Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7534

Search results for: salinity gradient energy

7534 Energy Potential of Salinity Gradient Mixing: Case Study of Mixing Energies of Rivers of Goa with the Arabian Sea

Authors: Arijit Chakraborty, Anirban Roy

Abstract:

The Indian peninsula is strategically located in the Asian subcontinent with the Himalayas to the North and Oceans surrounding the other three directions with annual monsoons which takes care of water supply to the rivers. The total river water discharge into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is 628 km³/year and 274 km³/year, respectively. Thus huge volumes of fresh water meet saline water, and this mixing of two streams of dissimilar salinity gives rise to tremendous mixing energies which can be harvested for various purposes like energy generation using pressure retarded osmosis or reverse electrodialysis. The present paper concentrates on analyzing the energy of mixing for the rivers in Goa. Goa has 10 rivers of various sizes all which meet the Arabian Sea. In the present work, the 8 rivers and their salinity (NaCl concentrations) have been analyzed along with their seasonal fluctuations. Next, a Gibbs free energy formulation has been implemented to analyze the energy of mixing of the selected rivers. The highest and lowest energies according to the seasonal fluctuations have been evaluated, and this provides two important insights into (i) amount of energy that can be harvested and (ii) decision on the location of such systems.

Keywords: Gibbs energy, mixing energy, salinity gradient energy, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
7533 A Simple Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

Authors: Safwan Kanan, Jonathan Dewsbury, Gregory Lane-Serff

Abstract:

A salinity gradient solar pond is a free energy source system for collecting, converting and storing solar energy as heat. In this paper, the principles of solar pond are explained. A mathematical model is developed to describe and simulate heat and mass transfer behavior of salinity gradient solar pond. Matlab codes are programmed to solve the one dimensional finite difference method for heat and mass transfer equations. Temperature profiles and concentration distributions are calculated. The numerical results are validated with experimental data and the results are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: finite difference method, salt-gradient solar-pond, solar energy, transient heat and mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
7532 Dynamics of Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Contents and Stocks along a Salinity Gradient

Authors: Qingqing Zhao, Junhong Bai

Abstract:

To investigate the effects of salinity on dynamics of soil carbon and nitrogen contents and stocks, soil samples were collected at a depth of 30 cm at four sampling sites (Sites B, T, S and P) along a salinity gradient in a drained coastal wetland, the Yellow River Delta, China. The salinity of these four sites ranked in the order: B (8.68±4.25 ms/cm) > T (5.89±3.17 ms/cm) > S (3.19±1.01 ms/cm) > P (2.26±0.39 ms/cm). Soil total carbon (TC), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil total nitrogen (TC) and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were measured. Based on these data, soil organic carbon density (SOCD), soil microbial biomass carbon density (MBCD), soil nitrogen density (TCD) and soil microbial biomass nitrogen density (MBND) were calculated at four sites. The results showed that the mean concentrations of TC, SOC, MBC, TN and MBN showed a general deceasing tendency with increasing salinities in the top 30 cm of soils. The values of SOCD, MBCD, TND and MBND exhibited similar tendency along the salinity gradient. As for profile distribution pattern, The C/N ratios ranged from 8.28 to 56. 51. Higher C/N ratios were found in samples with high salinity. Correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of TC, SOC and MBC at four sampling sites were significantly negatively correlated with salinity (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), indicating that salinity could inhibit soil carbon accumulation. However, no significant relationship was observed between TN, MBN and salinity (P > 0.05).

Keywords: carbon content and stock, nitrogen content and stock, salinity, coastal wetland

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
7531 Assessment of Soil Salinity through Remote Sensing Technique in the Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Authors: B. Hossen, Y. Helmut

Abstract:

Soil salinity is a major problem for the coastal region of Bangladesh, which has been increasing for the last four decades. Determination of soil salinity is essential for proper land use planning for agricultural crop production. The aim of the research is to estimate and monitor the soil salinity in the study area. Remote sensing can be an effective tool for detecting soil salinity in data-scarce conditions. In the research, Landsat 8 is used, which required atmospheric and radiometric correction, and nine soil salinity indices are applied to develop a soil salinity map. Ground soil salinity data, i.e., EC value, is collected as a printed map which is then scanned and digitized to develop a point shapefile. Linear regression is made between satellite-based generated map and ground soil salinity data, i.e., EC value. The results show that maximum R² value is found for salinity index SI 7 = G*R/B representing 0.022. This minimal R² value refers that there is a negligible relationship between ground EC value and salinity index generated value. Hence, these indices are not appropriate to assess soil salinity though many studies used those soil salinity indices successfully. Therefore, further research is necessary to formulate a model for determining the soil salinity in the coastal of Bangladesh.

Keywords: soil salinity, EC, Landsat 8, salinity indices, linear regression, remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
7530 Growth and Yield Response of Solanum retroflexum to Different Level of Salinity

Authors: Fhatuwani Herman Nndwambi, P. W. Mashela

Abstract:

Salinity is a major constraint limiting crop productivity. It has been predicted that by the year 2050, more than 50% of the arable land will be affected by salinity. Two similar salinity experiments were conducted in two seasons under greenhouse condition. Six levels of salinity plus control (viz; control, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 % NaCl and CaCl2 at 3:1 ratio) were applied in a form of irrigation water in a single factor experiment arranged in a complete block design with 20 replications. Plant growth and yield were negatively affected by salinity treatments especially at the high levels of salinity. For example, our results suggest that the 32 and 64% of NaCl and CaCl2 treatment were too much for the plant to withstand as determined by reduced dry shoot mass, stem diameter and plant height in both seasons. On the other hand, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content increased with an increased level of salinity.

Keywords: growth, salinity, season, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
7529 Review on Quaternion Gradient Operator with Marginal and Vector Approaches for Colour Edge Detection

Authors: Nadia Ben Youssef, Aicha Bouzid

Abstract:

Gradient estimation is one of the most fundamental tasks in the field of image processing in general, and more particularly for color images since that the research in color image gradient remains limited. The widely used gradient method is Di Zenzo’s gradient operator, which is based on the measure of squared local contrast of color images. The proposed gradient mechanism, presented in this paper, is based on the principle of the Di Zenzo’s approach using quaternion representation. This edge detector is compared to a marginal approach based on multiscale product of wavelet transform and another vector approach based on quaternion convolution and vector gradient approach. The experimental results indicate that the proposed color gradient operator outperforms marginal approach, however, it is less efficient then the second vector approach.

Keywords: gradient, edge detection, color image, quaternion

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
7528 Effect of Pre-treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
7527 Effect of Pre-Treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Saudi’s Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
7526 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Hua Mu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokun Cai, Hao Qin

Abstract:

Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.

Keywords: gravity gradient, gravity gradient sensor, accelerometer, single-axis rotation modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
7525 Isolation and Characterization of Salt-Tolerance of Rhizobia under the Effects of Salinity

Authors: Sarra Sobti, Baelhadj Hamdi-Aïssa

Abstract:

The bacteria of the soil, usually called rhizobium, have a considerable importance in agriculture because of their capacity to fix the atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with the plants of the family of legumes. The present work was to study the effect of the salinity on growth and nodulation of alfalfa-rhizobia symbiosis at different agricultural experimental sites in Ouargla. The experiment was conducted in 3 steps. The first one was the isolation and characterization of the Rhizobia; next, the evolution of the isolates tolerance to salinity at three levels of NaCl (6, 8,12 and 16 g/L); and the last step was the evolution of the tolerance on symbiotic characteristics. The results showed that the phenotypic characterizations behave practically as Rhizobia spp, and the effects of salinity affect the symbiotic process. The tolerance to high levels of salinity and the survival and persistence in severe and harsh desert conditions make these rhizobia highly valuable inoculums to improve productivity of the leguminous plants cultivated under extreme environments.

Keywords: rhizobia, symbiosis, salinity, tolerance, nodulation, soil, Medicago sativa L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
7524 A New Modification of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Coefficients with Global Convergence Properties

Authors: Ahmad Alhawarat, Mustafa Mamat, Mohd Rivaie, Ismail Mohd

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient method has been enormously used to solve large scale unconstrained optimization problems due to the number of iteration, memory, CPU time, and convergence property, in this paper we find a new class of nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with global convergence properties proved by exact line search. The numerical results for our new βK give a good result when it compared with well-known formulas.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, conjugate gradient coefficient, global convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
7523 Geochemical Controls of Salinity in a Typical Acid Mine Drainage Neutralized Groundwater System

Authors: Modreck Gomo

Abstract:

Although the dolomite and calcite carbonates can neutralize Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and prevent leaching of metals, salinity still remains a huge problem. The study presents a conceptual discussion of geochemical controls of salinity in a typical calcite and dolomite AMD neutralised groundwater systems. Thereafter field evidence is presented to support the conceptual discussions. 1020 field data sets of from a groundwater system reported to be under circumneutral conditions from the neutralization effect of calcite and dolomite is analysed using correlation analysis and bivariate plots. Field evidence indicates that sulphate, calcium and magnesium are strongly and positively correlated to Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) which is used as measure of salinity. In this, a hydrogeochemical system, the dissolution of sulphate, calcium and magnesium form AMD neutralization process contributed 50%, 10% and 5% of the salinity.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, carbonates, neutralization, salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
7522 Study of Salinity Stress and Calcium Interaction on Morphological and Physiological Traits of Vicia villosa under Hydroponic Condition

Authors: Raheleh Khademian, Roghayeh Aminian

Abstract:

For the study of salinity stress on Vicia villosa and calcium effect for modulation of that, an experiment was conducted under hydroponic condition, and some important morphological and physiological characteristics were evaluated. This experiment was conducted as a factorial based on randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments include salinity stress in three levels (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl) and calcium in two levels (content in Hoagland solution and double content). The results showed that all morphological and physiological traits include root and shoot length, root and shoot wet and dry weight, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content, RWC, CMS, and biological yield was significantly different from the control and is affected by the salinity stress severely. But, calcium effect on them was not significant despite of decreasing salinity effect.

Keywords: Vicia villossa, salinity stress, calcium, hydroponic

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
7521 A Theoretical Study of Accelerating Neutrons in LINAC Using Magnetic Gradient Method

Authors: Chunduru Amareswara Prasad

Abstract:

The main aim of this proposal it to reveal the secrets of the universe by accelerating neutrons. The proposal idea in its abridged version speaks about the possibility of making neutrons accelerate with help of thermal energy and magnetic energy under controlled conditions. Which is helpful in revealing the hidden secrets of the universe namely dark energy and in finding properties of Higgs boson. The paper mainly speaks about accelerating neutrons to near velocity of light in a LINAC, using magnetic energy by magnetic pressurizers. The center of mass energy of two colliding neutron beams is 94 GeV (~0.5c) can be achieved using this method. The conventional ways to accelerate neutrons has some constraints in accelerating them electromagnetically as they need to be separated from the Tritium or Deuterium nuclei. This magnetic gradient method provides efficient and simple way to accelerate neutrons.

Keywords: neutron, acceleration, thermal energy, magnetic energy, Higgs boson

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
7520 Effect of Salinity on Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Chamomile

Authors: Mehdi Ghanavati

Abstract:

The Effects of salinity level and duration on carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) of Matricaria chamomilla and Matricaria aurea were evaluated. Four ecotypes of M. chamomilla and four ecotypes of M. aurea were grown at different NaCl concentrations (control, 6, 12 and 18 dS/m) in sand culture condition. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) varied significantly (p<0.001) among ecotypes. The amount of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) increased in first salinity level (6 dS/m), but in other levels (12 and 18 dS/m) it did not increase. Stages of salinity treatments (two stages: first from seedling stage until the end of the experiment and second stage of stress exertion began at stem elongation and seedlings emergence from rosette stage to harvest) had not a significant difference. Study of two spices of chamomile showed the M. aurea had a higher amount of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) (22.9%) than M. chamomilla (22.48%).

Keywords: salinity, carbon isotope discrimination, Matricaria chamomilla, Matricaria aurea

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
7519 Exploitation of Variability for Salinity Tolerance in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Early Growth Stage

Authors: Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat

Abstract:

Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germplasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: salinity, hybrids, maize, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 622
7518 Soil Salinity Mapping using Electromagnetic Induction Measurements

Authors: Fethi Bouksila, Nessrine Zemni, Fairouz Slama, Magnus Persson, Ronny Berndasson, Akissa Bahri

Abstract:

Electromagnetic sensor EM 38 was used to predict and map soil salinity (ECe) in arid oasis. Despite the high spatial variation of soil moisture and shallow watertable, significant ECe-EM relationships were developed. The low drainage network efficiency is the main factor of soil salinization

Keywords: soil salinity map, electromagnetic induction, EM38, oasis, shallow watertable

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
7517 Linear Study of Electrostatic Ion Temperature Gradient Mode with Entropy Gradient Drift and Sheared Ion Flows

Authors: M. Yaqub Khan, Usman Shabbir

Abstract:

History of plasma reveals that continuous struggle of experimentalists and theorists are not fruitful for confinement up to now. It needs a change to bring the research through entropy. Approximately, all the quantities like number density, temperature, electrostatic potential, etc. are connected to entropy. Therefore, it is better to change the way of research. In ion temperature gradient mode with the help of Braginskii model, Boltzmannian electrons, effect of velocity shear is studied inculcating entropy in the magnetoplasma. New dispersion relation is derived for ion temperature gradient mode, and dependence on entropy gradient drift is seen. It is also seen velocity shear enhances the instability but in anomalous transport, its role is not seen significantly but entropy. This work will be helpful to the next step of tokamak and space plasmas.

Keywords: entropy, velocity shear, ion temperature gradient mode, drift

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
7516 Study of Frequency and Distribution of Skin Ionocytes in Caspian Sea Zander Larvae during Acclimation to Different Salinity

Authors: Mohaddeseh Ahmadnezhad, Shahrbano Oryan, Mahmoud Bahmani, Mohammadd Sayad Bourani

Abstract:

Changes in abundance and size of skin ionocytes were investigated in two larval stage of Caspian sea zander, Sander lucioperca, before and after yolk sac absorption, at 96h after transfer from fresh water (FW; <0.5‰) to 7‰ (estuary) and 12‰ (Caspian sea water=CW) salinity. Survival rate in the stage of after yolk sac absorption were more than larval pre-absorbed yolk sac in condition of salinity (p<0.05). Ionocyte abundance increased significantly in 7 and 12‰ salinity (p<0.05), but not about ionocyte size. The results of this study suggest that development of skin Ionocyte osmoregulatory function and osmoregulation capability of Caspian Sea zander larvae increased with growth of the larvae.

Keywords: Caspian Sea, larvae, Sander lucioperca, salinity, skin ionocyte

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
7515 Global Convergence of a Modified Three-Term Conjugate Gradient Algorithms

Authors: Belloufi Mohammed, Sellami Badreddine

Abstract:

This paper deals with a new nonlinear modified three-term conjugate gradient algorithm for solving large-scale unstrained optimization problems. The search direction of the algorithms from this class has three terms and is computed as modifications of the classical conjugate gradient algorithms to satisfy both the descent and the conjugacy conditions. An example of three-term conjugate gradient algorithm from this class, as modifications of the classical and well known Hestenes and Stiefel or of the CG_DESCENT by Hager and Zhang conjugate gradient algorithms, satisfying both the descent and the conjugacy conditions is presented. Under mild conditions, we prove that the modified three-term conjugate gradient algorithm with Wolfe type line search is globally convergent. Preliminary numerical results show the proposed method is very promising.

Keywords: unconstrained optimization, three-term conjugate gradient, sufficient descent property, line search

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
7514 Torsional Vibration of Carbon Nanotubes via Nonlocal Gradient Theories

Authors: Mustafa Arda, Metin Aydogdu

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have many possible application areas because of their superior physical properties. Nonlocal Theory, which unlike the classical theories, includes the size dependency. Nonlocal Stress and Strain Gradient approaches can be used in nanoscale static and dynamic analysis. In the present study, torsional vibration of CNTs was investigated according to nonlocal stress and strain gradient theories. Effects of the small scale parameters to the non-dimensional frequency were obtained. Results were compared with the Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Lattice Dynamics. Strain Gradient Theory has shown more weakening effect on CNT according to the Stress Gradient Theory. Combination of both theories gives more acceptable results rather than the classical and stress or strain gradient theory according to Lattice Dynamics.

Keywords: torsional vibration, carbon nanotubes, nonlocal gradient theory, stress, strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
7513 Soil Salinity from Wastewater Irrigation in Urban Greenery

Authors: H. Nouri, S. Chavoshi Borujeni, S. Anderson, S. Beecham, P. Sutton

Abstract:

The potential risk of salt leaching through wastewater irrigation is of concern for most local governments and city councils. Despite the necessity of salinity monitoring and management in urban greenery, most attention has been on agricultural fields. This study was defined to investigate the capability and feasibility of monitoring and predicting soil salinity using near sensing and remote sensing approaches using EM38 surveys, and high-resolution multispectral image of WorldView3. Veale Gardens within the Adelaide Parklands was selected as the experimental site. The results of the near sensing investigation were validated by testing soil salinity samples in the laboratory. Over 30 band combinations forming salinity indices were tested using image processing techniques. The outcomes of the remote sensing and near sensing approaches were compared to examine whether remotely sensed salinity indicators could map and predict the spatial variation of soil salinity through a potential statistical model. Statistical analysis was undertaken using the Stata 13 statistical package on over 52,000 points. Several regression models were fitted to the data, and the mixed effect modelling was selected the most appropriate one as it takes to account the systematic observation-specific unobserved heterogeneity. Results showed that SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) was the only salinity index that could be considered as a predictor for soil salinity but further investigation is needed. However, near sensing was found as a rapid, practical and realistically accurate approach for salinity mapping of heterogeneous urban vegetation.

Keywords: WorldView3, remote sensing, EM38, near sensing, urban green spaces, green smart cities

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
7512 Effects of Structure on Density-Induced Flow in Coastal and Estuarine Navigation Channel

Authors: Shuo Huang, Huomiao Guo, Wenrui Huang

Abstract:

In navigation channels located in coasts and estuaries as the waterways connecting coastal water to ports or harbors, density-induced flow often exist due to the density-gradient or gravity gradient as the results of mixing between fresh water from coastal rivers and saline water in the coasts. The density-induced flow often carries sediment transport into navigation channels and causes sediment depositions in the channels. As a result, expensive dredging may need to maintain the water depth required for navigation. In our study, we conduct a series of experiments to investigate the characteristics of density-induced flow in the estuarine navigation channels under different density gradients. Empirical equations between density flow and salinity gradient were derived. Effects of coastal structures for regulating navigation channel on density-induced flow have also been investigated. Results will be very helpful for improving the understanding of the characteristics of density-induced flow in estuarine navigation channels. The results will also provide technical support for cost-effective waterway regulation and management to maintain coastal and estuarine navigation channels.

Keywords: density flow, estuarine, navigation channel, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
7511 The Sensitivity of Electrical Geophysical Methods for Mapping Salt Stores within the Soil Profile

Authors: Fathi Ali Swaid

Abstract:

Soil salinization is one of the most hazardous phenomenons accelerating the land degradation processes. It either occurs naturally or is human-induced. High levels of soil salinity negatively affect crop growth and productivity leading land degradation ultimately. Thus, it is important to monitor and map soil salinity at an early stage to enact effective soil reclamation program that helps lessen or prevent future increase in soil salinity. Geophysical method has outperformed the traditional method for assessing soil salinity offering more informative and professional rapid assessment techniques for monitoring and mapping soil salinity. Soil sampling, EM38 and 2D conductivity imaging have been evaluated for their ability to delineate and map the level of salinity variations at Second Ponds Creek. The three methods have shown that the subsoil in the study area is saline. Salt variations were successfully observed under either method. However, EM38 reading and 2D inversion data show a clear spatial structure comparing to EC1:5 of soil samples in spite of that all soil samples, EM38 and 2D imaging were collected from the same location. Because EM38 readings and 2D imaging data are a weighted average of electrical soil conductance, it is more representative of soil properties than the soil samples method. The mapping of subsurface soil at the study area has been successful and the resistivity imaging has proven to be an advantage. The soil salinity analysis (EC1:5) correspond well to the true resistivity bringing together a good result of soil salinity. Soil salinity clearly indicated by previous investigation EM38 have been confirmed by the interpretation of the true resistivity at study area.

Keywords: 2D conductivity imaging, EM38 readings, soil salinization, true resistivity, urban salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
7510 A New Family of Globally Convergent Conjugate Gradient Methods

Authors: B. Sellami, Y. Laskri, M. Belloufi

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient methods are an important class of methods for unconstrained optimization, especially for large-scale problems. Recently, they have been much studied. In this paper, a new family of conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization. This method includes the already existing two practical nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, which produces a descent search direction at every iteration and converges globally provided that the line search satisfies the Wolfe conditions. The numerical experiments are done to test the efficiency of the new method, which implies the new method is promising. In addition the methods related to this family are uniformly discussed.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, global convergence, line search, unconstrained optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
7509 A New Conjugate Gradient Method with Guaranteed Descent

Authors: B. Sellami, M. Belloufi

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient methods are an important class of methods for unconstrained optimization, especially for large-scale problems. Recently, they have been much studied. In this paper, we propose a new two-parameter family of conjugate gradient methods for unconstrained optimization. The two-parameter family of methods not only includes the already existing three practical nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, but also has other family of conjugate gradient methods as subfamily. The two-parameter family of methods with the Wolfe line search is shown to ensure the descent property of each search direction. Some general convergence results are also established for the two-parameter family of methods. The numerical results show that this method is efficient for the given test problems. In addition, the methods related to this family are uniformly discussed.

Keywords: unconstrained optimization, conjugate gradient method, line search, global convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
7508 Sensitivity Assessment of Spectral Salinity Indices over Desert Sabkha of Western UAE

Authors: Rubab Ammad, Abdelgadir Abuelgasim

Abstract:

UAE typically lies in one of the aridest regions of the world and is thus home to geologic features common to such climatic conditions including vast open deserts, sand dunes, saline soils, inland Sabkha and coastal Sabkha. Sabkha are characteristic salt flats formed in arid environment due to deposition and precipitation of salt and silt over sand surface because of low laying water table and rates of evaporation exceeding rates of precipitation. The study area, which comprises of western UAE, is heavily concentrated with inland Sabkha. Remote sensing is conventionally used to study the soil salinity of agriculturally degraded lands but not so broadly for Sabkha. The focus of this study was to identify these highly saline Sabkha areas on remotely sensed data, using salinity indices. The existing salinity indices in the literature have been designed for agricultural soils and they have not frequently used the spectral response of short-wave infra-red (SWIR1 and SWIR2) parts of electromagnetic spectrum. Using Landsat 8 OLI data and field ground truthing, this study formulated indices utilizing NIR-SWIR parts of spectrum and compared the results with existing salinity indices. Most indices depict reasonably good relationship between salinity and spectral index up until a certain value of salinity after which the reflectance reaches a saturation point. This saturation point varies with index. However, the study findings suggest a role of incorporating near infra-red and short-wave infra-red in salinity index with a potential of showing a positive relationship between salinity and reflectance up to a higher salinity value, compared to rest.

Keywords: Sabkha, salinity index, saline soils, Landsat 8, SWIR1, SWIR2, UAE desert

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
7507 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity for Salt Stress in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Seedling Stage

Authors: Abdu Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat

Abstract:

Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germ plasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: salinity, hybrids, maize, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 611
7506 Effect of Blue Light on Some Physiological Characters of Two Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

Authors: Mozhgan Farzamisepehr, Samira Salehi

Abstract:

Salinity is one of the most important environmental factors limiting the growth and production of crops in plants. This limitation is due to the effect of salinity stress on plant physiology aspects and its development. The structure of the plants is regulated by the optical signals emanating from the environment. Light is an energy source for photosynthetic organs, and the type of optical wavelength plays an important role in growth. In order to investigate the effect of blue light on delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (proline precursor) in 2 wheat cultivar, resistant to salinity (BAM) and sensitive to salinity (Tajan), in a culture medium with 5 treatments Salinity (control), 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl were exposed to light and white light. After five days of growth of wheat seedlings, the growth indices (fresh weight, dry weight and longitudinal growth), proline, chlorophyll a, b, sodium and potassium contents, peroxidase enzyme activity, malondialdehyde and pyrolin-5- Carboxylate (Proline precursor) contents were measured. Data were analyzed using Duncan statistical test. Blue light increased the amount of proline and PSC in the salinity-resistant cultivar. In sensitive cultivar, the amount of potassium under white light was higher than blue light in different amounts of salt. The amount of sodium accumulated under the influence of blue light in different amounts of salt in the resistant cultivar was higher than the sensitive cultivar. The peroxidation activity of resistant wheat cultivar was higher and blue light did not increase peroxidation activity, but the amount of malondialdehyde in sensitive cultivar increased under the blue light regime and in increasing amounts of salt. The fresh and dry weight of plants in resistant cultivar was highest under white light and plant length in the resistant cultivar and under increasing amounts of salt was higher than cultivar sensitive to both light and white light.

Keywords: salinity, wheat, blue light, proline precursor

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7505 Optimal Economic Restructuring Aimed at an Optimal Increase in GDP Constrained by a Decrease in Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions

Authors: Alexander Vaninsky

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is finding the way of economic restructuring - that is, change in the shares of sectoral gross outputs - resulting in the maximum possible increase in the gross domestic product (GDP) combined with decreases in energy consumption and CO2 emissions. It uses an input-output model for the GDP and factorial models for the energy consumption and CO2 emissions to determine the projection of the gradient of GDP, and the antigradients of the energy consumption and CO2 emissions, respectively, on a subspace formed by the structure-related variables. Since the gradient (antigradient) provides a direction of the steepest increase (decrease) of the objective function, and their projections retain this property for the functions' limitation to the subspace, each of the three directional vectors solves a particular problem of optimal structural change. In the next step, a type of factor analysis is applied to find a convex combination of the projected gradient and antigradients having maximal possible positive correlation with each of the three. This convex combination provides the desired direction of the structural change. The national economy of the United States is used as an example of applications.

Keywords: economic restructuring, input-output analysis, divisia index, factorial decomposition, E3 models

Procedia PDF Downloads 250