Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Anirban Roy

4 Energy Potential of Salinity Gradient Mixing: Case Study of Mixing Energies of Rivers of Goa with the Arabian Sea

Authors: Arijit Chakraborty, Anirban Roy

Abstract:

The Indian peninsula is strategically located in the Asian subcontinent with the Himalayas to the North and Oceans surrounding the other three directions with annual monsoons which takes care of water supply to the rivers. The total river water discharge into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is 628 km³/year and 274 km³/year, respectively. Thus huge volumes of fresh water meet saline water, and this mixing of two streams of dissimilar salinity gives rise to tremendous mixing energies which can be harvested for various purposes like energy generation using pressure retarded osmosis or reverse electrodialysis. The present paper concentrates on analyzing the energy of mixing for the rivers in Goa. Goa has 10 rivers of various sizes all which meet the Arabian Sea. In the present work, the 8 rivers and their salinity (NaCl concentrations) have been analyzed along with their seasonal fluctuations. Next, a Gibbs free energy formulation has been implemented to analyze the energy of mixing of the selected rivers. The highest and lowest energies according to the seasonal fluctuations have been evaluated, and this provides two important insights into (i) amount of energy that can be harvested and (ii) decision on the location of such systems.

Keywords: Gibbs energy, mixing energy, salinity gradient energy, thermodynamics

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3 Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols by SEM-EDX in a Rural-Continental Environment: A Seasonal Approach

Authors: Parminder Kaur, Anirban Guha

Abstract:

The vital information on the morphology and composition of the atmospheric aerosols over any region is critical to understanding their climatic and health effects. This study aims at the physicochemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols at a rural continental site in northeastern India. We collected the aerosol samples from January to December and applied a seasonal approach to investigate the physicochemical properties of aerosol particles. We have used a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine the morphology of particles that includes shape, size, and structure information. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) is used to investigate the elemental composition information. By using the SEM-EDX, we have seen a variation in the morphology of particles and elemental composition from season to season. We have found different particle shapes vary from regular to irregular, including spherical, nearly spherical, triangular, capsule-like, and platy shapes. We have seen various clusters of particles like chain-like structures, porous textures, soot structures, and irregular structures. We have found a size range of particles with a diameter ranging from 0.1 nm to 30 µm. We have found common elements and the significant contribution of elements C, Si, O, and B throughout the year. We have noticed the presence of crustal origin and carbonaceous particles dominating the study region. The maximum presence/counts detected in analyzed samples are from C and then B. We have observed a distinct seasonal variation in the amount of different elements. A small contribution by sea salt origin elements is noticed during the pre, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons when winds flow from the seaside to the study location. This is supported by our air mass back trajectory results.

Keywords: atmospheric aerosols, SEM-EDX, morphology, composition

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2 Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Prototype Designing of Potable Water System on Basis of Forward Osmosis

Authors: Ridhish Kumar, Sudeep Nadukkandy, Anirban Roy

Abstract:

The development of reverse osmosis happened in 1960. Along the years this technique has been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from seawater desalination to municipal water treatment. Forward osmosis (FO) is one of the foremost technologies for low energy consuming solutions for water purification. In this study, we have carried out a detailed analysis on selection, design, and pricing for a prototype of potable water system for purifying water in emergency situations. The portable and light purification system is envisaged to be driven by FO. This pouch will help to serve as an emergency water filtration device. The current effort employs a model to understand the interplay of permeability and area on the rate of purification of water from any impure source/brackish water. The draw solution for the FO pouch is considered to be a combination of salt and sugar such that dilution of the same would result in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) which is a boon for dehydrated patients. However, the effort takes an extra step to actually estimate the cost and pricing of designing such a prototype. While the mathematical model yields the best membrane (compositions are taken from literature) combination in terms of permeability and area, the pricing takes into account the feasibility of such a solution to be made available as a retail item. The product is envisaged to be a market competitor for packaged drinking water and ORS combination (costing around $0.5 combined) and thus, to be feasible has to be priced around the same range with greater margins in order to have a better distribution. Thus a proper business plan and production of the same has been formulated in order to be a feasible solution for unprecedented calamities and emergency situations.

Keywords: forward osmosis, water treatment, oral rehydration solution, prototype

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1 Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Measurement of CO₂ Absorption in Aqueous 2-Aminoethylpiperazine (AEP)

Authors: Anirban Dey, Sukanta Kumar Dash, Bishnupada Mandal

Abstract:

Carbondioxide (CO2) is a major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming and fossil fuel power plants are the main emitting sources. Therefore the capture of CO2 is essential to maintain the emission levels according to the standards. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered as an important option for stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gases and minimizing global warming effects. There are three approaches towards CCS: Pre combustion capture where carbon is removed from the fuel prior to combustion, Oxy-fuel combustion, where coal is combusted with oxygen instead of air and Post combustion capture where the fossil fuel is combusted to produce energy and CO2 is removed from the flue gases left after the combustion process. Post combustion technology offers some advantage as existing combustion technologies can still be used without adopting major changes on them. A number of separation processes could be utilized part of post –combustion capture technology. These include (a) Physical absorption (b) Chemical absorption (c) Membrane separation (d) Adsorption. Chemical absorption is one of the most extensively used technologies for large scale CO2 capture systems. The industrially important solvents used are primary amines like Monoethanolamine (MEA) and Diglycolamine (DGA), secondary amines like diethanolamine (DEA) and Diisopropanolamine (DIPA) and tertiary amines like methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and Triethanolamine (TEA). Primary and secondary amines react fast and directly with CO2 to form stable carbamates while Tertiary amines do not react directly with CO2 as in aqueous solution they catalyzes the hydrolysis of CO2 to form a bicarbonate ion and a protonated amine. Concentrated Piperazine (PZ) has been proposed as a better solvent as well as activator for CO2 capture from flue gas with a 10 % energy benefit compared to conventional amines such as MEA. However, the application of concentrated PZ is limited due to its low solubility in water at low temperature and lean CO2 loading. So following the performance of PZ its derivative 2-Aminoethyl piperazine (AEP) which is a cyclic amine can be explored as an activator towards the absorption of CO2. Vapour liquid equilibrium (VLE) in CO2 capture systems is an important factor for the design of separation equipment and gas treating processes. For proper thermodynamic modeling accurate equilibrium data for the solvent system over a wide range of temperatures, pressure and composition is essential. The present work focuses on the determination of VLE data for (AEP + H2O) system at 40 °C for various composition range.

Keywords: absorption, aminoethyl piperazine, carbondioxide, vapour liquid equilibrium

Procedia PDF Downloads 175