Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: salad oil

14 Investigating the Rate of Migration of Plasticizers from PET Bottles into Salad Oil during Storage

Authors: Simin Asadollahi, Amir H. Soruri, Ali Moghimi

Abstract:

Nowadays, salad oils are used in many countries around the world. Therefore, it is of great importance to ensure the safety of these food products which are usually packaged in Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and come on the market. This study investigated the effects of storage time and temperature on the migration rate of phthalate compounds from PET bottle to salad oil. In more detail, migration rate of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from bottles to salad oil samples was measured in 1st, the 30th, and the 60th days of storage at a temperature of either 20 or 40 °C. At both storage temperatures, an increase in the storage time led to a statistically significant increase in the migration rate of phthalate compounds (p<.01). Regarding this, the highest migration rate occurred after 60 days of storage in to the samples. Furthermore, it was revealed bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had a higher migration rate at 40 °C than at 20 °C which showed that an increase in the storage temperature would lead to an increase in the migration rate. The highest migration rate occurred in relation to salad oil stored at 40 °C and after 60 days of storage.

Keywords: salad oil, migration rate, polyethylene terephthalate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

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13 Effects of Tomato-Crispy Salad Intercropping on Diameter of Tomato Fruits under Greenhouse Conditions

Authors: Halil Demir, Ersin Polat

Abstract:

This study, in which crispy salad plants was cultivated between the two rows of tomato, was conducted in Spring 2007 in a research glasshouse at Akdeniz University. Crispy salad (Lactuca sativa var. crispa cv. Bohemia) plants were intercropped with tomato (Solanum lycopersicon cv. Selin F1) plants as the main crop. Tomato seedlings were planted according to double line plantation system with 100 cm large spacing, 50 cm narrow spacing and 50 cm within row plant spacing. In both control and intercropping applications, each plot was 9.75 m2 according to plantation distances and there were 26 plants per each plot for tomato. Crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30 cm spacing as one row in the middle of tomato plants and with 30x30 spacing as two rows between plants rows. Moreover, salad seedlings were transplanted between tomato plants above the tomato rows that were planted in two rows with intervals of 50 cm and also with 25x25 cm spacing as the third row in the middle of tomato rows. While tomato plants were growing during the research, fruit width and height were measured periodically with 15 days in the tomato fruits of the third cluster from the formation of fruit to fruit ripening. According to results, while there were no differences between cropping systems in terms of fruit width, the highest fruit height was found in Control trial in the first measurement. In the second measurement while the highest fruit width was determined with 64.39 mm in Control, there were no differences between cropping systems. In the third measurement, the highest fruit width and height were obtained from Control with 68.47 mm and 55.52 mm, respectively. As a conclusion the trial, which crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30x30 cm spacing as two rows between tomato plants rows, was determined as a best intercropping application.

Keywords: crispy salad, glasshouse, intercropping, tomato

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12 Design of a Customized Freshly-Made Fruit Salad and Juices Vending Machine

Authors: María Laura Guevara Campos

Abstract:

The increasing number of vending machines makes it easy for people to find them more frequently in stores, universities, workplaces, and even hospitals. These machines usually offer products with high contents of sugar and fat, which, if consumed regularly, can result in serious health threats, as overweight and obesity. Additionally, the energy consumption of these machines tends to be high, which has an impact on the environment as well. In order to promote the consumption of healthy food, a vending machine was designed to give the customer the opportunity to choose between a customized fruit salad and a customized fruit juice, both of them prepared instantly with the ingredients selected by the customer. The main parameters considered to design the machine were: the storage of the preferred fruits in a salad and/or in a juice according to a survey, the size of the machine, the use of ecologic recipients, and the overall energy consumption. The methodology used for the design was the one proposed by the German Association of Engineers for mechatronics systems, which breaks the design process in several stages, from the elaboration of a list of requirements through the establishment of the working principles and the design concepts to the final design of the machine, which was done in a 3D modelling software. Finally, with the design of this machine, the aim is to contribute to the development and implementation of healthier vending machines that offer freshly-made products, which is not being widely attended at present.

Keywords: design, design methodology, mechatronics systems, vending machines

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11 Investigation of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Kitchen of Catering

Authors: Çiğdem Sezer, Aksem Aksoy, Leyla Vatansever

Abstract:

This study has been done for the purpose of evaluation of public health and identifying of enterotoxigenic Staphyloccocus aureus in kitchen of catering. In the kitchen of catering, samples have been taken by swabs from surface of equipments which are in the salad section, meat section and bakery section. Samples have been investigated with classical cultural methods in terms of Staphyloccocus aureus. Therefore, as a 10x10 cm area was identified (salad, cutting and chopping surfaces, knives, meat grinder, meat chopping surface) samples have been taken with sterile swabs with helping FTS from this area. In total, 50 samples were obtained. In aseptic conditions, Baird-Parker agar (with egg yolk tellurite) surface was seeded with swabs. After 24-48 hours of incubation at 37°C, the black colonies with 1-1.5 mm diameter and which are surrounded by a zone indicating lecithinase activity were identified as S. aureus after applying Gram staining, catalase, coagulase, glucose and mannitol fermentation and termonuclease tests. Genotypic characterization (Staphylococcus genus and S.aureus species spesific) of isolates was performed by PCR. The ELISA test was applied to the isolates for the identification of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SET) A, B, C, D, E in bacterial cultures. Measurements were taken at 450 nm in an ELISA reader using an Ridascreen-Total set ELISA test kit (r-biopharm R4105-Enterotoxin A, B, C, D, E). The results were calculated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A total of 50 samples of 97 S. aureus was isolated. This number has been identified as 60 with PCR analysis. According to ELISA test, only 1 of 60 isolates were found to be enterotoxigenic. Enterotoxigenic strains were identified from the surface of salad chopping and cutting. In the kitchen of catering, S. aureus identification indicates a significant source of contamination. Especially, in raw consumed salad preparation phase of contamination is very important. This food can be a potential source of food-borne poisoning their terms, and they pose a significant risk to consumers have been identified.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, enterotoxin, catering, kitchen, health

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10 Effect of Two Different Biochars on Germination and Seedlings Growth of Salad, Cress and Barley

Authors: L. Bouqbis, H.W. Koyro, M. C. Harrouni, S. Daoud, L. F. Z. Ainlhout, C. I. Kammann

Abstract:

The application of biochar to soils is becoming more and more common. Its application which is generally reported to improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils, has an indirect effect on soil health and increased crop yields. However, many of the previous results are highly variable and dependent mainly on the initial soil properties, biochar characteristics, and production conditions. In this study, two biochars which are biochar II (BC II) derived from a blend of paper sludge and wheat husks and biochar 005 (BC 005) derived from sewage sludge with a KCl additive, are used, and the physical and chemical properties of BC II are characterized. To determine the potential impact of salt stress and toxic and volatile substances, the second part of this study focused on the effect biochars have on germination of salad (Lactuca sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and cress (Lepidium sativum) respectively. Our results indicate that Biochar II showed some unique properties compared to the soil, such as high EC, high content of K, Na, Mg, and low content of heavy metals. Concerning salad and barley germination test, no negative effect of BC II and BC 005 was observed. However, a negative effect of BC 005 at 8% level was revealed. The test of the effect of volatile substances on germination of cress revealed a positive effect of BC II, while a negative effect was observed for BC 005. Moreover, the water holding capacities of biochar-sand mixtures increased with increasing biochar application. Collectively, BC II could be safely used for agriculture and could provide the potential for a better plant growth.

Keywords: biochar, phytotoxic tests, seedlings growth, water holding capacity

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9 Evaluation of Microbiological Quality and Safety of Two Types of Salads Prepared at Libyan Airline Catering Center in Tripoli

Authors: Elham A. Kwildi, Yahia S. Abugnah, Nuri S. Madi

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This study was designed to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of two types of salads prepared at a catering center affiliated with Libyan Airlines in Tripoli, Libya. Two hundred and twenty-one (221) samples (132 economy-class and 89 first- class) were used in this project which lasted for ten months. Biweekly, microbiological tests were performed which included total plate count (TPC) and total coliforms (TCF), in addition to enumeration and/or detection of some pathogenic bacteria mainly Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella sp, Listeria sp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus parahaemolyticus, By using conventional as well as compact dry methods. Results indicated that TPC of type 1 salad ranged between (<10 – 62 x 103 cfu/gm) and (<10 to 36 x103 cfu/g), while TCF were (<10 – 41 x 103 cfu/gm) and (< 10 to 66 x102 cfu/g) using both methods of detection respectively. On the other hand, TPC of type 2 salad were: (1 × 10 – 52 x 103) and (<10 – 55 x 103 cfu/gm) and in the range of (1 x10 to 45x103 cfu/g), and the (TCF) counts were between (< 10 to 55x103 cfu/g) and (< 10 to 34 x103 cfu/g) using the 1st and the 2nd methods of detection respectively. Also, the pathogens mentioned above were detected in both types of salads, but their levels varied according to the type of salad and the method of detection. The level of Staphylococcus aureus, for instance, was 17.4% using conventional method versus 14.4% using the compact dry method. Similarly, E. coli was 7.6% and 9.8%, while Salmonella sp. recorded the least percentage i.e. 3% and 3.8% with the two mentioned methods respectively. First class salads were also found to contain the same pathogens, but the level of E. coli was relatively higher in this case (14.6% and 16.9%) using conventional and compact dry methods respectively. The second rank came Staphylococcus aureus (13.5%) and (11.2%), followed by Salmonella (6.74%) and 6.70%). The least percentage was for Vibrio parahaemolyticus (4.9%) which was detected in the first class salads only. The other two pathogens Bacillus cereus and Listeria sp. were not detected in either one of the salads. Finally, it is worth mentioning that there was a significant decline in TPC and TCF counts in addition to the disappearance of pathogenic bacteria after the 6-7th month of the study which coincided with the first trial of the HACCP system at the center. The ups and downs in the counts along the early stages of the study reveal that there is a need for some important correction measures including more emphasis on training of the personnel in applying the HACCP system effectively.

Keywords: air travel, vegetable salads, foodborne outbreaks, Libya

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8 Detection of Mustard Traces in Food by an Official Food Safety Laboratory

Authors: Clara Tramuta, Lucia Decastelli, Elisa Barcucci, Sandra Fragassi, Samantha Lupi, Enrico Arletti, Melissa Bizzarri, Daniela Manila Bianchi

Abstract:

Introdution: Food allergies occurs, in the Western World, 2% of adults and up to 8% of children. The protection of allergic consumers is guaranted, in Eurrope, by Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament which governs the consumer's right to information and identifies 14 food allergens to be mandatory indicated on the label. Among these, mustard is a popular spice added to enhance the flavour and taste of foods. It is frequently present as an ingredient in spice blends, marinades, salad dressings, sausages, and other products. Hypersensitivity to mustard is a public health problem since the ingestion of even low amounts can trigger severe allergic reactions. In order to protect the allergic consumer, high performance methods are required for the detection of allergenic ingredients. Food safety laboratories rely on validated methods that detect hidden allergens in food to ensure the safety and health of allergic consumers. Here we present the test results for the validation and accreditation of a Real time PCR assay (RT-PCR: SPECIALfinder MC Mustard, Generon), for the detection of mustard traces in food. Materials and Methods. The method was tested on five classes of food matrices: bakery and pastry products (chocolate cookies), meats (ragù), ready-to-eat (mixed salad), dairy products (yogurt), grains, and milling products (rice and barley flour). Blank samples were spiked starting with the mustard samples (Sinapis Alba), lyophilized and stored at -18 °C, at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Serial dilutions were then prepared to a final concentration of 0.5 ppm, using the DNA extracted by ION Force FAST (Generon) from the blank samples. The Real Time PCR reaction was performed by RT-PCR SPECIALfinder MC Mustard (Generon), using CFX96 System (BioRad). Results. Real Time PCR showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ppm in grains and milling products, ready-to-eat, meats, bakery, pastry products, and dairy products (range Ct 25-34). To determine the exclusivity parameter of the method, the ragù matrix was contaminated with Prunus dulcis (almonds), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Glycine max (soy), Apium graveolens (celery), Allium cepa (onion), Pisum sativum (peas), Daucus carota (carrots), and Theobroma cacao (cocoa) and no cross-reactions were observed. Discussion. In terms of sensitivity, the Real Time PCR confirmed, even in complex matrix, a LOD of 0.5 ppm in five classes of food matrices tested; these values are compatible with the current regulatory situation that does not consider, at international level, to establish a quantitative criterion for the allergen considered in this study. The Real Time PCR SPECIALfinder kit for the detection of mustard proved to be easy to use and particularly appreciated for the rapid response times considering that the amplification and detection phase has a duration of less than 50 minutes. Method accuracy was rated satisfactory for sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) and was fully validated and accreditated. It was found adequate for the needs of the laboratory as it met the purpose for which it was applied. This study was funded in part within a project of the Italian Ministry of Health (IZS PLV 02/19 RC).

Keywords: allergens, food, mustard, real time PCR

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7 The Presence of Anglicisms in Italian Fashion Magazines and Fashion Blogs

Authors: Vivian Orsi

Abstract:

The present research investigates the lexicon of a fashion magazine, whose universe is very receptive to lexical loans, especially those from English, called Anglicisms. Specifically, we intend to discuss the presence of English items and expressions in the Vogue Italia fashion magazine. Besides, we aim to study the anglicisms used in an Italian fashion blog called The Blonde Salad. Within the discussion of fashion blogs and their contributions to scientific studies, we adopt the theories of Lexicology / Lexicography to define Anglicism (BIDERMAN, 2001), and the observation of its prestige in the Italian Language (ROGATO, 2008; BISETTO, 2003). According to the theoretical basis mentioned, we intend to make a brief analysis of the Anglicisms collected from posts of the first year of existence of such fashion blog, emphasizing also the keywords that have the role to encapsulate the content of the text, allowing the reader to retrieve information from the post of the blog. About the use of English in Italian magazines and blogs, we can affirm that it seems to represent sophistication, assuming the value of prerequisite to participate in the fashion centers of the world. Besides, we believe, as Barthes says (1990, p. 215), that “Fashion does not evolve, it changes: its lexicon is new each year, like that of a language which always keeps the same system but suddenly and regularly ‘changes’ the currency of its words”. Fashion is a mode of communication: it is present in man's interaction with the world, which means that such lexical universe is represented according to the particularities of each culture.

Keywords: anglicism, lexicology, magazines, blogs, fashion

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6 Determination of Antioxidant Activity in Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Authors: Esma Hande Alıcı, Gülnur Arabacı

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Antioxidants are compounds or systems that can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. The anti-oxidative effectiveness of these compounds depends on their chemical characteristics and physical location within a food (proximity to membrane phospholipids, emulsion interfaces, or in the aqueous phase). Antioxidants (e.g., flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, vitamin C, vitamin E) have diverse biological properties, such as antiinflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, reduce the incidence of coronary diseases and contribute to the maintenance of gut health by the modulation of the gut microbial balance. Plants are excellent sources of antioxidants especially with their high content of phenolic compounds. Raphanus raphanistrum L., the wild radish, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. It grows in Asia and Mediterranean region. It has been introduced into most parts of the world. It spreads rapidly, and is often found growing on roadsides or in other places where the ground has been disturbed. It is an edible plant, in Turkey its fresh aerial parts are mostly consumed as a salad with olive oil and lemon juice after boiled. The leaves of the plant are also used as anti-rheumatic in traditional medicine. In this study, we determined the antioxidant capacity of two different solvent fractions (methanol and ethyl acetate) obtained from Raphanus raphanistrum L. plant leaves. Antioxidant capacity of the plant was introduced by using three different methods: DPPH radical scavenging activity, CUPRAC (Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) activity and Reducing power activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antioxidant capacity, Raphanis raphanistrum L., wild radish

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5 Enhancing Postharvest Quality and Shelf-Life of Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by Altering Growing Conditions

Authors: Jung-Soo Lee, Ujjal Kumar Nath, IllSup Nou, Dulal Chandra

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Leaf lettuce is one of the most important leafy vegetables that is used as raw for salad and part of everyday dishes in many parts of the world including Asian countries. Since it is used as fresh, its quality maintenance is crucial which depends on several pre- and postharvest factors. In order to investigate the effects of pre-fix factors on the postharvest quality, the interaction of pre-fix factors such as growing conditions and fixed factor like cultivars were evaluated. Four Korean leaf lettuce cultivars ‘Cheongchima’, ‘Cheongchuckmyeon’, ‘Geockchima’ and ‘Geockchuckmyeon’ were grown under natural condition (as control) and altered growing condition (green house) with excess soil water and 50% shading to monitor their postharvest qualities. Several growth parameters like plant height, number of leaves, leaf thickness, fresh biomass yield as well as postharvest qualities like fresh weight loss, respiration rate, changes in color and shelf-life were measured in lettuce during storage up to 36 days at 5°C. Plant height and the number of leaves were affected by both pre-fix growing conditions as well as the cultivars. However, fresh biomass yield was affected by only growing condition, whereas leaf thickness was affected by cultivars. Additionally, the degrees of fresh weight loss and respiration rate of leaf lettuce at postharvest stages were influenced by pre-fix growing conditions and cultivars. However, changes in color of leaves during storage were less remarkable in samples harvested from of ‘Cheongchima’ and ‘Cheongchuckmyeon’ cultivars grown in excess watering with 50% shade than that grown in control condition. Consequently, these two cultivars also showed longer shelf-life when they were grown in excess watering with 50% shade than other cultivars or samples were grown in control condition. Based on the measured parameters, it can be concluded that postharvest quality of leaf lettuce might be accelerated by growing lettuce under excess soil water with 50% shading.

Keywords: cultivar, growing condition, leaf lettuce, postharvest quality, shelf-life

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4 The Influence of Production Hygiene Training on Farming Practices Employed by Rural Small-Scale Organic Farmers - South Africa

Authors: Mdluli Fezile, Schmidt Stefan, Thamaga-Chitja Joyce

Abstract:

In view of the frequently reported foodborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, consumers have a preference for foods that meet requisite hygiene standards to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. Producing good quality fresh produce then becomes critical in improving market access and food security, especially for small-scale farmers. Questions of hygiene and subsequent microbiological quality in the rural small-scale farming sector of South Africa are even more crucial, given the policy drive to develop small-scale farming as a measure for reinforcement of household food security and reduction of poverty. Farming practices and methods, throughout the fresh produce value chain, influence the quality of the final product, which in turn determines its success in the market. This study’s aim was to therefore determine the extent to which training on organic farming methods, including modules such as Importance of Production Hygiene, influenced the hygienic farming practices employed by eTholeni small-scale organic farmers in uMbumbulu, KwaZulu-Natal- South Africa. Questionnaires were administered to 73 uncertified organic farmers and analysis showed that a total of 33 farmers were trained and supplied the local Agri-Hub while 40 had not received training. The questionnaire probed respondents’ attitudes, knowledge of hygiene and composting practices. Data analysis included descriptive statistics such as the Chi-square test and a logistic regression model. Descriptive analysis indicated that a majority of the farmers (60%) were female, most of which (73%) were above the age of 40. The logistic regression indicated that factors such as farmer training and prior experience in the farming sector had a significant influence on hygiene practices both at 5% significance levels. These results emphasize the importance of training, education and farming experience in implementing good hygiene practices in small-scale farming. It is therefore recommended that South African policies should advocate for small-scale farmer training, not only for subsistence purposes, but also with an aim of supplying produce markets with high fresh produce.

Keywords: small-scale farmers, leafy salad vegetables, organic produce, food safety, hygienic practices, food security

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3 The Efficacy of Thymbra spicata Ethanolic Extract and its Main Component Carvacrol on In vitro Model of Metabolically-Associated Dysfunctions

Authors: Farah Diab, Mohamad Khalil, Francesca Storace, Francesca Baldini, Piero Portincasaa, Giulio Lupidi, Laura Vergani

Abstract:

Thymbra spicata is a thyme-like plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family that shows a global distribution, especially in the eastern Mediterranean region. Leaves of T. spicata contain large amounts of phenols such as phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid), phenolic monoterpenes (carvacrol), and flavonoids. In Lebanon, T. spicata is currently used as a culinary herb in salad and infusion, as well as for traditional medicinal purposes. Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methyl phenol), the most abundant polyphenol in the organic extract and essential oils, has a great array of pharmacological properties. In fact, carvacrol is largely employed as a food additive and neutraceutical agent. Our aim is to investigate the beneficial effects of T. spicata ethanolic extract (TE) and its main component, carvacrol, using in vitro models of hepatic steatosis and endothelial dysfunction. As a further point, we focused on investigating if and how the binding of carvacrol to albumin, the physiological transporter for drugs in the blood, might be altered by the presence of high levels of fatty acids (FAs), thus impairing the carvacrol bio-distribution in vivo. For that reason, hepatic FaO cells treated with exogenous FAs such as oleate and palmitate mimic hepatosteatosis; endothelial HECV cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide are a model of endothelial dysfunction. In these models, we measured lipid accumulation, free radical production, lipoperoxidation, and nitric oxide release before and after treatment with carvacrol. The carvacrol binding to albumin with/without high levels of long-chain FAs was assessed by absorption and emission spectroscopies. Our findings show that both TE and carvacrol (i) counteracted lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by decreasing the intracellular and extracellular lipid contents in steatotic FaO cells; (ii) decreased oxidative stress in endothelial cells by significantly reducing lipoperoxidation and free radical production, as well as, attenuating the nitric oxide release; (ii) high levels of circulating FAs reduced the binding of carvacrol to albumin. The beneficial effects of TE and carvacrol on both hepatic and endothelial cells point to a nutraceutical potential. However, high levels of circulating FAs, such as those occurring in metabolic disorders, might hinder the carvacrol transport, bio-distribution, and pharmacodynamics.

Keywords: carvacrol, endothelial dysfunction, fatty acids, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, serum albumin

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2 The Use of Non-Parametric Bootstrap in Computing of Microbial Risk Assessment from Lettuce Consumption Irrigated with Contaminated Water by Sanitary Sewage in Infulene Valley

Authors: Mario Tauzene Afonso Matangue, Ivan Andres Sanchez Ortiz

Abstract:

The Metropolitan area of Maputo (Mozambique Capital City) is located in semi-arid zone (800 mm annual rainfall) with 1101170 million inhabitants. On the west side, there are the flatlands of Infulene where the Mulauze River flows towards to the Indian Ocean, receiving at this site, the storm water contaminated with sanitary sewage from Maputo, transported through a concrete open channel. In Infulene, local communities grow salads crops such as tomato, onion, garlic, lettuce, and cabbage, which are then commercialized and consumed in several markets in Maputo City. Lettuce is the most daily consumed salad crop in different meals, generally in fast-foods, breakfasts, lunches, and dinners. However, the risk of infection by several pathogens due to the consumption of lettuce, using the Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) tools, is still unknown since there are few studies or publications concerning to this matter in Mozambique. This work is aimed at determining the annual risk arising from the consumption of lettuce grown in Infulene valley, in Maputo, using QMRA tools. The exposure model was constructed upon the volume of contaminated water remaining in the lettuce leaves, the empirical relations between the number of pathogens and the indicator of microorganisms (E. coli), the consumption of lettuce (g) and reduction of pathogens (days). The reference pathogens were Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium, norovirus, and Ascaris. The water quality samples (E. coli) were collected in the storm water channel from January 2016 to December 2018, comprising 65 samples, and the urban lettuce consumption data were collected through inquiry in Maputo Metropolis covering 350 persons. A non-parametric bootstrap was performed involving 10,000 iterations over the collected dataset, namely, water quality (E. coli) and lettuce consumption. The dose-response models were: Exponential for Cryptosporidium, Kummer Confluent hypergeomtric function (1F1) for Vibrio and Ascaris Gaussian hypergeometric function (2F1-(a,b;c;z) for norovirus. The annual infection risk estimates were performed using R 3.6.0 (CoreTeam) software by Monte Carlo (Latin hypercubes), a sampling technique involving 10,000 iterations. The annual infection risks values expressed by Median and the 95th percentile, per person per year (pppy) arising from the consumption of lettuce are as follows: Vibrio cholerae (1.00, 1.00), Cryptosporidium (3.91x10⁻³, 9.72x 10⁻³), nororvirus (5.22x10⁻¹, 9.99x10⁻¹) and Ascaris (2.59x10⁻¹, 9.65x10⁻¹). Thus, the consumption of the lettuce would result in greater risks than the tolerable levels ( < 10⁻³ pppy or 10⁻⁶ DALY) for all pathogens, and the Vibrio cholerae is the most virulent pathogens, according to the hit-single models followed by the Ascaris lumbricoides and norovirus. The sensitivity analysis carried out in this work pointed out that in the whole QMRA, the most important input variable was the reduction of pathogens (Spearman rank value was 0.69) between harvest and consumption followed by water quality (Spearman rank value was 0.69). The decision-makers (Mozambique Government) must strengthen the prevention measures related to pathogens reduction in lettuce (i.e., washing) and engage in wastewater treatment engineering.

Keywords: annual infections risk, lettuce, non-parametric bootstrapping, quantitative microbial risk assessment tools

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1 Dietetics Practice in the Scope of Disease Prevention in Community Settings: A School-Based Obesity Prevention Program

Authors: Elham Abbas Aljaaly, Nahlaa Abdulwahab Khalifa

Abstract:

The active method of disease prevention is seen as the most affordable and sustainable action to deal with risks of non-communicable diseases such as obesity. This eight-week project aimed to pilot the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based programme, which is proposed to prevent and modify overweight status and possible related risk factors among student girls 'at the intermediate level' in Jeddah city. The programme was conducted through comprehensible approach targeting physical environment and school policies (nutritional/exercise/behavioural approach). The programme was designed to cultivate the personal and environmental awareness in schools for girls. This was applied by promoting healthy eating and physical activity through policies, physical education, healthier options for school canteens, and the creation of school health teams. The prevention programme was applied on 68 students (who agreed to participate) from grades 7th, 8th and 9th. A pre and post assessment questionnaire was employed on 66 students. The questionnaires were designed to obtain information on students' knowledge about health, nutrition and physical activity. Survey questions included information about nutrients, food consumption patterns, food intake and lifestyle. Physical education included training sessions for new opportunities for physical activities to be performed during school or after school hours. A running competition 'to enhance students’ performance for physical activities' was also conducted during the school visit. A visit to the school canteen was conducted to check, observe, record and assess all available food/beverage items and meals. The assessment method was a subjective method for the type of food/beverages if high in saturated fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) or non-HFSS. The school canteen administrators were encouraged to provide healthy food/beverage items and a sample healthy canteen was provided for implementation. Two healthy options were introduced to the school canteen. A follow up for students’ preferences for the introduced options and the purchasing power were assessed. Thirty-eight percent of young girls (n=26) were not participating in any form of physical activities inside or outside school. Skipping breakfast was stated by 42% (n=28) of students with no daily consumption (19%, n=13) for fruit/vegetables. Significant changes were noticed in students’ (n=66) overall responses to the pre and post questions (P value=.001). All students had participated in the conducted running competition sessions and reported satisfaction and enjoyment about the sessions. No absence was reported by the research team for attending physical education and activity sessions throughout the delivered programme. The purchasing power of the introduced healthy options of 'Salad and oatmeal' was increased to 18% in 8 weeks at the school canteen, and slightly affected the purchase for other less healthy options. The piloted programme indorsed better health and nutrition knowledge, healthy eating and lifestyle attitude, which could help young girls to obtain sustainable changes. It is expected that the outcomes of the programme will be a cornerstone for the futuristic national study that will assist policy makers and participants to build a knowledgeable health promotion scenario and make sure that school students have access to healthy foods, physical exercise and healthy lifestyle.

Keywords: adolescents, diet, exercise, behaviours, overweight/obesity, prevention-intervention programme, Saudi Arabia, schoolgirls

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