liquid-liquid flow, microchannel

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7102 Experimental and Computational Investigations of Baffle Position Effects on ‎the Performance of Oil and Water Separator Tanks

Authors: Haitham A. Hussein, Rozi Abdullah‏‎, Md Azlin Md Said ‎


Gravity separator tanks are used to separate oil from water in treatment units. Achieving the best flow ‎uniformity in a separator tank will improve the maximum removal efficiency of oil globules from water. ‎In this study, the effect on hydraulic performance of different baffle structure positions inside a tank ‎was investigated. Experimental data and 2D computation fluid dynamics were used for analysis. In the ‎numerical model, two-phase flow (drift flux model) was used to validate one-phase flow. For ‎laboratory measurements, the velocity fields were measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The ‎measurements were compared with the result of the computational model. The results of the ‎experimental and computational simulations indicate that the best location of a baffle structure is ‎achieved when the standard deviation of the velocity profile and the volume of the circulation zone ‎inside the tank are minimized.‎

Keywords: gravity separator tanks, CFD, baffle position, two phase flow, ADV, oil droplet

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