Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3366

Search results for: urban mobility

3366 Guidelines for Sustainable Urban Mobility in Historic Districts from International Experiences

Authors: Tamer ElSerafi

Abstract:

In recent approaches to heritage conservation, the whole context of historic areas becomes as important as the single historic building. This makes the provision of infrastructure and network of mobility an effective element in the urban conservation. Sustainable urban conservation projects consider the high density of activities, the need for a good quality access system to the transit system, and the importance of the configuration of the mobility network by identifying the best way to connect the different districts of the urban area through a complex unique system that helps the synergic development to achieve a sustainable mobility system. A sustainable urban mobility is a key factor in maintaining the integrity between socio-cultural aspects and functional aspects. This paper illustrates the mobility aspects, mobility problems in historic districts, and the needs of the mobility systems in the first part. The second part is a practical analysis for different mobility plans. It is challenging to find innovative and creative conservation solutions fitting modern uses and needs without risking the loss of inherited built resources. Urban mobility management is becoming an essential and challenging issue in the urban conservation projects. Depending on literature review and practical analysis, this paper tries to define and clarify the guidelines for mobility management in historic districts as a key element in sustainability of urban conservation and development projects. Such rules and principles could control the conflict between the socio–cultural and economic activities, and the different needs for mobility in these districts in a sustainable way. The practical analysis includes a comparison between mobility plans which have been implemented in four different cities; Freiburg in Germany, Zurich in Switzerland and Bray Town in Ireland. This paper concludes with a matrix of guidelines that considers both principles of sustainability and livability factors in urban historic districts.

Keywords: sustainable mobility, urban mobility, mobility management, historic districts

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3365 Regression Analysis of Travel Indicators and Public Transport Usage in Urban Areas

Authors: Mehdi Moeinaddini, Zohreh Asadi-Shekari, Muhammad Zaly Shah, Amran Hamzah

Abstract:

Currently, planners try to have more green travel options to decrease economic, social and environmental problems. Therefore, this study tries to find significant urban travel factors to be used to increase the usage of alternative urban travel modes. This paper attempts to identify the relationship between prominent urban mobility indicators and daily trips by public transport in 30 cities from various parts of the world. Different travel modes, infrastructures and cost indicators were evaluated in this research as mobility indicators. The results of multi-linear regression analysis indicate that there is a significant relationship between mobility indicators and the daily usage of public transport.

Keywords: green travel modes, urban travel indicators, daily trips by public transport, multi-linear regression analysis

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3364 Mobility and Effective Regulatory Policies in the 21st Century Transport Sector

Authors: Pedro Paulino

Abstract:

The majority of the world’s population is already living in urban areas and the urban population is expected to keep increasing in the next decades. This exponential increase in urban population carries with it obvious mobility problems. Not only a new paradigm in the transport sector is needed in order to address these problems; effective regulatory policies to ensure the quality of services, passenger rights, competition between operators and consistency of the entire mobile ecosystem are needed as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the problems the world faces in this sector and contribute to their solution. Indeed, our study concludes that only through the active supervision of the markets and the activity of monitoring the various operators will it be possible to develop a sustainable and efficient transport system which meets the needs of a changing world.

Keywords: mobility, regulation policies, sanctioning powers, sustainable transport

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3363 Can Urbanisation Be the Cause for Increasing Urban Poverty: An Exploratory Analysis for India

Authors: Sarmistha Singh

Abstract:

An analysis of trend of urbanization and urban poverty in recent decades is showing that a distinctly reducing rural poverty and increasing in urban areas. It can be argued that the higher the urbanization fuelled by the urban migration to city, which is picking up people from less skilled, education so they faced obstacle to enter into the mainstream economy of city. The share of workforce in economy is higher; in contrast it remains as negligence. At the same time, less wages, absence of social security, social dialogue make them insecure. The vulnerability in their livelihood found. So the paper explores the relation of urbanization and urban poverty in the city, in other words how the urbanization process affecting the urban space in creating the number of poor people in the city. The central focus is the mobility of people with less education and skilled with motive of job search and better livelihood. In many studies found the higher the urbanization and higher the urban poverty in city. In other words, poverty is the impact of urbanization. The strategy of urban inequality through ‘dispersal of concentration’ by the World Bank and others, need to be examined.

Keywords: urbanization, mobility, urban poverty, informal settlements, informal worker

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3362 How Autonomous Vehicles Transform Urban Policies and Cities

Authors: Adrian P. Gomez Manas

Abstract:

Autonomous vehicles have already transformed urban policies and cities. This is the main assumption of our research, which aims to understand how the representations of the possible arrival of autonomous vehicles already transform priorities or actions in transport, and more largely, urban policies. This research is done within the framework of a PhD doctorate directed by Professor Xavier Desjardins at the Sorbonne University of Paris. Our hypotheses are: -the perspectives, representations and imaginaries on autonomous vehicles already affect the stakeholders of urban policies; - the discourses on the opportunities or threats of autonomous vehicles reflect the current strategies of the stakeholders. Each stakeholder tries to integrate a discourse on autonomous vehicles that allows them to change as little as possible their current tactics and strategies. The objective is to eventually make a comparison between three different cases: Paris, United Arab Emirates and Bogota. We chose those territories because their contexts are very different but they all have important interests in mobility and innovation, and they all have started to reflect on the subject of self-driving mobility. The main methodology used is to interview actors of the metropolitan area (local officials, leading urban and transport planners, influent experts, private companies). This work is supplemented with conferences, official documents, press articles and websites. The objective is to understand: 1) What they know about autonomous vehicles and where does their knowledge come from; 2) What they expect from autonomous vehicles ; 3) How their ideas about autonomous vehicles are transforming their action and strategy on managing daily mobility, investing in transport, designing public spaces and urban planning. For this conference, the idea is to present the research and some preliminary results: we will show that autonomous vehicles are often viewed by public authorities as a lever to reach something else; we will also present that speeches are very influenced by local context (political, geographical, economical, etc.) creating an interesting balance between global and local influences; we will analyze the differences and similarities between the three cases and will try to understand which are the causes.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, public policies, self-driving mobility, transport, urban mobility, urban planning

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3361 Sustainable Urban Mobility: Rethinking the Bus Stop Infrastructures of Dhaka South

Authors: Hasnun Wara Khondker, M. Tarek Morad

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Bangladesh is one of the most populous countries of the world in terms of density. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh currently has a population of approximately 15-16 million of which around 9 million people are accommodated in Dhaka South City Corporation (DSCC) within around 109 square kilometer area. Despite having various urban issues, country is at its pick of economic progress and Dhaka is the core of this economic growth. To ensure the proper economic development and citizens wellbeing, city needs an ingenious, congestion-free public transportation network. Bus stop/bus bay is an essential infrastructure for ensuring efficient public transportation flow within the city along with enhancing accessibility, user comfort, and safety through public amenities. At present, there is no established Mass Rapid Transit or Bus Rapid Transit network within the city and therefore these private owned buses are the only major mode of mass transportation of Dhaka city. DSCC has undertaken a project to re-design several bus stops and bus bays according to the universal standard for better urban mobility and user satisfaction. This paper will analyze the design approach of the bus stop/bay infrastructure within Dhaka South, putting the research lens on sustainable urban mobility with case studies of similar kind of urban context. The paper will also study the design process with setting several parameters, i.e., accessibility, passenger safety, comfort, sustainability, etc. Moreover, this research will recommend a guideline for designing a bus stop based on the analysis of the design methods.

Keywords: bus stop, Dhaka, public transportation, sustainable urban mobility, universal accessibility, user safety

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3360 The City of Images: Urban Mobility Policies and Extra-Small Tactical Projects for Promoting the Quality of Urban Life of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Everyday City

Authors: Valentina Talu, Giulia Tola

Abstract:

Current researches and applications aimed at exploring the role of spatial configuration as a means for improving the autonomy of people with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), almost exclusively focus on the definition of criteria for the design of closed, separated, private spaces devoted only to people - mainly children - with ASD. In fact, very few researches specifically investigate the relation between the city and people with autism, focusing on their sensory experiences related to the interaction with the urban environment. The growing incidence of ASD and the need to guarantee during adulthood the actual opportunity to exercise the achieved level of autonomy and independency, emphasizes the necessity to ‘broaden’ the research perspective by investigating also the specific contribution of urban mobility policies and urban design to the enhancement of the quality of life of people with ASD. Starting from these considerations, the paper describes an ongoing research focused on the relation between the city and people with autism spectrum disorder, with the specific aim of promoting their possibility of walking across the city at the neighborhood scale, thus making the access to relevant urban spaces and services possible. In the first part, the paper proposes a framework for illustrating the commonly recurring problems that people with ASD face in their daily life when they interact with the urban environment (with reference to the capability approach). Subsequently, with the support of an in depth analysis of existing contributions (researches and projects) and an exchange with different experts (neuropsychiatrists, teachers, parents), are identified two urban requirements, then 'translated' into an integrated system of urban mobility policies and extra-small tactical project aimed at enhancing the actual possibility for people with ASD of walking through the city autonomously and safely. According to this vision, the promotion of the autonomy of people with ASD through the adoption of mobility policies and micro tactical urban projects can represent an opportunity for promoting and improving the overall quality of urban life.

Keywords: city and people with ASD, quality of urban life of disadvantaged people, urban capabilities, urban design

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3359 From the Fields to the Concrete: Urban Development of Campo Mourão

Authors: Caio Fialho

Abstract:

The automobile incentive policy in Brazil since the 1950s creates several problems in its cities, more visible in large centers such as São Paulo or Rio de Janeiro, but also strongly present in smaller cities, resulting in an increase in social and spatial inequality, together with a drop in the quality of life. The analyzed city, Campo Mourão, reflects these policies, a city that initially planned to be compact and walkable took other directions and currently suffers from urban mobility and social inequality in this urban environment, despite being a medium-sized city in Brazil. The research aims to understand and diagnose how these policies shaped the city and what are the results in Brazilian's inland cities. Based on historical, bibliographical, and field research in the city, the result is a diagnosis of the problem faced and how it can be reversed in search of social equality and better quality of life.

Keywords: urban mobility, quality of life, social equality, substantiable

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3358 Quantifying Mobility of Urban Inhabitant Based on Social Media Data

Authors: Yuyun, Fritz Akhmad Nuzir, Bart Julien Dewancker

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Check-in locations on social media provide information about an individual’s location. The millions of units of data generated from these sites provide knowledge for human activity. In this research, we used a geolocation service and users’ texts posted on Twitter social media to analyze human mobility. Our research will answer the questions; what are the movement patterns of a citizen? And, how far do people travel in the city? We explore the people trajectory of 201,118 check-ins and 22,318 users over a period of one month in Makassar city, Indonesia. To accommodate individual mobility, the authors only analyze the users with check-in activity greater than 30 times. We used sampling method with a systematic sampling approach to assign the research sample. The study found that the individual movement shows a high degree of regularity and intensity in certain places. The other finding found that the average distance an urban inhabitant can travel per day is as far as 9.6 km.

Keywords: mobility, check-in, distance, Twitter

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3357 Computer Software for Calculating Electron Mobility of Semiconductors Compounds; Case Study for N-Gan

Authors: Emad A. Ahmed

Abstract:

Computer software to calculate electron mobility with respect to different scattering mechanism has been developed. This software is adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique and its interface has been designed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. As a case study the electron mobility of n-GaN was performed using this software. The behaviour of the mobility for n-GaN due to elastic scattering processes and its relation to temperature and doping concentration were discussed. The results agree with other available theoretical and experimental data.

Keywords: electron mobility, relaxation time, GaN, scattering, computer software, computation physics

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3356 Anticipating the Change: Visions and Perspectives towards a Post-Car World

Authors: Farzaneh Bahrami

Abstract:

Different indicators, such as modal shares in mobility practices or car ownership, may suggest that the century of car dominance - at least in Europe and North America - is already behind us. If the emergence of the car had radical spatial and social consequences, what would be the implications of its gradual disappearance - which could be expected in the context of ecological consciousness, economic and energetic constraints as a result of both urban policies as well as lifestyle choices? To what extend shall urban experts account for this limited but visible transition from car-dominated systems towards alternative models of mobility in which the individual-motorized mobility (car) is not central; what models of urbanity could be imagined to support such a transformation? We have examined a selection of projects at different scales and within different contexts - new planned cities, dense urban areas or territories of dispersion – whose visions involve a significant shift from the current car system. We have been looking into their tools, strategies and different measures of car reduction, as well as their varied approaches to public space as an inevitable corollary to this change. The car’s dominance was formerly questioned by advocates of public space, rather than through interests in ecological urban design or other urban planning concerns. In the 60s already a universal longing for the qualities of traditional urban space led to a critique of the proliferation of fast roads, and thus the car’s colonization of everyday life. Reclamation of public space as the city’s quintessential social territory reappears today in contemporary discourses and reinforces the shift-provoking trends towards a new urbanity freed from car dominance. In a hypothetical process of the progressive phasing-out of the car, we shall expect fundamental transformations in spatial practices of the city, accompanied by the physical configuration of its public spaces. What will be the main characteristics of the new emerging spaces of sociability and where shall we encounter them? This contribution is an ongoing research within the framework of Post-Car World, an interdisciplinary project that explores the future of mobility through the role of the car.

Keywords: mobility, urbanity, future visions, public space

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3355 Rail Corridors between Minimal Use of Train and Unsystematic Tightening of Population: A Methodological Essay

Authors: A. Benaiche

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In the current situation, the automobile has become the main means of locomotion. It allows traveling long distances, encouraging urban sprawl. To counteract this trend, the train is often proposed as an alternative to the car. Simultaneously, the favoring of urban development around public transport nodes such as railway stations is one of the main issues of the coordination between urban planning and transportation and the keystone of the sustainable urban development implementation. In this context, this paper focuses on the study of the spatial structuring dynamics around the railway. Specifically, it is a question of studying the demographic dynamics in rail corridors of Nantes, Angers and Le Mans (Western France) basing on the radiation of railway stations. Consequently, the methodology is concentrated on the knowledge of demographic weight and gains of these corridors, the index of urban intensity and the mobility behaviors (workers’ travels, scholars' travels, modal practices of travels). The perimeter considered to define the rail corridors includes the communes of urban area which have a railway station and communes with an access time to the railway station is less than fifteen minutes by car (time specified by the Regional Transport Scheme of Travelers). The main tools used are the statistical data from the census of population, the basis of detailed tables and databases on mobility flows. The study reveals that the population is not tightened along rail corridors and train use is minimal despite the presence of a nearby railway station. These results lead to propose guidelines to make the train, a real vector of mobility across the rail corridors.

Keywords: coordination between urban planning and transportation, rail corridors, railway stations, travels

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3354 Educational Mobility as a Factor of Tourism Development in the Regional University

Authors: К. Lisinchuk

Abstract:

An effective approach to the management of international educational mobility in regional universities with the purpose of increasing tourist activity in the region is considered.

Keywords: export and import of tourist and educational services, international academic mobility, regional tourist activities

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3353 Informal Green Infrastructure as Mobility Enabler in Informal Settlements of Quito

Authors: Ignacio W. Loor

Abstract:

In the context of informal settlements in Quito, this paper provides evidence that slopes and deep ravines typical of Andean cities, around which marginalized urban communities sit, constitute a platform for green infrastructure that supports mobility for pedestrians in an incremental fashion. This is informally shaped green infrastructure that provides connectivity to other mobility infrastructures such as roads and public transport, which permits relegated dwellers reach their daily destinations and reclaim their rights to the city. This is relevant in that walking has been increasingly neglected as a viable mean of transport in Latin American cities, in favor of rather motorized means, for which the mobility benefits of green infrastructure have remained invisible to policymakers, contributing to the progressive isolation of informal settlements. This research leverages greatly on an ecological rejuvenation programme led by the municipality of Quito and the Andean Corporation for Development (CAN) intended for rehabilitating the ecological functionalities of ravines. Accordingly, four ravines in different stages of rejuvenation were chosen, in order to through ethnographic methods, capture the practices they support to dwellers of informal settlements across different stages, particularly in terms of issues of mobility. Then, by presenting fragments of interviews, description of observed phenomena, photographs and narratives published in institutional reports and media, the production process of mobility infrastructure over unoccupied slopes and ravines, and the roles that this infrastructure plays in the mobility of dwellers and their quotidian practices are explained. For informal settlements, which normally feature scant urban infrastructure, mobility embodies an unfavourable driver for the possibilities of dwellers to actively participate in the social, economic and political dimensions of the city, for which their rights to the city are widely neglected. Nevertheless, informal green infrastructure for mobility provides some alleviation. This infrastructure is incremental, since its features and usability gradually evolves as users put into it knowledge, labour, devices, and connectivity to other infrastructures in different dimensions which increment its dependability. This is evidenced in the diffusion of knowledge of trails and routes of footpaths among users, the implementation of linking stairs and bridges, the improved access by producing public spaces adjacent to the ravines, the illuminating of surrounding roads, and ultimately, the restoring of ecological functions of ravines. However, the perpetuity of this type of infrastructure is also fragile and vulnerable to the course of urbanisation, densification, and expansion of gated privatised spaces.

Keywords: green infrastructure, informal settlements, urban mobility, walkability

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3352 Gendered Mobility: Deep Distributions in Urban Transport Systems in Delhi

Authors: Nidhi Prabha

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Transportation as a sector is one of the most significant infrastructural elements of the ‘urban.' The distinctness of an urban life in a city is marked by the dynamic movements that it enables within the city-space. Therefore it is important to study the public-transport systems that enable and foster mobility which characterizes the urban. It is also crucial to underscore the way one is examining the urban transport systems - either as an infrastructural unit in a strict physical-structural sense or as a structural unit which acts as a prism refracting multiple experiences depending on the location of the ‘commuter.' In the proposed paper, the attempt is to uncover and investigate the assumption of the neuter-commuter by looking at urban transportation in the secondary sense i.e. as a structural unit which is experienced differently by different kinds of commuters, thus making transportation deeply distributed with various social structures and locations like class or gender which map onto the transport systems. To this end, the public-transit systems operating in Urban Delhi i.e. the Delhi Metros and the Delhi Transport Corporation run public-buses are looked at as case studies. The study is premised on the knowledge and data gained from both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources include data and knowledge collected from fieldwork, the methodology for which has ranged from adopting ‘mixed-methods’ which is ‘Qualitative-then-Quantitative’ as well as borrowing ethnographic techniques. Apart from fieldwork, other primary sources looked at including Annual Reports and policy documents of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) and the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), Union and Delhi budgets, Economic Survey of Delhi, press releases, etc. Secondary sources include the vast array of literature available on the critical nodes that inform the research like gender, transport geographies, urban-space, etc. The study indicates a deeply-distributed urban transport system wherein the various social-structural locations or different kinds of commuters map onto the way these different commuters experience mobility or movement within the city space. Mobility or movement, therefore, becomes gendered or has class-based ramifications. The neuter-commuter assumption is thus challenged. Such an understanding enables us to challenge the anonymity which the ‘urban’ otherwise claims it provides over the rural. The rural is opposed to the urban wherein urban ushers a modern way of life, breaking ties of traditional social identities. A careful study of the transport systems through the traveling patterns and choices of the commuters, however, indicate that this does not hold true as even the same ‘public-space’ of the transport systems allocates different places to different kinds of commuters. The central argument made though the research done is therefore that infrastructure like urban-transport-systems has to be studied and examined as seen beyond just a physical structure. The various experiences of daily mobility of different kinds of commuters have to be taken into account in order to design and plan more inclusive transport systems.

Keywords: gender, infrastructure, mobility, urban-transport-systems

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3351 Smart-Textile Containers for Urban Mobility

Authors: René Vieroth, Christian Dils, M. V. Krshiwoblozki, Christine Kallmayer, Martin Schneider-Ramelow, Klaus-Dieter Lang

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Green urban mobility in commercial and private contexts is one of the great challenges for the continuously growing cities all over the world. Bicycle based solutions are already and since a long time the key to success. Modern developments like e-bikes and high-end cargo-bikes complement the portfolio. Weight, aerodynamic drag, and security for the transported goods are the key factors for working solutions. Recent achievements in the field of smart-textiles allowed the creation of a totally new generation of intelligent textile cargo containers, which fulfill those demands. The fusion of technical textiles, design and electrical engineering made it possible to create an ecological solution which is very near to become a product. This paper shows all the details of this solution that includes an especially developed sensor textile for cut detection, a protective textile layer for intrusion prevention, an universal-charging-unit for energy harvesting from diverse sources and a low-energy alarm system with GSM/GPRS connection, GPS location and RFID interface.

Keywords: cargo-bike, cut-detection, e-bike, energy-harvesting, green urban mobility, logistics, smart-textiles, textile-integrity sensor

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3350 Direct Current Grids in Urban Planning for More Sustainable Urban Energy and Mobility

Authors: B. Casper

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The energy transition towards renewable energies and drastically reduced carbon dioxide emissions in Germany drives multiple sectors into a transformation process. Photovoltaic and on-shore wind power are predominantly feeding in the low and medium-voltage grids. The electricity grid is not laid out to allow an increasing feed-in of power in low and medium voltage grids. Electric mobility is currently in the run-up phase in Germany and still lacks a significant amount of charging stations. The additional power demand by e-mobility cannot be supplied by the existing electric grids in most cases. The future demands in heating and cooling of commercial and residential buildings are increasingly generated by heat-pumps. Yet the most important part in the energy transition is the storage of surplus energy generated by photovoltaic and wind power sources. Water electrolysis is one way to store surplus energy known as power-to-gas. With the vehicle-to-grid technology, the upcoming fleet of electric cars could be used as energy storage to stabilize the grid. All these processes use direct current (DC). The demand of bi-directional flow and higher efficiency in the future grids can be met by using DC. The Flexible Electrical Networks (FEN) research campus at RWTH Aachen investigates interdisciplinary about the advantages, opportunities, and limitations of DC grids. This paper investigates the impact of DC grids as a technological innovation on the urban form and urban life. Applying explorative scenario development, analyzation of mapped open data sources on grid networks and research-by-design as a conceptual design method, possible starting points for a transformation to DC medium voltage grids could be found. Several fields of action have emerged in which DC technology could become a catalyst for future urban development: energy transition in urban areas, e-mobility, and transformation of the network infrastructure. The investigation shows a significant potential to increase renewable energy production within cities with DC grids. The charging infrastructure for electric vehicles will predominantly be using DC in the future because fast and ultra fast charging can only be achieved with DC. Our research shows that e-mobility, combined with autonomous driving has the potential to change the urban space and urban logistics fundamentally. Furthermore, there are possible win-win-win solutions for the municipality, the grid operator and the inhabitants: replacing overhead transmission lines by underground DC cables to open up spaces in contested urban areas can lead to a positive example of how the energy transition can contribute to a more sustainable urban structure. The outlook makes clear that target grid planning and urban planning will increasingly need to be synchronized.

Keywords: direct current, e-mobility, energy transition, grid planning, renewable energy, urban planning

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3349 Systematic Literature Review and Bibliometric Analysis of Interorganizational Employee Mobility Determinants

Authors: Iva Zdrilić, Petra Došenović Bonča, Darija Aleksić

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Since the boundaryless career, with its emphasis on cross-employer movements, was introduced as a new paradigm of career development, interorganizational employee mobility has been increasing. Although this phenomenon may have positive implications for individual careers and destination organizations, the consequences for the source organizations losing workers are less clear. The aim of this paper is thus to develop a comperehensive typology of possible interorganizational employee mobility determinants. Since the most common classification differentiates between mobility determinants at different levels (i.e., economic, organizational, and individual), this paper focuses on building a comprehensive multi-level typology of interorganizational mobility determinants across diverse sectors and industries. By using a structured literature review approach and bibliometric analysis, the paper reveals both intricate relationships between different mobility determinants and the complexity of interorganizational networks and social ties. The latter appear as both a mobility determinant (at the organizational and individual level) and a mobility effect. Interorganizational employee mobilty, namely, leads to the formation of networks between source and destination organizations, which are practically based on the social ties between mobile employees and their co-workers. In this way, they close the “interorganizational employee mobility-interorganizational network/ties” circle. The paper contributes to the career development literature by uncovering hitherto underexplored diverse determinants of intra- and inter-sectoral mobility as well as the conflicting results of the existing studies on some factors (e.g., interorganizational networks and/or social ties) that appear both as a mobility determinant and a mobility effect.

Keywords: interorganizational mobility, social ties, interorganizational network, knowledge transfer

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3348 Exploring the Impact of Location on Urban and Peri-Urban Farming: A Case Study from Lusaka, Zambia

Authors: Cecilia Elisabeth Fåhraeus

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In 2016, this author conducted a study on agricultural livelihoods in urban and peri-urban low-income settings in Lusaka, Zambia. The overarching aim was to determine the impact of physical space on agricultural activities, with a particular emphasis on geographical distinctions between urban and peri-urban environments. Agricultural activities among the areas’ residents were mapped through questionnaires, interviews and observations, and included variables such as type of activity and product; degree of marketization; inputs; location of production, storage and vending; labour distribution; production constraints, and associated mobility patterns, among others. The study confirmed that spatial idiosyncrasies of urban and peri-urban environments both enabled and constrained agricultural activity, but not always as anticipated. There were also cross-cutting issues on which physical space appeared to have a limited impact.

Keywords: agricultural production systems, geography, low-income settlements, Lusaka, peri-urban, urban

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3347 Tactical Urbanism and Sustainability: Tactical Experiences in the Promotion of Active Transportation

Authors: Aline Fernandes Barata, Adriana Sansão Fontes

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The overvaluation of the use of automobile has detrimentally affected the importance of pedestrians within the city and consequently its public spaces. As a way of treating contemporary urban paradigms, Tactical Urbanism aims to recover and activate spaces through fast and easily-applied actions that demonstrate the possibility of large-scale and long-term changes in cities. Tactical interventions have represented an important practice of redefining public spaces and urban mobility. The concept of Active Transportation coheres with the idea of sustainable urban mobility, characterizing the means of transportation through human propulsion, such as walking and cycling. This paper aims to debate the potential of Tactical Urbanism in promoting Active Transportation by revealing opportunities of transformation in the urban space of contemporary cities through initiatives that promote the protection and valorization of the presence of pedestrians and cyclists in cities, and that subvert the importance of motorized vehicles. In this paper, we present the character of these actions in two different ways: when they are used as tests for permanent interventions and when they have pre-defined start and end periods. Using recent initiatives to illustrate, we aim to discuss the role of small-scale actions in promoting and incentivizing a more active, healthy, sustainable and responsive urban way of life, presenting how some of them have developed through public policies. For that, we will present some examples of tactical actions that illustrate the encouragement of Active Transportation and trials to balance the urban opportunities for pedestrians and cyclists. These include temporary closure of streets, the creation of new alternatives and more comfortable areas for walking and cycling, and the subversion of uses in public spaces where the usage of cars are predominant.

Keywords: tactical urbanism, active transportation, sustainable mobility, non-motorized means

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3346 Social Mobility and Urbanization: Case Study of Well-Educated Urban Migrant's Life Experience in the Era of China's New Urbanization Project

Authors: Xu Heng

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Since the financial crisis of 2008 and the resulting Great Recession, the number of China’s unemployed college graduate reached over 500 thousand in 2011. Following the severe situation of college graduate employment, there has been growing public concern about college graduates, especially those with the less-privileged background, and their working and living condition in metropolises. Previous studies indicate that well-educated urban migrants with less-privileged background tend to obtain temporary occupation with less financial income and lower social status. Those vulnerable young migrants are described as ‘Ant Tribe’ by some scholars. However, since the implementation of a new urbanization project, together with the relaxed Hukou system and the acceleration of socio-economic development in middle/small cities, some researchers described well-educated urban migrant’s situation and the prospect of upward social mobility in urban areas in an overly optimistic light. In order to shed more lights on the underlying tensions encountered by China’s well-educated urban migrants in their upward social mobility pursuit, this research mainly focuses on 10 well-educated urban migrants’ life trajectories between their university-to-work transition and their current situation. All selected well-educated urban migrants are young adults with rural background who have already received higher education qualification from first-tier universities of Wuhan City (capital of Hubei Province). Drawing on the in-depth interviews with 10 participants and Inspired by Lahire’s Theory of Plural Actor, this study yields the following preliminary findings; 1) For those migrants who move to super-mega cities (i.e., Beijing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou) or stay in Wuhan after college graduation, their inadequacies of economic and social capital are the structural factors which negatively influence their living condition and further shape their plan for career development. The incompatibility between the sub-fields of urban life and the disposition, which generated from their early socialization, is the main cause for marginalized position in the metropolises. 2) For those migrants who move back to middle/small cities located in their hometown regions, the inconsistency between the disposition, which generated from college life, and the organizational habitus of the workplace is the main cause for their sense of ‘fish out of water’, even though they have obtained the stable occupation of local government or state-owned enterprise. On the whole, this research illuminates how the underlying the structural forces shape well-educated urban migrants’ life trajectories and hinder their upward social mobility under the context of new urbanization project.

Keywords: life trajectory, social mobility, urbanization, well-educated urban migrant

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3345 Impact of International Student Mobility on European and Global Identity: A Case Study of Switzerland

Authors: Karina Oborune

Abstract:

International student mobility involves a unique spatio-temporal context and exploring the various aspects of mobile students’ experience can lead to new findings within identity studies. The previous studies have mainly focused on student mobility within Europe and its impact on European identity arguing that students who participate in intra-European mobility already feel European before exchange. Contrary to previous studies, in this paper student mobility is analyzed from different point of view. In order to see whether a true Europeanization of identities is taking place, it is necessary to contrast European identity with alternative supranational identity which could similarly result from student mobility and in particular a global identity. Besides, in the paper there is explored whether geographical constellation (host country continental location during mobility- Europe vs. outside of Europe) plays a role. Based on newly developed model of multicultural, social and socio-demographic variables there is argued that after intra-European mobility only global identity of students could be increased (H1), but the mobility to countries outside of Europe causes changes in European identity (H2). The quantitative study (survey, n=1440, 22 higher education institutions, experimental group of former and future/potential mobile students and control group of non-mobile students) was held in Switzerland where is equally high number of students who participate in intra-European and outside of Europe mobility. The results of multivariate linear regression showed that students who participate in exchange in Europe increase their European identity due to having close friends from Europe, as well as due to length of the mobility experience had impact, but students who participate in exchange outside of Europe increase their global identity due to having close friends from outside of Europe and proficiency in foreign languages.

Keywords: student mobility, European identity, global identity, global identity

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3344 Network Mobility Support in Content-Centric Internet

Authors: Zhiwei Yan, Jong-Hyouk Lee, Yong-Jin Park, Xiaodong Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze NEtwork MObility (NEMO) supporting problems in Content-Centric Networking (CCN), and propose the CCN-NEMO which can well support the deployment of the content-centric paradigm in large-scale mobile Internet. The CCN-NEMO extends the signaling message of the basic CCN protocol, to support the mobility discovery and fast trigger of Interest re-issuing during the network mobility. Besides, the Mobile Router (MR) is extended to optimize the content searching and relaying in the local subnet. These features can be employed by the nested NEMO to maximize the advantages of content retrieving with CCN. Based on the analysis, we compare the performance on handover latency between the basic CCN and our proposed CCN-NEMO. The results show that our scheme can facilitate the content-retrieving in the NEMO scenario with improved performance.

Keywords: NEMO, CCN, mobility, handover latency

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3343 Measuring the Influence of Functional Proximity on Environmental Urban Performance via IMM: Four Study Cases in Milan

Authors: M. Tadi, M. Hadi Mohammad Zadeh, Ozge Ogut

Abstract:

Although how cities’ forms are structured is studied, more efforts are needed on systemic comprehensions and evaluations of the urban morphology through quantitative metrics that are able to describe the performance of a city in relation to its formal properties. More research is required in this direction in order to better describe the urban form characteristics and their impact on the environmental performance of cities and to increase their sustainability stewardship. With the aim of developing a better understanding of the built environment’s systemic structure, the intention of this paper is to present a holistic methodology for studying the behavior of the built environment and investigate the methods for measuring the effect of urban structure to the environmental performance. This goal will be pursued through an inquiry into the morphological components of the urban systems and the complex relationships between them. Particularly, this paper focuses on proximity, referring to the proximity of different land-uses, is a concept with which Integrated Modification Methodology (IMM) explains how land-use allocation might affect the choice of mobility in neighborhoods, and especially, encourage or discourage non-motived mobility. This paper uses proximity to demonstrate that the structure attributes can quantifiably relate to the performing behavior in the city. The target is to devise a mathematical pattern from the structural elements and correlate it directly with urban performance indicators concerned with environmental sustainability. The paper presents some results of this rigorous investigation of urban proximity and its correlation with performance indicators in four different areas in the city of Milan, each of them characterized by different morphological features.

Keywords: built environment, ecology, sustainable indicators, sustainability, urban morphology

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3342 Actually Existing Policy Mobilities in Czechia: Comparing Creative and Smart Cities

Authors: Ondrej Slach, Jan Machacek, Jan Zenka, Lucie Hyllova, Petr Rumpel

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to identify and asses different trajectories of two fashionable urban policies –creative and smart cities– in specific post-socialistic context. Drawing on the case of Czechia, we employ the concept of policy mobility research. More specifically, we employ a discourse analysis in order to identify the so-called 'infrastructure' of both policies (such as principal actors, journals, conferences, events), with the special focus on 'agents of transfer' in a multiscale perspective. The preliminary results indicate faster and more aggressive spatial penetration of smart cities policy compared to creative cities policy in Czechia. Further, it seems that existed translation and implementation of smart cities policy into the national and urban context resulted in deliberated fragmented policy of smart cities in Czechia (pure technocratic view), which might be a threat for the future development of social sustainability, especially in cities that are facing increasing social polarisation. Last but not least, due to the fast spatial penetration of the concept and policies of smart cities, it seems that creative cities policy has almost been crowded out of the Czech urban agenda.

Keywords: policy mobility, smart cities, creative cities, Czechia

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3341 Academic Mobility and International Migration: Challenges and Opportunities for African Skilled Immigrants in Sweden

Authors: Anne Kubai

Abstract:

Since the Lisbon Summit in 2007, discussion and dialogue on ways of enhancing collaboration between Africa and the EU on the issues of migration, mobility and employment has intensified. The Africa-EU Partnership on migration, mobility and employment aims to provide far-reaching responses on migration and employment challenges; and facilitate mobility of people in Africa and the EU. However, since the outcomes of the proposed policies depend on the political interests and institutional capacities of both the EU and African states that are involved, the results have so far been uncoordinated and scattered. Also, many European countries have eased their entry regulations with regard to highly skilled migrants, and there is need to explore the implications of such changes. Therefore, this contribution will address the following questions: How has the progression of migration and border management in the Nordic countries, particularly Sweden, affected the flow and mobility of highly skilled migrants from Africa? What is the possible impact of the changes in receiving countries (such as introduction of tuition fees and more stringent admission regulations for foreign students in Sweden) on skilled migration and mobility? How can highly skilled immigrants be a source of research knowledge between international and local institutions and researchers both in sending and receiving countries?

Keywords: academic mobility, skilled, African, knowledge, research, migrants, Sweden

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3340 Walkability and Urban Centers: The Valuation of Public Open Spaces from a Sustainable Alternative

Authors: Ursula D'Almeida, Danielly Aliprandi

Abstract:

A car-based development is observed in our cities, what leads to social and environmental impacts, such as air pollution, excessive noises and the substitution of public open spaces for roads and parking lots. Concerning the efforts to promote a sustainable development, a key issue is the reduction of fossil fuels consumption. An alternative to the pollutant gases emission, especially from urban transportation, is the incentive for active transport. The promoting of non-motorized travels and locomotion ways that only depend on human propulsion meets the sustainable mobility notion. Walking is one of the healthiest, cleanest, most natural and economical means to move around. Also, it integrates part of public transportation travels. Since walking demands physical effort, it is sensitive to environmental conditions. In urban space, not always we come across pedestrian friendly road structures. Based on the theory of walkability, the present paper aims to discuss the walking conditions in city centers by analyzing the distribution of urban services and uses, and this also regarding sidewalks quality. The case study presented is the urban center in the medium-sized Brazilian city Campos dos Goytacazes, in Rio de Janeiro State. The study also brings contributions to the recovering of underused public open spaces, especially by encouraging their use and appropriation through valuing non-motorized travels conditions.

Keywords: active transport, historical center, sustainable mobility, walking

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3339 Ensuring Sustainable Urban Mobility in Indian Cities: Need for Creating People Friendly Roadside Public Spaces

Authors: Pushplata Garg

Abstract:

Mobility, is an integral part of living and sustainability of urban mobility, is essential not only for, but also for addressing global warming and climate change. However, very little is understood about the obstacles/hurdles and likely challenges in the success of plans for sustainable urban mobility in Indian cities from the public perspective. Whereas some of the problems and issues are common to all cities, others vary considerably with financial status, function, the size of cities and culture of a place. Problems and issues similar in all cities relate to availability, efficiency and safety of public transport, last mile connectivity, universal accessibility, and essential planning and design requirements of pedestrians and cyclists are same. However, certain aspects like the type of means of public transportation, priority for cycling and walking, type of roadside activities, are influenced by the size of the town, average educational and income level of public, financial status of the local authorities, and culture of a place. The extent of public awareness, civic sense, maintenance of public spaces and law enforcement vary significantly from large metropolitan cities to small and medium towns in countries like India. Besides, design requirements for shading, location of public open spaces and sitting areas, street furniture, landscaping also vary depending on the climate of the place. Last mile connectivity plays a major role in success/ effectiveness of public transport system in a city. In addition to the provision of pedestrian footpaths connecting important destinations, sitting spaces and necessary amenities/facilities along footpaths; pedestrian movement to public transit stations is encouraged by the presence of quality roadside public spaces. It is not only the visual attractiveness of streetscape or landscape or the public open spaces along pedestrian movement channels but the activities along that make a street vibrant and attractive. These along with adequate spaces to rest and relax encourage people to walk as is observed in cities with successful public transportation systems. The paper discusses problems and issues of pedestrians for last mile connectivity in the context of Delhi, Chandigarh, Gurgaon, and Roorkee- four Indian cities representing varying urban contexts, that is, of metropolitan, large and small cities.

Keywords: pedestrianisation, roadside public spaces, last mile connectivity, sustainable urban mobility

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3338 The Impact of International Student Mobility on Trade and Gross Domestic Product: The Case of China

Authors: Yasir Khan

Abstract:

The continued growth in international students coming to China for higher education had a significant positive impact on trade and GDP in China. Student mobility may expend trade with their country of origin, owing to superior knowledge, or preferential access to market opportunities. We test this hypothesis using Chinese trade data from 1999 to 2017. In fully-modify (OLS) and dynamic (OLS) testing estimation, we find that a 1.24 percent increase in student inward mobility is associated with a 1 percent increase in Chinese export trade. On the other hand, we find that a 1.18 percent increase in the student inward mobility to China is associated with a 1 percent increase in import trade. In addition, we find that a 1.13 percent increase in international student inward mobility is associated with a 1 percent increase in the GDP. The outcome suggests that international students have a strong influence on Gross Domestic Product (GDP), exports and imports trade. However, the study holds that the government should attach great attachment and importance to the role of international students in the export and import trade.

Keywords: international student mobility, China, export, import, GDP, FMOLS, DOLS

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3337 The Proposal of a Shared Mobility City Index to Support Investment Decision Making for Carsharing

Authors: S. Murr, S. Phillips

Abstract:

One of the biggest challenges entering a market with a carsharing or any other shared mobility (SM) service is sound investment decision-making. To support this process, the authors think that a city index evaluating different criteria is necessary. The goal of such an index is to benchmark cities along a set of external measures to answer the main two challenges: financially viability and the understanding of its specific requirements. The authors have consulted several shared mobility projects and industry experts to create such a Shared Mobility City Index (SMCI). The current proposal of the SMCI consists of 11 individual index measures: general data (demographics, geography, climate and city culture), shared mobility landscape (current SM providers, public transit options, commuting patterns and driving culture) and political vision and goals (vision of the Mayor, sustainability plan, bylaws/tenders supporting SM). To evaluate the suitability of the index, 16 cities on the East Coast of North America were selected and secondary research was conducted. The main sources of this study were census data, organisational records, independent press releases and informational websites. Only non-academic sources where used because the relevant data for the chosen cities is not published in academia. Applying the index measures to the selected cities resulted in three major findings. Firstly, density (city area divided by number of inhabitants) is not an indicator for the number of SM services offered: the city with the lowest density has five bike and carsharing options. Secondly, there is a direct correlation between commuting patterns and how many shared mobility services are offered. New York, Toronto and Washington DC have the highest public transit ridership and the most shared mobility providers. Lastly, except one, all surveyed cities support shared mobility with their sustainability plan. The current version of the shared mobility index is proving a practical tool to evaluate cities, and to understand functional, political, social and environmental considerations. More cities will have to be evaluated to refine the criteria further. However, the current version of the index can be used to assess cities on their suitability for shared mobility services and will assist investors deciding which city is a financially viable market.

Keywords: carsharing, transportation, urban planning, shared mobility city index

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