Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: N. Marzban

3 Development of a Nano-Alumina-Zirconia Composite Catalyst as an Active Thin Film in Biodiesel Production

Authors: N. Marzban, J. K. Heydarzadeh M. Pourmohammadbagher, M. H. Hatami, A. Samia


A nano-alumina-zirconia composite catalyst was synthesized by a simple aqueous sol-gel method using AlCl3.6H2O and ZrCl4 as precursors. Thermal decomposition of the precursor and subsequent formation of γ-Al2O3 and t-Zr were investigated by thermal analysis. XRD analysis showed that γ-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 phases were formed at 700 °C. FT-IR analysis also indicated that the phase transition to γ-Al2O3 occurred in corroboration with X-ray studies. TEM analysis of the calcined powder revealed that spherical particles were in the range of 8-12 nm. The nano-alumina-zirconia composite particles were mesoporous and uniformly distributed in their crystalline phase. In order to measure the catalytic activity, esterification reaction was carried out. Biodiesel, as a renewable fuel, was formed in a continuous packed column reactor. Free fatty acid (FFA) was esterified with ethanol in a heterogeneous catalytic reactor. It was found that the synthesized γ-Al2O3/ZrO2 composite had the potential to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production processes.

Keywords: nano alumina-zirconia, composite catalyst, thin film, biodiesel

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2 Effective Factors on Farmers' Attitude toward Multifunctional Agriculture

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari, Sorush Marzban


The main aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting farmers' attitude of the Shanderman District in Masal (Guilan Province in the north of Iran), towards the concepts of multifunctional agriculture. The statistical population consisted of all 4908 in Shanderman.The sample of the present study consisted of 209 subjects who were selected from the total population using the Bartlett et al. Table. Questionnaire as the main tool of data collection was divided in two parts. The first part of questionnaire consisted of farmers' profiles regarding individual, technical-agronomic, economic and social characteristics. The second part included items to identify the farmers’ attitudes regarding different aspects of multifunctional agriculture. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed by professors and experts. Cronbach's alpha was used to determine the reliability (α= 0.844), which is considered an acceptable reliability value. Overall, the average scores of attitudes towards multifunctional agriculture show a positive tendency towards multifunctional agriculture, considering farmers' attitudes of the Shanderman district (SD = 0.53, M = 3.81). Results also highlight a significant difference between farmers' income source levels (F = 0.049) and agricultural literature review (F = 0.022) toward farmers' attitudes considering multifunctional agriculture (p < 0.05). Pearson correlations also indicated that there is a positive relationship between positive attitudes and family size (r = 0.154), farmers' experience (r = 0.246), size of land under cultivation (r = 0.186), income (r = 0.227), and social contribution activities (r = 0.224). The results of multiple regression analyses showed that the variation in the dependent variable depended on the farmers' experience in agricultural activities and their social contribution activities. This means that the variables included in the regression analysis are estimated to explain 12 percent of the variation in the dependent variable.

Keywords: multifunctional agriculture, attitude, effective factor, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
1 Using of the Fractal Dimensions for the Analysis of Hyperkinetic Movements in the Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Sadegh Marzban, Mohamad Sobhan Sheikh Andalibi, Farnaz Ghassemi, Farzad Towhidkhah


Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by the tremor at rest, rigidity, akinesia or bradykinesia and postural instability, affects the quality of life of involved individuals. The concept of a fractal is most often associated with irregular geometric objects that display self-similarity. Fractal dimension (FD) can be used to quantify the complexity and the self-similarity of an object such as tremor. In this work, we are aimed to propose a new method for evaluating hyperkinetic movements such as tremor, by using the FD and other correlated parameters in patients who are suffered from PD. In this study, we used 'the tremor data of Physionet'. The database consists of fourteen participants, diagnosed with PD including six patients with high amplitude tremor and eight patients with low amplitude. We tried to extract features from data, which can distinguish between patients before and after medication. We have selected fractal dimensions, including correlation dimension, box dimension, and information dimension. Lilliefors test has been used for normality test. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed rank test were also done to find differences between patients before and after medication, depending on whether the normality is detected or not. In addition, two-way ANOVA was used to investigate the possible association between the therapeutic effects and features extracted from the tremor. Just one of the extracted features showed significant differences between patients before and after medication. According to the results, correlation dimension was significantly different before and after the patient's medication (p=0.009). Also, two-way ANOVA demonstrates significant differences just in medication effect (p=0.033), and no significant differences were found between subject's differences (p=0.34) and interaction (p=0.97). The most striking result emerged from the data is that correlation dimension could quantify medication treatment based on tremor. This study has provided a technique to evaluate a non-linear measure for quantifying medication, nominally the correlation dimension. Furthermore, this study supports the idea that fractal dimension analysis yields additional information compared with conventional spectral measures in the detection of poor prognosis patients.

Keywords: correlation dimension, non-linear measure, Parkinson’s disease, tremor

Procedia PDF Downloads 180