Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Subramanyam Makam Venkata

34 An Efficient Resource Management Algorithm for Mobility Management in Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Mallikarjuna Rao Yamarthy, Subramanyam Makam Venkata, Satya Prasad Kodati


The main objective of the proposed work is to reduce the overall network traffic incurred by mobility management, packet delivery cost and to increase the resource utilization. The proposed algorithm, An Efficient Resource Management Algorithm (ERMA) for mobility management in wireless mesh networks, relies on pointer based mobility management scheme. Whenever a mesh client moves from one mesh router to another, the pointer is set up dynamically between the previous mesh router and current mesh router based on the distance constraints. The algorithm evaluated for signaling cost, data delivery cost and total communication cost performance metrics. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated for both internet sessions and intranet sessions. The proposed algorithm yields significantly better performance in terms of signaling cost, data delivery cost, and total communication cost.

Keywords: Resource Management, Wireless Mesh Networks, mobility management, data delivery cost, pointer forwarding

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33 Image Denoising Using Spatial Adaptive Mask Filter for Medical Images

Authors: M. V. Subramanyam, R. Sumalatha


In medical image processing the quality of the image is degraded in the presence of noise. Especially in ultra sound imaging and Magnetic resonance imaging the data was corrupted by signal dependent noise known as salt and pepper noise. Removal of noise from the medical images is a critical issue for researchers. In this paper, a new type of technique Adaptive Spatial Mask Filter (ASMF) has been proposed. The proposed filter is used to increase the quality of MRI and ultra sound images. Experimental results show that the proposed filter outperforms the implementation of mean, median, adaptive median filters in terms of MSE and PSNR.

Keywords: salt and pepper noise, ASMF, PSNR, MSE

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32 Practical Aspects Pertaining to the Selection of Size and Location of Source Substations in an Oil Field

Authors: Yadavalli Venkata Sridhar


Finalization of Substation sizing and location is an important task to be carried out by electrical designers in an oil field. Practical issues influence the selection of size and location of the source substations that feed multiple production facilities are listed. Importance of selection of appropriately rated short circuit level for 11KV switchboards and constraints pertaining to availability of manufacturers are highlighted. Without being lost in the research of absolute optimum solution, under time constraints, the importance of practical approach is brought out. Focus on identifying near optimum solutions by process of elimination of unfeasible substation locations with the support of cost figures, is emphasized through a case study.

Keywords: location, Substation, size, oil field

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31 Short Term Distribution Load Forecasting Using Wavelet Transform and Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: S. Neelima, P. S. Subramanyam


The major tool for distribution planning is load forecasting, which is the anticipation of the load in advance. Artificial neural networks have found wide applications in load forecasting to obtain an efficient strategy for planning and management. In this paper, the application of neural networks to study the design of short term load forecasting (STLF) Systems was explored. Our work presents a pragmatic methodology for short term load forecasting (STLF) using proposed two-stage model of wavelet transform (WT) and artificial neural network (ANN). It is a two-stage prediction system which involves wavelet decomposition of input data at the first stage and the decomposed data with another input is trained using a separate neural network to forecast the load. The forecasted load is obtained by reconstruction of the decomposed data. The hybrid model has been trained and validated using load data from Telangana State Electricity Board.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), electrical distribution systems, wavelet transform (WT), short term load forecasting (STLF)

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30 Investigation of Chord Protocol in Peer to Peer Wireless Mesh Network with Mobility

Authors: P. Prasanna Murali Krishna, M. V. Subramanyam, K. Satya Prasad


File sharing in networks are generally achieved using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications. Structured P2P approaches are widely used in adhoc networks due to its distributed and scalability features. Efficient mechanisms are required to handle the huge amount of data distributed to all peers. The intrinsic characteristics of P2P system makes for easier content distribution when compared to client-server architecture. All the nodes in a P2P network act as both client and server, thus, distributing data takes lesser time when compared to the client-server method. CHORD protocol is a resource routing based where nodes and data items are structured into a 1- dimensional ring. The structured lookup algorithm of Chord is advantageous for distributed P2P networking applications. Though, structured approach improves lookup performance in a high bandwidth wired network it could contribute to unnecessary overhead in overlay networks leading to degradation of network performance. In this paper, the performance of existing CHORD protocol on Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) when nodes are static and dynamic is investigated.

Keywords: DHT, wireless mesh network (WMN), structured P2P networks, peer to peer resource sharing, CHORD Protocol

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29 Effect of Design Parameters on Porpoising Instability of a High Speed Planing Craft

Authors: V. Anantha Subramanian, Lokeswara Rao P., Naga Venkata Rakesh N.


It is important to estimate, predict, and avoid the dynamic instability of high speed planing crafts. It is known that design parameters like relative location of center of gravity with respect to the dynamic lift centre and length to beam ratio of the craft have influence on the tendency to porpoise. This paper analyzes the hydrodynamic performance on the basis of the semi-empirical Savitsky method and also estimates the same by numerical simulations based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations using a commercial code namely, STAR- CCM+. The paper examines through the same numerical simulation considering dynamic equilibrium, the changing running trim, which results in porpoising. Some interesting results emerge from the study and this leads to early detection of the instability.

Keywords: CFD, planing hull, porpoising, Savitsky method

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28 Utilization of Fly Ash as Backfilling Material in Indian Coal Mines

Authors: P. Venkata Karthik, B. Kranthi Kumar


Fly ash is a solid waste product of coal based electric power generating plants. Fly ash is the finest of coal ash particles and it is transported from the combustion chamber by exhaust gases. Fly ash is removed by particulate emission control devices such as electrostatic precipitators or filter fabric bag-houses. It is a fine material with spherical particles. Large quantities of fly ash discharged from coal-fired power stations are a major problem not only in terms of scarcity of land available for its disposal, but also in environmental aspects. Fly ash can be one of the alternatives and can be a viable option to use as a filling material. This paper contains the problems associated with fly ash generation, need for its management and the efficacy of fly ash composite as a backfilling material. By conducting suitable geotechnical investigations and numerical modelling techniques, the fly ash composite material was tested. It also contains case studies of typical Indian opencast and underground coal mines.

Keywords: fly ash, Power Plant, backfilling, high concentration slurry disposal, void infilling

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27 Intelligent Minimal Allocation of Capacitors in Distribution Networks Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S. Neelima, P. S. Subramanyam


A distribution system is an interface between the bulk power system and the consumers. Among these systems, radial distributions system is popular because of low cost and simple design. In distribution systems, the voltages at buses reduces when moved away from the substation, also the losses are high. The reason for a decrease in voltage and high losses is the insufficient amount of reactive power, which can be provided by the shunt capacitors. But the placement of the capacitor with an appropriate size is always a challenge. Thus, the optimal capacitor placement problem is to determine the location and size of capacitors to be placed in distribution networks in an efficient way to reduce the power losses and improve the voltage profile of the system. For this purpose, in this paper, two stage methodologies are used. In the first stage, the load flow of pre-compensated distribution system is carried out using ‘dimension reducing distribution load flow algorithm (DRDLFA)’. On the basis of this load flow the potential locations of compensation are computed. In the second stage, Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique is used to determine the optimal location and size of the capacitors such that the cost of the energy loss and capacitor cost to be a minimum. The above method is tested on IEEE 9 and 34 bus system and compared with other methods in the literature.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, dimension reducing distribution load flow algorithm, DRDLFA, electrical distribution network, optimal capacitors placement, voltage profile improvement, loss reduction

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26 Communication Apprehension among College Students in United Arab Emirates: A Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Abu Dhabi University

Authors: Nunna Venkata Prasad, Maryam Amoke Folarin, Muhammad Ali Shaukat Sham


A quantitative investigation was conducted to explore the communication apprehension among undergraduate students of Abu Dhabi University. Communication apprehension (CA) is an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons. All individuals experience some level of communication apprehension. A total of 100 participants selected through a stratified sampling method, which includes 50 males and 50 females participated in the study. The research was conducted by distributing the personal report of communication apprehension questionnaire, randomly amongst these students. Results were affirmative with previous researches conducted. Demographics, age, or college year did not make any significant differences amongst the undergraduate students. More students were found to have high CA with public speaking rather than other scenarios. And lesser students were found to have high CA level with one-on-one conversations although a significant number of them still tested to have high CA with interpersonal communications.

Keywords: Interpersonal Communication, Public Speaking, Oral Communication, communication apprehension

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25 Numerical Analysis on Triceratops Restraining System: Failure Conditions of Tethers

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Manda Hari Venkata Ramachandra Rao


Increase in the oil and gas exploration in ultra deep-water demands an adaptive structural form of the platform. Triceratops has superior motion characteristics compared to that of the Tension Leg Platform and Single Point Anchor Reservoir platforms, which is well established in the literature. Buoyant legs that support the deck are position-restrained to the sea bed using tethers with high axial pretension. Environmental forces that act on the platform induce dynamic tension variations in the tethers, causing the failure of tethers. The present study investigates the dynamic response behavior of the restraining system of the platform under the failure of a single tether of each buoyant leg in high sea states. Using the rain-flow counting algorithm and the Goodman diagram, fatigue damage caused to the tethers is estimated, and the fatigue life is predicted. Results shows that under failure conditions, the fatigue life of the remaining tethers is quite alarmingly low.

Keywords: Failure analysis, Fatigue Life, triceratops, pm spectrum, rain flow counting

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24 Hybrid PWM Techniques for the Reduction of Switching Losses and Voltage Harmonics in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters

Authors: Venkata Reddy Kota


These days, the industrial trend is moving away from heavy and bulky passive components to power converter systems that use more and more semiconductor elements. Also, it is difficult to connect the traditional converters to the high and medium voltage. For these reasons, a new family of multilevel inverters has appeared as a solution for working with higher voltage levels. Different modulation topologies like Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHE-PWM) are available for multilevel inverters. In this work, different hybrid modulation techniques which are combination of fundamental frequency modulation and multilevel sinusoidal-modulation are compared. The main characteristic of these modulations are reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance and balanced power loss dissipation among the device. The proposed hybrid modulation schemes are developed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink for cascaded H-bridge inverter. The results validate the applicability of the proposed schemes for cascaded multilevel inverter.

Keywords: cascaded multilevel inverters, hybrid PWM techniques, switching loss minimization

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23 Binding Mechanism of Synthesized 5β-Dihydrocortisol and 5β-Dihydrocortisol Acetate with Human Serum Albumin to Understand Their Role in Breast Cancer

Authors: Monika Kallubai, Shreya Dubey, Rajagopal Subramanyam


Our study is all about the biological interactions of synthesized 5β-dihydrocortisol (Dhc) and 5β-dihydrocortisol acetate (DhcA) molecules with carrier protein Human Serum Albumin (HSA). The cytotoxic study was performed on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) normal human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293), the IC50 values for MCF-7 cells were 28 and 25 µM, respectively, whereas no toxicity in terms of cell viability was observed with HEK293 cell line. The further experiment proved that Dhc and DhcA induced 35.6% and 37.7% early apoptotic cells and 2.5%, 2.9% late apoptotic cells respectively. Morphological observation of cell death through TUNEL assay revealed that Dhc and DhcA induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. The complexes of HSA–Dhc and HSA–DhcA were observed as static quenching, and the binding constants (K) was 4.7±0.03×104 M-1 and 3.9±0.05×104 M-1, and their binding free energies were found to be -6.4 and -6.16 kcal/mol, respectively. The displacement studies confirmed that lidocaine 1.4±0.05×104 M-1 replaced Dhc, and phenylbutazone 1.5±0.05×104 M-1 replaced by DhcA, which explains domain I and domain II are the binding sites for Dhc and DhcA. Further, CD results revealed that the secondary structure of HSA was altered in the presence of Dhc and DhcA. Furthermore, the atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the dimensions like height and molecular sizes of the HSA–Dhc and HSA–DhcA complex were larger compared to HSA alone. Detailed analysis through molecular dynamics simulations also supported the greater stability of HSA–Dhc and HSA–DhcA complexes, and root-mean-square-fluctuation interpreted the binding site of Dhc as domain IB and domain IIA for DhcA. This information is valuable for the further development of steroid derivatives with improved pharmacological significance as novel anti-cancer drugs.

Keywords: apoptosis, fluorescence quenching, dihydrocortisol, protein conformations

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22 Estimation of Aquifer Properties Using Pumping Tests: Case Study of Pydibhimavaram Industrial Area, Srikakulam, India

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, G. Venkata Rao, P. Kalpana


Adequate and reliable estimates of aquifer parameters are of utmost importance for proper management of vital groundwater resources. At present scenario the ground water is polluted because of industrial waste disposed over the land and the contaminants are transported in the aquifer from one area to another area which is depending on the characteristics of the aquifer and contaminants. To know the contaminant transport, the accurate estimation of aquifer properties is highly needed. Conventionally, these properties are estimated through pumping tests carried out on water wells. The occurrence and movement of ground water in the aquifer are characteristically defined by the aquifer parameters. The pumping (aquifer) test is the standard technique for estimating various hydraulic properties of aquifer systems, viz, transmissivity (T), hydraulic conductivity (K), storage coefficient (S) etc., for which the graphical method is widely used. The study area for conducting pumping test is Pydibheemavaram Industrial area near the coastal belt of Srikulam, AP, India. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the aquifer properties for developing contaminant transport model for the study area.

Keywords: Industrial Waste, Hydraulic Conductivity, aquifer, contaminant transport, pumping test

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21 Groundwater Utilization and Sustainability: A Case Study of Pydibheemavaram Industrial Area, India

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, G. Venkata Rao, B. Neelima Sri Priya


The over extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifers, result in reduction of groundwater resource and lowering of water level. In general, the depletion of groundwater level enhances the landward migration of saltwater wedge. Now a days the ground water extraction increases by year to year because increased population and industrialization. The ground water is the only source of irrigation, domestic and Industrial purposes at Pydibhimavaram industrial area, which is located in the coastal belt of Srikakulam district, India of Latitudes 18.145N 83.627E and Longitudes 18.099N 83.674E. The present study has been attempted to calculate amount of water getting recharged into this aquifer, status of rainfall pattern for the past two decades and the runoff is calculated by using Khosla’s formula with available rainfall and temperature in the study area. A decision support model has been developed on the basis of Monthly Extractions of the water from the ground through bore wells and the Net Recharge of the aquifer. It is concluded that the amount of extractions is exceeding the amount of recharge from May to October in a given year which will in turn damage the water balance in the subsurface layers.

Keywords: Groundwater Extraction, aquifer, decision support model, run off estimation and rainfall

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20 Challenges for Municipal Solid Waste Management in India: A Case Study of Eluru, Andhra Pradesh

Authors: V. V. Prasada Rao P., K. Venkata Subbaiah, J. Sudhir Kumar


Most Indian cities or townships are facing greater challenges in proper disposal of their municipal solid wastes, which are growing exponentially with the rising urban population and improvement in the living standards. As per the provisional figures, 377 million people live in the urban areas accounting for 31.16 % of the Country’s total population, and expected to grow by 3.74% every year. In India, the municipal authority is liable for the safe management & disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes. However, even with the current levels of MSW generation, a majority of the local governments are unable to comply with their constitutional responsibility due to reasons ranging from cultural aspects to technological and financial constraints. In contrast, it is expected that the MSW generation in India is likely to increase from 68.8 MTD in 2011 to 160.5 MTD by 2041. Thus, the immediate challenge before the urban local bodies in India is to evolve suitable strategies not only to cope up with the current levels, but also to address the anticipated generation levels of MSW. This paper discusses the reasons for the low levels of enforcement of MSW Rules and suggests effective management strategies for the safe disposal of MSW.

Keywords: Management Strategy, Biodegradable Waste, vermicompost, municipal solid waste (MSW), dumping sites, MSW rules

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19 Design of Raw Water Reservoir on Sandy Soil

Authors: Venkata Ramana Pamu


This paper is a case study of a 5310 ML capacity Raw Water Reservoir (RWR), situated in Indian state Rajasthan, which is a part of Rajasthan Rural Water Supply & Fluorosis Mitigation Project. This RWR embankment was constructed by locally available material on natural ground profile. Height of the embankment was varying from 2m to 10m.This is due to existing ground level was varying. Reservoir depth 9m including 1.5m free board and 1V:3H slopes were provided both upstream and downstream side. Proper soil investigation, tests were done and it was confirmed that the existing soil is sandy silt. The existing excavated earth was used as filling material for embankment construction, due to this controlling seepage from upstream to downstream be a challenging task. Slope stability and Seismic analysis of the embankment done by Conventional method for both full reservoir condition and rapid drawdown. Horizontal filter at toe level was provided along with upstream side PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) block and HDPE (High Density poly ethylene) lining as a remedy to control seepage. HDPE lining was also provided at storage area of the reservoir bed level. Mulching was done for downstream side slope protection.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Seismic Analysis, seepage, raw water reservoir

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18 Effects of Variable Properties and Double Dispersion on Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Mixed Convection in a Power-Law Fluid Saturated Non-Darcy Porous Medium

Authors: Pranitha Janapatla, Venkata Suman Gontla


The present paper investigates the effects of MHD, double dispersion and variable properties on mixed convection flow from a vertical surface in a power-law fluid saturated non-Darcy porous medium. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations by using a special form of Lie group transformations viz. scaling group of transformations. These ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using Shooting technique. The influence of relevant parameters on the non-dimensional velocity, temperature, concentration for pseudo-plastic fluid, Newtonian and dilatant fluid are discussed and displayed graphically. The behavior of heat and mass transfer coefficients are shown in tabular form. Comparisons with the published works are performed and are found to be in very good agreement. From this analysis, it is observed that an increase in variable viscosity causes to decrease in velocity profile and increase the temperature and concentration distributions. It is also concluded that increase in the solutal dispersion decreases the velocity and concentration but raises the temperature profile.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, power-law fluid, variable viscosity, thermal dispersion, solutal dispersion

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17 Solubility Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Anticancer Drug, Docetaxel Using a Novel Polymer, Soluplus via Solid Dispersion Technique

Authors: Venkata Srikanth Meka, Sanjay Garg, Adinarayana Gorajana, Lim Sue May


This study was designed to evaluate and enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drug, docetaxel through solid dispersion (SD) technique prepared using freeze drying method. Docetaxel solid dispersions were formulated with Soluplus in different weight ratios. Freeze drying method was used to prepare the solid dispersions. Solubility of the solid dispersions were evaluated respectively and the optimized of drug-solubilizers ratio systems were characterized with different analytical methods like Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the formation of complexes between drug and solubilizers. The solubility data revealed an overall improvement in solubility for all SD formulations. The ternary combination 1:5:2 gave the highest increase in solubility that is approximately 3 folds from the pure drug, suggesting the optimum drug-solubilizers ratio system. This data corresponds with the DSC and SEM analyses, which demonstrates presence of drug in amorphous state and the dispersion in the solubilizers in molecular level. The solubility of the poorly soluble drug, docetaxel was enhanced through preparation of solid dispersion formulations employing freeze drying method. Solid dispersion with multiple carrier system shows better solubility compared to single carrier system.

Keywords: docetaxel, freeze drying, soluplus, solid dispersion technique

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16 Optimization of Two Quality Characteristics in Injection Molding Processes via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Venkata Karthik Jakka


The main objective of this research is to optimize tensile strength and dimensional accuracy in injection molding processes using Taguchi Parameter Design. An L16 orthogonal array (OA) is used in Taguchi experimental design with five control factors at four levels each and with non-controllable factor vibration. A total of 32 experiments were designed to obtain the optimal parameter setting for the process. The optimal parameters identified for the shrinkage are shot volume, 1.7 cubic inch (A4); mold term temperature, 130 ºF (B1); hold pressure, 3200 Psi (C4); injection speed, 0.61 inch3/sec (D2); and hold time of 14 seconds (E2). The optimal parameters identified for the tensile strength are shot volume, 1.7 cubic inch (A4); mold temperature, 160 ºF (B4); hold pressure, 3100 Psi (C3); injection speed, 0.69 inch3/sec (D4); and hold time of 14 seconds (E2). The Taguchi-based optimization framework was systematically and successfully implemented to obtain an adjusted optimal setting in this research. The mean shrinkage of the confirmation runs is 0.0031%, and the tensile strength value was found to be 3148.1 psi. Both outcomes are far better results from the baseline, and defects have been further reduced in injection molding processes.

Keywords: Tensile Strength, Taguchi parameter design, injection molding processes, high-density polyethylene(HDPE)

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15 Effect on the Performance of the Nano-Particulate Graphite Lubricant in the Turning of AISI 1040 Steel under Variable Machining Conditions

Authors: K. Ramji, S. Srikiran, Dharmala Venkata Padmaja, P. N. L. Pavani, R. Pola Rao


Technological advancements in the development of cutting tools and coolant/lubricant chemistry have enhanced the machining capabilities of hard materials under higher machining conditions. Generation of high temperatures at the cutting zone during machining is one of the most important and pertinent problems which adversely affect the tool life and surface finish of the machined components. Generally, cutting fluids and solid lubricants are used to overcome the problem of heat generation, which is not effectively addressing the problems. With technological advancements in the field of tribology, nano-level particulate solid lubricants are being used nowadays in machining operations, especially in the areas of turning and grinding. The present investigation analyses the effect of using nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant in the turning of AISI 1040 steel under variable machining conditions and to study its effect on cutting forces, tool temperature and surface roughness of the machined component. Experiments revealed that the increase in cutting forces and tool temperature resulting in the decrease of surface quality with the decrease in the size of nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant.

Keywords: Graphite, solid lubricant, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), nano–particles

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14 Course Outcomes to Programme Outcomes Mapping: A Methodology Based on Key Elements

Authors: Twarakavi Venkata Suresh Kumar, Sailaja Kumar, B. Eswara Reddy


In a world of tremendous technical developments, effective and efficient higher education has always been a major challenge. The rising number of educational institutions have made it mandatory for healthy competitions among the institutions. To evaluate the qualitative competence of these educations institutions in engineering and technology and related disciplines, an efficient assessment technique in internal and external quality has to be followed. To achieve this, the curriculum is to be developed into courses, and each course has to be presented in the form teaching lesson plan consisting of topics and session outcome known as Course Outcomes (COs), that easily map into different Programme Outcomes (POs). The major objective of these methodologies is to provide quality technical education to its students. Detailed clear weightage in CO-PO mapping helps in proper measurable COs and to devise the POs attainment is an important issue. This ensures in assisting the achievement of the POs with proper weightage to POs, and also improves the successive curriculum development. In this paper, we presented a methodology for mapping CO and PO considering the key elements supported by each PO. This approach is useful in evaluating the attainment of POs which is based on the attainment of COs using the existing data from students' marks taken from various test items. Such direct assessment tools are used to measure the degree to which each student has achieved each course learning outcome by the completion of the course. Hence, these results are also useful in measuring the PO attainment for improving the programme vision and mission.

Keywords: educational institutions, attainment, course outcomes, programme outcomes

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13 Benzpyrimoxan: An Insecticide for the Control of Rice Plant Hoppers

Authors: E. Satoh, R. Kasahara, T. Aoki, K. Fukatsu, D. Venkata Ramanarao, H. Harayama, T. Murata, A. Suwa


Rice plant hoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) have been causing extensive economic damage in rice and are considered as serious threat in rice producing countries of Asia. They have developed resistance to major groups of chemical insecticide, and severe outbreaks occur commonly throughout Asia. To control these nuisance pests, Nihon Nohyaku Co., Ltd., recently discovered an insecticide, benzpyrimoxan (proposed ISO name), which is under development as NNI-1501 (development code). Benzpyrimoxan has a unique chemical structure which contains benzyloxy and cyclic acetal groups on pyrimidine moiety (5-(1,3-dioxan-2-yl)-4-[4- (trifluoromethyl)benzyloxy]pyrimidine). In order to clarify the biological properties of benzpyrimoxan, we conducted several experiments and found the following results. Benzpyrimoxan has high activity against nymphal stages of rice plant hoppers without any adulticidal activity. It provides excellent and long lasting control against rice plant hoppers, including populations that have developed resistance to several other chemical groups of insecticide. The study on its mode of action is undergoing. These features highlight the versatility of this insecticide as an effective and valuable tool from the viewpoints of insecticide resistance management and integrated pest management program. With the use of benzpyrimoxan, farmers shall be able to lead the best yield potential by keeping the population density of rice plant hoppers and associated virus diseases under control.

Keywords: insecticide, pyrimidine, acetal, benzpyrimoxan, NNI-1501, rice plant hoppers

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12 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Tomato Fruits: Experimental and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mallikarjunachari G., Venkata Ravi M.


The objective of this research work is to evaluate the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and critical rupture load of tomato fruits. Determination of mechanical properties of tomato fruits is essential in various material handling applications, especially as related to robot harvesting, packaging, and transportation. However, extracting meaningful mechanical properties of tomato fruits are extremely challenging due to its layered structure, i.e., the combination of exocarp, mesocarp, and locular gel tissues. Apart from this layered structure, other physical parameters such as diameter, sphericity, locule number, and, the surface to volume ratio also influence the mechanical properties. In this research work, tomato fruits are cultivated in two different ways, namely organic and inorganic farming. Static compression tests are performed to extract the mechanical properties of tomato fruits. Finite element simulations are done to complement the experimental results. It is observed that the effective modulus decreases as the compression depth increase from 0.5 mm to 10 mm and also a critical load of fracture decreases as the locule number increases from 3 to 5. Significant differences in mechanical properties are observed between organically and inorganically cultivated tomato fruits. The current study significantly helps in the design of material handling systems to avoid damage of tomato fruits.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, elastic modulus, critical load of fracture, locule number

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11 Hybrid Finite Element Model of Mechanical Tests of Endothelial Cells

Authors: Jiri Bursa, Veera Venkata Satya Varaprasad Jakka


Recently a hybrid model of the endothelial cell was created by using the bendo-tensegrity concept to complete the continuum parts of the cell with the cytoskeleton. The model includes a network of actin filaments (AFs) as tension supporting cables and microtubules (MTs) as compression-supporting bended beams. It is created by adopting the geometrical shape of a hexagonal prism with its 12 vertices that results in a nearly isotropic behaviour of the model without any preferred orientation. To achieve the synergistic effect of cytoskeletal components, the elements representing AFs, MTs, and Intermediate filaments (IFs) are connected by sharing the same end nodes at the cell membrane (CM) representing focal adhesions (FAs). The AFs are prestressed (i.e., stressed without application of external load), which is essential for the cell shape stability, while the IFs are wavy, thus not bearing load until straightened. The objective is to perform simulations of mechanical tests (compression, tensile, and shear tests) and validate the model with experimental results to capture the appropriate mechanical responses. The model is intended to be used for assessment of the impact of wall shear stress in arteries on endothelium cells. Endothelial cell dysfunction has been linked to atherosclerosis through their response to hemodynamic forces. Endothelial cells are composed in a monolayer; in this manner, further advances are needed to investigate the perception of loads by a population of cells.

Keywords: Endothelial Cell, finite element model, wall shear stress, prestress, mechanical test, tensegrity

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10 Design and Development of Buccal Delivery System for Atenolol Tablets by Using Different Bioadhesive Polymers

Authors: Venkata Srikanth Meka, Venkatalakshmi Ranganathan, Ong Hsin Ju, Tan Yinn Ming, Lim Kien Sin, Wong Man Ting


The mucoadhesive buccal tablet is an oral drug delivery system which attached to the buccal surface for direct drug absorption into the systemic circulation and the unidirectional drug release is ensured by formulating a hydrophobic backing layer. The objective of present study was to formulate mucoadhesive atenolol bilayer buccal tablets by using sodium alginate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum as mucoadhesive polymer and the technique applied was direct compression method. Ethyl cellulose was used as backing layer of the tablet. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to identify the drug polymer interactions. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, ex vivo mucoadhesion time and in-vitro drug release. The formulated tablets showed the average surface pH 6-7 which is favourable for oral mucosa. The formulation containing sodium alginate showed more than 90 % of drug release at the end of the 7 hours in vitro dissolution studies. The formulation containing xanthan gum showed more than 8 hours of mucoadhesion time and all formulation exhibited non fickian release kinetics. The present study indicates enormous potential of erodible mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing atenolol for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing the hepatic first pass metabolism.

Keywords: Mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, direct compression, Atenolol, ethyl cellulose

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9 Development and Evaluation of Naringenin Nanosuspension to Improve Antioxidant Potential

Authors: Venkata Srikanth Meka, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Md. Shadab, Mariyam N. Nashid


Naringenin (NAR), is a naturally occurring plant flavonoid, found predominantly in citrus fruits, that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory behaviour, cholesterol-lowering and anticarcinogenic activities. However, despite the therapeutic potential of naringenin shown in a number of animal models, its clinical development has been hindered due to its low aqueous solubility, slow dissolution rate and inefficient transport across biological membranes resulting in low bioavailability. Naringenin nanosuspension were produced using stabilizers Tween® 80 by high pressure homogenization techniques. The nanosuspensions were characterized with regard to size (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), size distribution, charge (zeta potential measurements), morphology, short term physical stability, dissolution profile and antioxidant potential. A nanocrystal PCS size of about 500 nm was obtained after 20 homogenization cycles at 1500 bar. The short-term stability was assessed by storage of the nanosuspensions at 4 ◦C, room temperature and 40 ◦C. Result showed that naringenin nanosuspension was physically unstable due to large fluctuations in the particle size and zeta potential after 30 days. Naringenin nanosuspension demonstrated higher drug dissolution (97.90%) compared to naringenin powder (62.76%) after 120 minutes of testing. Naringenin nanosuspension showed increased antioxidant activity compared to naringenin powder with a percentage DPPH radical scavenging activity of 49.17% and 31.45% respectively at the lowest DPPH concentration.

Keywords: Bioavailability, nanosuspension, naringenin, oral delivery

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8 The Role of Information Technology in Supply Chain Management

Authors: K. Venkata Subbaiah, V. Jagadeesh, P. Govinda Rao


This paper explaining about the significance of information technology tools and software packages in supply chain management (SCM) in order to manage the entire supply chain. Managing materials flow and financial flow and information flow effectively and efficiently with the aid of information technology tools and packages in order to deliver right quantity with right quality of goods at right time by using right methods and technology. Information technology plays a vital role in streamlining the sales forecasting and demand planning and Inventory control and transportation in supply networks and finally deals with production planning and scheduling. It achieves the objectives by streamlining the business process and integrates within the enterprise and its extended enterprise. SCM starts with customer and it involves sequence of activities from customer, retailer, distributor, manufacturer and supplier within the supply chain framework. It is the process of integrating demand planning and supply network planning and production planning and control. Forecasting indicates the direction for planning raw materials in order to meet the production planning requirements. Inventory control and transportation planning allocate the optimal or economic order quantity by utilizing shortest possible routes to deliver the goods to the customer. Production planning and control utilize the optimal resources mix in order to meet the capacity requirement planning. The above operations can be achieved by using appropriate information technology tools and software packages for the supply chain management.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Information Technology, Business Process, extended enterprise

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7 Sustainable Model of Outreach Eye Camps: A Case Study from Reputed Eye Hospital of Central India

Authors: Subramanyam Devarakonda Hanumantharao, Udayendu Prakash Sharma, Mahesh Garg


Introduction: Gomabai Netralaya a reputed eye hospital is located in Neemuch a small city of Madhya Pradesh, India. The hospital is established in 1992 by Late. G.D Agrawal a renowned educationist, freedom fighter and philanthropist. The eye hospital was established to serve all sections of the society in affordable manner. To provide comprehensive eye care services to the rural poor the hospital started organizing outreach camps since 1994. Purpose: To study the cost effectiveness of outreach eye camps for addressing the sustainability issues of the outreach program. Methods: One year statistics of outreach eye camps were collected from Hospital Management Information System software to analyze the productivity of camps. Income and expenses report was collected from outreach department records to analyze per camp expenses and per patient expenses against the income generated. All current year records were analyzed to have accuracy of information and results. Information was collected in two ways: 1)Actual camp performance records and expenses from book of accounts. 2)Cross verification was done through one to one discussion with outreach staff. Results: Total 17534 outpatients were examined through 52 outreach eye camps. Total 6042 (34% of total outpatients) patients were advised with cataracts and 4651 (77% of advice) operations were performed. The average OPD per camp was 337 and per camp 116 patients was advised for cataract surgery and 89 surgeries were performed per camp. Total 18200 US$ incurred on organizing 52 outreach camps in the radius of 100 Considering the total outpatients screened through camps the screening cost per patient was 1.00 US$ and considering the surgical output the per surgery expenses was 4.00 US$. The cost recovery of the total expenses was through Government grant of US$ 16.00 per surgery (that includes surgical grant). All logistics cost of camps and patients transportation cost was taken care by local donors. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that with people’s participation, successful high volume outreach eye camps can be organized. The cost effectiveness of the outreach camps is totally depended on volume of outpatient’s turn-up at camp site and per camp surgical output. The only solution to sustainability of outreach eye camps is sharing of cost with local donors and increasing productivity.

Keywords: Sustainable, Productivity, outreach, camps

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6 Establishing Combustion Behaviour for Refuse Derived Fuel Firing at Kiln Inlet through Computational Fluid Dynamics at a Cement Plant in India

Authors: Prateek Sharma, Venkata Ramachandrarao Maddali, Kapil Kukreja, B. N. Mohapatra


Waste management is one of the pressing issues of India. Several initiatives by the Indian Government, including the recent one “Swachhata hi Seva” campaign launched by Prime Minister on 15th August 2018, can be one of the game changers to waste disposal. Under this initiative, the government, cement industry and other stakeholders are working hand in hand to dispose of single-use plastics in cement plants in rotary kilns. This is an exemplary effort and a move that establishes the Indian Cement industry as one of the key players in a circular economy. One of the cement plants in Southern India has been mandated by the state government to co-process shredded plastic and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) available in nearby regions as an alternative fuel in their cement plant. The plant has set a target of 25 % thermal substitution rate (TSR) by RDF in the next five years. Most of the cement plants in India and abroad have achieved high TSR through pre calciner firing. But the cement plant doesn’t have the precalciner and has to achieve this daunting task of 25 % TSR by firing through the main kiln burner. Since RDF is a heterogeneous waste with the change in fuel quality, it is difficult to achieve this task; hence plant has to resort to firing some portion of RDF/plastics at kiln inlet. But kiln inlet has reducing conditions as observed during measurements) under baseline condition. The combustion behavior of RDF of different sizes at different firing locations in riser was studied with the help of a computational fluid dynamics tool. It has been concluded that RDF above 50 mm size results in incomplete combustion leading to CO formation. Moreover, best firing location appears to be in the bottom portion of the kiln riser.

Keywords: plastics, kiln inlet, refuse derived fuel, thermal substitution rate

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5 Development of a Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management for an Urban Area: Case Study from a Developing Country

Authors: Arundhuti Devi, Anil Kumar Gupta, Dronadula Venkata Sai Praneeth, Brajesh Dubey, Suravi Kalita, Khanindra Sharma


Increase in urbanization and industrialization have led to improve in the standard of living. However, at the same time, the challenges due to improper solid waste management are also increasing. Municipal Solid Waste management is considered as a vital step in the development of urban infrastructure. The present study focuses on developing a solid waste management plan for an urban area in a developing country. The current scenario of solid waste management practices at various urban bodies in India is summarized. Guwahati city in the northeastern part of the country and is also one of the targeted smart cities (under the governments Smart Cities program) was chosen as case study to develop and implement the solid waste management plan. The whole city was divided into various divisions and waste samples were collected according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) - D5231-92 - 2016 for each division in the city and a composite sample prepared to represent the waste from the entire city. The solid waste characterization in terms of physical and chemical which includes mainly proximate and ultimate analysis were carried out. Existing primary and secondary collection systems were studied and possibilities of enhancing the collection systems were discussed. The composition of solid waste for the overall city was found to be as: organic matters 38%, plastic 27%, paper + cardboard 15%, Textile 9%, inert 7% and others 4%. During the conference presentation, further characterization results in terms of Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), pH and water holding capacity will be discussed. The waste management options optimizing activities such as recycling, recovery, reuse and reduce will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: Solid waste management, Recycling, proximate, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)

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