Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13090

Search results for: mixing process

13090 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanism of Stratified Liquid Mixing in a Cylinder

Authors: Chai Mingming, Li Lei, Lu Xiaoxia

Abstract:

In this paper, the mechanism of stratified liquids’ mixing in a cylinder is investigated. It is focused on the effects of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and rotation of the cylinder on liquid interface mixing. For miscible liquids, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique is applied to record the concentration field for one liquid. Intensity of Segregation (IOS) is used to describe the mixing status. For immiscible liquids, High Speed Camera is adopted to record the development of the interface. The experiment of RTI indicates that it plays a great role in the mixing process, and meanwhile the large-scale mixing is triggered, and subsequently the span of the stripes decreases, showing that the mesoscale mixing is coming into being. The rotation experiments show that the spin-down process has a great role in liquid mixing, during which the upper liquid falls down rapidly along the wall and crashes into the lower liquid. During this process, a lot of interface instabilities are excited. Liquids mix rapidly in the spin-down process. It can be concluded that no matter what ways have been adopted to speed up liquid mixing, the fundamental reason is the interface instabilities which increase the area of the interface between liquids and increase the relative velocity of the two liquids.

Keywords: interface instability, liquid mixing, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, spin-down process, spin-up process

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13089 The Effect of Ingredients Mixing Sequence in Rubber Compounding on the Formation of Bound Rubber and Cross-Link Density of Natural Rubber

Authors: Abu Hasan, Rochmadi, Hary Sulistyo, Suharto Honggokusumo

Abstract:

This research purpose is to study the effect of Ingredients mixing sequence in rubber compounding onto the formation of bound rubber and cross link density of natural rubber and also the relationship of bound rubber and cross link density. Analysis of bound rubber formation of rubber compound and cross link density of rubber vulcanizates were carried out on a natural rubber formula having masticated and mixing, followed by curing. There were four methods of mixing and each mixing process was followed by four mixing sequence methods of carbon black into the rubber. In the first method of mixing sequence, rubber was masticated for 5 min and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were added simultaneously. In the second one, rubber was masticated for 1 min and followed by addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 simultaneously using the different method of mixing then the first one. In the third one, carbon black N 660 was used for the same mixing procedure of the second one, and in the last one, rubber was masticated for 3 min, carbon black N 330 and rubber chemicals were added subsequently. The addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black into masticated rubber was distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. Carbon black was added into two stages. In the first stage, 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In the second one to the fourth one, the addition of carbon black in the first and the second stage was added in the phr ratio 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The results showed that the ingredients mixing process influenced bound rubber formation and cross link density. In the three methods of mixing, the bound rubber formation was proportional with crosslink density. In contrast in the fourth one, bound rubber formation and cross link density had contradictive relation. Regardless of the mixing method operated, bound rubber had non linear relationship with cross link density. The high cross link density was formed when low bound rubber formation. The cross link density became constant at high bound rubber content.

Keywords: bound-rubber, cross-link density, natural rubber, rubber mixing process

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
13088 Characteristics of Nanosilica-Geopolymer Nanocomposites and Mixing Effect

Authors: H. Assaedi, F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low

Abstract:

This paper presents the effects of mixing procedures on mechanical properties of flyash-based geopolymer matrices containing nanosilica (NS) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by wt.. Comparison is made with conventional mechanical dry-mixing of NS with flyash and wet-mixing of NS in alkaline solutions. Physical and mechanical properties are investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results show that generally the addition of NS particles enhanced the microstructure and improved flexural and compressive strengths of geopolymer nanocomposites. However, samples prepared using dry-mixing approach demonstrate better physical and mechanical properties than wet-mixing of NS.

Keywords: geopolymer, nano-silica, dry mixing, wet mixing, physical properties, mechanical properties

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13087 Optimizing Approach for Sifting Process to Solve a Common Type of Empirical Mode Decomposition Mode Mixing

Authors: Saad Al-Baddai, Karema Al-Subari, Elmar Lang, Bernd Ludwig

Abstract:

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new data-driven of time-series decomposition, has the advantage of supposing that a time series is non-linear or non-stationary, as is implicitly achieved in Fourier decomposition. However, the EMD suffers of mode mixing problem in some cases. The aim of this paper is to present a solution for a common type of signals causing of EMD mode mixing problem, in case a signal suffers of an intermittency. By an artificial example, the solution shows superior performance in terms of cope EMD mode mixing problem comparing with the conventional EMD and Ensemble Empirical Mode decomposition (EEMD). Furthermore, the over-sifting problem is also completely avoided; and computation load is reduced roughly six times compared with EEMD, an ensemble number of 50.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition (EMD), mode mixing, sifting process, over-sifting

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13086 Simulation of the Extensional Flow Mixing of Molten Aluminium and Fly Ash Nanoparticles

Authors: O. Ualibek, C. Spitas, V. Inglezakis, G. Itskos

Abstract:

This study presents simulations of an aluminium melt containing an initially non-dispersed fly ash nanoparticle phase. Mixing is affected predominantly by means of forced extensional flow via either straight or slanted orifices. The sensitivity to various process parameters is determined. The simulated process is used for the production of cast fly ash-aluminium nanocomposites. The possibilities for rod and plate stock grading in the context of a continuous casting process implementation are discussed.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, fly ash nanoparticles, aluminium 2024, agglomeration

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13085 Robust Design of Electroosmosis Driven Self-Circulating Micromixer for Biological Applications

Authors: Bahram Talebjedi, Emily Earl, Mina Hoorfar

Abstract:

One of the issues that arises with microscale lab-on-a-chip technology is that the laminar flow within the microchannels limits the mixing of fluids. To combat this, micromixers have been introduced as a means to try and incorporate turbulence into the flow to better aid the mixing process. This study presents an electroosmotic micromixer that balances vortex generation and degeneration with the inlet flow velocity to greatly increase the mixing efficiency. A comprehensive parametric study was performed to evaluate the role of the relevant parameters on the mixing efficiency. It was observed that the suggested micromixer is perfectly suited for biological applications due to its low pressure drop (below 10 Pa) and low shear rate. The proposed micromixer with optimized working parameters is able to attain a mixing efficiency of 95% in a span of 0.5 seconds using a frequency of 10 Hz, a voltage of 0.7 V, and an inlet velocity of 0.366 mm/s.

Keywords: microfluidics, active mixer, pulsed AC electroosmosis flow, micromixer

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13084 Code-Switching and Code Mixing among Ogba-English Bilingual Conversations

Authors: Ben-Fred Ohia

Abstract:

Code-switching and code-mixing are linguistic behaviours that arise in a bilingual situation. They limit speakers in a conversation to decide which code they should use to utter particular phrases or words in the course of carrying out their utterance. Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. The speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcomes of the linguistic contact is code-switching or code-mixing. The work discusses the nature of code-switching and code-mixing in Ogba-English bilinguals’ speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code-switching and code-mixing and explains the typology of code-switching and code-mixing and their manifestation in Ogba-English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code-switching and code-mixing are functionally motivated and being triggered by various conversational contexts.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-mixing, code-switching, Ogba

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13083 Comparison of Flow and Mixing Characteristics between Non-Oscillating and Transversely Oscillating Jet

Authors: Dinku Seyoum Zeleke, Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu

Abstract:

Comparison of flow and mixing characteristics between non-oscillating jet and transversely oscillating jet was investigated experimentally. Flow evolution process was detected by using high-speed digital camera, and jet spread width was calculated using binary edge detection techniques by using the long-exposure images. The velocity characteristics of transversely oscillating jet induced by a V-shaped fluidic oscillator were measured using single component hot-wire anemometer. The jet spread width of non-oscillating jet was much smaller than the jet exit gap because of behaving natural jet behaviors. However, the transversely oscillating jet has a larger jet spread width, which was associated with the excitation of the flow by self-induced oscillation. As a result, the flow mixing characteristics desperately improved both near-field and far-field. Therefore, this transversely oscillating jet has a better turbulence intensity, entrainment, and spreading width so that it augments flow-mixing characteristics desperately.

Keywords: flow mixing, transversely oscillating, spreading width, velocity characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
13082 Single-Section Fermentation Reactor with Cellular Mixing System

Authors: Marcin Dębowski, Marcin Zieliński, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

This publication presents a reactor designed for methane fermentation of organic substrates. The design is based on rotating cellular cylinders connected to a biomass feeder and an ultrasonic generator. This allows for simultaneous mixing and partial disintegration of the biomass, as well as stimulating higher metabolic rates within the microorganisms. Such a design allows from 2-fold to 14-fold reduction of power usage when compared to conventional mixing systems. The sludge does not undergo mechanical deformation during the mixing process, which improves substrate biodegradation efficiency by 10-15%. Cavitation occurs near the surface of the rods, partially releasing the biomass and separating it from the destroyed microorganisms. Biogas is released further away from the cellular cylinder rods due to the effect of the ultrasonic waves, in addition to increased biochemical activity of the microorganisms and increased exchange of the nutrient medium with metabolic products, which results in biogas production increase by about 15%.

Keywords: methane fermentation, bioreactors, biomass, mixing system

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
13081 Interfacial Instability and Mixing Behavior between Two Liquid Layers Bounded in Finite Volumes

Authors: Lei Li, Ming M. Chai, Xiao X. Lu, Jia W. Wang

Abstract:

The mixing process of two liquid layers in a cylindrical container includes the upper liquid with higher density rushing into the lower liquid with lighter density, the lower liquid rising into the upper liquid, meanwhile the two liquid layers having interactions with each other, forming vortices, spreading or dispersing in others, entraining or mixing with others. It is a complex process constituted of flow instability, turbulent mixing and other multiscale physical phenomena and having a fast evolution velocity. In order to explore the mechanism of the process and make further investigations, some experiments about the interfacial instability and mixing behavior between two liquid layers bounded in different volumes are carried out, applying the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and the high speed camera (HSC) techniques. According to the results, the evolution of interfacial instability between immiscible liquid develops faster than theoretical rate given by the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) theory. It is reasonable to conjecture that some mechanisms except the RTI play key roles in the mixture process of two liquid layers. From the results, it is shown that the invading velocity of the upper liquid into the lower liquid does not depend on the upper liquid's volume (height). Comparing to the cases that the upper and lower containers are of identical diameter, in the case that the lower liquid volume increases to larger geometric space, the upper liquid spreads and expands into the lower liquid more quickly during the evolution of interfacial instability, indicating that the container wall has important influence on the mixing process. In the experiments of miscible liquid layers’ mixing, the diffusion time and pattern of the liquid interfacial mixing also does not depend on the upper liquid's volumes, and when the lower liquid volume increases to larger geometric space, the action of the bounded wall on the liquid falling and rising flow will decrease, and the liquid interfacial mixing effects will also attenuate. Therefore, it is also concluded that the volume weight of upper heavier liquid is not the reason of the fast interfacial instability evolution between the two liquid layers and the bounded wall action is limited to the unstable and mixing flow. The numerical simulations of the immiscible liquid layers’ interfacial instability flow using the VOF method show the typical flow pattern agree with the experiments. However the calculated instability development is much slower than the experimental measurement. The numerical simulation of the miscible liquids’ mixing, which applying Fick’s diffusion law to the components’ transport equation, shows a much faster mixing rate than the experiments on the liquids’ interface at the initial stage. It can be presumed that the interfacial tension plays an important role in the interfacial instability between the two liquid layers bounded in finite volume.

Keywords: interfacial instability and mixing, two liquid layers, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), High Speed Camera (HSC), interfacial energy and tension, Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (CHNS) equations

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13080 A Corpus-Based Analysis on Code-Mixing Features in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children in Singapore

Authors: Xunan Huang, Caicai Zhang

Abstract:

This paper investigated the code-mixing features in Mandarin-English bilingual children in Singapore. First, it examined whether the code-mixing rate was different in Mandarin Chinese and English contexts. Second, it explored the syntactic categories of code-mixing in Singapore bilingual children. Moreover, this study investigated whether morphological information was preserved when inserting syntactic components into the matrix language. Data are derived from the Singapore Bilingual Corpus, in which the recordings and transcriptions of sixty English-Mandarin 5-to-6-year-old children were preserved for analysis. Results indicated that the rate of code-mixing was asymmetrical in the two language contexts, with the rate being significantly higher in the Mandarin context than that in the English context. The asymmetry is related to language dominance in that children are more likely to code-mix when using their nondominant language. Concerning the syntactic categories of code-mixing words in the Singaporean bilingual children, we found that noun-mixing, verb-mixing, and adjective-mixing are the three most frequently used categories in code-mixing in the Mandarin context. This pattern mirrors the syntactic categories of code-mixing in the Cantonese context in Cantonese-English bilingual children, and the general trend observed in lexical borrowing. Third, our results also indicated that English vocabularies that carry morphological information are embedded in bare forms in the Mandarin context. These findings shed light upon how bilingual children take advantage of the two languages in mixed utterances in a bilingual environment.

Keywords: bilingual children, code-mixing, English, Mandarin Chinese

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13079 Longitudinal Vortices Mixing in Three-Stream Micromixers with Two Inlets

Authors: Yi-Tun Huang, Chih-Yang Wu, Shu-Wei Huang

Abstract:

In this work, we examine fluid mixing in a full three-stream mixing channel with longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs) built on the channel bottom by numerical simulation and experiment. The effects of the asymmetrical arrangement and the attack angle of the LVGs on fluid mixing are investigated. The results show that the micromixer with LVGs at a small asymmetry index (defined by the ratio of the distance from the center plane of the gap between the winglets to the center plane of the main channel to the width of the main channel) is superior to the micromixer with symmetric LVGs and that with LVGs at a large asymmetry index. The micromixer using five mixing modules of the LVGs with an attack angle between 16.5 degrees and 22.5 degrees can achieve excellent mixing over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Here, we call a section of channel with two pairs of staggered asymmetrical LVGs a mixing module. Besides, the micromixer with LVGs at a small attack angle is more efficient than that with a larger attack angle when pressure losses are taken into account.

Keywords: microfluidics, mixing, longitudinal vortex generators, two stream interfaces

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13078 A Technical Solution for Micro Mixture with Micro Fluidic Oscillator in Chemistry

Authors: Brahim Dennai, Abdelhak Bentaleb, Rachid Khelfaoui, Asma Abdenbi

Abstract:

The diffusion flux given by the Fick’s law characterizethe mixing rate. A passive mixing strategy is proposed to enhance mixing of two fluids through perturbed jet low. A numerical study of passive mixers has been presented. This paper is focused on the modeling of a micro-injection systems composed of passive amplifier without mechanical part. The micro-system modeling is based on geometrical oscillators form. An asymmetric micro-oscillator design based on a monostable fluidic amplifier is proposed. The characteristic size of the channels is generally about a few hundred of microns. The numerical results indicate that the mixing performance can be as high as 99 % within a typical mixing chamber of 0.20 mm diameter inlet and 2.0 mm distance of nozzle - spliter. In addition, the results confirm that self-rotation in the circular mixer significantly enhances the mixing performance. The novel micro mixing method presented in this study provides a simple solution to mixing problems in microsystem for application in chemistry.

Keywords: micro oscillator, modeling, micro mixture, diffusion, size effect, chemical equation

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13077 Low Sulfur Diesel-Like Fuel From Quick Remediation Process of Waste Oil Sludge

Authors: Isam A. H. Al Zubaidy

Abstract:

A quick process may be needed to get the benefit the big generated quantity of waste oil sludge (WOS). The process includes the mixing process of WOS with commercial diesel fuel. Different ratios of WOS to diesel fuel were prepared ranging 1:1 to 20:1 by mass. The mixture was continuously mixing for 10 minutes using bench type overhead stirrer and followed by filtration process to separate the soil waste from filtrate oil product. The quantity and the physical properties of the oil filtrate were measured. It was found that the addition of up to 15% WOS to diesel fuel was accepted without dramatic changes to the properties of diesel fuel. The amount of waste oil sludge was decreased by about 60% by mass. This means that about 60 % of the mass of sludge was recovered as light fuel oil. The physical properties of the resulting fuel from 10% sludge mixing ratio showed that the specific gravity, ash content, carbon residue, asphaltene content, viscosity, diesel index, cetane number, and calorific value were affected slightly. The color was changed to light black color. The sulfur content was increased also. This requires other processes to reduce the sulfur content of the resulting light fuel. A new desulfurization process was achieved using adsorption techniques with activated biomaterial to reduce the sulfur content to acceptable limits. Adsorption process by ZnCl₂ activated date palm kernel powder was effective for improvement of the physical properties of diesel like fuel. The final sulfur content was increased to 0.185 wt%. This diesel like fuel can be used in all tractors, buses, tracks inside and outside the refineries. The solid remaining seems to be smooth and can be mixed with asphalt mixture for asphalting the roads or can be used with other materials as an asphalt coating material for constructed buildings. Through this process, valuable fuel has been recovered, and the amount of waste material had decreased.

Keywords: oil sludge, diesel fuel, blending process, filtration process

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13076 The Effect of Oxidation Stability Improvement in Calophyllum Inophyllum Palm Oil Methyl Ester Production

Authors: Natalina, Hwai Chyuan Onga, W. T. Chonga

Abstract:

Oxidation stability of biodiesel is very important in fuel handling especially for remote location of biodiesel application. Variety of feedstocks and biodiesel production process resulted many variation of biodiesel oxidation stability. The current study relates to investigation of the impact of fatty acid composition that caused by natural and production process of calophyllum inophyllum palm oil methyl ester that correlated with improvement of biodiesel oxidation stability. Firstly, biodiesel was produced from crude oil of palm oil, calophyllum inophyllum and mixing of calophyllum inophyllum and palm oil. The production process of calophyllum inophyllum palm oil methyl ester (CIPOME) was divided by including washing process and without washing. Secondly, the oxidation stability was measured from the palm oil methyl ester (POME), calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester (CIME), CIPOME with washing process and CIPOME without washing process. Then, in order to find the differences of fatty acid compositions all of the biodiesels were measured by gas chromatography analysis. It was found that mixing calophyllum inophyllum into palm oil increased the oxidation stability. Washing process influenced the CIPOME fatty acid composition, and reduction of washing process during the production process gave significant oxidation stability number of CIPOME (38 h to 114 h).

Keywords: biodiesel, oxidation stability, calophyllum inophyllum, water content

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13075 The Influence of Bentonite on the Rheology of Geothermal Grouts

Authors: A. N. Ghafar, O. A. Chaudhari, W. Oettel, P. Fontana

Abstract:

This study is a part of the EU project GEOCOND-Advanced materials and processes to improve performance and cost-efficiency of shallow geothermal systems and underground thermal storage. In heat exchange boreholes, to improve the heat transfer between the pipes and the surrounding ground, the space between the pipes and the borehole wall is normally filled with geothermal grout. Traditionally, bentonite has been a crucial component in most commercially available geothermal grouts to assure the required stability and impermeability. The investigations conducted in the early stage of this project during the benchmarking tests on some commercial grouts showed considerable sensitivity of the rheological properties of the tested grouts to the mixing parameters, i.e., mixing time and velocity. Further studies on this matter showed that bentonite, which has been one of the important constituents in most grout mixes, was probably responsible for such behavior. Apparently, proper amount of shear should be applied during the mixing process to sufficiently activate the bentonite. The higher the amount of applied shear the more the activation of bentonite, resulting in change in the grout rheology. This explains why, occasionally in the field applications, the flow properties of the commercially available geothermal grouts using different mixing conditions (mixer type, mixing time, mixing velocity) are completely different than expected. A series of tests were conducted on the grout mixes, with and without bentonite, using different mixing protocols. The aim was to eliminate/reduce the sensitivity of the rheological properties of the geothermal grouts to the mixing parameters by replacing bentonite with polymeric (non-clay) stabilizers. The results showed that by replacing bentonite with a proper polymeric stabilizer, the sensitivity of the grout mix on mixing time and velocity was to a great extent diminished. This can be considered as an alternative for the developers/producers of geothermal grouts to provide enhanced materials with less uncertainty in obtained results in the field applications.

Keywords: flow properties, geothermal grout, mixing time, mixing velocity, rheological properties

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13074 Modeling of Electrokinetic Mixing in Lab on Chip Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Virendra J. Majarikar, Harikrishnan N. Unni

Abstract:

This paper sets to demonstrate a modeling of electrokinetic mixing employing electroosmotic stationary and time-dependent microchannel using alternate zeta patches on the lower surface of the micromixer in a lab on chip microfluidic device. Electroosmotic flow is amplified using different 2D and 3D model designs with alternate and geometric zeta potential values such as 25, 50, and 100 mV, respectively, to achieve high concentration mixing in the electrokinetically-driven microfluidic system. The enhancement of electrokinetic mixing is studied using Finite Element Modeling, and simulation workflow is accomplished with defined integral steps. It can be observed that the presence of alternate zeta patches can help inducing microvortex flows inside the channel, which in turn can improve mixing efficiency. Fluid flow and concentration fields are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equation (implying Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity boundary condition) and Convection-Diffusion equation. The effect of the magnitude of zeta potential, the number of alternate zeta patches, etc. are analysed thoroughly. 2D simulation reveals that there is a cumulative increase in concentration mixing, whereas 3D simulation differs slightly with low zeta potential as that of the 2D model within the T-shaped micromixer for concentration 1 mol/m3 and 0 mol/m3, respectively. Moreover, 2D model results were compared with those of 3D to indicate the importance of the 3D model in a microfluidic design process.

Keywords: COMSOL Multiphysics®, electrokinetic, electroosmotic, microfluidics, zeta potential

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13073 Impact of Mixing Parameters on Homogenization of Borax Solution and Nucleation Rate in Dual Radial Impeller Crystallizer

Authors: A. Kaćunić, M. Ćosić, N. Kuzmanić

Abstract:

Interaction between mixing and crystallization is often ignored despite the fact that it affects almost every aspect of the operation including nucleation, growth, and maintenance of the crystal slurry. This is especially pronounced in multiple impeller systems where flow complexity is increased. By choosing proper mixing parameters, what closely depends on the knowledge of the hydrodynamics in a mixing vessel, the process of batch cooling crystallization may considerably be improved. The values that render useful information when making this choice are mixing time and power consumption. The predominant motivation for this work was to investigate the extent to which radial dual impeller configuration influences mixing time, power consumption and consequently the values of metastable zone width and nucleation rate. In this research, crystallization of borax was conducted in a 15 dm3 baffled batch cooling crystallizer with an aspect ratio (H/T) of 1.3. Mixing was performed using two straight blade turbines (4-SBT) mounted on the same shaft that generated radial fluid flow. Experiments were conducted at different values of N/NJS ratio (impeller speed/ minimum impeller speed for complete suspension), D/T ratio (impeller diameter/crystallizer diameter), c/D ratio (lower impeller off-bottom clearance/impeller diameter), and s/D ratio (spacing between impellers/impeller diameter). Mother liquor was saturated at 30°C and was cooled at the rate of 6°C/h. Its concentration was monitored in line by Na-ion selective electrode. From the values of supersaturation that was monitored continuously over process time, it was possible to determine the metastable zone width and subsequently the nucleation rate using the Mersmann’s nucleation criterion. For all applied dual impeller configurations, the mixing time was determined by potentiometric method using a pulse technique, while the power consumption was determined using a torque meter produced by Himmelstein & Co. Results obtained in this investigation show that dual impeller configuration significantly influences the values of mixing time, power consumption as well as the metastable zone width and nucleation rate. A special attention should be addressed to the impeller spacing considering the flow interaction that could be more or less pronounced depending on the spacing value.

Keywords: dual impeller crystallizer, mixing time, power consumption, metastable zone width, nucleation rate

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13072 An Efficient Process Analysis and Control Method for Tire Mixing Operation

Authors: Hwang Ho Kim, Do Gyun Kim, Jin Young Choi, Sang Chul Park

Abstract:

Since tire production process is very complicated, company-wide management of it is very difficult, necessitating considerable amounts of capital and labors. Thus, productivity should be enhanced and maintained competitive by developing and applying effective production plans. Among major processes for tire manufacturing, consisting of mixing component preparation, building and curing, the mixing process is an essential and important step because the main component of tire, called compound, is formed at this step. Compound as a rubber synthesis with various characteristics plays its own role required for a tire as a finished product. Meanwhile, scheduling tire mixing process is similar to flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSSP) because various kinds of compounds have their unique orders of operations, and a set of alternative machines can be used to process each operation. In addition, setup time required for different operations may differ due to alteration of additives. In other words, each operation of mixing processes requires different setup time depending on the previous one, and this kind of feature, called sequence dependent setup time (SDST), is a very important issue in traditional scheduling problems such as flexible job shop scheduling problems. However, despite of its importance, there exist few research works dealing with the tire mixing process. Thus, in this paper, we consider the scheduling problem for tire mixing process and suggest an efficient particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to minimize the makespan for completing all the required jobs belonging to the process. Specifically, we design a particle encoding scheme for the considered scheduling problem, including a processing sequence for compounds and machine allocation information for each job operation, and a method for generating a tire mixing schedule from a given particle. At each iteration, the coordination and velocity of particles are updated, and the current solution is compared with new solution. This procedure is repeated until a stopping condition is satisfied. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated through a numerical experiment by using some small-sized problem instances expressing the tire mixing process. Furthermore, we compare the solution of the proposed algorithm with it obtained by solving a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model developed in previous research work. As for performance measure, we define an error rate which can evaluate the difference between two solutions. As a result, we show that PSO algorithm proposed in this paper outperforms MILP model with respect to the effectiveness and efficiency. As the direction for future work, we plan to consider scheduling problems in other processes such as building, curing. We can also extend our current work by considering other performance measures such as weighted makespan or processing times affected by aging or learning effects.

Keywords: compound, error rate, flexible job shop scheduling problem, makespan, particle encoding scheme, particle swarm optimization, sequence dependent setup time, tire mixing process

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13071 Energy Potential of Salinity Gradient Mixing: Case Study of Mixing Energies of Rivers of Goa with the Arabian Sea

Authors: Arijit Chakraborty, Anirban Roy

Abstract:

The Indian peninsula is strategically located in the Asian subcontinent with the Himalayas to the North and Oceans surrounding the other three directions with annual monsoons which takes care of water supply to the rivers. The total river water discharge into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is 628 km³/year and 274 km³/year, respectively. Thus huge volumes of fresh water meet saline water, and this mixing of two streams of dissimilar salinity gives rise to tremendous mixing energies which can be harvested for various purposes like energy generation using pressure retarded osmosis or reverse electrodialysis. The present paper concentrates on analyzing the energy of mixing for the rivers in Goa. Goa has 10 rivers of various sizes all which meet the Arabian Sea. In the present work, the 8 rivers and their salinity (NaCl concentrations) have been analyzed along with their seasonal fluctuations. Next, a Gibbs free energy formulation has been implemented to analyze the energy of mixing of the selected rivers. The highest and lowest energies according to the seasonal fluctuations have been evaluated, and this provides two important insights into (i) amount of energy that can be harvested and (ii) decision on the location of such systems.

Keywords: Gibbs energy, mixing energy, salinity gradient energy, thermodynamics

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13070 Effect of Deep Mixing Columns and Geogrid on Embankment Settlement on the Soft Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Embankment settlement on soft clays has always been problematic due to the high compaction and low shear strength of the soil. Deep soil mixing and geosynthetics are two soil improvement methods in such fields. Here, a numerical study is conducted on the embankment performance on the soft ground improved by deep soil mixing columns and geosynthetics based on the data of a real project. For this purpose, the finite element method is used in the Plaxis 2D software. The Soft Soil Creep model considers the creep phenomenon in the soft clay layer while the Mohr-Columb model simulates other soil layers. Results are verified using the data of an experimental embankment built on deep mixing columns. The effect of depth and diameter of deep mixing columns and the stiffness of geogrid on the vertical and horizontal movements of embankment on clay subsoil will be investigated in the following.

Keywords: PLAXIS 2D, embankment settlement, horizontal movement, deep soil mixing column, geogrid

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13069 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When fluid mixing is dominated by convection, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller center-line radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major-segment repeating units with a larger center-line radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: curved channel, microfluidics, mixing, non-newtonian fluids, vortex

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13068 Investigation of Solvent Effect on Viscosity of Lubricant in Disposable Medical Devices

Authors: Hamed Bagheri, Seyd Javid Shariati

Abstract:

The effects of type and amount of solvent on lubricant which is used in disposable medical devices are investigated in this article. Two kinds of common solvent, n-Hexane and n-Heptane, are used. The mechanical behavior of syringe has shown that n-Heptane has better mixing ratio and also more effective spray process in the barrel of syringe than n-Hexane because of similar solubility parameter to silicon oil. The results revealed that movement of plunger in the barrel increases when pure silicone is used because non-uniform film is created on the surface of barrel, and also, it seems that the form of silicon is converted from oil to gel due to sterilization process. The results showed that the convenient mixing ratio of solvent/lubricant oil is 80/20.

Keywords: disposal medical devices, lubricant oil, solvent effect, solubility parameter

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13067 A Mixing Matrix Estimation Algorithm for Speech Signals under the Under-Determined Blind Source Separation Model

Authors: Jing Wu, Wei Lv, Yibing Li, Yuanfan You

Abstract:

The separation of speech signals has become a research hotspot in the field of signal processing in recent years. It has many applications and influences in teleconferencing, hearing aids, speech recognition of machines and so on. The sounds received are usually noisy. The issue of identifying the sounds of interest and obtaining clear sounds in such an environment becomes a problem worth exploring, that is, the problem of blind source separation. This paper focuses on the under-determined blind source separation (UBSS). Sparse component analysis is generally used for the problem of under-determined blind source separation. The method is mainly divided into two parts. Firstly, the clustering algorithm is used to estimate the mixing matrix according to the observed signals. Then the signal is separated based on the known mixing matrix. In this paper, the problem of mixing matrix estimation is studied. This paper proposes an improved algorithm to estimate the mixing matrix for speech signals in the UBSS model. The traditional potential algorithm is not accurate for the mixing matrix estimation, especially for low signal-to noise ratio (SNR).In response to this problem, this paper considers the idea of an improved potential function method to estimate the mixing matrix. The algorithm not only avoids the inuence of insufficient prior information in traditional clustering algorithm, but also improves the estimation accuracy of mixing matrix. This paper takes the mixing of four speech signals into two channels as an example. The results of simulations show that the approach in this paper not only improves the accuracy of estimation, but also applies to any mixing matrix.

Keywords: DBSCAN, potential function, speech signal, the UBSS model

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13066 CFD Modeling of Mixing Enhancement in a Pitted Micromixer by High Frequency Ultrasound Waves

Authors: Faezeh Mohammadi, Ebrahim Ebrahimi, Neda Azimi

Abstract:

Use of ultrasound waves is one of the techniques for increasing the mixing and mass transfer in the microdevices. Ultrasound propagation into liquid medium leads to stimulation of the fluid, creates turbulence and so increases the mixing performance. In this study, CFD modeling of two-phase flow in a pitted micromixer equipped with a piezoelectric with frequency of 1.7 MHz has been studied. CFD modeling of micromixer at different velocity of fluid flow in the absence of ultrasound waves and with ultrasound application has been performed. The hydrodynamic of fluid flow and mixing efficiency for using ultrasound has been compared with the layout of no ultrasound application. The result of CFD modeling shows well agreements with the experimental results. The results showed that the flow pattern inside the micromixer in the absence of ultrasound waves is parallel, while when ultrasound has been applied, it is not parallel. In fact, propagation of ultrasound energy into the fluid flow in the studied micromixer changed the hydrodynamic and the forms of the flow pattern and caused to mixing enhancement. In general, from the CFD modeling results, it can be concluded that the applying ultrasound energy into the liquid medium causes an increase in the turbulences and mixing and consequently, improves the mass transfer rate within the micromixer.

Keywords: CFD modeling, ultrasound, mixing, mass transfer

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13065 Cladding Technology for Metal-Hybrid Composites with Network-Structure

Authors: Ha-Guk Jeong, Jong-Beom Lee

Abstract:

Cladding process is very typical technology for manufacturing composite materials by the hydrostatic extrusion. Because there is no friction between the metal and the container, it can be easily obtained in uniform flow during the deformation. The general manufacturing process for a metal-matrix composite in the solid state, mixing metal powders and ceramic powders with a suited volume ratio, prior to be compressed or extruded at the cold or hot condition in a can. Since through a plurality of unit processing steps of dispersing the materials having a large difference in their characteristics and physical mixing, the process is complicated and leads to non-uniform dispersion of ceramics. It is difficult and hard to reach a uniform ideal property in the coherence problems at the interface between the metal and the ceramic reinforcements. Metal hybrid composites, which presented in this report, are manufactured through the traditional plastic deformation processes like hydrostatic extrusion, caliber-rolling, and drawing. By the previous process, the realization of uniform macro and microstructure is surely possible. In this study, as a constituent material, aluminum, copper, and titanium have been used, according to the component ratio, excellent characteristics of each material were possible to produce a metal hybrid composite that appears to maximize. MgB₂ superconductor wire also fabricated via the same process. It will be introduced to their unique artistic and thermal characteristics.

Keywords: cladding process, metal-hybrid composites, hydrostatic extrusion, electronic/thermal characteristics

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13064 3D-Printing Compressible Macroporous Polymer Using Poly-Pickering-High Internal Phase Emulsions as Micromixer

Authors: Hande Barkan-Ozturk, Angelika Menner, Alexander Bismarck

Abstract:

Microfluidic mixing technology grew rapidly in the past few years due to its many advantages over the macro-scale mixing, especially the ability to use small amounts of internal volume and also very high surface-to-volume ratio. The Reynold number identify whether the mixing is operated by the laminar or turbulence flow. Therefore, mixing with very fast kinetic can be achieved by diminishing the channel dimensions to decrease Reynold number and the laminar flow can be accomplished. Moreover, by using obstacles in the micromixer, the mixing length and the contact area between the species have been increased. Therefore, the channel geometry and its surface property have great importance to reach satisfactory mixing results. Since poly(-merised) High Internal Phase Emulsions (polyHIPEs) have more than 74% porosity and their pores are connected each other with pore throats, which cause high permeability, they are ideal candidate to build a micromixer. The HIPE precursor is commonly produced by using an overhead stirrer to obtain relatively large amount of emulsion in batch process. However, we will demonstrate that a desired amount of emulsion can be prepared continuously with micromixer build from polyHIPE, and such HIPE can subsequently be employed as ink in 3D printing process. In order to produce the micromixer a poly-Pickering(St-co-DVB)HIPE with 80% porosity was prepared with modified silica particles as stabilizer and surfactant Hypermer 2296 to obtain open porous structure and after coating of the surface, the three 1/16' ' PTFE tubes to transfer continuous (CP) and internal phases (IP) and the other is to collect the emulsion were placed. Afterwards, the two phases were injected in the ratio 1:3 CP:IP with syringe dispensers, respectively, and highly viscoelastic H(M)IPE, which can be used as an ink in 3D printing process, was gathered continuously. After the polymerisation of the resultant emulsion, polyH(M)IPE has interconnected porous structure identical to the monolithic polyH(M)IPE indicating that the emulsion can be prepared constantly with poly-Pickering-HIPE as micromixer and it can be used to prepare desired pattern with a 3D printer. Moreover, the morphological properties of the emulsion can be adjustable by changing flow ratio, flow speed and structure of the micromixer.

Keywords: 3D-Printing, emulsification, macroporous polymer, micromixer, polyHIPE

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13063 Measurements of Flow Mixing Behaviors Using a Wire-Mesh Sensor in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Pin Rod Assembly

Authors: Hyungmo Kim, Hwang Bae, Seok-Kyu Chang, Dong Won Lee, Yung Joo Ko, Sun Rock Choi, Hae Seob Choi, Hyeon Seok Woo, Dong-Jin Euh, Hyeong-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

Flow mixing characteristics in the wire-wrapped 37-pin rod bundle were measured by using a wire-mesh sensing system for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). The subchannel flow mixing in SFR core subchannels was an essential characteristic for verification of a core thermal design and safety analysis. A dedicated test facility including the wire-mesh sensor system and tracing liquid injection system was developed, and the conductivity fields at the end of 37-pin rod bundle were visualized in several different flow conditions. These experimental results represented the reasonable agreements with the results of CFD, and the uncertainty of the mixing experiments has been conducted to evaluate the experimental results.

Keywords: core thermal design, flow mixing, a wire-mesh sensor, a wire-wrap effect

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13062 The Effects of the Waste Plastic Modification of the Asphalt Mixture on the Permanent Deformation

Authors: Soheil Heydari, Ailar Hajimohammadi, Nasser Khalili

Abstract:

The application of plastic waste for asphalt modification is a sustainable strategy to deal with the enormous plastic waste generated each year and enhance the properties of asphalt. The modification is either practiced by the dry process or the wet process. In the dry process, plastics are added straight into the asphalt mixture, and in the wet process, they are mixed and digested into bitumen. In this article, the effects of plastic inclusion in asphalt mixture, through the dry process, on the permanent deformation of asphalt are investigated. the main waste plastics that are usually used in the asphalt modification are taken into account, which are linear low-density polyethene, low-density polyethene, high-density polyethene, and polypropylene. Also, to simulate a plastic waste stream, different grades of each virgin plastic are mixed and used. For instance, four different grades of polypropylene are mixed and used as the representative of polypropylene. The grades are chosen from a low melt flow index to a high melt flow index. A precisely designed mixing condition is considered to dry-mix the plastics into the mixture such that the polymer was melted and modified by the later introduced binder. In this mixing process, plastics are first added to the hot aggregates and mixed three times in different time intervals, then bitumen is introduced and the whole mixture is mixed three times in fifteen minutes intervals. Marshall specimens were manufactured, and dynamic creep tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of modification on the permanent deformation of the asphalt mixture. Dynamic creep is a common repeated loading test conducted at different stress levels and temperatures. Loading cycles are applied to the AC specimen until failure occurs, with the amount of deformation constantly recorded, the cumulative permanent strain is determined and reported as a function of the number of cycles. The results of this study showed that the dry-inclusion of the waste polymers is very effective in enhancing the resistance against permanent deformation of the mixture. However, the mixing process must be precisely engineered to melt the plastics and a homogeneous mixture is achieved.

Keywords: permanent deformation, waste plastics, low-density polyethene, high-density polyethene, polypropylene, linear low-density polyethene, dry process

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13061 Unsteady Flow Simulations for Microchannel Design and Its Fabrication for Nanoparticle Synthesis

Authors: Mrinalini Amritkar, Disha Patil, Swapna Kulkarni, Sukratu Barve, Suresh Gosavi

Abstract:

Micro-mixers play an important role in the lab-on-a-chip applications and micro total analysis systems to acquire the correct level of mixing for any given process. The mixing process can be classified as active or passive according to the use of external energy. Literature of microfluidics reports that most of the work is done on the models of steady laminar flow; however, the study of unsteady laminar flow is an active area of research at present. There are wide applications of this, out of which, we consider nanoparticle synthesis in micro-mixers. In this work, we have developed a model for unsteady flow to study the mixing performance of a passive micro mixer for reactants used for such synthesis. The model is developed in Finite Volume Method (FVM)-based software, OpenFOAM. The model is tested by carrying out the simulations at Re of 0.5. Mixing performance of the micro-mixer is investigated using simulated concentration values of mixed species across the width of the micro-mixer and calculating the variance across a line profile. Experimental validation is done by passing dyes through a Y shape micro-mixer fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer and comparing variances with the simulated ones. Gold nanoparticles are later synthesized through the micro-mixer and collected at two different times leading to significantly different size distributions. These times match with the time scales over which reactant concentrations vary as obtained from simulations. Our simulations could thus be used to create design aids for passive micro-mixers used in nanoparticle synthesis.

Keywords: Lab-on-chip, LOC, micro-mixer, OpenFOAM, PDMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 82