Search results for: migration and religion
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1489

Search results for: migration and religion

1489 The Social Impact of Religion on New Immigrants: A Case Study of Christianity Among Chinese Immigrants in New Zealand

Authors: Ziwen Wang

Abstract:

There are close links between religion and migration. As newcomers to a foreign nation, new immigrants endured many pressures and challenges. Religion can be an important part of a migrant’s personal identity, and religious communities can offer valued connections and relationships. During the migration process, religion can undergo significant changes as migrants travel across geographical and cultural gaps and as they face new opportunities or new constraints. For those migrants who are not religious, during this unsettling time, people might become sensitive to the "sacredness", accepting its guidance, and occasionally contemplating religious conversion. This research examines the role of faith and the church in supporting new Chinese immigrants from the perspective of the social function of Christianity, utilizing Chinese immigrants in New Zealand as a case study. Through participant observation in four Chinese churches and over seventy semi-structured interviews, this research illustrates how religion has provided them with a haven and how the church provides indispensable material, spiritual, and informational resources essential for their adaptation to life in New Zealand.

Keywords: migration and religion, overseas chinese, religious capital, christianity

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
1488 Prospect for Peace: Criticism to Over-Focusing on Religion in Conflicts

Authors: Leyi Wang

Abstract:

The effect of religion on conflicts is usually over-focused. Religion is not the root cause of conflicts. There are always social, political or economic factors pushing the acceleration of conflicts. Meanwhile, the charisma of religion on calling for adherents is often utilized by political leaders as a tool of providing legitimacy to the initiating of violence and mobilizing the public during conflicts. What people identify from the connections between religion and conflicts is fake. There are some strategies used by politicians to upgrade the conflicts into violence. Consequently, there are some assumptions of which try to limit the religion’s effects on accelerating conflicts. This essay aims to discuss the roles of religion in international relations and argues that the religion difference is not the real source of conflicts in the globe, by reviewing the relevant literature for understanding the research background and gap of this topic. Also, this essay will suggest some implementations on dealing with the regional conflicts.

Keywords: religion, conflicts, criticism, international relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
1487 Review of the World Migration Report 2020, with a Focus on Migration Due to Climate Change

Authors: Sincy Wilson

Abstract:

This article focuses on the data scattered throughout the 2020 Report on migration for a variety of reasons. Despite the fact that climate migrants are no longer recognized on an international or national level, their situation remains unchanged, and many countries have already encountered the problem of people entering their country without permission. With the information presented in the paper, researchers are focusing on climate-induced displacement rather than conflict-related migration. The author finishes by stating that there is no time to waste in recognizing climate migrants.

Keywords: climate refugees, climatological factors, migration, slow-onset migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1486 The Inter-Play Between Traditional Religion and Christianity in Eggon Landn Eggon Land

Authors: Akolo Ajige

Abstract:

Before the advent of Christianity in Eggon land, the Eggon people were adherents of Traditional Religion. The religion is traditional because it was the religion that they grew up in it. A religion that was practiced by their fore fathers, and it was handed over to them. Traditional Religion created in the Eggon people the spirit of communalism, brotherhood and the value for humanity. The advent of Christianity in the 19th Century in Eggon land, some of the adherents of Traditional Religion changed their religion affiliation to Christianity and let gone, of the Traditional Religion. There was a need for the adherents of these two religions (i.e. Christianity and ATR) to leave in peace with one another. Even though there means of worship varies; it was obvious that Christianity and Africa Traditional Religion leaved in harmony with one another. The obvious spread of Christianity in Eggon land can attest to the fact that Traditional Religion welcomed Christianity and gave it room to operate without any issue. The inter-play of Christianity and Traditional Religion of Eggon people is seen during the Ashimu festival where Christians come to watch, why during Christmas celebration, the Traditional Religious adherents also visit the Christians to celebrate with them. It is obvious that there an Inter-Play between Christianity and Traditional Religion in Eggon land. The peace enjoy by the people attest to the fact of religious harmony. A historical research method was adopted for this research work.

Keywords: inter-play, traditional religion, christianity, eggon

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1485 The Strategy of the International Organization for Migration in Dealing with the Phenomenon of Migration

Authors: Djehich Mohamed Yousri

Abstract:

Nowadays, migration has become a phenomenon that attracts the attention of researchers, countries, agencies, and national and international bodies. Wars and climate change, demographics, poverty, natural disasters, and epidemics are all threats that are contributing daily to forcing more people to migrate. There are those who resort to emigration because of the deteriorating political conditions in their country, others resort to emigration to improve their financial situation, and others emigrate from their country for fear of some penalties and judgments issued against them. In the field of migration, becoming a member of the United Nations as a "relevant organization" gives the United Nations a clear mandate on migration. Its primary goal is to facilitate the management of international migration in an orderly and humane manner. In order to achieve this goal, the organization adopts an international policy to meet the challenges posed in the field of migration. This paper attempts to study the structure of this international organization and its strategy in dealing with the phenomenon of international migration.

Keywords: international organization for migration, immigrants, immigrant rights, resettlement, migration organization strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
1484 Santo Niño in Canada: Religion, Migration, and the Filipino Underside

Authors: Alison Marshall

Abstract:

“Santo Niño in Canada – Religion, Migration, and the Filipino Underside” seeks to explore the intersection of religion, migration and the Filipino underside through research participant narratives, archival research, and fieldwork on the cult of Santo Niño in Canada. Santo Niño is the single most revered saint in Filipino religiosity. According to popular lore, the original statue of Santo Niño was brought to the Philippines by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, who claimed the islands on behalf of Spain. While Santo Niño is meant to be a manifestation of Jesus as a child, in Filipino thought and culture he very much resembles pre-Hispanic spirits, as well as patron saints introduced by the Spanish. Santo Niño shrines appear in churches, restaurants, businesses, and homes throughout the diaspora suggesting that he was much more than a Catholic image. He represents a deity who often shares a business or home shrine with non-Christian statues such as lucky cats, the Buddha, Guanyin, and Guangong, and sometimes the Chinese God of the Earth. He represents how Christian culture has been refashioned through indigenous, Chinese, Malay, and Indonesian influences. He embodies the religious superstructure that defines Christian piety and habits. On the one hand, he stands for Jesus, a pious son of God, and yet, on the other hand, he can be a simple vindictive child who punishes those who ignore him. Santo Niño is a complex character linked to the past before Christianity. As Filipinos engage with Santo Niño in Canada, they connect to him as Jesus, the son of God. They are also connecting to a childlike figure who sometimes uses his spiritual power to punish. A hybrid figure who comes came into being at the beginning of the Spanish colonial moment, he is maintained throughout the American one and continues to be a powerful reminder of Filipino identity and resilience when people leave the Philippines for migrant work. As this paper argues, Santo Niño beliefs, practices, and stories unite people in the diaspora regardless of language, gender, or nation. Santo Niño enables one to think about and understand what it means to be Filipino and living migrant lives in the diaspora today. In this way, the cult of Santo Niño expresses both Catholic orthodoxy and the heterodox Filipino underside that includes the use of magical amulets, healing, visions, and spirit mediumship.

Keywords: ethnography, migration, Philippines, religion

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1483 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri

Abstract:

Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: data quality, Georgia, methodology, migration

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1482 The Socio-Economic Consequences of Educational Migration for Georgia

Authors: Eteri Kharaishvili, Marina Chavleishvili, Manana Lobzhanidze, Nino Grigolia

Abstract:

The article analyzes Georgia's involvement in global migration processes, assessing migration research and policy regulatory documents. The socio-economic situation of young people has been studied in the paper, their employment and unemployment levels are analyzed, reasons for migration of youth are revealed, the impact of migration on the socio-economic development of the country is substantiated. Youth demand on education is also assessed, problems in the education sector are identified, educational migration indicators are analyzed according to the internationalization process of this sector. Based on the analysis of the motivations of young people in Georgia, orientation of values and the aspects conditioning life strategies the factors affecting educational migration are determined and the results of the positive and negative impact of educational migration on the socio-economic development of the country are substantiated. The importance of efficient management of educational migration for Georgia in getting closer to the EU and achieving inclusive economic grow this substantiated. Recommendations for efficient management of the process of Georgian citizens’ learning and acquiring experience, as well as the internationalization of education sector and educational migration, are drawn.

Keywords: educational migration, migration management, migration of youth, socio-economic results of educational migration, youth employment

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1481 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

Abstract:

The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: economic crisis, international migration, mobility, return migration, employement

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1480 On the Difference between Cultural and Religious Identities

Authors: Mputu Ngandu Simon

Abstract:

Culture and religion are two of the most significant markers of an individual or group's identity. Religion finds its expression in a given culture, and culture is the costume in which a religion is dressed. In other words, there is a crucial relationship between religion and culture which should not be ignored. On the one hand, religion influences the way in which a culture is consumed. A person's consumption of a certain cultural practice is influenced by his/her religious identity. On the other hand, cultural identity plays an important role in how a religion is practiced by its adherents. Some cultural practices become more credible when interpreted in religious terms just as religious doctrines and dogmas need cultural interpretation to be understood by a given people in a given context. This relationship goes so deep that sometimes the boundaries between culture and religion become blurred, and people end up mixing religion and culture. In some cases, the two are considered to be one and the same thing. However, despite this apparent sameness, religion and culture are two distinct aspects of identity, and they should always be considered as such. One results from knowledge, while the other has beliefs as its foundation. This essay explores the difference between cultural and religious identity by drawing from existing literature on this topic as a whole before applying that knowledge to two specific case studies: Christianity and Islam in some African and Asian countries.

Keywords: culture, religion, identity, knowledge, belief

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1479 Socio-Demographic, Cause, and Benefit of Internal and International Migration: A Case Study of Mazar-i-Sharif, Balkh Province, Afghanistan

Authors: Baqir Khawari

Abstract:

Migration has a long history in Afghanistan even before, but it has been exacerbated in the last decade. Using actual household data of 1060 in Mazar-i-Sharif, the capital of Balkh province, obtained from a strictly random process, the study examined to evaluate the main causes and benefits of the migration. It is found that the main reasons for internal migration are unemployment and income inequality, in addition to war and poverty as international parameters for migration. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that households receive benefits from their migrants through remittances to increase their income and smooth consumption. Thus, the study suggests that to manage migration in Afghanistan, the government and international organizations should work together for peace and reduction of poverty in Afghanistan otherwise, the crisis of migration will continue in the future as well.

Keywords: migration, remittances, socio-demographic, household, Afghanistan

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1478 Circular Labour Migration and Its Consequences in Georgia

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze

Abstract:

Introduction: The paper will argue that labor migration is the most important problem Georgia faces today. The structure of labor migration by age and gender of Georgia is analyzed. The main driving factors of circular labor migration during the last ten years are identified. While studying migration, it is necessary to discuss the interconnection of economic, social, and demographic features, also taking into consideration the policy of state regulations in terms of education and professional training. Methodology: Different research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical, such as selection, grouping, observation, trend, and qualitative research methods, namely; analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison ones. Main Findings: Labour migrants are filling the labor market as a low salary worker. The main positive feedback of migration from developing countries is poverty eradication, but this process is accompanied by problems, such as 'Brain Drain'. The country loses an important part of its intellectual potential, and it is invested by households or state itself. Conclusions: Labor migration is characterized to be temporary, but socio-economic problems of the country often push the labor migration in the direction of longterm and illegal migration. Countries with developed economies try to stricter migration policy and fight illegal migration with different methods; circular migration helps solve this problem. Conclusions and recommendations are included about circular labor migration consequences in Georgia and its influence on the reduction of unemployment level.

Keywords: migration, circular labor migration, labor migration employment, unemployment

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
1477 Local Religion 'Parmalim': Between Civilization and Faith

Authors: Sabrina Yulianti

Abstract:

This study aims to explain the identity struggles of local religious communities in Indonesia. Local religion in Indonesia is not recognized by the government and is not incorporated into the official religion in Indonesia. This makes the local religions in Indonesia experienced the challenges and obstacles in fulfilling their rights as citizens of Indonesia. Challenges and barriers they experience such as: difficulty in making of the birth certificate and marriage. It is as experienced by one of the local religions namely Parmalim which located in North Sumatra. Not only difficulty in taking care of the bureaucracy as a citizen, but the local religion is seen as a minority and sometimes regarded as follower of deviate religion.

Keywords: local religion, faith, struggles, civilization, discrimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
1476 Investigating the Rate of Migration of Plasticizers from PET Bottles into Salad Oil during Storage

Authors: Simin Asadollahi, Amir H. Soruri, Ali Moghimi

Abstract:

Nowadays, salad oils are used in many countries around the world. Therefore, it is of great importance to ensure the safety of these food products which are usually packaged in Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and come on the market. This study investigated the effects of storage time and temperature on the migration rate of phthalate compounds from PET bottle to salad oil. In more detail, migration rate of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from bottles to salad oil samples was measured in 1st, the 30th, and the 60th days of storage at a temperature of either 20 or 40 °C. At both storage temperatures, an increase in the storage time led to a statistically significant increase in the migration rate of phthalate compounds (p<.01). Regarding this, the highest migration rate occurred after 60 days of storage in to the samples. Furthermore, it was revealed bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had a higher migration rate at 40 °C than at 20 °C which showed that an increase in the storage temperature would lead to an increase in the migration rate. The highest migration rate occurred in relation to salad oil stored at 40 °C and after 60 days of storage.

Keywords: salad oil, migration rate, polyethylene terephthalate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

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1475 A Dirty Page Migration Method in Process of Memory Migration Based on Pre-copy Technology

Authors: Kang Zijian, Zhang Tingyu, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar

Abstract:

This article investigates the challenges in memory migration during the live migration of virtual machines. We found three challenges probably existing in pre-copy technology. One of the main challenges is the challenge of downtime migration. Decrease the downtime could promise the normal work for a virtual machine. Although pre-copy technology is greatly decreasing the downtime, we still need to shut down the machine in order to finish the last round of data transfer. This paper provides an optimization scheme for the problems existing in pro-copy technology, mainly the optimization of the dirty page migration mechanism. The typical pre-copy technology copy n-1th’s dirty pages in nth turn. However, our idea is to create a double iteration method to solve this problem.

Keywords: virtual machine, pre-copy technology, memory migration process, downtime, dirty pages migration method

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1474 Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem

Authors: A. V. Dolzhikova

Abstract:

The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.

Keywords: comprehensive exam, migration policy, migration legislation, Russia's national security

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1473 Religion and the Constitutional Regulation

Authors: Valbona Metaj

Abstract:

The relationship between the state and the religion is different based on the fact that how powerful is the religion faith in a state and of the influences that affected the views of the constitution drafters according to the constitutional system they were based to draft their constitution. This paper aims at providing, through a comparative methodology, how it is regulated by the constitution the relationship between the state and the religion. The object of this study are the constitutions of Italy as a nation with catholic religious tradition, Greece as a nation with orthodox religion tradition, and Turkey as a nation which represents Muslim religion, while Albania as a nation known for its religious plurality. In particular, the analysis will be focused on the secular or religious principle provided in the constitution of each respective state. This comparative overview intends to discern which of the states analyzed is more tolerant and fully respects the freedom of religion. It results that most of the states subject of this study, despite their religious tradition have chosen the secular principle in their constitutions, but the religious freedom is differently guaranteed.

Keywords: constitution, religion, religious freedom, secular

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
1472 DAG Design and Tradeoff for Full Live Virtual Machine Migration over XIA Network

Authors: Dalu Zhang, Xiang Jin, Dejiang Zhou, Jianpeng Wang, Haiying Jiang

Abstract:

Traditional TCP/IP network is showing lots of shortages and research for future networks is becoming a hotspot. FIA (Future Internet Architecture) and FIA-NP (Next Phase) are supported by US NSF for future Internet designing. Moreover, virtual machine migration is a significant technique in cloud computing. As a network application, it should also be supported in XIA (expressive Internet Architecture), which is in both FIA and FIA-NP projects. This paper is an experimental study aims at verifying the feasibility of VM migration over XIA. We present three ways to maintain VM connectivity and communication states concerning DAG design and routing table modification. VM migration experiments are conducted intra-AD and inter-AD with KVM instances. The procedure is achieved by a migration control protocol which is suitable for the characters of XIA. Evaluation results show that our solutions can well supports full live VM migration over XIA network respectively, keeping services seamless.

Keywords: DAG, downtime, virtual machine migration, XIA

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1471 Sri Lanka-Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge

Abstract:

Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: migration, middle east, Sri Lanka, social sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
1470 Patterns, Determinants, and Implications of Rural-Urban Migration in the Garhwal Himalaya

Authors: Saurav Kumar

Abstract:

Rural-urban migration is the most commonly adopted strategy in rural areas to overcome the risk associated with the subsistence economy and diversify income. The Garhwal Himalaya has the highest rate of rural-urban migration in India, which has serious repercussions. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature on the implications of rural-urban migration in the Garhwal Himalaya. This paper attempts to fill this void. The objectives of the paper are to look into various types, patterns, determinants, and implications of rural-urban migration in the Garhwal Himalaya. In order to meet the objectives, 15 villages were selected from five districts of the Garhwal Himalaya. In every district, three villages were chosen from different altitudes, including five from river valleys, five from mid-altitudes, and five from highlands. The villages range in altitude from 550m to 2660m. A total of 658 households were surveyed from the villages, covering 100% samples from each village. Using a structured questionnaire, the author asked the heads of each household about the types of rural-urban migration they practiced, the year of first migration, destinations of migration, and reasons for migration. Further, migrants’ age, sex, caste, marital status, educational background, income, occupation, and remittances sent by migrants were also inquired about. The study reveals that rural-urban migration is a serious problem in Garhwal Himalayas, posing various socio-economic issues. Without immediate action, it will have serious consequences. Finally, this study suggests some policy measures to minimize the current rate of rural-urban migration in the Garhwal Himalaya.

Keywords: rural-urban migration, Garhwal Himalaya, patterns, determinants, implications

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1469 Migration as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: A Conceptual Equation for Analysis

Authors: Elisha Kyirem

Abstract:

Undoubtedly, climate change is a major global challenge that could threaten the very foundation upon which life on earth is anchored, with its impacts on human mobility attracting the attention of policy makers and researchers. There is an increasing body of literature and case studies suggesting that migration could be a way through which the vulnerable move away from areas exposed to climate extreme events to improve their lives and that of their families. This presents migration as a way through which people voluntarily move to seek opportunities that could help reduce their exposure and avoid danger from climate events. Thus, migration is seen as a proactive adaptation strategy aimed at building resilience and improving livelihoods to enable people to adapt to future changing events. However, there has not been any mathematical equation linking migration and climate change adaptation. Drawing from literature in development studies, this paper develops an equation that seeks to link the relationship between migration and climate change adaptation. The mathematical equation establishes the linkages between migration, resilience, poverty reduction and vulnerability, and these the paper maintains, are the key variables for conceptualizing the migration-climate change adaptation nexus. The paper then tests the validity of the equation using the sustainable livelihood framework and publicly available data on migration and tourism in Ghana.

Keywords: migration, adaptation, climate change, adaptation, poverty reduction

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1468 Religion: The Human Entropy

Authors: Abul Kayum Zarzis Alam

Abstract:

Death is not a terminal; it is just a junction. From Agamas to Vedas, from Buddhism to Judaism, all the major scriptures and religions of the world always do converge to this hypothesis of death. Death is the ultimate catastrophe of life and it is the genesis of every religion on this Earth. Several hundred thousand years ago, the Homo Sapiens in Paleolithic age introduced the notion of religion on this Earth in its most primitive form just to escape from death and natural catastrophes through their belief in supernatural things which created the sense of superstition among the Homo Sapiens which has only increased over time. This sense of superstition and belief in supernatural things are building blocks of religion. Religion is like entropy, a degree of disorder. Entropy for an irreversible system like our own Universe always increases. Same is happening to our human civilization where the disorder had been increasing over time. The degree of this disorder of human civilization is religion divides and conquers over the human civilization of Earth. Religion is the human entropy which had been governing and will govern us. Just like entropy, religion is also an essential intrinsic property of the system which makes the system evolved. We have to optimize this ambivalence of the human entropy to make our civilization an inclusive and sustainable one.

Keywords: death, earth, entropy, Homo sapiens, religion and human entropy

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1467 A Political Analytical Evaluation of Religion Influence on Indian Politics

Authors: Mangesh Govindrao Acharya

Abstract:

The influence of religion on politics in India can be seen in the British period. The British used partition politics to create a schism between Hindus and Muslims in India. India was partitioned in1947 due to this policy of the British. In independent India, the principle of secularism was prioritized as a solution to this in the constitution created by the people. Secularism was provided for in 1978 by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment. Although India has embraced secularism, the role of religion in politics has not ended. Although 75 years of India's independence have been completed, politics is still done in the name of religion in India. Political parties choose their candidates, keeping in mind the influence of religion in a particular constituency. People think more about religion and caste while choosing their candidates. Caste riots occur due to the influence of religion-influenced politics. There is a new dispute between the minority and the majority. The Temple-Masjid controversy has become a focal point of Indian politics. Religious hatred in India is causing a huge loss of lives and property and is creating tension among the citizens. All the aspects of Indian politics that have been corrupted by religious fanaticism have been studied in this research paper. This paper mainly explores the causality of the influence of religion on Indian politics.

Keywords: religion, Indian politics, equality and justice, Muslim society, political parties

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1466 Internal Migration and Poverty Dynamic Analysis Using a Bayesian Approach: The Tunisian Case

Authors: Amal Jmaii, Damien Rousseliere, Besma Belhadj

Abstract:

We explore the relationship between internal migration and poverty in Tunisia. We present a methodology combining potential outcomes approach with multiple imputation to highlight the effect of internal migration on poverty states. We find that probability of being poor decreases when leaving the poorest regions (the west areas) to the richer regions (greater Tunis and the east regions).

Keywords: internal migration, potential outcomes approach, poverty dynamics, Tunisia

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1465 Geographic Aspects of Egyptian Illegal Migration to Europe

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Aly Hassanien

Abstract:

This study examines the geographic aspects of Egyptian illegal migration to Europe. It used files of Egyptian government bodies and data obtained from a field study carried out in 2015 on the areas of origin. The study revealed that the phenomenon has passed historically through four phases. Areas of origin are classified geographically into three areas: coastal, river, and interior. The study developed a map for routes of migration which identified the main and secondary routes. The main routes included the Libyan, the Mediterranean and the Arab-Turkish routes. Recently, The Mediterranean route has been the largest and the most dangerous.

Keywords: areas of destination, areas of origin, illegal migration, routes of migration

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1464 Security Practices of the European Union on Migration: An Analysis of the Frontex Within the Framework of Biopolitics

Authors: Gizem Ertürk, Nursena Dinç

Abstract:

The Aegean area has always been an important transit point for migration; however, the establishment of the European Union gave further impetus to the migration phenomenon and increased the significance of the area within this context. The migration waves have been more visible in the area in recent decades, and particularly after the “2015 Migration Crisis,” this issue has been subject to further securitization in the EU. In this conjuncture, the Frontex, which is an agency set up by the EU in 2005 for the purpose of managing and coordinating the border control efforts, has become more functional in the relevant area, but at the same time, have some questionable actions within the context of human rights. This paper problematizes the rationality behind the existence and practices of such a structure and attempts to make a political and legal analysis of the security practices of the European Union against migration within a framework based on the biopolitics approaches of Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben. The dataset of this paper, which focuses on the agency in question by taking it as a case, is formed by making use of the existing literature on the EU’s security policies, the relevant official texts of the Union and Frontex reports on migration practices in and around the Aegean Sea.

Keywords: migration, biopolitics, Frontex, security, European union, securitization

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1463 Migration and Displacement: A Study on the Impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali Migration to North-Eastern India

Authors: Sri Mahan Borah

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The issue of migration and displacement is considered so sensitive that states have often linked it with their sovereignty, independence and even existence. Therefor, even in the era of globalisation no nation-state is ready to compromise with its territorial boundaries. The problem of migration and displacement has generated a range of socio-political, economic, ethnic, and communal tensions in India in general and northeastern States in particular. In such situation it becomes unpreventable to look over the issue so that a viable elucidation may emerge. The present paper is an attempt to understand the impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali migration to North-Eastern states of India through historical and analytical methods. In this course it will look into the emergence of the migration and displacement problem, its causes, impacts on security and other issues of national interest especially when the migration is illegal and poses multi-layered challenges to the Indian state. The nature of migration from these countries to India has been dissimilar. This is because of their different historical backgrounds, geographical variants, ethno-religious affinities, political systems and bilateral arrangements with India. It concludes inter alia that, India’s borders with Bangladesh and Nepal must be regulated and that resident migrants need to be strategically dealt with, keeping in mind age-old relationships with these countries and, more importantly, the nature and construct of our geography.

Keywords: migration, displacement, North-East, India

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1462 Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Siegfried Bauer

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The aim of this study is to analyze the migration process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households. The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants of migration at farm household level are household age, economically active males and females, number of young and old dependent members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other hand, the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability of economically adult male in the household, number of young dependents and agricultural land holding.

Keywords: determinants, Heckman Probit model, migration, rural-urban

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1461 The Impact of the Atypical Crisis on Educational Migration: Economic and Policy Challenges

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze, Marine Kobalava, Lali Chikviladze

Abstract:

The global pandemic crisis has had a significant impact on educational migration, substantially limiting young people’s access to education abroad. Therefore, it became necessary to study the economic, demographic, social, cultural and other factors associated with educational migration, to identify the economic and political challenges of educational migration and to develop recommendations. The aim of the research is to study the effects of the atypical crisis on educational migration and to make recommendations on effective migration opportunities based on the identification of economic and policy challenges in this area. Bibliographic research is used to assess the effects of the impact of the atypical crisis on educational migration presented in the papers of various scholars. Against the background of the restrictions imposed during the COVID19 pandemic, migration rates have been analyzed, endogenous and exogenous factors affecting educational migration have been identified. Quantitative and qualitative research of students and graduates of TSU Economics and Business Faculty is conducted, the results have been processed by SPSS program, the factors hindering educational migration and the challenges have been identified. The Internet and digital technologies have been shown to play a vital role in alleviating the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, however, lack of Internet access and limited financial resources have played a disruptive role in the educational migration process. The analysis of quantitative research materials revealed the problems of educational migration caused by the atypical crisis, while some issues were clarified during the focus group meetings. The following theoretical-methodological approaches were used during the research: a bibliographic research, analysis, synthesis, comparison, selection-grouping are used; Quantitative and qualitative research has been carried out, the results have been processed by SPSS program. The article presents the consequences of the atypical crisis for educational migration, identifies the main economic and policy challenges in the field of educational migration, and develops appropriate recommendations to overcome them.

Keywords: educational migration, atypical crisis, economic-political challenges, educational migration factors

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1460 International Conference on Islam and Democracy – Religion and Political Stability in Indonesia

Authors: Mariel Encar H. Uy, Paula Marie G. Pacle

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to present a Single Country Comparative Contextual Description Study of Strong Islamic Influences in Relation to the Politics of Republic of Indonesia. This paper recognizes that even the coalition of secular and moderate Islamic parties protect the minority rights of all the constituents, Islam is still the dominant religion among the other recognized religions in Indonesia (Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism). In this study, it will also detail the involvement on the religions’ beliefs and techniques; participation of political actors, depending on what religion they belong and adhere to; the tensions whenever the government interferes with Islamists and other religions; the government’s solution or public policies implemented to maintain peace and order of Indonesia. This paper will develop a conceptual framework to describe how the Religion and Political Stability is interdependent with each other.

Keywords: diversity of religion in indonesia, secularization in Indonesia, motivations of political actors, voter turnouts based on religion

Procedia PDF Downloads 311