Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2642

Search results for: micro mixture

2642 A Technical Solution for Micro Mixture with Micro Fluidic Oscillator in Chemistry

Authors: Brahim Dennai, Abdelhak Bentaleb, Rachid Khelfaoui, Asma Abdenbi


The diffusion flux given by the Fick’s law characterizethe mixing rate. A passive mixing strategy is proposed to enhance mixing of two fluids through perturbed jet low. A numerical study of passive mixers has been presented. This paper is focused on the modeling of a micro-injection systems composed of passive amplifier without mechanical part. The micro-system modeling is based on geometrical oscillators form. An asymmetric micro-oscillator design based on a monostable fluidic amplifier is proposed. The characteristic size of the channels is generally about a few hundred of microns. The numerical results indicate that the mixing performance can be as high as 99 % within a typical mixing chamber of 0.20 mm diameter inlet and 2.0 mm distance of nozzle - spliter. In addition, the results confirm that self-rotation in the circular mixer significantly enhances the mixing performance. The novel micro mixing method presented in this study provides a simple solution to mixing problems in microsystem for application in chemistry.

Keywords: micro oscillator, modeling, micro mixture, diffusion, size effect, chemical equation

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2641 Characterization and Evaluation of LD Slag and Fly Ash Mixture for Their Possible Utilization in Different Sectors

Authors: Jagdeep Nayak, Biswajit Paul, Anup Gupta


Characterization of coal refuses to fly ash, and steel slag from steel industries have been performed to develop a mixture of both these materials to enhance strength properties of their utilization in other sectors like mine fill, construction work, etc. A large amount of Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag and fly ash waste are generated from steel and thermal power industries respectively. Management of these wastes is problematic, and their reutilization may provide a sustainable waste management option. LD slag and fly ash mixed in different proportions were tested to analyse the micro structural improvement and hardening rate of the matrix. Mixing of activators such as sodium hydroxide and potassium silicate with silica-alumina of LD slag-fly ash mixture, geopolymeric structure were found to be developed. The effect of geo-polymerization behaviour and subsequent structural rearrangement has been studied using compressibility; shear strength and permeability tests followed by micro-graphical analysis. Densification in the mixture was observed along with an improvement of geotechnical properties due to the addition of LD slag. Due to suitable strength characteristics of these two waste materials as mixture, it can be used in the various construction field or may be used as a filling material in mine voids.

Keywords: LD slag, fly-ash, geopolymer, strength property, compressibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
2640 A Learning-Based EM Mixture Regression Algorithm

Authors: Yi-Cheng Tian, Miin-Shen Yang


The mixture likelihood approach to clustering is a popular clustering method where the expectation and maximization (EM) algorithm is the most used mixture likelihood method. In the literature, the EM algorithm had been used for mixture regression models. However, these EM mixture regression algorithms are sensitive to initial values with a priori number of clusters. In this paper, to resolve these drawbacks, we construct a learning-based schema for the EM mixture regression algorithm such that it is free of initializations and can automatically obtain an approximately optimal number of clusters. Some numerical examples and comparisons demonstrate the superiority and usefulness of the proposed learning-based EM mixture regression algorithm.

Keywords: clustering, EM algorithm, Gaussian mixture model, mixture regression model

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
2639 Flow inside Micro-Channel Bounded by Superhydrophobic Surface with Eccentric Micro-Grooves

Authors: Yu Chen, Weiwei Ren, Xiaojing Mu, Feng Zhang, Yi Xu


The superhydrophobic surface is widely used to reduce friction for the flow inside micro-channel and can be used to control/manipulate fluid, cells and even proteins in lab-on-chip. Fabricating micro grooves on hydrophobic surfaces is a common method to obtain such superhydrophobic surface. This study utilized the numerical method to investigate the effect of eccentric micro-grooves on the friction of flow inside micro-channel. A detailed parametric study was conducted to reveal how the eccentricity of micro-grooves affects the micro-channel flow under different grooves sizes, channel heights, Reynolds number. The results showed that the superhydrophobic surface with eccentric micro-grooves induces less friction than the counter part with aligning micro-grooves, which means requiring less power for pumps.

Keywords: eccentricity, micro-channel, micro-grooves, superhydrophobic surface

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2638 Preparation of Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polycaprolactone by Melt Mixture

Authors: Mohamed Amine Zenasni, Bahia Meroufel, André Merlin, Said Benfarhi, Stéphane Molina, Béatrice George


The introduction of nano-fillers into polymers field lead to the creation of the nano composites. This creation is starting up a new revolution into the world of materials. Nano composites are similar to traditional composite of a polymer blend and filler with at least one nano-scopic dimension. In our project, we worked with nano composites of biodegradable polymer: polycaprolactone, combined with nano-clay (Maghnite) and with different nano-organo-clays. These nano composites have been prepared by melt mixture method. The advantage of this polymer is its degradability and bio compatibility. A study of the relationship between development, micro structure and physico chemical properties of nano composites, clays modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and Hexadecyltriméthy ammonium bromide (CTAB) and untreated clays were made. Melt mixture method is most suitable methods to get a better dispersion named exfoliation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, biodegradable, polycaprolactone, maghnite, melt mixture, APTES, CTAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
2637 Towards the Integration of a Micro Pump in μTAS

Authors: Y. Haik


The objective of this study is to present a micro mechanical pump that was fabricated using SwIFT™ microfabrication surface micromachining process and to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating such micro pump into a micro analysis system. The micropump circulates the bio-sample and magnetic nanoparticles through different compartments to separate and purify the targeted bio-sample. This article reports the flow characteristics in the microchannels and in a crescent micro pump.

Keywords: crescent micropumps, microanalysis, nanoparticles, MEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
2636 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

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2635 Microstructural Properties of the Interfacial Transition Zone and Strength Development of Concrete Incorporating Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Authors: S. Boudali, A. M. Soliman, B. Abdulsalam, K. Ayed, D. E. Kerdal, S. Poncet


This study investigates the potential of using crushed concrete as aggregates to produce green and sustainable concrete. Crushed concrete was sieved to powder fine recycled aggregate (PFRA) less than 80 µm and coarse recycled aggregates (CRA). Physical, mechanical, and microstructural properties for PFRA and CRA were evaluated. The effect of the additional rates of PFRA and CRA on strength development of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) was investigated. Additionally, the characteristics of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between cement paste and recycled aggregate were also examined. Results show that concrete mixtures made with 100% of CRA and 40% PFRA exhibited similar performance to that of the control mixture prepared with 100% natural aggregate (NA) and 40% natural pozzolan (NP). Moreover, concrete mixture incorporating recycled aggregate exhibited a slightly higher later compressive strength than that of the concrete with NA. This was confirmed by the very dense microstructure for concrete mixture incorporating recycled concrete aggregates compared to that of conventional concrete mixture.

Keywords: compressive strength, recycled concrete aggregates, microstructure, interfacial transition zone, powder fine recycled aggregate

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2634 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2633 Sustainable Micro Architecture: A Pattern for Urban Release Areas

Authors: Saber Fatourechian


People within modern cities have faced macro urban values spreads rapidly through current style of living. Unexpected phenomena without any specific features of micro scale, humanity and urban social/cultural patterns. The gap between micro and macro scale is unidentified and people could not recognize where they are especially in the interaction between life and city. Urban life details were verified. Micro architecture is a pattern in which human activity derives from human needs in an unconscious position. Sustainable attitude via micro architecture causes flexibility in decision making through micro urbanism essentially impacts macro scale. In this paper the definition of micro architecture and its relation with city and human activity are argued, there after the interaction between micro and macro scale is presented as an effective way for urban sustainable development.

Keywords: micro architecture, sustainability, human activity, city

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
2632 Longitudinal Vibration of a Micro-Beam in a Micro-Scale Fluid Media

Authors: M. Ghanbari, S. Hossainpour, G. Rezazadeh


In this paper, longitudinal vibration of a micro-beam in micro-scale fluid media has been investigated. The proposed mathematical model for this study is made up of a micro-beam and a micro-plate at its free end. An AC voltage is applied to the pair of piezoelectric layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the micro-beam in order to actuate it longitudinally. The whole structure is bounded between two fixed plates on its upper and lower surfaces. The micro-gap between the structure and the fixed plates is filled with fluid. Fluids behave differently in micro-scale than macro, so the fluid field in the gap has been modeled based on micro-polar theory. The coupled governing equations of motion of the micro-beam and the micro-scale fluid field have been derived. Due to having non-homogenous boundary conditions, derived equations have been transformed to an enhanced form with homogenous boundary conditions. Using Galerkin-based reduced order model, the enhanced equations have been discretized over the beam and fluid domains and solve simultaneously in order to obtain force response of the micro-beam. Effects of micro-polar parameters of the fluid as characteristic length scale, coupling parameter and surface parameter on the response of the micro-beam have been studied.

Keywords: micro-polar theory, Galerkin method, MEMS, micro-fluid

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2631 Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (µEDM): Effect of the Electrochemical Etching Parameters on the Fabrication of Cylindrical Tungsten Micro-Tools

Authors: Asmae Tafraouti, Yasmina Layouni


The fabrication of cylindrical Tungsten micro-tools with a high aspect ratio is a real challenge because of several constraints that come into during their manufacture. In this paper, we will describe the process used to fabricate these micro-tools. It consists of using electrochemical etching. We will also present the optimal protocol that makes it possible to fabricate micro-tools with a high aspect ratio in a reproducible way. Next, we will show the limit of the experimental parameters chosen to manufacture micro-tools from a wire with an initial diameter of Φ_0=250µm. The protocol used allows obtaining an average diameter of Φ=88µm ±1 µm over a length of L=3.5mm.

Keywords: drop-off effect, electrochemical etching, micro-electrical discharge machining, tungsten micro-tools

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2630 Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Ag/ZnO Sub-Microparticles Deposited on Various Cellulose Surfaces

Authors: Lukas Munster, Pavel Bazant, Ivo Kuritka


Zinc oxide sub-micro particles and metallic silver nano particles (Ag/ZnO) were deposited on micro crystalline cellulose surface by a fast, simple and environmentally friendly one-pot microwave assisted solvo thermal synthesis in an open vessel system equipped with an external reflux cooler. In order to increase the interaction between the surface of cellulose and the precipitated Ag/ZnO particles, oxidized form of cellulose (cellulose dialdehyde, DAC) prepared by periodate oxidation of micro crystalline cellulose was added to the reaction mixture of Ag/ZnO particle precursors and untreated micro crystalline cellulose. The structure and morphology of prepared hybrid powder materials were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen absorption method (BET). Microscopic analysis of the prepared materials treated by ultra-sonication showed that Ag/ZnO particles deposited on the cellulose/DAC sample exhibit increased adhesion to the surface of the cellulose substrate which can be explained by the DAC adhesive effect in comparison with the material prepared without DAC addition.

Keywords: microcrystalline cellulose, microwave synthesis, silver nanoparticles, zinc oxide sub-microparticles, cellulose dialdehyde

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2629 Visualization of Flow Behaviour in Micro-Cavities during Micro Injection Moulding

Authors: Reza Gheisari, Paulo J. Bartolo, Nicholas Goddard


Polymeric micro-cantilevers (Cs) are rapidly becoming popular for MEMS applications such as chemo- and bio-sensing as well as purely electromechanical applications such as microrelays. Polymer materials present suitable physical and chemical properties combined with low-cost mass production. Hence, micro-cantilevers made of polymers indicate much more biocompatibility and adaptability of rapid prototyping along with mechanical properties. This research studies the effects of three process and one size factors on the filling behaviour in micro cavity, and the role of each in the replication of micro parts using different polymer materials i.e. polypropylene (PP) SABIC 56M10 and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Magnum 8434. In particular, the following factors are considered: barrel temperature, mould temperature, injection speed and the thickness of micro features. The study revealed that the barrel temperature and the injection speed are the key factors affecting the flow length of micro features replicated in PP and ABS. For both materials, an increase of feature sizes improves the melt flow. However, the melt fill of micro features does not increase linearly with the increase of their thickness.

Keywords: flow length, micro cantilevers, micro injection moulding, microfabrication

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2628 Micro Waqf Banks as an Alternative Financing Micro Business in Indonesia

Authors: Achmad Muchaddam Fahham, Sony Hendra Permana


For rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs, access to formal financial institutions is very difficult. So, borrowing to moneylenders is the most possible way to fulfill their needs. But actually it does not solve their problems, precisely their problems are increasing because they have to pay at very high-interest rates. For this reason, microfinance institution is very important as a solution for rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs who need loans to fulfill their needs. This paper aims to describe the role of micro waqf banks in Indonesia as an alternative funding for rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs. This research is descriptive using a qualitative approach. The interview technique was also carried out with key informants who understood sharia microfinance institutions. The results of the study revealed that the micro waqf bank is Islamic microfinance institutions which targeted the micro business sector by channeling small financing with a maximum financing of Rp1 million. The funding of this micro waqf bank comes from donors who donate funds through the Amil Zakat institution. The margins imposed on borrowers are as high as 3 percent per year, with payment schemes in installments every week, so it is made easier for borrower. In addition, financing is followed by training and mentoring so that borrower is able to utilize the loan for productive business activities. In the end, it is hoped that this micro waqf bank can become an incubator for micro businesses in Indonesia.

Keywords: micro business, micro waqf banks, micro-entrepreneurs, Amil Zakat institution

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2627 Sustainability: Effect of Earthquake in Micro Hydro Sector, a Case Study of Micro Hydro Projects in Northern Part of Kavre District, Nepal

Authors: Ram Bikram Thapa, Ganesh Lama


The Micro Hydro is one of the successful technology in Rural Nepal. Kavre is one of the pioneer district of sustainability of Micro Hydro Projects. A total of 30 Micro Hydro projects have been constructed with producing 700 KW of energy in northern side of the Kavre district. This study shows that 67% of projects have been affected by devastating earthquake in April and May, 2015. Out of them 23% are completely damaged. Most of the structures are failure like Penstock 71%, forebay 21%, powerhouse 7% have been completely damaged and 91% Canal & 44% Intake structures have been partially damaged by the earthquake. This paper empathizes that the engineering design is the vital component for sustainability of Micro Hydro Projects. This paper recommended that technicians should be considered the safety factor of earthquake and provision of disaster recovery fund during design of Micro Hydro Projects.

Keywords: micro hydro, earthquake, structural failure, sustainability

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2626 Prospects for Building Mobile Micro-Hydro Powerplants with Information Management Systems

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, P. T.Kharitonov, L. Sh. Balgabayeva, O. V. Kisseleva, T. S. Kartbayev


This article analyzes the applicability of known renewable energy technical means as mobile power sources under the field and extreme conditions. The requirements are determined for the parameters of mobile micro-HPP. The application prospectively of the mobile micro-HPP with intelligent control systems is proved for this purpose. Variants of low-speed electric generators for micro HPP are given. Variants of designs for mobile micro HPP are presented with the direct (gearless) transfer of torque from the hydraulic drive to the rotor of the electric generator. Variant of the hydraulic drive for micro HPP is described workable at low water flows. A general structure of the micro HPP intelligent system control is offered that implements the principle of maximum energy efficiency. The legitimacy of construction and application of mobile micro HPP is proved as electrical power sources for life safety of people under the field and extreme conditions.

Keywords: mobile micro-hydro powerplants, information management systems, hydraulic drive, computer science

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2625 The Research of Reliability of MEMS Device under Thermal Shock Test in Space Mission

Authors: Liu Ziyu, Gao Yongfeng, Li Muhua, Zhao Jiahao, Meng Song


The effect of thermal shock on the operation of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) were examined. All MEMS device were tested before and after three different conditions of thermal shock (from -55℃ to 85℃, from -65℃ to 125℃, from -65℃ to 200℃). The micro lens showed no changes after thermal shock, which shows that the design of the micro lens can be well adapted to the application environment in the space. The design of the micro mirror can be well adapted to the space application environment. The micro-magnetometer, RF MEMS switch and the micro accelerometer exhibited degradation and parameter drift after thermal shock, potential mechanical was proposed.

Keywords: MEMS, thermal shock test, reliability, space environment

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2624 Effect of Using a Mixture of Al2O3 Nanoparticles and 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the Sensing Membrane for Polysilicon Wire on pH Sensing

Authors: You-Lin Wu, Zong-Xian Wu, Jing-Jenn Lin, Shih-Hung Lin


In this work, a polysilicon wire (PSW) coated with a mixture of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (r-APTES) and Al2O3 nanoparticles as the sensing membrane prepared with various Al2O3/r-APTES and dispersing agent/r-APTES ratios for pH sensing is studied. The r-APTES and dispersed Al2O3 nanoparticles mixture was directly transferred to PSW surface by solution phase deposition (SPD). It is found that using a mixture of Al2O3 nanoparticles and r-APTES as the sensing membrane help in improving the pH sensing of the PSW sensor and a 5 min SPD deposition time is the best. Dispersing agent is found to be necessary for better pH sensing when preparing the mixture of Al2O3 nanoparticles and r-APTES. The optimum condition for preparing the mixture is found to be Al2O3/r-APTES ratio of 2% and dispersing agent/r-APTES ratio of 0.3%.

Keywords: al2o3 nanoparticles, ph sensing, polysilicon wire sensor, r-aptes

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2623 Particle Size Distribution Estimation of a Mixture of Regular and Irregular Sized Particles Using Acoustic Emissions

Authors: Ejay Nsugbe, Andrew Starr, Ian Jennions, Cristobal Ruiz-Carcel


This works investigates the possibility of using Acoustic Emissions (AE) to estimate the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of a mixture of particles that comprise of particles of different densities and geometry. The experiments carried out involved the mixture of a set of glass and polyethylene particles that ranged from 150-212 microns and 150-250 microns respectively and an experimental rig that allowed the free fall of a continuous stream of particles on a target plate which the AE sensor was placed. By using a time domain based multiple threshold method, it was observed that the PSD of the particles in the mixture could be estimated.

Keywords: acoustic emissions, particle sizing, process monitoring, signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2622 Modeling and Optimization of Micro-Grid Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mehrdad Rezaei, Reza Haghmaram, Nima Amjadi


This paper proposes an operating and cost optimization model for micro-grid (MG). This model takes into account emission costs of NOx, SO2, and CO2, together with the operation and maintenance costs. Wind turbines (WT), photovoltaic (PV) arrays, micro turbines (MT), fuel cells (FC), diesel engine generators (DEG) with different capacities are considered in this model. The aim of the optimization is minimizing operation cost according to constraints, supply demand and safety of the system. The proposed genetic algorithm (GA), with the ability to fine-tune its own settings, is used to optimize the micro-grid operation.

Keywords: micro-grid, optimization, genetic algorithm, MG

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
2621 Micro-Oscillator: Passive Production and Manipulation of Microdrops

Authors: Khelfaoui Rachid, Chekifi Tawfiq, Dennai Brahim, Maazouzi A. Hak


A numerical and experimental studies of passive micro drops production have been presented. This paper focuses on the modeling of micro-oscillators systems which are composed by passive amplifier without moving part. The micro-system modeling is based on geometrical oscillators form. An asymmetric micro-oscillator design that is based on a bistable fluidic amplifier is proposed. The characteristic size of the channels is generally about 35 microns of depth. The numerical results indicate that the production and manipulation of microdrops are possible with passive device within a typical oscillators chamber of 2.25 mm diameter and 0.20 mm length when the Reynolds number is Re = 490. The novel micro drops method that is presented in this study provides a simple solution about the production of microdrops problems in micro system. We undertake an experimental step. The first part is based on the realisation of sample oscillator; the second part is consisted of visualization, production and manipulation of microdrops.

Keywords: modelling, miscible, micro drops, production, oscillator sample, capillary

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
2620 Optimization of DLLME Extraction Parameters for Pesticides Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Ezgi Altiparmak, Emine Yilmaz, Filiz Dadaser-Celik, Nuray Ates


Pesticides have been used widely all over the world for centuries to increase agricultural production and to combat harmful pests. Pesticides used for agriculture, household, and public health sectors eventually reach water bodies, posing a risk to human health and the environment even in micro concentrations. Each country legally sets its own maximum allowable limits to regulate pesticides residues. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor pesticide residues in water resources, especially if they are used for drinking water purposes. With the technological developments, nowadays, sensitive analytical instruments employing complex analysis methods such as GC/MS and LC/MS have been used to analyze pesticides. Pesticide residues must be concentrated by different extraction methods before HPLC analysis to be able to detect them in micro levels with high precision and low detection limits. The aim of this study is to develop an analytical method for the analysis of metolachlor and acetochlor pesticides by HPLC instrument with dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME) method. In order to determine optimum conditions for DLLME extraction method, extraction solvent type (chloroform, dichloromethane, and 1,2 dichloroethane), dispersive solvent type (acetonitrile, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol), flowrate (1, 1.2, and 1.5 ml/min), oven temperature (20°C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C), the volume of extraction solvent (300, 350 and 400 µl), and mobile phase mixture (60/40, 70/30 and 80/20 acetonitrile/water in v/v) were comprehensively investigated with Taguchi experimental design. The optimized conditions were obtained as extraction solvent of 1,2-dichloroethane, the dispersive solvent of methanol, extraction solvent volume of 350 µL, the dispersive volume of 1 ml, the flow rate of 1.2 ml/min, the temperature of 40 °C, and mobile phase mixture of 70/30 v/v.

Keywords: analysis, DLLME, HPLC, optimization, pesticides, taguchi experimental design

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2619 Effect of Using Crumb Rubber with Warm-Mix-Asphalt Additive in Laboratory and Field Aging

Authors: Mustafa Akpolat, Baha Vural Kök


Using a waste material such as crumb rubber (CR) obtained by waste tires has become an important issue in respect to sustainability. However, the CR modified mixture also requires high manufacture temperature as a polymer modified mixture. For this reason in this study, it is intended to produce a CR modified mixture with warm mix asphalt additives in the same mixture. Asphalt mixtures produced by pure, 10%CR, 10%CR+3% Sasobit and 10%CR+0.7% Evotherm were subjected to aging procedure in the laboratory and the field. The indirect tensile repeated tests were applied to aged and original specimens. It was concluded that the fatigue life of the mixtures increased significantly with the increase of aging time. CR+Sasobit modified mixture aged at the both field and laboratory gave the highest load cycle among the mixtures.

Keywords: crumb rubber, warm mix asphalt, aging, fatigue

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2618 Study on the Relationship between the Emission Property of Barium-Tungsten Cathode and Micro-Area Activity

Authors: Zhen Qin, Yufei Peng, Jianbei Li, Jidong Long


In order to study the activity of the coated aluminate barium-tungsten cathodes during activation, aging, poisoning and long-term use. Through a set of hot-cathode micro-area emission uniformity study device, we tested the micro-area emission performance of the cathode under different conditions. The change of activity of cathode micro-area was obtained. The influence of micro-area activity on the performance of the cathode was explained by the ageing model of barium-tungsten cathode. This helps to improve the design and process of the cathode and can point the way in finding the factors that affect life in the cathode operation.

Keywords: barium-tungsten cathode, ageing model, micro-area emission, emission uniformity

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2617 Microstructure Analysis of Biopolymer Mixture (Chia-Gelatin) by Laser Confocal Microscopy

Authors: Emmanuel Flores Huicochea, Guadalupe Borja Mendiola, Jacqueline Flores Lopez, Rodolfo Rendon Villalobos


The usual procedure to investigate the properties of biodegradable films has been to prepare the film, measure the mechanical or transport properties and then decide whether the mixture has better properties than the individual components, instead of investigating whether the mixture has biopolymer-biopolymer interaction, then prepare the film and finally measure the properties of the film. The work investigates the presence of interaction biopolymer-biopolymer in a mixture of chia biopolymer and gelatin using Laser Confocal Microscopy (LCM). Previously, the chia biopolymer was obtained from chia seed. CML analysis of mixtures of chia biopolymer-gelatin without Na⁺ ions exhibited aggregates of different size, in the range of 100-400 μm, of defined color, for the two colors, but no mixing of color was observed. The increased of gelatin in the mixture decreases the size and number of aggregates. The tridimensional microstructure reveled that there are two layers of biopolymers, chia and gelatin well defined. The mixture chia biopolymer-gelatin with 10 mM Na⁺ and with a ratio 75:25 (chia-gelatin) showed lower aggregated size than others mixture with and without ions. This result could be explained because the chia biopolymer is a polyelectrolyte and the added sodium ions reduce the molecular rigidity by neutralizing the negative charges that the chia biopolymer possesses and therefore a better biopolymer-biopolymer interaction is allowed between the biopolymer of chia and gelatin.

Keywords: biopolymer-biopolymer interaction, confocal laser microscopy, CLM, microstructure, mixture chia-gelatin

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2616 Entropy Generation Analysis of Heat Recovery Vapor Generator for Ammonia-Water Mixture

Authors: Chul Ho Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim


This paper carries out a performance analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) of ammonia-water mixture when the heat source is low-temperature energy in the form of sensible heat. In the analysis, effects of the ammonia mass concentration and mass flow ratio of the binary mixture are investigated on the system performance including the effectiveness of heat transfer, entropy generation, and exergy efficiency. The results show that the ammonia concentration and the mass flow ratio of the mixture have significant effects on the system performance of HRVG.

Keywords: entropy, exergy, ammonia-water mixture, heat exchanger

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2615 Successes on in vitro Isolated Microspores Embryogenesis

Authors: Zelikha Labbani


The In Vitro isolated micro spore culture is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce doubled haploid plants in the short time. To deviate a micro spore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the micro spore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of micro spore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. As haploid single cells, micro spore became a strategy to achieve various objectives particularly in genetic engineering. In this study we would show the most recent advances in the producing haploid embryos via In Vitro isolated micro spore culture.

Keywords: haploid cells, In Vitro isolated microspore culture, success

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2614 Static and Dynamic Analysis of Timoshenko Microcantilever Using the Finite Element Method

Authors: Mohammad Tahmasebipour, Hosein Salarpour


Micro cantilevers are one of the components used in the manufacture of micro-electromechanical systems. Epoxy microcantilevers have a variety of applications in the manufacture of micro-sensors and micro-actuators. In this paper, the Timoshenko Micro cantilever was statically and dynamically analyzed using the finite element method. First, all boundary conditions and initial conditions governing micro cantilevers were considered. The effect of size on the deflection, angle of rotation, natural frequencies, and mode shapes were then analyzed and evaluated under different frequencies. It was observed that an increased micro cantilever thickness reduces the deflection, rotation, and resonant frequency. A good agreement was observed between our results and those obtained by the couple stress theory, the classical theory, and the strain gradient elasticity theory.

Keywords: microcantilever, microsensor; epoxy, dynamic behavior, static behavior, finite element method

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2613 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah


The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

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