Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: Bernd Ludwig

38 Optimizing Approach for Sifting Process to Solve a Common Type of Empirical Mode Decomposition Mode Mixing

Authors: Saad Al-Baddai, Karema Al-Subari, Elmar Lang, Bernd Ludwig


Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new data-driven of time-series decomposition, has the advantage of supposing that a time series is non-linear or non-stationary, as is implicitly achieved in Fourier decomposition. However, the EMD suffers of mode mixing problem in some cases. The aim of this paper is to present a solution for a common type of signals causing of EMD mode mixing problem, in case a signal suffers of an intermittency. By an artificial example, the solution shows superior performance in terms of cope EMD mode mixing problem comparing with the conventional EMD and Ensemble Empirical Mode decomposition (EEMD). Furthermore, the over-sifting problem is also completely avoided; and computation load is reduced roughly six times compared with EEMD, an ensemble number of 50.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition (EMD), mode mixing, sifting process, over-sifting

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37 A Deep Learning Approach for the Predictive Quality of Directional Valves in the Hydraulic Final Test

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter


The increasing use of deep learning applications in production is becoming a competitive advantage. Predictive quality enables the assurance of product quality by using data-driven forecasts via machine learning models as a basis for decisions on test results. The use of real Bosch production data along the value chain of hydraulic valves is a promising approach to classifying the leakage of directional valves.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, classification, hydraulics, predictive quality, deep learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
36 A Machine Learning Approach for Classification of Directional Valve Leakage in the Hydraulic Final Test

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter


Due to increasing cost pressure in global markets, artificial intelligence is becoming a technology that is decisive for competition. Predictive quality enables machinery and plant manufacturers to ensure product quality by using data-driven forecasts via machine learning models as a decision-making basis for test results. The use of cross-process Bosch production data along the value chain of hydraulic valves is a promising approach to classifying the quality characteristics of workpieces.

Keywords: predictive quality, hydraulics, machine learning, classification, supervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
35 A Heuristic for the Integrated Production and Distribution Scheduling Problem

Authors: Christian Meinecke, Bernd Scholz-Reiter


The integrated problem of production and distribution scheduling is relevant in many industrial applications. Thus, many heuristics to solve this integrated problem have been developed in the last decade. Most of these heuristics use a sequential working principal or a single decomposition and integration approach to separate and solve sub-problems. A heuristic using a multi-step decomposition and integration approach is presented in this paper and evaluated in a case study. The result show significant improved results compared with sequential scheduling heuristics.

Keywords: production and outbound distribution, integrated planning, heuristic, decomposition, integration

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34 A Machine Learning Approach for the Leakage Classification in the Hydraulic Final Test

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter


The widespread use of machine learning applications in production is significantly accelerated by improved computing power and increasing data availability. Predictive quality enables the assurance of product quality by using machine learning models as a basis for decisions on test results. The use of real Bosch production data based on geometric gauge blocks from machining, mating data from assembly and hydraulic measurement data from final testing of directional valves is a promising approach to classifying the quality characteristics of workpieces.

Keywords: machine learning, classification, predictive quality, hydraulics, supervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
33 A Comprehensive Survey and Improvement to Existing Privacy Preserving Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Tosin Ige


Ethics must be a condition of the world, like logic. (Ludwig Wittgenstein, 1889-1951). As important as data mining is, it possess a significant threat to ethics, privacy, and legality, since data mining makes it difficult for an individual or consumer (in the case of a company) to control the accessibility and usage of his data. This research focuses on Current issues and the latest research and development on Privacy preserving data mining methods as at year 2022. It also discusses some advances in those techniques while at the same time highlighting and providing a new technique as a solution to an existing technique of privacy preserving data mining methods. This paper also bridges the wide gap between Data mining and the Web Application Programing Interface (web API), where research is urgently needed for an added layer of security in data mining while at the same time introducing a seamless and more efficient way of data mining.

Keywords: data, privacy, data mining, association rule, privacy preserving, mining technique

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32 Optical and Structural Characterization of Rare Earth Doped Phosphate Glasses

Authors: Zélia Maria Da Costa Ludwig, Maria José Valenzuela Bell, Geraldo Henriques Da Silva, Thales Alves Faraco, Victor Rocha Da Silva, Daniel Rotmeister Teixeira, Vírgilio De Carvalho Dos Anjos, Valdemir Ludwig


Advances in telecommunications grow with the development of optical amplifiers based on rare earth ions. The focus has been concentrated in silicate glasses although their amplified spontaneous emission is limited to a few tens of nanometers (~ 40nm). Recently, phosphate glasses have received great attention due to their potential application in optical data transmission, detection, sensors and laser detector, waveguide and optical fibers, besides its excellent physical properties such as high thermal expansion coefficients and low melting temperature. Compared with the silica glasses, phosphate glasses provide different optical properties such as, large transmission window of infrared, and good density. Research on the improvement of physical and chemical durability of phosphate glass by addition of heavy metals oxides in P2O5 has been performed. The addition of Na2O further improves the solubility of rare earths, while increasing the Al2O3 links in the P2O5 tetrahedral results in increased durability and aqueous transition temperature and a decrease of the coefficient of thermal expansion. This work describes the structural and spectroscopic characterization of a phosphate glass matrix doped with different Er (Erbium) concentrations. The phosphate glasses containing Er3+ ions have been prepared by melt technique. A study of the optical absorption, luminescence and lifetime was conducted in order to characterize the infrared emission of Er3+ ions at 1540 nm, due to the radiative transition 4I13/2 → 4I15/2. Our results indicate that the present glass is a quite good matrix for Er3+ ions, and the quantum efficiency of the 1540 nm emission was high. A quenching mechanism for the mentioned luminescence was not observed up to 2,0 mol% of Er concentration. The Judd-Ofelt parameters, radiative lifetime and quantum efficiency have been determined in order to evaluate the potential of Er3+ ions in new phosphate glass. The parameters follow the trend as Ω2 > Ω4 > Ω6. It is well known that the parameter Ω2 is an indication of the dominant covalent nature and/or structural changes in the vicinity of the ion (short range effects), while Ω4 and Ω6 intensity parameters are long range parameters that can be related to the bulk properties such as viscosity and rigidity of the glass. From the PL measurements, no red or green upconversion was measured when pumping the samples with laser excitation at 980 nm. As future prospects: Synthesize this glass system with silver in order to determine the influence of silver nanoparticles on the Er3+ ions.

Keywords: phosphate glass, erbium, luminescence, glass system

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31 Tax Competition and Partial Tax Coordination under Fiscal Decentralization

Authors: Patricia Sanz-Cordoba, Bernd Theilen


This article analyzes the conditions where decentralization and partial tax harmonization in a coalition of asymmetric jurisdictions plays a role in the fight of fiscal competition (i.e. the race to bottom). Starting from a centralized economies, we use the ZM-W model to analyze the fiscal competition and coordination among three countries. We find that the asymmetry of jurisdictions facilitates partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions when these asymmetries are not too large. Furthermore, when the asymmetries are large enough, the level of labor tax plays an important role in the decision of decentralize capital tax. Accordingly, decentralization is achievable when labor tax is low. This result indicates that decentralization and partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions can be possible results in order to fight the negative externalities from fiscal competition, and more in the European Union countries where the asymmetries are substantial.

Keywords: centralization, decentralization, fiscal competition, partial tax harmonization

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
30 Terrain Classification for Ground Robots Based on Acoustic Features

Authors: Bernd Kiefer, Abraham Gebru Tesfay, Dietrich Klakow


The motivation of our work is to detect different terrain types traversed by a robot based on acoustic data from the robot-terrain interaction. Different acoustic features and classifiers were investigated, such as Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient and Gamma-tone frequency cepstral coefficient for the feature extraction, and Gaussian mixture model and Feed forward neural network for the classification. We analyze the system’s performance by comparing our proposed techniques with some other features surveyed from distinct related works. We achieve precision and recall values between 87% and 100% per class, and an average accuracy at 95.2%. We also study the effect of varying audio chunk size in the application phase of the models and find only a mild impact on performance.

Keywords: acoustic features, autonomous robots, feature extraction, terrain classification

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29 Investigation on Mesh Sensitivity of a Transient Model for Nozzle Clogging

Authors: H. Barati, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig


A transient model for nozzle clogging has been developed and successfully validated against a laboratory experiment. Key steps of clogging are considered: transport of particles by turbulent flow towards the nozzle wall; interactions between fluid flow and nozzle wall, and the adhesion of the particle on the wall; the growth of the clog layer and its interaction with the flow. The current paper is to investigate the mesh (size and type) sensitivity of the model in both two and three dimensions. It is found that the algorithm for clog growth alone excluding the flow effect is insensitive to the mesh type and size, but the calculation including flow becomes sensitive to the mesh quality. The use of 2D meshes leads to overestimation of the clog growth because the 3D nature of flow in the boundary layer cannot be properly solved by 2D calculation. 3D simulation with tetrahedron mesh can also lead to an error estimation of the clog growth. A mesh-independent result can be achieved with hexahedral mesh, or at least with triangular prism (inflation layer) for near-wall regions.

Keywords: clogging, continuous casting, inclusion, simulation, submerged entry nozzle

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28 Social Network Analysis as a Research and Pedagogy Tool in Problem-Focused Undergraduate Social Innovation Courses

Authors: Sean McCarthy, Patrice M. Ludwig, Will Watson


This exploratory case study explores the deployment of Social Network Analysis (SNA) in mapping community assets in an interdisciplinary, undergraduate, team-taught course focused on income insecure populations in a rural area in the US. Specifically, it analyzes how students were taught to collect data on community assets and to visualize the connections between those assets using Kumu, an SNA data visualization tool. Further, the case study shows how social network data was also collected about student teams via their written communications in Slack, an enterprise messaging tool, which enabled instructors to manage and guide student research activity throughout the semester. The discussion presents how SNA methods can simultaneously inform both community-based research and social innovation pedagogy through the use of data visualization and collaboration-focused communication technologies.

Keywords: social innovation, social network analysis, pedagogy, problem-based learning, data visualization, information communication technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
27 Investigation of Neutral Axis Shifting and Wall Thickness Distribution of Bent Tubes Produced by Rotary Draw Bending

Authors: Bernd Engel, Hassan Raheem Hassan


Rotary draw bending is a method used for tube forming. During the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness changes in the cross section of the tube. Wall thinning of the tube takes place at the extrados, whereas wall thickening of the tube occurs at the intrados. This paper investigates the tube bending with rotary draw bending process using thick-walled tubes and different material properties (16Mo3 and 10CrMo9-10). The experimental tests and finite element simulations are used to calculate the variable characteristics (wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting and longitudinal strain distribution). These results are compared with results of a plasto-mechanical model. Moreover, the cross section distortion is investigated in this study. This study helped to get bends with smaller wall factor for different material properties.

Keywords: rotary draw bending, thick wall tube, material properties, material influence

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26 UV-Vis Spectroscopy as a Tool for Online Tar Measurements in Wood Gasification Processes

Authors: Philip Edinger, Christian Ludwig


The formation and control of tars remain one of the major challenges in the implementation of biomass gasification technologies. Robust, on-line analytical methods are needed to investigate the fate of tar compounds when different measures for their reduction are applied. This work establishes an on-line UV-Vis method, based on a liquid quench sampling system, to monitor tar compounds in biomass gasification processes. Recorded spectra from the liquid phase were analyzed for their tar composition by means of a classical least squares (CLS) and partial least squares (PLS) approach. This allowed for the detection of UV-Vis active tar compounds with detection limits in the low part per million by volume (ppmV) region. The developed method was then applied to two case studies. The first involved a lab-scale reactor, intended to investigate the decomposition of a limited number of tar compounds across a catalyst. The second study involved a gas scrubber as part of a pilot scale wood gasification plant. Tar compound quantification results showed good agreement with off-line based reference methods (GC-FID) when the complexity of tar composition was limited. The two case studies show that the developed method can provide rapid, qualitative information on the tar composition for the purpose of process monitoring. In cases with a limited number of tar species, quantitative information about the individual tar compound concentrations provides an additional benefit of the analytical method.

Keywords: biomass gasification, on-line, tar, UV-Vis

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
25 World’s Fair (EXPO) Induced Heritage

Authors: Işılay Tiarnagh Sheridan


World EXPO, short version for the “exposition”, is a large universal public exhibition held since 1851. Within the 164 years, it was organized 34 times in 22 cities and as a result it has given birth to its very own culture unlike most of other international events. It has an outstanding power in transforming the places, in which it is held, into trademarks via changes in their urban tissues. For that, it is widely remembered with its cities instead of its countries. Within the scope of this change, some constructions were planned to be temporary, some planned to be permanent and some were thought to be temporary but kept afterwards becoming important monuments such as the Crystal Palace of London (though it was destroyed later by a fire) and the Eiffel Tower of Paris. These examples are the most prominent names upon considering World EXPOs. Yet, there are so many other legacies of these events within modern city fabric today that we don’t usually associate with its Expo history. Some of them are leading figures not only for the housing city but for other cities also, such as the first Metro line of Paris during 1900 World EXPO; some of them are listed as monuments of the cities such as Saint Louis Art Museum of 1904 World EXPO; some of them, like Melbourne Royal Exhibition Building of 1880 World’s EXPO, are among UNESCO World Heritage Sites and some of them are the masterpieces of modern architecture such as the famous Barcelona Pavilion, German pavilion of the 1929 World’s EXPO, of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Thus, the aim of this paper is to analyze the history of World’s EXPO and its eventual results in the birth of its own cultural heritage. Upon organizing these results, the paper aims to create a brief list of EXPO heritage monuments and sites so as to form a database for their further conservation needs.

Keywords: expo, heritage, world's fair, legacy

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24 Development of 3D Neck Muscle to Analyze the Effect of Active Muscle Contraction in Whiplash Injury

Authors: Nisha Nandlal Sharma, Julaluk Carmai, Saiprasit Koetniyom, Bernd Markert


Whiplash Injuries are mostly experienced in car accidents. Symptoms of whiplash are commonly reported in studies, neck pain and headaches are two most common symptoms observed. The whiplash Injury mechanism is poorly understood. In present study, hybrid neck muscle model were developed with a combination of solid tetrahedral elements and 1D beam elements. Solid tetrahedral elements represents passive part of the muscle whereas, 1D beam elements represents active part. To simulate the active behavior of the muscle, Hill-type muscle model was applied to beam elements. To simulate non-linear passive properties of muscle, solid elements were modeled with rubber/foam material model. Some important muscles were then inserted into THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety) THUMS was given a boundary conditions similar to experimental tests. The model was exposed to 4g and 7g rear impacts as these load impacts are close to low speed impacts causing whiplash. The effect of muscle activation level on occupant kinematics during whiplash was analyzed.

Keywords: finite element model, muscle activation, THUMS, whiplash injury mechanism

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23 Towards Human-Interpretable, Automated Learning of Feedback Control for the Mixing Layer

Authors: Hao Li, Guy Y. Cornejo Maceda, Yiqing Li, Jianguo Tan, Marek Morzynski, Bernd R. Noack


We propose an automated analysis of the flow control behaviour from an ensemble of control laws and associated time-resolved flow snapshots. The input may be the rich database of machine learning control (MLC) optimizing a feedback law for a cost function in the plant. The proposed methodology provides (1) insights into the control landscape, which maps control laws to performance, including extrema and ridge-lines, (2) a catalogue of representative flow states and their contribution to cost function for investigated control laws and (3) visualization of the dynamics. Key enablers are classification and feature extraction methods of machine learning. The analysis is successfully applied to the stabilization of a mixing layer with sensor-based feedback driving an upstream actuator. The fluctuation energy is reduced by 26%. The control replaces unforced Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices with subsequent vortex pairing by higher-frequency Kelvin-Helmholtz structures of lower energy. These efforts target a human interpretable, fully automated analysis of MLC identifying qualitatively different actuation regimes, distilling corresponding coherent structures, and developing a digital twin of the plant.

Keywords: machine learning control, mixing layer, feedback control, model-free control

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22 Structural, Magnetic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Iridium Double Perovskites with Ir⁵⁺

Authors: Mihai I. Sturza, Laura T. Corredor, Kaustuv Manna, Gizem A. Cansever, Tushar Dey, Andrey Maljuk, Olga Kataeva, Sabine Wurmehl, Anja Wolter, Bernd Buchner


Recently, the iridate double perovskite Sr₂YIrO₆ has attracted considerable attention due to the report of unexpected magnetism in this Ir⁵⁺ material, in which according to the Jeff model, a non-magnetic ground state is expected. Structural, magnetic and thermodynamic investigations of Sr₂YIrO₆ and Ba2YIrO6 single crystals, with emphasis on the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat will be presented. The single crystals were grown by using SrCl₂ and BaCl₂ as flux. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements performed on several crystals from different preparation batches showed a high quality of the crystals, proven by the good internal consistency of the data collected using the full-sphere mode and an extremely low R factor. In agreement with the expected non-magnetic ground state of Ir⁵⁺ (5d4) in these iridates, no magnetic transition is observed down to 430 mK. Moreover, our results suggest that the low-temperature anomaly observed in the specific heat is not related to the onset of long-range magnetic order. Instead, it is identified as a Schottky anomaly caused by paramagnetic impurities present in the sample, of the order of

Keywords: double perovskites, iridates, self-flux grown synthesis, spin-orbit coupling

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21 Impact of Curvatures in the Dike Line on Wave Run-up and Wave Overtopping, ConDike-Project

Authors: Malte Schilling, Mahmoud M. Rabah, Sven Liebisch


Wave run-up and overtopping are the relevant parameters for the dimensioning of the crest height of dikes. Various experimental as well as numerical studies have investigated these parameters under different boundary conditions (e.g. wave conditions, structure type). Particularly for the dike design in Europe, a common approach is formulated where wave and structure properties are parameterized. However, this approach assumes equal run-up heights and overtopping discharges along the longitudinal axis. However, convex dikes have a heterogeneous crest by definition. Hence, local differences in a convex dike line are expected to cause wave-structure interactions different to a straight dike. This study aims to assess both run-up and overtopping at convexly curved dikes. To cast light on the relevance of curved dikes for the design approach mentioned above, physical model tests were conducted in a 3D wave basin of the Ludwig-Franzius-Institute Hannover. A dike of a slope of 1:6 (height over length) was tested under both regular waves and TMA wave spectra. Significant wave heights ranged from 7 to 10 cm and peak periods from 1.06 to 1.79 s. Both run-up and overtopping was assessed behind the curved and straight sections of the dike. Both measurements were compared to a dike with a straight line. It was observed that convex curvatures in the longitudinal dike line cause a redirection of incident waves leading to a concentration around the center point. Measurements prove that both run-up heights and overtopping rates are higher than on the straight dike. It can be concluded that deviations from a straight longitudinal dike line have an impact on design parameters and imply uncertainties within the design approach in force. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these influencing factors for such cases.

Keywords: convex dike, longitudinal curvature, overtopping, run-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
20 Combustion Chamber Sizing for Energy Recovery from Furnace Process Gas: Waste to Energy

Authors: Balram Panjwani, Bernd Wittgens, Jan Erik Olsen, Stein Tore Johansen


The Norwegian ferroalloy industry is a world leader in sustainable production of ferrosilicon, silicon and manganese alloys with the lowest global specific energy consumption. One of the byproducts during the metal reduction process is energy rich off-gas and usually this energy is not harnessed. A novel concept for sustainable energy recovery from ferroalloy off-gas is discussed. The concept is founded on the idea of introducing a combustion chamber in the off-gas section in which energy rich off-gas mainly consisting of CO will be combusted. This will provide an additional degree of freedom for optimizing energy recovery. A well-controlled and high off-gas temperature will assure a significant increase in energy recovery and reduction of emissions to the atmosphere. Design and operation of the combustion chamber depend on many parameters, including the total power capacity of the combustion chamber, sufficient residence time for combusting the complex Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), NOx, as well as converting other potential pollutants. The design criteria for the combustion chamber have been identified and discussed and sizing of the combustion chamber has been carried out considering these design criteria. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been utilized extensively for sizing the combustion chamber. The results from our CFD simulations of the flow in the combustion chamber and exploring different off-gas fuel composition are presented. In brief, the paper covers all aspect which impacts the sizing of the combustion chamber, including insulation thickness, choice of insulating material, heat transfer through extended surfaces, multi-staging and secondary air injection.

Keywords: CFD, combustion chamber, arc furnace, energy recovery

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19 Full-Scale 3D Simulation of the Electroslag Rapid Remelting Process

Authors: E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig


The standard electroslag remelting (ESR) process can ideally control the solidification of an ingot and produce homogeneous structure with minimum defects. However, the melt rate of electrode is rather low that makes the whole process uneconomical especially to produce small ingot sizes. In contrast, continuous casting is an economical process to produce small ingots such as billets at high casting speed. Unfortunately, deep liquid melt pool forms in the billet ingot of continuous casting that leads to center porosity and segregation. As such, continuous casting is not suitable to produce segregation prone alloys like tool steel or several super alloys. On the other hand, the electro slag rapid remelting (ESRR) process has advantages of both traditional ESR and continuous casting processes to produce billets. In the ESRR process, a T-shaped mold is used including a graphite ring that takes major amount of current through the mold. There are only a few reports available in the literature discussing about this topic. The research on the ESRR process is currently ongoing aiming to improve the design of the T-shaped mold, to decrease overall heat loss in the process, and to obtain a higher temperature at metal meniscus. In the present study, a 3D model is proposed to investigate the electromagnetic, thermal, and flow fields in the whole process as well as solidification of the billet ingot. We performed a fully coupled numerical simulation to explore the influence of the electromagnetically driven flow (MHD) on the thermal field in the slag and ingot. The main goal is to obtain some fundamental understanding of the formation of melt pool of the solidifying billet ingot in the ESRR process.

Keywords: billet ingot, magnetohydrodynamics (mhd), numerical simulation, remelting, solidification, t-shaped mold.

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18 Describing Professional Purchasers' Performance Applying the 'Big Five Inventory': Findings from a Survey in Austria

Authors: Volker Koch, Sigrid Swobodnik, Bernd M. Zunk


The success of companies on globalized markets is significantly influenced by the performance of purchasing departments and, of course, the individuals employed as professional purchasers. Nonetheless, this is generally accepted in practice, in literature as well as in empirical research, only insufficient attention was given to the assessment of this relationship between the personality of professional purchasers and their individual performance. This paper aims to describe the relationship against the background of the 'Big Five Inventory'. Based on the five dimensions of a personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) a research model was designed. The research model divides the individual performance of professional purchasers into two major dimensions: operational and strategic. The operational dimension consists of the items 'cost', 'quality delivery' and 'flexibility'; the strategic dimension comprises the positions 'innovation', 'supplier satisfaction' as wells as 'purchasing and supply management integration in the organization'. To test the research model, a survey study was performed, and an online questionnaire was sent out to purchasing professionals in Austrian companies. The data collected from 78 responses was used to test the research model applying a group comparison. The comparison points out that there is (i) an influence of the purchasers’ personality on the individual performance of professional purchasers and (ii) a link between purchasers’ personality to a high or a low individual performance of professional purchasers. The findings of this study may help human resource managers during staff recruitment processes to identify the 'right performing personality' for an operational and/or a strategic position in purchasing departments.

Keywords: big five inventory, individual performance, personality, purchasing professionals

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17 Using Data Mining in Automotive Safety

Authors: Carine Cridelich, Pablo Juesas Cano, Emmanuel Ramasso, Noureddine Zerhouni, Bernd Weiler


Safety is one of the most important considerations when buying a new car. While active safety aims at avoiding accidents, passive safety systems such as airbags and seat belts protect the occupant in case of an accident. In addition to legal regulations, organizations like Euro NCAP provide consumers with an independent assessment of the safety performance of cars and drive the development of safety systems in automobile industry. Those ratings are mainly based on injury assessment reference values derived from physical parameters measured in dummies during a car crash test. The components and sub-systems of a safety system are designed to achieve the required restraint performance. Sled tests and other types of tests are then carried out by car makers and their suppliers to confirm the protection level of the safety system. A Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) process is proposed in order to minimize the number of tests. The KDD process is based on the data emerging from sled tests according to Euro NCAP specifications. About 30 parameters of the passive safety systems from different data sources (crash data, dummy protocol) are first analysed together with experts opinions. A procedure is proposed to manage missing data and validated on real data sets. Finally, a procedure is developed to estimate a set of rough initial parameters of the passive system before testing aiming at reducing the number of tests.

Keywords: KDD process, passive safety systems, sled test, dummy injury assessment reference values, frontal impact

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16 Design Study on a Contactless Material Feeding Device for Electro Conductive Workpieces

Authors: Oliver Commichau, Richard Krimm, Bernd-Arno Behrens


A growing demand on the production rate of modern presses leads to higher stroke rates. Commonly used material feeding devices for presses like grippers and roll-feeding systems can only achieve high stroke rates along with high gripper forces, to avoid stick-slip. These forces are limited by the sensibility of the surfaces of the workpieces. Stick-slip leads to scratches on the surface and false positioning of the workpiece. In this paper, a new contactless feeding device is presented, which develops higher feeding force without damaging the surface of the workpiece through gripping forces. It is based on the principle of the linear induction motor. A primary part creates a magnetic field and induces eddy currents in the electrically conductive material. A Lorentz-Force applies to the workpiece in feeding direction as a mutual reaction between the eddy-currents and the magnetic induction. In this study, the FEA model of this approach is shown. The calculation of this model was used to identify the influence of various design parameters on the performance of the feeder and thus showing the promising capabilities and limits of this technology. In order to validate the study, a prototype of the feeding device has been built. An experimental setup was used to measure pulling forces and placement accuracy of the experimental feeder in order to give an outlook of a potential industrial application of this approach.

Keywords: conductive material, contactless feeding, linear induction, Lorentz-Force

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15 Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of a Shaft Failure Behaviour Using Three-Point Bending Test

Authors: Bernd Engel, Sara Salman Hassan Al-Maeeni


A substantial amount of natural resources are nowadays consumed at a growing rate, as humans all over the world used materials obtained from the Earth. Machinery manufacturing industry is one of the major resource consumers on a global scale. Even though the incessant finding out of the new material, metals, and resources, it is urgent for the industry to develop methods to use the Earth's resources intelligently and more sustainable than before. Re-engineering of machine tools regarding design and failure analysis is an approach whereby out-of-date machines are upgraded and returned to useful life. To ensure the reliable future performance of the used machine components, it is essential to investigate the machine component failure through the material, design, and surface examinations. This paper presents an experimental approach aimed at inspecting the shaft of the rotary draw bending machine as a case to study. The testing methodology, which is based on the principle of the three-point bending test, allows assessing the shaft elastic behavior under loading. Furthermore, the shaft elastic characteristics include the maximum linear deflection, and maximum bending stress was determined by using an analytical approach and finite element (FE) analysis approach. In the end, the results were compared with the ones obtained by the experimental approach. In conclusion, it is seen that the measured bending deflection and bending stress were well close to the permissible design value. Therefore, the shaft can work in the second life cycle. However, based on previous surface tests conducted, the shaft needs surface treatments include re-carburizing and refining processes to ensure the reliable surface performance.

Keywords: deflection, FE analysis, shaft, stress, three-point bending

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14 Stress-Controlled Senescence and Development in Arabidopsis thaliana by Root Associated Factor (RAF), a NAC Transcription Regulator

Authors: Iman Kamranfar, Gang-Ping Xue, Salma Balazadeh, Bernd Mueller-Roeber


Adverse environmental conditions such as salinity stress, high temperature and drought limit plant growth and typically lead to precocious tissue degeneration and leaf senescence, a process by which nutrients from photosynthetic organs are recycled for the formation of flowers and seeds to secure reaching the next generation under such harmful conditions. In addition, abiotic stress affects developmental patterns that help the plant to withstand unfavourable environmental conditions. We discovered an NAC (for NAM, ATAF1, 2, and CUC2) transcription factor (TF), called RAF in the following, which plays a central role in abiotic drought stress-triggered senescence and the control of developmental adaptations to stressful environments. RAF is an ABA-responsive TF; RAF overexpressors are hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and exhibit precocious senescence while knock-out mutants show delayed senescence. To explore the RAF gene regulatory network (GRN), we determined its preferred DNA binding sites by binding site selection assay (BSSA) and performed microarray-based expression profiling using inducible RAF overexpression lines and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR. Our studies identified several direct target genes, including those encoding for catabolic enzymes acting during stress-induced senescence. Furthermore, we identified various genes controlling drought stress-related developmental changes. Based on our results, we conclude that RAF functions as a central transcriptional regulator that coordinates developmental programs with stress-related inputs from the environment. To explore the potential agricultural applications of our findings, we are currently extending our studies towards crop species.

Keywords: abiotic stress, Arabidopsis, development, transcription factor

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13 Combining Multiscale Patterns of Weather and Sea States into a Machine Learning Classifier for Mid-Term Prediction of Extreme Rainfall in North-Western Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Pinel Sebastien, Bourrin François, De Madron Du Rieu Xavier, Ludwig Wolfgang, Arnau Pedro


Heavy precipitation constitutes a major meteorological threat in the western Mediterranean. Research has investigated the relationship between the states of the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere with the precipitation for short temporal windows. However, at a larger temporal scale, the precursor signals of heavy rainfall in the sea and atmosphere have drawn little attention. Moreover, despite ongoing improvements in numerical weather prediction, the medium-term forecasting of rainfall events remains a difficult task. Here, we aim to investigate the influence of early-spring environmental parameters on the following autumnal heavy precipitations. Hence, we develop a machine learning model to predict extreme autumnal rainfall with a 6-month lead time over the Spanish Catalan coastal area, based on i) the sea pattern (main current-LPC and Sea Surface Temperature-SST) at the mesoscale scale, ii) 4 European weather teleconnection patterns (NAO, WeMo, SCAND, MO) at synoptic scale, and iii) the hydrological regime of the main local river (Rhône River). The accuracy of the developed model classifier is evaluated via statistical analysis based on classification accuracy, logarithmic and confusion matrix by comparing with rainfall estimates from rain gauges and satellite observations (CHIRPS-2.0). Sensitivity tests are carried out by changing the model configuration, such as sea SST, sea LPC, river regime, and synoptic atmosphere configuration. The sensitivity analysis suggests a negligible influence from the hydrological regime, unlike SST, LPC, and specific teleconnection weather patterns. At last, this study illustrates how public datasets can be integrated into a machine learning model for heavy rainfall prediction and can interest local policies for management purposes.

Keywords: extreme hazards, sensitivity analysis, heavy rainfall, machine learning, sea-atmosphere modeling, precipitation forecasting

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12 HCl-Based Hydrometallurgical Recycling Route for Metal Recovery from Li-Ion Battery Wastes

Authors: Claudia Schier, Arvid Biallas, Bernd Friedrich


The demand for Li-ion-batteries owing to their benefits, such as; fast charging time, high energy density, low weight, large temperature range, and a long service life performance is increasing compared to other battery systems. These characteristics are substantial not only for battery-operated portable devices but also in the growing field of electromobility where high-performance energy storage systems in the form of batteries are highly requested. Due to the sharp rising production, there is a tremendous interest to recycle spent Li-Ion batteries in a closed-loop manner owed to the high content of valuable metals such as cobalt, manganese, and lithium as well as regarding the increasing demand for those scarce applied metals. Currently, there are just a few industrial processes using hydrometallurgical methods to recover valuable metals from Li-ion-battery waste. In this study, the extraction of valuable metals from spent Li-ion-batteries is investigated by pretreated and subsequently leached battery wastes using different precipitation methods in a comparative manner. For the extraction of lithium, cobalt, and other valuable metals, pelletized battery wastes with an initial Li content of 2.24 wt. % and cobalt of 22 wt. % is used. Hydrochloric acid with 4 mol/L is applied with 1:50 solid to liquid (s/l) ratio to generate pregnant leach solution for subsequent precipitation steps. In order to obtain pure precipitates, two different pathways (pathway 1 and pathway 2) are investigated, which differ from each other with regard to the precipitation steps carried out. While lithium carbonate recovery is the final process step in pathway 1, pathway 2 requires a preliminary removal of lithium from the process. The aim is to evaluate both processes in terms of purity and yield of the products obtained. ICP-OES is used to determine the chemical content of leach liquor as well as of the solid residue.

Keywords: hydrochloric acid, hydrometallurgy, Li-ion-batteries, metal recovery

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11 Modernism’s Influence on Architect-Client Relationship: Comparative Case Studies of Schroder and Farnsworth Houses

Authors: Omneya Messallam, Sara S. Fouad


The Modernist Movement initially flourished in France, Holland, Germany and the Soviet Union. Many architects and designers were inspired and followed its principles. Two of its most important architects (Gerrit Rietveld and Ludwig Mies van de Rohe) were introduced in this paper. Each did not follow the other’s principles and had their own particular rules; however, they shared the same features of the Modernist International Style, such as Anti-historicism, Abstraction, Technology, Function and Internationalism/ Universality. Key Modernist principles translated into high expectations, which sometimes did not meet the inhabitants’ aspirations of living comfortably; consequently, leading to a conflict and misunderstanding between the designer and their clients’ needs. Therefore, historical case studies (the Schroder and the Farnsworth houses) involving two Modernist pioneer architects have been chosen. This paper is an attempt to explore some of the influential factors affecting buildings design such as: needs, gender, and question concerning commonalities between both designers and their clients. The three aspects and two designers explored here have been chosen because they have been influenced the researchers to understand the impact of those factors on the design process, building’s performance, and the dweller’s satisfaction. This is a descriptive/ analytical research based on two historical comparative case studies that involve several steps such as: key evaluation questions (KEQs), observations, document analysis, etc. The methodology is based on data collation and finding validations. The research aims to state a manifest to regulate the relation between architects and their clients to reach the optimum building performance and functional interior design that suits their clients’ needs, reflects the architects’ character, and the school they belong to. At the end, through the investigation in this paper, the different needs between both the designers and the clients have been seen not only in the building itself but also it could convert the inhabitant’s life in various ways. Moreover, a successful relationship between the architect and their clients could play a significant role in the success of projects. In contrast, not every good design or celebrated building could end up with a successful relationship between the designer and their client or full-fill the inhabitant’s aspirations.

Keywords: architect’s character, building’s performance, commonalities, client’s character, gender, modernist movement, needs

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10 Kriging-Based Global Optimization Method for Bluff Body Drag Reduction

Authors: Bingxi Huang, Yiqing Li, Marek Morzynski, Bernd R. Noack


We propose a Kriging-based global optimization method for active flow control with multiple actuation parameters. This method is designed to converge quickly and avoid getting trapped into local minima. We follow the model-free explorative gradient method (EGM) to alternate between explorative and exploitive steps. This facilitates a convergence similar to a gradient-based method and the parallel exploration of potentially better minima. In contrast to EGM, both kinds of steps are performed with Kriging surrogate model from the available data. The explorative step maximizes the expected improvement, i.e., favors regions of large uncertainty. The exploitive step identifies the best location of the cost function from the Kriging surrogate model for a subsequent weight-biased linear-gradient descent search method. To verify the effectiveness and robustness of the improved Kriging-based optimization method, we have examined several comparative test problems of varying dimensions with limited evaluation budgets. The results show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms some model-free optimization algorithms like genetic algorithm and differential evolution algorithm with a quicker convergence for a given budget. We have also performed direct numerical simulations of the fluidic pinball (N. Deng et al. 2020 J. Fluid Mech.) on three circular cylinders in equilateral-triangular arrangement immersed in an incoming flow at Re=100. The optimal cylinder rotations lead to 44.0% net drag power saving with 85.8% drag reduction and 41.8% actuation power. The optimal results for active flow control based on this configuration have achieved boat-tailing mechanism by employing Coanda forcing and wake stabilization by delaying separation and minimizing the wake region.

Keywords: direct numerical simulations, flow control, kriging, stochastic optimization, wake stabilization

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9 Sustainable Production of Algae through Nutrient Recovery in the Biofuel Conversion Process

Authors: Bagnoud-Velásquez Mariluz, Damergi Eya, Grandjean Dominique, Frédéric Vogel, Ludwig Christian


The sustainability of algae to biofuel processes is seriously affected by the energy intensive production of fertilizers. Large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus are required for a large-scale production resulting in many cases in a negative impact of the limited mineral resources. In order to meet the algal bioenergy opportunity it appears crucial the promotion of processes applying a nutrient recovery and/or making use of renewable sources including waste. Hydrothermal (HT) conversion is a promising and suitable technology for microalgae to generate biofuels. Besides the fact that water is used as a “green” reactant and solvent and that no biomass drying is required, the technology offers a great potential for nutrient recycling. This study evaluated the possibility to treat the water HT effluent by the growth of microalgae while producing renewable algal biomass. As already demonstrated in previous works by the authors, the HT aqueous product besides having N, P and other important nutrients, presents a small fraction of organic compounds rarely studied. Therefore, extracted heteroaromatic compounds in the HT effluent were the target of the present research; they were profiled using GC-MS and LC-MS-MS. The results indicate the presence of cyclic amides, piperazinediones, amines and their derivatives. The most prominent nitrogenous organic compounds (NOC’s) in the extracts were carefully examined by their effect on microalgae, namely 2-pyrrolidinone and β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA). These two substances were prepared at three different concentrations (10, 50 and 150 ppm). This toxicity bioassay used three different microalgae strains: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus vacuolatus. The confirmed IC50 was for all cases ca. 75ppm. Experimental conditions were set up for the growth of microalgae in the aqueous phase by adjusting the nitrogen concentration (the key nutrient for algae) to fit that one established for a known commercial medium. The values of specific NOC’s were lowered at concentrations of 8.5 mg/L 2-pyrrolidinone; 1mg/L δ-valerolactam and 0.5 mg/L β-PEA. The growth with the diluted HT solution was kept constant with no inhibition evidence. An additional ongoing test is addressing the possibility to apply an integrated water cleanup step making use of the existent hydrothermal catalytic facility.

Keywords: hydrothermal process, microalgae, nitrogenous organic compounds, nutrient recovery, renewable biomass

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