Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2558

Search results for: nano composite

2558 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, O. Eren, İ. Karacan


Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution has been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate has been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), tensile tester, differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM, respectively. Also, antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: composite polyacrylonitrile nanofiber, electrical conductivity, electrospinning, mechanical properties, thermal properties, silver nanoparticles

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2557 Production and Characterization of Sol-Enhanced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Nano Composite Coating

Authors: Soroor Ghaziof, Wei Gao


Sol-enhanced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings were electroplated on mild steel by our newly developed sol-enhanced electroplating method. In this method, transparent Al2O3 sol was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings. The chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite and alloy coatings deposited at two different agitation speed were investigated. The structure of all coatings was single γ-Ni5Zn21 phase. The composite coatings possess refined crystals with higher microhardness compared to Zn-Ni alloy coatings. The wear resistance of Zn-Ni coatings was improved significantly by incorporation of alumina nano particles into the coatings. Higher agitation speed provided more uniform coatings with smaller grain sized and slightly higher microhardness. Considering composite coatings, high agitation speeds may facilitate co-deposition of alumina in the coatings.

Keywords: microhardness, sol-enhanced electroplating, wear resistance, Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings

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2556 Ferroelectricity in Nano-Composite Films of Sodium Nitrite: Starch Prepared by Drop Cast Technique

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Baljinder Kaur, Lakhbir Singh, V. Annapu Reddy, R. Nath, Dae-Yong Jeong, Jasbir S. Hundal


Nano-composite films of sodium nitrite (NaNO2): Starch with different proportions of NaNO2 and Starch have been prepared by drop cast technique. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops (P-V) have been traced using modified Sawyar-Tower circuit. The films containing equal proportions of NaNO2 and Starch exhibit optimized ferroelectric properties. The stability of the remanent polarization, Pr in the optimized nano-composite films exhibit improved stability over the pure NaNO2 films. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been employed to investigate the surface morphology. AFM images clearly reveal the nano sized particles of NaNO2 dispersed in starch with small value of surface roughness.

Keywords: ferroelectricity, nano-composite films, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), nano composite film

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2555 Percentages of Alumina Phase and Different Ph on The Ha- Al2o3 Nano Composite

Authors: S. Tayyebi, F. Mirjalili, H. Samadi, A. Nemati


In this study, hydroxyapatite-Alumina nano composite powder, containing 15,20 and 25% weight percent of reinforced alumina were prepared by chemical precipitation from the reaction between calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate with ratio of Ca / p = 1.67 and different percentage of aluminum nitrate nona hydrate in different pH of 9,10 and 11. The microstructure and thermal stability of samples were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the presence of reinforced alumina phase reduced the degree of crystallinity of hydroxyapatite phase and increased its decomposition to tricalcium phosphate phase. Microstructural analysis showed that the hydroxyapatite-alumina nano composite powder was obtained with spherical shape and size of less than 100 nm.

Keywords: biomaterial, hydroxyapatite, alumina, nano composite, precipitation method

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2554 Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Nano Composite Coatings

Authors: Soroor Ghaziof, Wei Gao


Zn alloy and composite coatings are widely used in buildings and structures, automobile and fasteners industries to protect steel component from corrosion. In this paper, Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings were electrodeposited on mild steel using a novel sol enhanced electroplating method. In this method, transparent Al2O3 sol was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings. The effect of alumina sol on the electrodeposition process, and coating properties was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, XRD, ESEM and Tafel test. Results from XRD tests showed that the structure of all coatings was single γ-Ni5Zn21 phase. Cyclic voltammetry results showed that the electrodeposition overpotential was lower in the presence of alumina sol in the bath, and caused the reduction potential of Zn-Ni to shift to more positive values. Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano composite coatings produced more uniform and compact deposits, with fine grained microstructure when compared to Zn-Ni coatings. The corrosion resistance of Zn-Ni coatings was improved significantly by incorporation of alumina nano particles into the coatings.

Keywords: Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings, steel, sol-enhanced electroplating, corrosion resistance

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2553 On the Fatigue Behavior of a Triphasic Composite

Authors: G. Minak, D. Ghelli, A. Zucchelli


This paper presents the results of an experimental characterization of a glass fibre-epoxy composite. The behavior of the traditional two-phase composite has been compared with the one of a new three-phase composite where the epoxy matrix was modified by addition of a 3% weight fraction of montmorillonite nano-particles. Two different types of nano-clays, Cloisite® 30B and RXG7000, produced by Southern Clay Products Inc., have been considered. Three-point bending tests, both monotonic and cyclic, were carried out. A strong reduction of the ultimate flexural strength upon nano-modification has been observed in quasi-static tests. Fatigue tests yielded a smaller strength loss. In both quasi-static and fatigue tests a more pronounced tendency to delamination has been noticed in three-phase composites, especially in the case of 30B nano-clay, with respect to the standard two-phase glass fiber composite.

Keywords: bending fatigue, epoxy resin, glass fiber, montmorillonite

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2552 Application of Electrochemically Prepared PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 Nano-Composite Film in Microbial Fuel Cells for Sustainable Power Generation

Authors: Rajeev jain, D. C. Tiwari, Praveena Mishra


Nano-composite of polypyrrole/multiwalled carbon nanotubes:mangenese oxide (PPy/MWCNT:MnO2) was electrochemically deposited on the surface of carbon cloth (CC). The nano-composite was structurally characterized by FTIR, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis studies. Nano-composite was also characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current voltage measurements (I-V) and the optical band gaps of film were evaluated from UV-Vis absorption studies. The PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 nano-composite was used as anode in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for sewage waste water treatment, power and coulombic efficiency measurement. The prepared electrode showed good electrical conductivity (0.1185 S m-1). This was also supported by band gap measurements (direct 0.8 eV, indirect 1.3 eV). The obtained maximum power density was 1125.4 mW m-2, highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 93% and the maximum coulombic efficiency was 59%. For the first time PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 nano-composite for MFC prepared from nano-composite electrode having the potential for the use in MFC with good stability and better adhesion of microbes is being reported. The SEM images confirm the growth and development of microbe’s colony.

Keywords: carbon cloth, electro-polymerization, functionalization, microbial fuel cells, multi walled carbon nanotubes, polypyrrole

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2551 The Elastic Field of a Nano-Pore, and the Effective Modulus of Composites with Nano-Pores

Authors: Xin Chen, Moxiao Li, Xuechao Sun, Fei Ti, Shaobao Liu, Feng Xu, Tian Jian Lu


The composite materials with pores have the characteristics of light weight, sound insulation, and heat insulation, and have broad prospects in many fields, including aerospace. In general, the stiffness of such composite is less than the stiffness of the matrix material, limiting their applications. In this paper, we establish a theoretical model to analyze the deformation mechanism of a nano-pore. The interface between the pores and matrix material is described by the Gurtin-Murdoch model. By considering scale effect related with current deformation, we estimate the effective mechanical properties (e.g., effective shear modulus and bulk modulus) of a composite with nano-pores. Due to the scale effect, the elastic field in the composite was changed and local hardening was observed around the nano-pore, and the effective shear modulus and effective bulk modulus were found to be a function of the surface energy. The effective shear modulus increase with the surface energy and decrease with the size of the nano-pores, and the effective bulk modulus decrease with the surface energy and increase with the size of the nano-pores. These results have potential applications in the nanocomposite mechanics and aerospace field.

Keywords: composite mechanics, nano-inhomogeneity, nano-pores, scale effect

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2550 Electrical Properties of Nanocomposite Fibres Based On Cellulose and Graphene Nanoplatelets Prepared Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Shaya Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza Sazegar, Nazanin Afshari


Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice, has recently attracted great attention due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The high aspect ratio and unique surface features of graphene resulted in significant improvements of the nano composites properties. In this study, nano composite fibres made of cellulose and graphene nano platelets were wet spun from solution by using ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) as solvent. The effect of graphene loading on the thermal and electrical properties of the nanocomposite fibres was investigated. The nano composite fibres characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. XRD analysis revealed a cellulose II crystalline structure for regenerated cellulose and the nano composite fibres. SEM images showed a homogenous morphology and round cross section for the nano composite fibres along with well dispersion of graphene nano platelets in regenerated cellulose matrix. The incorporation of graphene into cellulose matrix generated electrical conductivity. At 6 wt. % of graphene, the electrical conductivity was 4.7 × 10-4 S/cm. The nano composite fibres also showed considerable improvements in thermal stability and char yield compared to pure regenerated cellulose fibres. This work provides a facile and environmentally friendly method of preparing nano composite fibres based on cellulose and graphene nano platelets that can find several applications in cellulose-based carbon fibres, conductive fibres, apparel, etc.

Keywords: nanocomposite, graphene nanoplatelets, regenerated cellulose, electrical properties

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2549 Investigation of Tribological Behavior of Electrodeposited Cr, Co-Cr and Co-Cr/Tio2 Nano-Composite Coatings

Authors: S. Mahdavi, S.R. Allahkaram


Electrodeposition is a simple and economic technique for precision coating of different shaped substrates with pure metal, alloy or composite films. Dc electrodeposition was used to produce Cr, Co-Cr and Co-Cr/TiO2 nano-composite coatings from Cr(III) based electrolytes onto 316L SS substrates. The effects of TiO2 nano-particles concentration on co-deposition of these particles along with Cr content and microhardness of the coatings were investigated. Morphology of the Cr, Co-Cr and Co-Cr/TiO2 coatings besides their tribological behavior were studied. The results showed that increment of TiO2 nano-particles concentration from 0 to 30 g L-1 in the bath increased their co-deposition and Cr content of the coatings from 0 to 3.5 wt.% and from 23.7 to 31.2 wt.%, respectively. Microhardness of Cr coating was about 920 Hv which was higher than Co-Cr and even Co-Cr/TiO2 films. Microhardness of Co-Cr and Co-Cr/TiO2 coatings were improved by increasing their Cr and TiO2 content. All the coatings had nodular morphology and contained microcracks. Nodules sizes and the number of microcracks in the alloy and composite coatings were lower than the Cr film. Wear results revealed that the Co-Cr/TiO2 coating had the lowest wear loss between all the samples, while the Cr film had the worst wear resistance.

Keywords: Co-Cr alloy, electrodeposition, nano-composite, tribological behavior, trivalent chromium

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2548 Behavior of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite with Nano-Ceramic Particle under Ballistic Impact and Quasi-Static Punch-Shear Loading

Authors: K. Rajalakshmi, A. Vasudevan


The performance of Fibre Reinforced Polymer composite with the nano-ceramic particle as function of time and thickness of laminate which is subjected to ballistic impact and quasi-static punch-shear loading is investigated. The material investigated is made up of several layers of Kevlar fibres which are fabricated with nano-ceramic particles and epoxy resin by compression moulding. The ballistic impact and quasi-static punch-shear loading are studied experimentally and numerically. The failure mechanism is observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result obtained in the experiment and numerical studies are compared. Due to nano size of the ceramic particle, the strength to weight ratio and penetrating resistance will improve in Fibre Reinforced Polymer composite which will have better impact property compared to ceramic plates.

Keywords: ballistic impact, Kevlar, nano ceramic, penetration, polymer composite, shear plug

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2547 Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation

Authors: Ju-Na Hwang, Min-Hae Park, Kee-Joe Lim


Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to Nano-Aluminum Trihydrate (ATH) was confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nano-filler dispersion state. The LSR nano-composite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The DC insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without filler.

Keywords: liquid silicone rubber, nano-composite, HVDC insulation, cable joints

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2546 Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Nano TiO2 and Clay Filler Filled Epoxy Composites

Authors: A. Mimaroglu, H. Unal


In this study, the mechanical properties of nano filled epoxy composites were evaluated. The matrix material is epoxy. nano fillers are Al2O3, TiO2 and clay added in 2.5- 10 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Mechanical tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the filler content had a high influence on the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites.

Keywords: nano, epoxy, composite, fillers, clay

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2545 Development of a Nano-Alumina-Zirconia Composite Catalyst as an Active Thin Film in Biodiesel Production

Authors: N. Marzban, J. K. Heydarzadeh M. Pourmohammadbagher, M. H. Hatami, A. Samia


A nano-alumina-zirconia composite catalyst was synthesized by a simple aqueous sol-gel method using AlCl3.6H2O and ZrCl4 as precursors. Thermal decomposition of the precursor and subsequent formation of γ-Al2O3 and t-Zr were investigated by thermal analysis. XRD analysis showed that γ-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 phases were formed at 700 °C. FT-IR analysis also indicated that the phase transition to γ-Al2O3 occurred in corroboration with X-ray studies. TEM analysis of the calcined powder revealed that spherical particles were in the range of 8-12 nm. The nano-alumina-zirconia composite particles were mesoporous and uniformly distributed in their crystalline phase. In order to measure the catalytic activity, esterification reaction was carried out. Biodiesel, as a renewable fuel, was formed in a continuous packed column reactor. Free fatty acid (FFA) was esterified with ethanol in a heterogeneous catalytic reactor. It was found that the synthesized γ-Al2O3/ZrO2 composite had the potential to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production processes.

Keywords: nano alumina-zirconia, composite catalyst, thin film, biodiesel

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2544 Comparison Between Nano Composite and Pits and Fissure Sealant: In Vitro Study

Authors: Osama Safwat Mohamed


Pits and fissures dental caries can be prevented using sealant material. This study aimed to compare the microleakage and interfacial morphology of flowable nanocomposites and conventional pit and fissure sealants. 60 extracted intact and caries-free permanent mandibular third molars. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20) according to the material used for pit and fissure sealant. Group I: Unfilled resin-based pits and fissure sealant, Group II: Unfilled resin-based pits and fissure sealant with bond and Group III: Nano flowable composite resin with bond. The results showed that nano-flowable composite was significantly better than the conventional sealants groups p = 0.000. As well there was better as well, there were gaps between sealants and the tooth surfaces in groups I and II, but for group III, there was close contact between the nano-flowable composite and tooth surfaces. It was concluded that nano-flowable composite showed better microleakage and interfacial morphology results than conventional pits and fissure sealant and offered promising results at the fissure sealing.

Keywords: pits and fissures, Sealant, nanocomposite, dental caries

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2543 Preparation of Fe3Si/Ferrite Micro-and Nano-Powder Composite

Authors: Radovan Bures, Madgalena Streckova, Maria Faberova, Pavel Kurek


Composite material based on Fe3Si micro-particles and Mn-Zn nano-ferrite was prepared using powder metallurgy technology. The sol-gel followed by autocombustion process was used for synthesis of Mn0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 ferrite. 3 wt.% of mechanically milled ferrite was mixed with Fe3Si powder alloy. Mixed micro-nano powder system was homogenized by the Resonant Acoustic Mixing using ResodynLabRAM Mixer. This non-invasive homogenization technique was used to preserve spherical morphology of Fe3Si powder particles. Uniaxial cold pressing in the closed die at pressure 600 MPa was applied to obtain a compact sample. Microwave sintering of green compact was realized at 800°C, 20 minutes, in air. Density of the powders and composite was measured by Hepycnometry. Impulse excitation method was used to measure elastic properties of sintered composite. Mechanical properties were evaluated by measurement of transverse rupture strength (TRS) and Vickers hardness (HV). Resistivity was measured by 4 point probe method. Ferrite phase distribution in volume of the composite was documented by metallographic analysis. It has been found that nano-ferrite particle distributed among micro- particles of Fe3Si powder alloy led to high relative density (~93%) and suitable mechanical properties (TRS >100 MPa, HV ~1GPa, E-modulus ~140 GPa) of the composite. High electric resistivity (R~6.7 of prepared composite indicate their potential application as soft magnetic material at medium and high frequencies.

Keywords: micro- and nano-composite, soft magnetic materials, microwave sintering, mechanical and electric properties

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2542 Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterogeneous Nano-Catalyst: Cr Loaded in to MCM-41

Authors: A. Salemi Golezania, A. Sharifi Fateha


In this study a nano-composite catalyst was synthesized by incorporation of chromium into the framework of MCM-41 as a base catalyst. Mesoporous silica molecular sieves MCM-41 were synthesized under Hydrothermal Continues pH Adjusting Path Way. Then, MCM-41 was impregnated by chromium nitrate aqueous solution for several times under water aspiration. Raw powder was cured by heat treatment in vacuum furnace at 500°C. Phase formation, morphology and gas absorption properties of resulted materials were characterized by XRD, TEM and BET analysis, respectively. The results showed that high quality hexagonal meso structure as a matrix and Cr as a second phase has been formed with a narrow size pore diameter distribution and high surface area in Cr/MCM-41 nano-composite structure. The specific surface and total volume of porosity of the synthesized nanocomposite are obtained 931m^2/gr and 1.12 cm^3/gr, respectively.

Keywords: nano-catalyst, MCM-41, Cr/MCM-41, Marine Science and Engineering

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2541 Nano-Filled Matrix Reinforced by Woven Carbon Fibers Used as a Sensor

Authors: K. Hamdi, Z. Aboura, W. Harizi, K. Khellil


Improving the electrical properties of organic matrix composites has been investigated in several studies. Thus, to extend the use of composites in more varied application, one of the actual barrier is their poor electrical conductivities. In the case of carbon fiber composites, organic matrix are in charge of the insulating properties of the resulting composite. However, studying the properties of continuous carbon fiber nano-filled composites is less investigated. This work tends to characterize the effect of carbon black nano-fillers on the properties of the woven carbon fiber composites. First of all, SEM observations were performed to localize the nano-particles. It showed that particles penetrated on the fiber zone (figure1). In fact, by reaching the fiber zone, the carbon black nano-fillers created network connectivity between fibers which means an easy pathway for the current. It explains the noticed improvement of the electrical conductivity of the composites by adding carbon black. This test was performed with the four points electrical circuit. It shows that electrical conductivity of 'neat' matrix composite passed from 80S/cm to 150S/cm by adding 9wt% of carbon black and to 250S/cm by adding 17wt% of the same nano-filler. Thanks to these results, the use of this composite as a strain gauge might be possible. By the way, the study of the influence of a mechanical excitation (flexion, tensile) on the electrical properties of the composite by recording the variance of an electrical current passing through the material during the mechanical testing is possible. Three different configuration were performed depending on the rate of carbon black used as nano-filler. These investigation could lead to develop an auto-instrumented material.

Keywords: carbon fibers composites, nano-fillers, strain-sensors, auto-instrumented

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2540 Use of Nanoclay in Various Modified Polyolefins

Authors: Michael Tupý, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Dagmar Měřínská, Vít Petránek


Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (vinyl acetate) (EVA) and Surlyn (modif-PE) nano composite samples were prepared with montmorillonite fillers Cloisite 93A and Dellite 67G. The amount of modified Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) was fixed to 5 % (w/w). For the compounding of polymer matrix and chosen nano fillers twin-screw kneader was used. The level of MMT intercalation or exfoliation in the nano composite systems was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The properties of samples were evaluated by dynamical mechanical analysis (E* modulus at 30 °C) and by the measurement of tensile properties (stress and strain at break).

Keywords: polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene(vinyl acetate), clay, nanocomposite, montmorillonite

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2539 Preparation and Characterization of Polyaniline (PANI) – Platinum Nanocomposite

Authors: Kumar Neeraj, Ranjan Haldar, Ashok Srivastava


Polyaniline used as light-emitting devices (LEDs), televisions, cellular telephones, automotive, Corrosion-resistant coatings, actuators and ability to have micro- and nano-devices. the electrical conductivity properties can be increased by introduction of metal nano particles. In the present study, platinum nano particles have been utilized to achieve the improved properties. Polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite are synthesized by chemical routes. The samples characterized by X-ray diffractometer show the amorphous nature of polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite. The Bragg’s diffraction peaks correspond to platinum nano particles and thermogravimetric analyzer predicts its decomposition at certain temperature. The current-potential characteristics of the samples are also studied which indicate a significant increasing the value of conductivity after introduction of pt nanoparticles in the matrix of polyaniline (PANI).

Keywords: polyaniline, XRD and platinum nanoparticles, characterization, pharmaceutical sciences

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2538 Preparation of Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polycaprolactone by Melt Mixture

Authors: Mohamed Amine Zenasni, Bahia Meroufel, André Merlin, Said Benfarhi, Stéphane Molina, Béatrice George


The introduction of nano-fillers into polymers field lead to the creation of the nano composites. This creation is starting up a new revolution into the world of materials. Nano composites are similar to traditional composite of a polymer blend and filler with at least one nano-scopic dimension. In our project, we worked with nano composites of biodegradable polymer: polycaprolactone, combined with nano-clay (Maghnite) and with different nano-organo-clays. These nano composites have been prepared by melt mixture method. The advantage of this polymer is its degradability and bio compatibility. A study of the relationship between development, micro structure and physico chemical properties of nano composites, clays modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and Hexadecyltriméthy ammonium bromide (CTAB) and untreated clays were made. Melt mixture method is most suitable methods to get a better dispersion named exfoliation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, biodegradable, polycaprolactone, maghnite, melt mixture, APTES, CTAB

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2537 The Thermal Properties of Nano Magnesium Hydroxide Blended with LDPE/EVA/Irganox1010 for Insulator Application

Authors: Ahmad Aroziki Abdul Aziz, Sakinah Mohd Alauddin, Ruzitah Mohd Salleh, Mohammed Iqbal Shueb


This paper illustrates the effect of nano Magnesium Hydroxide (MH) loading on the thermal properties of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)/ Poly (ethylene-co vinyl acetate)(EVA) nano composite. Thermal studies were conducted, as it understanding is vital for preliminary development of new polymeric systems. Thermal analysis of nano composite was conducted using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Major finding of TGA indicated two main stages of degradation process found at (350 ± 25 oC) and (480 ± 25 oC) respectively. Nano metal filler expressed better fire resistance as it stand over high degree of temperature. Furthermore, DSC analysis provided a stable glass temperature around 51 (±1 oC) and captured double melting point at 84 (±2 oC) and 108 (±2 oC). This binary melting point reflects the modification of nano filler to the polymer matrix forming melting crystals of folded and extended chain. The percent crystallinity of the samples grew vividly with increasing filler content. Overall, increasing the filler loading improved the degradation temperature and weight loss evidently and a better process and phase stability was captured in DSC.

Keywords: thermal properties, nano MH, nano particles, cable and wire, LDPE/EVA

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2536 Magnetoelectric Coupling in Hetero-Structured Nano-Composite of BST-BLFM Films

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Jasbir S. HUndal


Hetero-structured nano-composite thin film of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3/Bi0.9La0.1Fe0.9Mn0.1O3 (BST/BLFM) has been prepared by chemical solution deposition method with various BST to BLFM thickness ratios. These films have been deposited over on p-type Si (100) substrate. These samples exhibited low leakage current, large grain size and uniform distribution of particles. The maximum remanent polarization (Pr) was achieved in the heterostructures with thickness ratio of 2.65. The dielectric tenability, electric hysteresis (P-E), ME coupling coefficient, magnetic hysteresis (M-H), ferromagnetic exchange interaction and magnetoelectric measurements were carried out. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy has been employed to investigate the surface morphology of these heterostructured nano-composite films.

Keywords: magnetoelectric, Schottky emission, interface coupling, dielectric tenability, electric hysteresis (P-E), ME coupling coefficient, magnetic hysteresis (M-H)

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2535 Synthesis and Characterization of Akermanite Nanoparticles (AMN) as a Bio-Ceramic Nano Powder by Sol-Gel Method for Use in Biomedical

Authors: Seyedmahdi Mousavihashemi


Natural Akermanite (NAM) has been successfully prepared by a modified sol-gel method. Optimization in calcination temperature and mechanical ball milling resulted in a pure and nano-sized powder which characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT–IR). We hypothesized that nano-sized Akermanite (AM) would mimic more efficiently the nanocrystal structure and function of natural bone apatite, owing to the higher surface area, compare to conventional micron-size Akermanite (AM). Accordingly, we used the unique advantage of nanotechnology to improve novel nano akermanite particles as a potential candidate for bone tissue regeneration whether as a per implant filling powder or in combination with other biomaterials as a composite scaffold. Pure Akermanite (PAM) powders were successfully obtained via a simple sol-gel method followed by calcination at 1250 °C. Mechanical grinding in a ceramic ball mill for 7 hours resulted in akermanite (AM) nanoparticles in the range of about 30- 45 nm.

Keywords: biomedical engineering, nano composite, SEM, TEM

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2534 Magnetic Nano-Composite of Self-Doped Polyaniline Nanofibers for Magnetic Dispersive Micro Solid Phase Extraction Applications

Authors: Hatem I. Mokhtar, Randa A. Abd-El-Salam, Ghada M. Hadad


An improved nano-composite of self-doped polyaniline nanofibers and silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles were prepared and evaluated for suitability to magnetic dispersive micro solid-phase extraction. The work focused on optimization of the composite capacity to extract four fluoroquinolones (FQs) antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and difloxacin from water and improvement of composite stability towards acid and atmospheric degradation. Self-doped polyaniline nanofibers were prepared by oxidative co-polymerization of aniline with anthranilic acid. Magnetite nanopariticles were prepared by alkaline co-precipitation and coated with silica by silicate hydrolysis on magnetite nanoparticles surface at pH 6.5. The composite was formed by self-assembly by mixing self-doped polyaniline nanofibers with silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles dispersions in ethanol. The composite structure was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Self-doped polyaniline nanofibers and magnetite chemical structures were confirmed by FT-IR while silica coating of the magnetite was confirmed by Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Improved stability of the composite magnetic component was evidenced by resistance to degrade in 2N HCl solution. The adsorption capacity of self-doped polyaniline nanofibers based composite was higher than previously reported corresponding composite prepared from polyaniline nanofibers instead of self-doped polyaniline nanofibers. Adsorption-pH profile for the studied FQs on the prepared composite revealed that the best pH for adsorption was in range of 6.5 to 7. Best extraction recovery values were obtained at pH 7 using phosphate buffer. The best solvent for FQs desorption was found to be 0.1N HCl in methanol:water (8:2; v/v) mixture. 20 mL of Spiked water sample with studied FQs were preconcentrated using 4.8 mg of composite and resulting extracts were analysed by HPLC-UV method. The prepared composite represented a suitable adsorbent phase for magnetic dispersive micro-solid phase application.

Keywords: fluoroquinolones, magnetic dispersive micro extraction, nano-composite, self-doped polyaniline nanofibers

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2533 Moisture Absorption Analysis of LLDPE-NR Nanocomposite for HV Insulation

Authors: M. S. Kamarulzaman, N. A. Muhamad, N. A. M. Jamail, M. A. M. Piah, N. F. Kasri


Insulation for high voltage application that has been service for a very long time is subjected to several types of degradation. The degradation can lead to premature breakdown and definitely will spent highly cost to replace the cable. Thus, there are many research on nano composite material get serious attention attention due to their abilities to enhance electrical performance by addition of nano filler. In this paper, water absorption of Low Linear Density Polyethyelene (LLDPE) with different amount of nano filler added is studied. This study is necessary to be conducted since most of electrical apparatus such as cable insulation are dominant used especially in high voltage application. The cable insulation are continuously exposed in uncontrolled environment may suffer degradation process. Three type of nano fillers, was used in this study are: Silicon dioxide (SiO2), Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Monmorillonite (MMT). The percentage absorption of water was measured by weighted using high precision scales for absorption process up to 92 days. Experimental result demonstrate that SiO2 absorb less water than other filler while, the MMT has hydrophilic properties which it absorbs more water compare to another sample.

Keywords: nano composite, nano filler, water absorption, hydrophilic properties

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2532 The Effect of Volume Fraction of Nano-Alumina Strengthening on AC4B Composite Characteristics through the Stir Casting Method as a Material Brake Shoe

Authors: Benny Alexander, Ikhlashia N. Fadhilah, Muhammad R. Pasha, Michelle Julia, Anne Z. Syahrial


Brake shoe is a component that serves to reduce speed or stop the train's speed by utilizing the friction force. Generally, the material used as a brake shoe is cast iron, where cast iron itself is a heavy, expensive, and easily worn material. Aluminum matrix composites are one of candidates for the cast iron replacement material as the basic material for brake shoe. The matrix in the composite used is Aluminum AC4B. Reinforcement used in aluminum matrix composites is nano-alumina, where the use of nano-alumina of 0.25%, 0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4%, and 0.5% volume fraction will be tested. The sample is made using the stir casting method; then, it will be tested mechanically. The use of nano-alumina as a reinforcement will increase the strength of the matrix. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) testing is used to test the distribution of reinforcing particles due to stirring. Therefore, the addition of nano-alumina will improve AC4B aluminum matrix composites.

Keywords: aluminium matrix composites, brake shoe application, stir casting, nano-alumina

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2531 Design and Synthesis of Gradient Nanocomposite Materials

Authors: Pu Ying-Chih, Yang Yin-Ju, Hang Jian-Yi, Jang Guang-Way


Organic-Inorganic hybrid materials consisting of graded distributions of inorganic nano particles in organic polymer matrices were successfully prepared by the sol-gel process. Optical and surface properties of the resulting nano composites can be manipulated by changing their compositions and nano particle distribution gradients. Applications of gradient nano composite materials include sealants for LED packaging and screen lenses for smartphones. Optical transparency, prism coupler, TEM, SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX), Izod impact strength, conductivity, pencil hardness, and thermogravimetric characterizations of the nano composites were performed and the results will be presented.

Keywords: Gradient, Hybrid, Nanocomposite, Organic-Inorganic

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2530 High-Temperature Tribological Characterization of Nano-Sized Silicon Nitride + 5% Boron Nitride Ceramic Composite

Authors: Mohammad Farooq Wani


Tribological studies on nano-sized ß-silicon nitride+5% BN were carried out in dry air at high temperatures to clarify the lack of consensus in the bibliographic data concerning the Tribological behavior of Si3N4 ceramics and effect of doped hexagonal boron nitride on coefficient of friction and wear coefficient at different loads and elevated temperatures. The composites were prepared via high energy mechanical milling and subsequent spark plasma sintering using Y2O3 and Al2O3 as sintering additives. After sintering, the average crystalline size of Si3N4 was observed to be 50 nm. Tribological tests were performed with temperature and Friction coefficients 0.16 to 1.183 and 0.54 to 0.71 were observed for Nano-sized ß-silicon nitride+5% BN composite under normal load of 10N-70 N and over high temperature range of 350 ºC-550 ºC respectively. Specific wear coefficients from 1.33x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 to 4.42x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 were observed for Nano-sized Si3N4 + 5% BN composite against Si3N4 ball as tribo-pair counterpart over high temperature range of 350 ºC-550 ºC while as under normal load of 10N to70N Specific wear coefficients of 6.91x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 to 1.70x 10-4 were observed. The addition of BN to the Si3N4 composite resulted in a slight reduction of the friction coefficient and lower values of wear coefficient.

Keywords: ceramics, tribology, friction and wear, solid lubrication

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2529 Effect of Nano Packaging Containing Ag-TiO₂ in Inactivating the Selected Bacteria Experimentally Exposed to the Chicken-Eggshell

Authors: Hamed Ahari, Sepideh Farokhi, Mohamad Reza Abedini


This paper focuses on inactivation of the growth of the bacterial mixture, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, experimentally subjected to the chicken eggshell by two types of nano particle-Ag, composite film and colloidal spray carried out at concentrations of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm over 28 days. The GLM, Repeated Measurement-ANOVA procedure was used to analyze the effect of time and concentration of nano groups on inactivation of bacteria, simultaneously. The maximum reduction of the bacterial growth was respected to the group “spray 2000 ppm” for which the value of the bacteria reached the minimum (0.93±0.42) on day 7, calculated to be 0.0 on days14 and 28 and followed by the group “spray 1000 ppm”. It was obviously concluded that increasing the dilution of nano coating in spray and film created a significant decrease in the number of bacteria colonies on the eggshells but the effect of packaging in different concentrations of nanocomposite was not statistically significant in different days of the study.

Keywords: nano particle, composite film, eggshell, bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 328