Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8182

Search results for: maximum range

8182 Adaptive Target Detection of High-Range-Resolution Radar in Non-Gaussian Clutter

Authors: Lina Pan


In non-Gaussian clutter of a spherically invariant random vector, in the cases that a certain estimated covariance matrix could become singular, the adaptive target detection of high-range-resolution radar is addressed. Firstly, the restricted maximum likelihood (RML) estimates of unknown covariance matrix and scatterer amplitudes are derived for non-Gaussian clutter. And then the RML estimate of texture is obtained. Finally, a novel detector is devised. It is showed that, without secondary data, the proposed detector outperforms the existing Kelly binary integrator.

Keywords: non-Gaussian clutter, covariance matrix estimation, target detection, maximum likelihood

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8181 Experimental Measurement for Vehicular Communication Evaluation Using Obu Arada System

Authors: Aymen Sassi


The equipment of vehicles with wireless communication capabilities is expected to be the key to the evolution to next generation intelligent transportation systems (ITS). The IEEE community has been continuously working on the development of an efficient vehicular communication protocol for the enhancement of Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE). Vehicular communication systems, called V2X, support vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications. The efficiency of such communication systems depends on several factors, among which the surrounding environment and mobility are prominent. Accordingly, this study focuses on the evaluation of the real performance of vehicular communication with special focus on the effects of the real environment and mobility on V2X communication. It starts by identifying the real maximum range that such communication can support and then evaluates V2I and V2V performances. The Arada LocoMate OBU transmission system was used to test and evaluate the impact of the transmission range in V2X communication. The evaluation of V2I and V2V communication takes the real effects of low and high mobility on transmission into account.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11p, V2I, V2X, mobility, PLR, Arada LocoMate OBU, maximum range

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8180 Study of Some Epidemiological Factors Influencing the Disease Incidence in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Muhammad Asim Nazir


The investigations reported in this manuscript were carried on the screening of one hundred and seventy-eight chickpea germplasm lines/cultivars against wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. The screening was conducted in vivo (field) conditions. The field screening was accompanied with the study of some epidemiological factors affecting the occurrence and severity of the disease. Among the epidemiological factors maximum temperature range (28-40°C), minimum temperature range (12-24°C), relative humidity (19-44%), soil temperature (26-41°C) and soil moisture range (19-34°C) was studied for affecting the disease incidence/severity. The results revealed that air temperature was positively correlated with diseases. Soil temperature data revealed that in all cultivars disease incidence was maximum as 39°C. Most of the plants show 40-50% disease incidence. Disease incidence decreased at 33.5°C. The result of correlation of relative humidity of air and wilt incidence revealed that all cultivars/lines were negatively correlated with relative humidity. With increasing relative humidity wilt incidence decreased and vice versa.

Keywords: chickpea, epidemiological, screening, disease

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8179 Distribution of Maximum Loss of Fractional Brownian Motion with Drift

Authors: Ceren Vardar Acar, Mine Caglar


In finance, the price of a volatile asset can be modeled using fractional Brownian motion (fBm) with Hurst parameter H>1/2. The Black-Scholes model for the values of returns of an asset using fBm is given as, 〖Y_t=Y_0 e^((r+μ)t+σB)〗_t^H, 0≤t≤T where Y_0 is the initial value, r is constant interest rate, μ is constant drift and σ is constant diffusion coefficient of fBm, which is denoted by B_t^H where t≥0. Black-Scholes model can be constructed with some Markov processes such as Brownian motion. The advantage of modeling with fBm to Markov processes is its capability of exposing the dependence between returns. The real life data for a volatile asset display long-range dependence property. For this reason, using fBm is a more realistic model compared to Markov processes. Investors would be interested in any kind of information on the risk in order to manage it or hedge it. The maximum possible loss is one way to measure highest possible risk. Therefore, it is an important variable for investors. In our study, we give some theoretical bounds on the distribution of maximum possible loss of fBm. We provide both asymptotical and strong estimates for the tail probability of maximum loss of standard fBm and fBm with drift and diffusion coefficients. In the investment point of view, these results explain, how large values of possible loss behave and its bounds.

Keywords: maximum drawdown, maximum loss, fractional brownian motion, large deviation, Gaussian process

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8178 Hardness and Microstructure of Rapidly Quenched Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Mehdi Ghatus


Two simple apparatus based on the hammer and anvil principle have been constructed and used to study the microstructure and micro-hardness characteristics of some AL-base alloys. Foils with thicknesses arranging from 20 µm up to 600 µm have been obtained. The cooling rate was estimated to be in the range 10^4 - 10^5 K/sec. Microstructure study of rapidly quenched Al-30% Si foils indicated that with decreasing the foil thickness the size of primary Si crystallites decreases in the whole investigated range (0.64-0.15 mm). However, the volume fraction of the primary Si crystals in the structure remained constant down to thickness the primary Si volume fraction started to decrease. Rapid quenching of Al- 14-16% Cu showed single phase cell structure. In foils up to 0.55 mm with decreasing the foil thickness the cell size decreases and micro-hardness increases particularly in foils below 0.3 mm in thickness. Isochronal annealing of theses foils show that the highly supersaturated Al-14-16% Cu solid solution decomposes readily at relatively low temperature and short time intervals. The maximum hardness is obtained after annealing at 100 °C for 30 minutes. However with decreasing the Cu content of the foils the precipitation process is largely delayed. Eight hours of annealing at 100 °C was not enough to achieve the maximum hardness in Al-4% Cu thin foils. The achieved hardness value was more than twice of the maximum hardness obtained in articles of similar composition but conventionally aged.

Keywords: aluminum, hardness, alloys, quenched aluminum

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8177 High Precision 65nm CMOS Rectifier for Energy Harvesting using Threshold Voltage Minimization in Telemedicine Embedded System

Authors: Hafez Fouad


Telemedicine applications have very low voltage which required High Precision Rectifier Design with high Sensitivity to operate at minimum input Voltage. In this work, we targeted 0.2V input voltage using 65 nm CMOS rectifier for Energy Harvesting Telemedicine application. The proposed rectifier which designed at 2.4GHz using two-stage structure found to perform in a better case where minimum operation voltage is lower than previous published paper and the rectifier can work at a wide range of low input voltage amplitude. The Performance Summary of Full-wave fully gate cross-coupled rectifiers (FWFR) CMOS Rectifier at F = 2.4 GHz: The minimum and maximum output voltages generated using an input voltage amplitude of 2 V are 490.9 mV and 1.997 V, maximum VCE = 99.85 % and maximum PCE = 46.86 %. The Performance Summary of Differential drive CMOS rectifier with external bootstrapping circuit rectifier at F = 2.4 GHz: The minimum and maximum output voltages generated using an input voltage amplitude of 2V are 265.5 mV (0.265V) and 1.467 V respectively, maximum VCE = 93.9 % and maximum PCE= 15.8 %.

Keywords: energy harvesting, embedded system, IoT telemedicine system, threshold voltage minimization, differential drive cmos rectifier, full-wave fully gate cross-coupled rectifiers CMOS rectifier

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8176 Research on Steam Injection Technology of Extended Range Engine Cylinder for Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Zhiyuan Jia, Xiuxiu Sun, Yong Chen, Liu Hai, Shuangqing Li


The engine cooling water and exhaust gas contain a large amount of available energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, a steam injection technology based on waste heat recovery is proposed. The models of cooling water waste heat utilization, exhaust gas waste heat utilization, and exhaust gas-cooling water waste heat utilization were constructed, and the effects of the three modes on the performance of steam injection were analyzed, and then the feasibility of in-cylinder water injection steam technology based on waste heat recovery was verified. The research results show that when the injection water flow rate is 0.10 kg/s and the temperature is 298 K, at a cooling water temperature of 363 K, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the cooling water can reach 314.5 K; at an exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and an exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the exhaust gas can reach 430 K; Under the condition of cooling water temperature of 363 K, exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, after cooling water and exhaust gas heating, the maximum temperature of the injection water can reach 463 K. When the engine is 1200 rpm, the water injection volume is 30 mg, and the water injection time is 36°CA, the engine power increases by 2% and the fuel consumption is reduced by 2.6%.

Keywords: cooling water, exhaust gas, extended range engine, steam injection, waste heat recovery

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8175 Design and Development of Mucoadhesive Buccal Film Bearing Itraconazole

Authors: Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Kamta Prasad Namdeo, Surendra Bodhake


The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate mucoadhesive films for buccal administration of itraconazole using film-forming and mucoashesive polymers. Buccal films of chitosan bearing Itraconazole were prepared by solvent casting technique. The films have been evaluated in terms of film weight, thickness, density, surface pH, FTIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, bioadhesion, swelling properties, and in vitro drug release studies. It was found that film formulations of 2 cm2 size having weight in the range of 204 ± 0.76 to 223 ± 2.09 mg and film thickness were in the range of 0.44 ± 0.11 to 0.57 ± 0.19 mm. Density of the films was found to be 0.102 to 0.126 g/ml. Drug content was found to be uniform in the range of 8.23 ± 0.07 to 8.73 ± 0.09 mg/cm2 for formulation A1 to A4. Maximum bioadhesion force was recorded for HPMC buccal films (A2) i.e. 0.57 ± 0.47 as compared to other films. In vitro residence time was in range of 1.7 ± 0.12 to 7.65 ± 0.15 h. The drug release studies show that formulations follow non-fickian diffusion. These mucoadhesive formulations could offer many advantages in comparison to traditional treatments.

Keywords: biovariability, buccal patches, itraconazole, Mucoadhesion

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8174 Vibration Analysis of Power Lines with Moving Dampers

Authors: Mohammad Bukhari, Oumar Barry


In order to reduce the Aeolian vibration of overhead transmission lines, the Stockbridge damper is usually attached. The efficiency of Stockbridge damper depends on its location on the conductor and its resonant frequencies. When the Stockbridge damper is located on a vibration node, it becomes inefficient. Hence, the static damper should be subrogated by a dynamic one. In the present study, a proposed dynamic absorber for transmission lines is studied. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive the governing equations, then the system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically. Parametric studies are conducted to determine how certain parameters affect the performance of the absorber. The results demonstrate that replacing the static absorber by a dynamic one enhance the absorber performance for wider range of frequencies. The results also indicate that the maximum displacement decreases as the absorber speed and the forcing frequency increase. However, this reduction in maximum displacement is accompanying with increasing in the steady state vibration displacement. It is also indicated that the energy dissipation in moving absorber covers higher range of frequencies.

Keywords: absorber performance, Aeolian vibration, Hamilton’s principle, stockbridge damper

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8173 Performance Evaluation of Refinement Method for Wideband Two-Beams Formation

Authors: C. Bunsanit


This paper presents the refinement method for two beams formation of wideband smart antenna. The refinement method for weighting coefficients is based on Fully Spatial Signal Processing by taking Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT), and its simulation results are presented using MATLAB. The radiation pattern is created by multiplying the incoming signal with real weights and then summing them together. These real weighting coefficients are computed by IDFT method; however, the range of weight values is relatively wide. Therefore, for reducing this range, the refinement method is used. The radiation pattern concerns with five input parameters to control. These parameters are maximum weighting coefficient, wideband signal, direction of mainbeam, beamwidth, and maximum of minor lobe level. Comparison of the obtained simulation results between using refinement method and taking only IDFT shows that the refinement method works well for wideband two beams formation.

Keywords: fully spatial signal processing, beam forming, refinement method, smart antenna, weighting coefficient, wideband

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8172 Medium Composition for the Laboratory Production of Enzyme Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Authors: O. R. Raimi, A. Lateef


Inoculum developments of A. niger were used for inoculation of medium for submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation. The filtrate obtained were used as sources of the extra-cellular enzymes. The FTase activities and the course of pH in submerged fermentation ranged from 7.53-24.42µ/ml and 4.4-4.8 respectively. The maximum FTase activity was obtained at 48 hours fermentation. In solid state fermentation, FTase activities ranged from 2.41-27.77µ/ml. Using ripe plantain peel and kola nut pod respectively. Both substrates supported the growth of the fungus, producing profuse growth during fermentation. In the control experiment (using kolanut pod) that lack supplementation, appreciable FTase activity of 16.92µ/ml was obtained. The optimum temperature range was 600C. it was also active at broad pH range of 1-9 with optimum obtain at pH of 5.0. FTase was stable within the range of investigated pH showing more than 60% activities. FTase can be used in the production of fructooligosaccharide, a functional food.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, solid state fermentation, kola nut pods, Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

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8171 A Study on Traction Motor Design for Obtaining the Maximum Traction Force of Tram-Train

Authors: Geochul Jeong, In-Gun Kim, Hyun-Seok Hong, Dong-Woo Kang, Ju Lee


This study is about IPMSM design for obtaining the maximum traction force of Tram-Train. Tram-Train is a Tram and Train-combined railway vehicles, which operates at a maximum speed of 70km/h in the city section (Tram section) and at a maximum speed of 150km/h in the out-of-city section (Train section). For this reason, tram-train was designed to be an IPMSM (Interior Permanent Synchronous Motor) with a wide range of speed variation. IPMSM’s magnetic path varies depending on the shape of rotor and in this case, the power characteristics are different in the constant torque area and the flux weakening area. Therefore, this study suggests a method to improve Tram-Train’s traction force, based on the relationship between magnetic torque and reluctance torque. The suggested method was applied through IPMSM rotor shape design and electromagnetic field finite element method was conducted to verify the validity of the suggested method.

Keywords: tram-train, traction motor, IPMSM, synchronous motor, railway vehicles

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8170 Working Title: Estimating the Power Output of Photovoltaics in Kuwait Using a Monte Carlo Approach

Authors: Mohammad Alshawaf, Rahmat Poudineh, Nawaf Alhajeri


The power generated from photovoltaic (PV) modules is non-dispatchable on demand due to the stochastic nature of solar radiation. The random variations in the measured intensity of solar irradiance are due to clouds and, in the case of arid regions, dust storms which decrease the intensity of intensity of solar irradiance. Therefore, modeling PV power output using average, maximum, or minimum solar irradiance values is inefficient to predict power generation reliably. The overall objective of this paper is to predict the power output of PV modules using Monte Carlo approach based the weather and solar conditions measured in Kuwait. Given the 250 Wp PV module used in study, the average daily power output is 1021 Wh/day. The maximum power was generated in April and the minimum power was generated in January 1187 Wh/day and 823 Wh/day respectively. The certainty of the daily predictions varies seasonally and according to the weather conditions. The output predictions were far more certain in the summer months, for example, the 80% certainty range for August is 89 Wh/day, whereas the 80% certainty range for April is 250 Wh/day.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, solar energy, variable renewable energy, Kuwait

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8169 Surface Sterilization of Aquatic Plant, Cryptopcoryne affinis by Using Clorox and Mercury Chloride

Authors: Sridevi Devadas


This study was aimed to examine the combination efficiency of Clorox (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) as reagent for surface sterilization process of aquatic plant, Cryptocoryne affinis (C. affinis). The treatment applied 10% of the Clorox and 0.1 ppm of mercury chloride. The maximum exposure time for Clorox and mercury chloride was 10 min and 60 sec respectively. After exposed to the treatments protocols (T1-T15) the explants were transferred to culture room under control temperature at 25°C ± 2°C and subjected to 16 hours fluorescence light (2000 lumens) for 30 days. The both sterilizing agents were not applied on control specimens. Upon analysis, the result indicates all of the treatments protocols produced sterile explants at range of minimum 1.5 ± 0.7 (30%) to maximum 5.0 ± 0.0 (100%). Meanwhile, maximum 1.0 ± 0.7 numbers of leaves and 1.4 ± 0.6 numbers of roots have been produced. The optimized exposure time was 0 to 15 min for Clorox and 30 sec for HgCl2 whereby 90% to 100% sterilization was archived at this condition.

Keywords: Cryptocoryne affinis, surface sterilization, tissue culture, clorox, mercury chloride

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8168 Surface Sterilization Of Aquatic Plant, Cryptocoryne affinis by Using Clorox and Mercury Chloride

Authors: Sridevi Devadas


This study was aimed to examine the combination efficiency of Clorox (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) as a reagent for surface sterilization process of aquatic plant and cryptocoryne affinis (C. affinis). The treatment applied 10% of the Clorox and 0.1ppm of mercury chloride. The maximum exposure time for clorox and mercury chloride was 10min and 60sec respectively. After exposed to the treatments protocols (T1-T15) the explants were transferred to culture room under control temperature at 25°C ± 2°C and subjected to 16 hours fluorescence light (2000 lumens) for 30 days. The both sterilizing agents were not applied on control specimens. Upon analysis, The result indicates all of the treatments protocols produced sterile explants at range of minimum 1.5 ± 0.7 (30%) to maximum 5.0 ± 0.0 (100%). Meanwhile, maximum 1.0 ± 0.7 numbers of leaves and 1.4 ± 0.6 numbers of roots have been produced. The optimized exposure time was 0 to 15 min for Clorox and 30 sec for HgCl2 whereby 90% to 100% sterilization was archived at this condition.

Keywords: Cryptocoryne affinis, surface sterilization, tissue culture, clorox, mercury chloride

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8167 Effect of the Mould Rotational Speed on the Quality of Centrifugal Castings

Authors: M. A. El-Sayed, S. A. Aziz


Centrifugal casting is a standard casting technique for the manufacture of hollow, intricate and sound castings without the use of cores. The molten metal or alloy poured into the rotating mold forms a hollow casting as the centrifugal forces lift the liquid along the mold inner surface. The rotational speed of the die was suggested to greatly affect the manner in which the molten metal flows within the mould and consequently the probability of the formation of a uniform cylinder. In this work the flow of the liquid metal at various speeds and its effect during casting were studied. The results suggested that there was a critical range for the speed, within which the produced castings exhibited best uniformity and maximum mechanical properties. When a mould was rotated at speeds below or beyond the critical range defects were found in the final castings, which affected the uniformity and significantly lowered the mechanical properties.

Keywords: centrifugal casting, rotational speed, critical speed range, mechanical properties

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8166 Design and Advancement of Hybrid Multilevel Inverter Interface with PhotoVoltaic

Authors: P.Kiruthika, K. Ramani


This paper presented the design and advancement of a single-phase 27-level Hybrid Multilevel DC-AC Converter interfacing with Photo Voltaic. In this context, the Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method can be implemented in 27-level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter for generating a switching pulse. Perturb & Observer algorithm can be used in the Maximum Power Point Tracking method for the Photo Voltaic system. By implementing Maximum Power Point Tracking with three separate solar panels as an input source to the 27-level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter. This proposed method can be simulated by using MATLAB/simulink. The result shown that the proposed method can achieve silky output wave forms, more flexibility in voltage range, and to reduce Total Harmonic Distortion in medium-voltage drives.

Keywords: Multi Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Technique (MCPWM), Multi Level Inverter (MLI), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Perturb and Observer (P&O)

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8165 A Range of Steel Production in Japan towards 2050

Authors: Reina Kawase


Japan set the goal of 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. To consider countermeasures for reducing GHG emission, the production estimation of energy intensive materials, such as steel, is essential. About 50% of steel production is exported in Japan, so it is necessary to consider steel production including export. Steel productions from 2005-2050 in Japan were estimated under various global assumptions based on combination of scenarios such as goods trade scenarios and steel making process selection scenarios. Process selection scenarios decide volume of steel production by process (basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace) with considering steel consumption projection, supply-demand balance of steel, and scrap surplus. The range of steel production by process was analyzed. Maximum steel production was estimated under the scenario which consumes scrap in domestic steel production at maximum level. In 2035, steel production reaches 149 million ton because of increase in electric arc furnace steel. However, it decreases towards 2050 and amounts to 120 million ton, which is almost same as a current level. Minimum steel production is under the scenario which assumes technology progress in steel making and supply-demand balance consideration in each region. Steel production decreases from base year and is 44 million ton in 2050.

Keywords: goods trade scenario, steel making process selection scenario, steel production, global warming

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8164 Optimization of Transmission Loss on a Series-Coupled Muffler by Taguchi Method

Authors: Jing-Fung Lin, Jer-Jia Sheu


In this study, an approach has been developed for the noise reduction of a muffler. The transmission loss (TL) in the muffler is maximized by the use of a double-chamber muffler, and a baffle with a hole is inserted between chambers. Taguchi method is used to optimize the design for the acoustical performance of the muffler. The TL performance is evaluated by COMSOL software. The excellent parameter combination for the maximum TL is attained as high as 35.30 dB in a wide frequency range from 10 Hz to 1400 Hz. The influence sequence of four parameters on TL is determined by the range analysis. The effects of length and expansion ratio of the first chamber on TL performance for the excellent program were discussed. Comparisons of the TL results from different designs are made.

Keywords: acoustics, baffle, chamber, muffler, Taguchi method, transmission loss

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8163 A Comparison of Tsunami Impact to Sydney Harbour, Australia at Different Tidal Stages

Authors: Olivia A. Wilson, Hannah E. Power, Murray Kendall


Sydney Harbour is an iconic location with a dense population and low-lying development. On the east coast of Australia, facing the Pacific Ocean, it is exposed to several tsunamigenic trenches. This paper presents a component of the most detailed assessment of the potential for earthquake-generated tsunami impact on Sydney Harbour to date. Models in this study use dynamic tides to account for tide-tsunami interaction. Sydney Harbour’s tidal range is 1.5 m, and the spring tides from January 2015 that are used in the modelling for this study are close to the full tidal range. The tsunami wave trains modelled include hypothetical tsunami generated from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 MW from the Puysegur and New Hebrides trenches as well as representations of the historical 1960 Chilean and 2011 Tohoku events. All wave trains are modelled for the peak wave to coincide with both a low tide and a high tide. A single wave train, representing a 9.0 MW earthquake at the Puysegur trench, is modelled for peak waves to coincide with every hour across a 12-hour tidal phase. Using the hydrodynamic model ANUGA, results are compared according to the impact parameters of inundation area, depth variation and current speeds. Results show that both maximum inundation area and depth variation are tide dependent. Maximum inundation area increases when coincident with a higher tide, however, hazardous inundation is only observed for the larger waves modelled: NH90high and P90high. The maximum and minimum depths are deeper on higher tides and shallower on lower tides. The difference between maximum and minimum depths varies across different tidal phases although the differences are slight. Maximum current speeds are shown to be a significant hazard for Sydney Harbour; however, they do not show consistent patterns according to tide-tsunami phasing. The maximum current speed hazard is shown to be greater in specific locations such as Spit Bridge, a narrow channel with extensive marine infrastructure. The results presented for Sydney Harbour are novel, and the conclusions are consistent with previous modelling efforts in the greater area. It is shown that tide must be a consideration for both tsunami modelling and emergency management planning. Modelling with peak tsunami waves coinciding with a high tide would be a conservative approach; however, it must be considered that maximum current speeds may be higher on other tides.

Keywords: emergency management, sydney, tide-tsunami interaction, tsunami impact

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8162 Power Efficiency Characteristics of Magnetohydrodynamic Thermodynamic Gas Cycle

Authors: Mahmoud Huleihil


In this study, the performance of a thermodynamic gas cycle of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation is considered and presented in terms of power efficiency curves. The dissipation mechanisms considered include: fluid friction modeled by means of the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, heat transfer leakage directly from the hot reservoir to the cold heat reservoir, and constant velocity of the MHD generator. The study demonstrates that power and efficiency vanish at the extremes of both slow and fast operating conditions. These points are demonstrated on power efficiency curves and the locus of efficiency at maximum power and the locus of maximum efficiency. Qualitatively, the considered loss mechanisms have a similar effect on the efficiency at maximum power operation and on maximum efficiency operation, thus these efficiencies are reduced, even for small values of the loss mechanisms.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic generator, electrical efficiency, maximum power, maximum efficiency, heat engine

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8161 Coordination Polymer Hydrogels Based on Coinage Metals and Nucleobase Derivatives

Authors: Lamia L. G. Al-Mahamad, Benjamin R. Horrocks, Andrew Houlton


Hydrogels based on metal coordination polymers of nucleosides and a range of metal ions (Au, Ag, Cu) have been prepared and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. AFM images of the xerogels revealed the formation of extremely long polymer molecules (> 10 micrometers, the maximum scan range). This result is also consistent with TEM images which show a fibrous morphology. Oxidative doping of the Au-nucleoside fibres produces an electrically conductive nanowire. No sharp Bragg peaks were found at the at the X-ray diffraction pattern for metal ions hydrogels indicating that the samples were amorphous, but instead the data showed broad peaks in the range 20 < Q < 40 and correspond to distances d=2μ/Q. The data was analysed using a simplified Rietveld method by fitting a regression model to obtain the distance between atoms.

Keywords: hydrogel, metal ions, nanowire, nucleoside

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8160 Tidal Current Behaviors and Remarkable Bathymetric Change in the South-Western Part of Khor Abdullah, Kuwait

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Hasem


A study of the tidal current behavior and bathymetric changes was undertaken in order to establish an information base for future coastal management. The average velocity for tidal current was 0.46 m/s and the maximum velocity was 1.08 m/s during ebb tide. During spring tides, maximum velocities range from 0.90 m/s to 1.08 m/s, whereas maximum velocities vary from 0.40 m/s to 0.60 m/s during neap tides. Despite greater current velocities during flood tide, the bathymetric features enhance the dominance of the ebb tide. This can be related to the abundance of fine sediments from the ebb current approaching the study area, and the relatively coarser sediment from the approaching flood current. Significant bathymetric changes for the period from 1985 to 1998 were found with dominance of erosion process. Approximately 96.5% of depth changes occurred within the depth change classes of -5 m to 5 m. The high erosion processes within the study area will subsequently result in high accretion processes, particularly in the north, the location of the proposed Boubyan Port and its navigation channel.

Keywords: bathymetric change, Boubyan island, GIS, Khor Abdullah, tidal current behavior

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8159 Effect of Thistle Ecotype in the Physical-Chemical and Sensorial Properties of Serra da Estrela Cheese

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Marlene I. C. Tenreiro, Ana C. Correia, Paulo Barracosa, Paula M. R. Correia


The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Serra da Estrela cheese and compare these results with those of the sensory analysis. For the study were taken six samples of Serra da Estrela cheese produced with 6 different ecotypes of thistle in a dairy situated in Penalva do Castelo. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture content, protein, fat, ash, chloride and pH; the physical properties studied were color and texture; and finally a sensory evaluation was undertaken. The results showed moisture varying in the range 40-48%, protein in the range 15-20%, fat between 41-45%, ash between 3.9-5.0% and chlorides varying from 1.2 to 3.0%. The pH varied from 4.8 to 5.4. The textural properties revealed that the crust hardness is relatively low (maximum 7.3 N), although greater than flesh firmness (maximum 1.7 N), and also that these cheeses are in fact soft paste type, with measurable stickiness and intense adhesiveness. The color analysis showed that the crust is relatively light (L* over 50), and with a predominant yellow coloration (b* around 20 or over) although with a slight greenish tone (a* negative). The results of the sensory analysis did not show great variability for most of the attributes measured, although some differences were found in attributes such as crust thickness, crust uniformity, and creamy flesh.

Keywords: chemical composition, color, sensorial analysis, Serra da Estrela cheese, texture

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8158 Optimization Analysis of Controlled Cooling Process for H-Shape Steam Beams

Authors: Jiin-Yuh Jang, Yu-Feng Gan


In order to improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of the steel, the cooling rate, and the temperature distribution must be controlled in the cooling process. A three-dimensional numerical model for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient distribution of H-beam in the controlled cooling process was performed in order to obtain the uniform temperature distribution and minimize the maximum stress and the maximum deformation after the controlled cooling. An algorithm developed with a simplified conjugated-gradient method was used as an optimizer to optimize the heat transfer coefficient distribution. The numerical results showed that, for the case of air cooling 5 seconds followed by water cooling 6 seconds with uniform the heat transfer coefficient, the cooling rate is 15.5 (℃/s), the maximum temperature difference is 85℃, the maximum the stress is 125 MPa, and the maximum deformation is 1.280 mm. After optimize the heat transfer coefficient distribution in control cooling process with the same cooling time, the cooling rate is increased to 20.5 (℃/s), the maximum temperature difference is decreased to 52℃, the maximum stress is decreased to 82MPa and the maximum deformation is decreased to 1.167mm.

Keywords: controlled cooling, H-Beam, optimization, thermal stress

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8157 A New Family of Flying Wing Low Reynolds Number Airfoils

Authors: Ciro Sobrinho Campolina Martins, Halison da Silva Pereira, Vitor Mainenti Leal Lopes


Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been used in a wide range of applications, from precise agriculture monitoring for irrigation and fertilization to military attack missions. Long range performance is required for many of these applications. Tailless aircrafts are commonly used as long-range configurations and, due to its small amount of stability, the airfoil shape design of its wings plays a central role on the performance of the airplane. In this work, a new family of flying wing airfoils is designed for low Reynolds number flows, typical of small-middle UAVs. Camber, thickness and their maximum positions in the chord are variables used for the airfoil geometry optimization. Aerodynamic non-dimensional coefficients were obtained by the well-established Panel Method. High efficient airfoils with small pitch moment coefficient are obtained from the analysis described and its aerodynamic polars are plotted.

Keywords: airfoil design, flying wing, low Reynolds number, tailless aircraft, UAV

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8156 Thermal and Starvation Effects on Lubricated Elliptical Contacts at High Rolling/Sliding Speeds

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Surjit Angra


The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.

Keywords: starvation, lubrication, elliptical contact, traction, minimum film thickness

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8155 Vibration Analysis of a Solar Powered UAV

Authors: Kevin Anderson, Sukhwinder Singh Sandhu, Nouh Anies, Shilpa Ravichandra, Steven Dobbs, Donald Edberg


This paper presents the results of a Finite Element based vibration analysis of a solar powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The purpose of this paper was to quantify the free vibration, forced vibration response due to differing point inputs in order to mimic the vibration induced by actuators (magnet in coil generators) used to aid in the flight of the UAV. A Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) study was performed in order to ascertain pertinent deigns stresses and deflections as well as aerodynamic parameters of the UAV airfoil. The 10 ft span airfoil is modeled using Mylar as the primary material. Results show that the free mode in bending is 4.8 Hz while the first forced bending mode is in the range of 16.2 to 16.7 Hz depending on the location of excitation. The free torsional bending mode is 28.3 Hz, and the first forced torsional mode is in the range of 26.4 to 27.8 Hz, depending on the location of excitation. The FSI results predict the coefficients of aerodynamic drag and lift of 0.0052 and 0.077, respectively, which matches hand-calculations used to validate the Finite Element based results. FSI based maximum von Mises stresses and deflections were found to be 0.282 MPa and 3.4 mm, respectively. Dynamic pressures on the airfoil range of 1.04 to 1.23 kPa corresponding to velocity magnitudes in the range of 22 to 66 m/s.

Keywords: ANSYS, finite element, FSI, UAV, vibrations

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8154 Evaluation of Pollution in Underground Water from ODO-NLA and OGIJO Metropolis Industrial Areas in Ikorodu

Authors: Zaccheaus Olasupo Apotiola


This study evaluates the level of pollution in underground water from Ogijo and Odo-nla areas in lkorodu, Lagos State. Water sample were collected around various industries and transported in ice packs to the laboratory. Temperature and pH was determined on site, physicochemical parameters and total plate were determined using standard methods, while heavy metal concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry method. The temperature was observed at a range of 20-28 oC, the pH was observed at a range of 5.64 to 6.91 mol/l and were significantly different (P < 0.05) from one another. The chloride content was observed at a range 70.92 to 163.10 mg/l there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sample 40 GAJ and ISUP, but there was significant difference (P < 0.05) between other samples. The acidity value varied from 11.0 – 34.5 (mg/l), the samples had no alkalinity. The Total plate count was found at 20-125 cfu/ml. Asernic, Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury concentration ranged between 0.03 - 0.09, 0.04 - 0.11, 0.00 -0.00, and 0.00 – 0.00(mg/l) respectively. However there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between all samples except for sample 4OGA, 5OGAJ, and 3SUTN that were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The results revealed all samples are not safe for human consumption as the levels of Asernic and Lead are above the maximum value of (0.01 mg/l) recommended by NIS 554 and WHO.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, lead mercury, WHO

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8153 Numerical Analysis of Fluid Mixing in Three Split and Recombine Micromixers at Different Inlets Volume Ratio

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, M. Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte


Numerical simulation were carried out to study the mixing of miscible liquid at different inlets volume ratio (1 to 3) within two existing mixers namely Chain, Tear-drop and one new “C-H” mixer. The new passive C-H micromixer is developed based on split and recombine principles, combining the operation concepts of known Chain mixer and H mixer. The mixing performances of the three micromixers were predicted by a preliminary numerical analysis of the flow patterns inside the channel in terms of the segregation or distribution of path lines. Afterward, the efficiency and the pressure drop were investigated numerically, taking into account species transport. All numerical calculations were computed at a wide range of Reynolds number from 1 to 100. Among the presented three micromixers, tear-drop provides fairly good efficiency except in the middle range of Re numbers but has high-pressure drop. In addition, inlets flow ratio has a significant influence on efficiency, especially at the Re number range of 10 to 50, Moreover maximum increase of efficiency is almost 10% when inlets flow ratio is increased by 1. Chain mixer presents relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle range of Re numbers (5≤Re≤50) but has reasonable pressure drop. Furthermore, Chain mixer shows almost no dependence on inlets flow ratio. Whereas, C-H mixer poses excellent mixing efficiency (more than 93%) for all range of Re numbers and causes the lowest pressure drop, On top of that efficiency has slight dependency on inlets flow ratio. In addition, C-H mixer shows respectively about three and two times lower pressure drop than Tear-drop and Chain mixers.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

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