Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 961

Search results for: atypical crisis

961 The Impact of the Atypical Crisis on Educational Migration: Economic and Policy Challenges

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze, Marine Kobalava, Lali Chikviladze

Abstract:

The global pandemic crisis has had a significant impact on educational migration, substantially limiting young people’s access to education abroad. Therefore, it became necessary to study the economic, demographic, social, cultural and other factors associated with educational migration, to identify the economic and political challenges of educational migration and to develop recommendations. The aim of the research is to study the effects of the atypical crisis on educational migration and to make recommendations on effective migration opportunities based on the identification of economic and policy challenges in this area. Bibliographic research is used to assess the effects of the impact of the atypical crisis on educational migration presented in the papers of various scholars. Against the background of the restrictions imposed during the COVID19 pandemic, migration rates have been analyzed, endogenous and exogenous factors affecting educational migration have been identified. Quantitative and qualitative research of students and graduates of TSU Economics and Business Faculty is conducted, the results have been processed by SPSS program, the factors hindering educational migration and the challenges have been identified. The Internet and digital technologies have been shown to play a vital role in alleviating the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, however, lack of Internet access and limited financial resources have played a disruptive role in the educational migration process. The analysis of quantitative research materials revealed the problems of educational migration caused by the atypical crisis, while some issues were clarified during the focus group meetings. The following theoretical-methodological approaches were used during the research: a bibliographic research, analysis, synthesis, comparison, selection-grouping are used; Quantitative and qualitative research has been carried out, the results have been processed by SPSS program. The article presents the consequences of the atypical crisis for educational migration, identifies the main economic and policy challenges in the field of educational migration, and develops appropriate recommendations to overcome them.

Keywords: educational migration, atypical crisis, economic-political challenges, educational migration factors

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960 Teaching Method in Situational Crisis Communication Theory: A Literature Review

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed

Abstract:

Crisis management strategies could be found in various curriculums, not only in schools of business, but also schools of communication. Young students, such as freshmen and sophomores of undergraduate schools, may not care about learning crisis management strategies. Moreover, crisis management strategies are not a topic art students are familiar with. The current paper discusses a way to adapt entertainment media into a crisis management lesson, and the importance of learning crisis management strategies in the school of animation. Students could learn crisis management strategies by watching movies with content about a crisis and responding to crisis responding. The students should then participate in follow up discussions related to the strategies that were used to address the crisis, as well as their success in solving the crisis.

Keywords: situational crisis communication theory, crisis response strategies, media effect, unintentional effect

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959 The Process of Crisis: Model of Its Development in the Organization

Authors: M. Mikušová

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to present a clear and comprehensive picture of the process of a crisis in the organization which will help to better understand its possible developments. For a description of the sequence of individual steps and an indication of their causation and possible variants of the developments, a detailed flow diagram with verbal comment is applied. For simplicity, the process of the crisis is observed in four basic phases called: symptoms of the crisis, diagnosis, action and prevention. The model highlights the complexity of the phenomenon of the crisis and that the various phases of the crisis are interweaving.

Keywords: crisis, management, model, organization

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958 Potential and Development of Children with Atypical Rett Syndrome (CDKL5 Gene Mutation) and Augmentative and Alternative Communication

Authors: Anna Amato

Abstract:

Every child needs communication. If spoken language is not or not fully available due to congenital or acquired limitations, those affected need appropriate ways. These can be found in many possibilities of Augmentative and Alternative Communications (AAC). In the communication promotion of severely impaired children, who can use their own body communication forms only to a limited extent for the differentiated understanding, computers with eye control play an essential role. It takes some time to understand the individual forms of communication of the child. Children who depend on the AAC need competent support to learn to communicate in a motivated way in their everyday life. The aim of the present parents' survey (n = 4), which was evaluated descriptively, is to demonstrate the development of communicative abilities as well as the motivation to use complex communication aids with eye control by patients with atypical Rett Syndrome. An increase in communication skills, well-being, self-reliance, and self-esteem, an improvement in social participation, as well as a reduction in anger and screaming events, were noted. The complex visual communication tools were available daily for 3 out of 4 patients with atypical Rett Syndrome. It raises research questions regarding speech understanding and the ability to drive eye control technology in a larger group of atypical Rett Syndrome patients.

Keywords: augmentative and alternative communications, AAC, atypical Rett-syndrome, children, development

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957 The Effects of the Russian Crisis on Turkish Tourism Sector: A Case of Antalya Province, Turkey

Authors: Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Sercan Aras, Vahit Aytekin

Abstract:

Economic crisis, terrorism, global crisis and the relations between countries are the factors affecting tourism industry and tourism industry is vulnerable against these factors. In our study, there are two dimensions about Russian crisis. The crisis between Russia and Ukraine and decreased oil prices in global market have been entailed Russian economic crisis. This crisis has induced that the ruble, Russian currency, has depreciated against American dollars and consequently the purchasing power of Russian has weakened. This is the first dimension of our study. Second dimension is a political crisis between Turkey and Russia owing to the fact that the Russian Warcraft was brought down by Turkish army. The aim of this study is to explain the impact of the consequences of Russian crisis on Turkish tourism industry. The study has been limited only Antalya province.

Keywords: economic crisis, Turkey-Russian crisis, Turkey's tourism industry, tourism in Turkey

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956 The Impact of Global Financial Crises and Corporate Financial Crisis (Bankruptcy Risk) on Corporate Tax Evasion: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Authors: Seyed Sajjad Habibi

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of global financial crises and corporate financial crisis on tax evasion of companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. For this purpose, panel data in the periods of financial crisis period (2007 to 2012) and without a financial crisis (2004, 2005, 2006, 2013, 2014, and 2015) was analyzed using multivariate linear regression. The results indicate a significant relationship between the corporate financial crisis (bankruptcy risk) and tax evasion in the global financial crisis period. The results also showed a significant relationship between the corporate bankruptcy risk and tax evasion in the period with no global financial crisis. A significant difference was found between the bankruptcy risk and tax evasion in the period of the global financial crisis and that with no financial crisis so that tax evasion increased in the financial crisis period.

Keywords: global financial crisis, corporate financial crisis, bankruptcy risk, tax evasion risk, emerging markets

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955 The Protection of Assets in the Crisis Management Processes

Authors: Jiri Barta

Abstract:

This paper deals with the prevention and management of emergencies. It focuses on the protection of assets of the critical infrastructure entities that are important to preventing, preparing for and management of emergencies and crisis situations. The paper defines assets and specifies their use and place in the process of crisis management and planning. Critical assets that are protected from the negative effects of emergency or crisis situation we can use in crisis management and response. This basic rule applies mainly to the substantial assets used in the protection of critical infrastructure processes.

Keywords: asset, continuity, critical infrastructure, crisis management process

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954 The Crisis in Ukraine and the End of the Post Cold War Security Delusions in Europe

Authors: Georgios Siachamis

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to examine how the crisis in Ukraine can change our perception and understanding of the strategic challenges in Europe. It will try also to address the main factors behind the beginning of the conflict in Ukraine, the miscalculations and mistakes that lead towards the escalation of the crisis and what constructive initiatives are needed to be taken in order to avoid further instability in the region. Furthermore, measures in order to develop a more stable relation with Russia are also going to be presented. Finally the implementation of a new strategic outlook for the EU is also going to be analysed.

Keywords: crisis management, European grand strategy, crisis in Ukraine, Russian policy

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953 Flexible Communication Platform for Crisis Management

Authors: Jiří Barta, Tomáš Ludík, Jiří Urbánek

Abstract:

The topics of disaster and emergency management are highly debated among experts. Fast communication will help to deal with emergencies. Problem is with the network connection and data exchange. The paper suggests a solution, which allows possibilities and perspectives of new flexible communication platform to the protection of communication systems for crisis management. This platform is used for everyday communication and communication in crisis situations too.

Keywords: crisis management, information systems, interoperability, crisis communication, security environment, communication platform

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952 Corporate Governance in India: A Critical Analysis with Respect to Financial Market Crisis

Authors: Sonal Purohit, Animesh Dubey

Abstract:

Corporate governance deals with the entire network of formal and informal relationship with the management of the company and company’s stakeholders including employees, customers, creditors, local communities, and society in general. The recent financial crisis was truly a global crisis in its nature and effects. The Indian financial markets were not immune to this global financial crisis. It is believed that corporate governance also had a major role to play in staggering the effect of this crisis. The objective of this paper is to examine the failure of prevailing corporate governance practice in India during financial crisis. Lack of appropriate implementation of the corporate government norms was a reason behind the phenomenon of money being pulled-out by FIIs, which constitute major investors and influencers of the Indian financial market.

Keywords: corporate governance, FII, financial market, financial crisis

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
951 Crisis Communication at Destinations: A Study for Tourism Managers

Authors: Volkan Altintas, Burcu Oksuz

Abstract:

Tourism industry essentially requires effective crisis management and crisis communication skills, as it is extremely vulnerable to crises. In terms of destinations, tourism crises cause dramatic decreases in the number of inbound tourists, impairment in the destination’s image, and decline in the level of preferability of the destination not only in the short but also in the long term. Therefore, any destination should be well prepared for crisis situation that may arise for various reasons. Currently, the advancement in communication technologies enables and facilitates information and experience to spread rapidly, and negative information and experiences tend to be shared to a further extent. Destinations are broadly exposed to the impacts of such communication stream. Turkey is almost continuously exposed to crises and their adverse impacts as a tourism destination, and thus requires effective crisis communication activities to be maintained. Hence, the approaches of tourism managers toward crisis communication and their proposals for addressing issues in question are important. This study intends to set forth the considerations of the managers serving in the tourism industry about crisis communication at destinations. The theoretical part of the study describes and explains crisis management and crisis communication at destinations; following which are provided the outcomes of the thorough in-depth interviews and discussions conducted for the establishment of the considerations of tourism managers. Managers indicated the role and importance of crisis communications in destinations.

Keywords: crisis communication, crisis management, destination, tourism managers

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950 Combating Fake News: A Qualitative Evidence Synthesis of Organizational Stakeholder Trust in Social Media Communication during Crisis

Authors: Todd R. Walton

Abstract:

Social media would seem to be an ideal mechanism for crisis communication, yet it has been met with varied results. Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, provide a slow moving view of how social media can be leveraged to guide stakeholders and the public through a crisis. Crisis communication managers have struggled to reach target audiences with credible messaging. This Qualitative Evidence Synthesis (QES) analyzed the findings of eight studies published in the last year to determine how organizations effectively utilize social media for crisis communication. Additionally, the evidence was analyzed to note strategies for establishing credibility in a medium fraught with misinformation. Studies indicated wide agreement on the use of multiple social media channels in addition to frequent accurate messaging in order to establish credibility. Studies indicated mixed agreement on the use of text based emergency notification systems. The findings in this QES will help crisis communication professionals plan for social media use for crisis communication.

Keywords: crisis communication, crisis management, emergency response, social media

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949 Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014

Authors: Pison Suwanpakdee

Abstract:

The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.

Keywords: film, political, neorealism, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
948 Microvesicles in Peripheral and Uterine Blood in Women with Atypical Hyperplasia and Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer

Authors: Barbara Zapala, Marek Dziechciowski, Olaf Chmura, Monika Piwowar, Katarzyna Gawlik, Dorota Pawlicka-Gosiewska, Krzysztof Skotniczny, Bogdan Solnica, Kazimierz Pitynski

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries.We hypothesized that amount of circulating micro-particles in blood may be connected with the development of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to measure the micro-particles amount in uterine venous blood and in peripheral venous blood in women with atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By using flow cytometry (BD Canto II cytometer) we measured micro-particles amount in citrate plasma samples from peripheral and uterine venous blood of women with atypical hyperplasia of endometrium or endometrial cancer. We determined the amount of total (TF+), endothelial (CD144+) and monocytic (CD14+) micro- particles. RESULTS: Here we show statistically significant higher micro-particle levels in women with atypical hyperplasia of endometrium or endometrial cancer in comparison to healthy women. Performing measurements of the amounts of total, endothelial and monocytic microparticles allow for reliable differentiation between healthy, atypical hyperplasia and endometrial cancer groups. In blood samples from uterine veins the circulating micro-particle levels were significantly different from peripheral blood samples. The micro-particle levels in uterine blood samples were 7-fold higher than in those from peripheral blood of women with both atypical hyperplasia of endometrium and endometrial cancer when compared to the control group of healthy women. CONCLUSION: These results strongly suggested that the level of circulating micro-particles may be a sign of endometrial cancer development, however the detailed study is needed focusing on molecular processes passed through this small circulating molecules.

Keywords: endometrial cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, microvesicles, uterine blood

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947 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

Abstract:

The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: economic crisis, international migration, mobility, return migration, employement

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946 Neo-Realism in Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014

Authors: S. Pison

Abstract:

The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.

Keywords: film, political, neo-realism, social, Thailand

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945 Salt Scarcity and Crisis Solution in Islam Perspective

Authors: Taufik Nugroho, Firsty Dzainuurahmana, Tika Widiastuti

Abstract:

The polemic about the salt crisis re-emerged, this is a classic problem in Indonesia and is still a homework that is not finished yet. This salt crisis occurs due to low productivity of salt commodities that have not been able to meet domestic demand and lack of salt productivity caused by several factors. One of the biggest factors of the crisis is the weather anomaly that disrupts salt production, less supportive technology and price stability. This study will try to discuss the salt scarcity and crisis solution in Islamic view. As for the conclusion of this study is the need for equilibrium or balancing between demand and supply, need to optimize the role of the government as Hisbah to maintain the balance of market mechanisms and prepare the stock system of salt stock by buying farmers products at reasonable prices then storing them.

Keywords: crisis, Islamic solution, scarcity, salt

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944 The Changes of the Relationship between Audit Quality and Earnings Management after Financial Crisis

Authors: Chengxuan Geng, Yizhou E

Abstract:

This paper mainly examines the changes in the relationship between earnings management and audit quality before and after financial crisis in the context of American firms from 2005 to 2010. Based on a sample of 3584 firm year observations, we find that there are changes concerning the relation between accrual-based earnings management and audit quality during the pre-crisis and post-crisis periods. However, the results do not provide enough evidence with regard to the variances in the association between real activities earnings management and audit quality during these two periods.

Keywords: audit quality, earnings management, financial crisis, relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
943 The Use of Computer Simulation as Technological Education for Crisis Management Staff

Authors: Jiří Barta, Josef Krahulec, Jiří F. Urbánek

Abstract:

Education and practical training crisis management members are a topical issue nowadays. The paper deals with the perspectives and possibilities of ‘smart solutions’ to education for crisis management staff. Currently, there are a large number of simulation tools, which notes that they are suitable for practical training of crisis management staff. The first part of the paper is focused on the introduction of the technology simulation tools. The simulators aim is to create a realistic environment for the practical training of extending units of crisis staff. The second part of the paper concerns the possibilities of using the simulation technology to the education process. The aim of this section is to introduce the practical capabilities and potential of the simulation programs for practical training of crisis management staff.

Keywords: crisis management staff, computer simulation, software, technological education

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942 Simulation Programs to Education of Crisis Management Members

Authors: Jiri Barta

Abstract:

This paper deals with a simulation programs and technologies using in the educational process for members of the crisis management. Risk analysis, simulation, preparation and planning are among the main activities of workers of crisis management. Made correctly simulation of emergency defines the extent of the danger. On this basis, it is possible to effectively prepare and plan measures to minimize damage. The paper is focused on simulation programs that are trained at the University of Defence. Implementation of the outputs from simulation programs in decision-making processes of crisis staffs is one of the main tasks of the research project.

Keywords: crisis management, continuity, critical infrastructure, dangerous substance, education, flood, simulation programs

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941 A Study of the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Financial Performance of Banks in Mauritius

Authors: Narvada Ramdhany, Reena Bhattu Babajee

Abstract:

The 2007-2008 Global Financial Crisis which initiated in the US had a global outreach, impacting the financial and banking sectors of several economies; such as European countries, developing and emerging countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa. European countries represent one of the main sources of export earnings for Mauritius and given that Europe has been quite profoundly affected by the crisis, the Mauritian economy also could have been negatively affected. This study is being undertaken to see if the crisis had a spill-over effect on the Mauritian banking system. It will also enable to determine if the measures put in place to counteract the crisis by regulatory authorities have been effective. The study will be carried out on 17 banks and data will be collected over a time frame of seven years; with a pre-crisis period from 2005 to 2007 and a post-crisis period from 2009 to 2011. The impact of the crisis as such will be measured through the financial performance of the banks, using financial ratios and regression analysis. The results show that during the period concerned Mauritian banks have remained solvent and relatively stable. One of the main explanations put forward to explain the resilience of the banking sector to the crisis is that foreign exposure was relatively low. Another explanation put forward is that Mauritian banks normally transact mainly with prime borrowers unlike most the banks which were affected by the financial crisis.  

Keywords: global financial crisis, banking sector, financial performance, Mauritian banks

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940 Peril´s Environment of Energetic Infrastructure Complex System, Modelling by the Crisis Situation Algorithms

Authors: Jiří F. Urbánek, Alena Oulehlová, Hana Malachová, Jiří J. Urbánek Jr.

Abstract:

Crisis situations investigation and modelling are introduced and made within the complex system of energetic critical infrastructure, operating on peril´s environments. Every crisis situations and perils has an origin in the emergency/ crisis event occurrence and they need critical/ crisis interfaces assessment. Here, the emergency events can be expected - then crisis scenarios can be pre-prepared by pertinent organizational crisis management authorities towards their coping; or it may be unexpected - without pre-prepared scenario of event. But the both need operational coping by means of crisis management as well. The operation, forms, characteristics, behaviour and utilization of crisis management have various qualities, depending on real critical infrastructure organization perils, and prevention training processes. An aim is always - better security and continuity of the organization, which successful obtainment needs to find and investigate critical/ crisis zones and functions in critical infrastructure organization models, operating in pertinent perils environment. Our DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) method is disposables for it. Here, it is necessary to derive and create identification algorithm of critical/ crisis interfaces. The locations of critical/ crisis interfaces are the flags of crisis situation in organization of critical infrastructure models. Then, the model of crisis situation will be displayed at real organization of Czech energetic crisis infrastructure subject in real peril environment. These efficient measures are necessary for the infrastructure protection. They will be derived for peril mitigation, crisis situation coping and for environmentally friendly organization survival, continuity and its sustainable development advanced possibilities.

Keywords: algorithms, energetic infrastructure complex system, modelling, peril´s environment

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939 Are the Organizations Prepared for Potential Crises? A Research Intended to Measure the Proactivity Level of Industrial Organizations

Authors: M. Tahir Demirsel, Mustafa Atsan

Abstract:

Many elements of the environment in which businesses operate today leave them faced with unexpected threats and opportunities. One of the major threats is business crisis. The crisis is a state of affairs in a business wherein the executives must take urgent and unprecedented action to try to save the business from failure. In order to survive in the business environment, organizations should be prepared for the potential crises. Technological developments, uncertainty in the market and the intense competition increase the probability of encountering a crisis for organizations. Therefore, by acting proactively to predict crisis, to detect signals of crisis and be prepared for a crisis by taking necessary precautions accordingly, is of great importance for businesses. In this context, the objective of this study is to reveal that how much organizations are proactive and can predict the future crises and investigate whether they are prepared for possible crises or not. The research was conducted on 222 business executives in one of the major industrial zones of Turkey, Konya Organized Industrial Zone (KOS). The findings are analyzed through descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. According to the results, it has been observed that organizations cannot predict the crisis signals and are not prepared for potential crises.

Keywords: crisis preparedness, crisis signals, industrial organizations, proactivity

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938 Science School Was Burned: A Case Study of Crisis Management in Thailand

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed

Abstract:

This study analyzes the crisis management and image repair strategies during the crisis of Mahidol Wittayanusorn School (MWIT) library burning. The library of this school was burned by a 16-year-old-male student on June 6th, 2010. This student blamed the school that the lesson was difficult, and other students were selfish. Although no one was in the building during the fire, it had caused damage to the building, books and electronic supplies around 130 million bahts (4.4 million USD). This event aroused many discourses arguing about the education system and morality. The strategies which were used during crisis were denial, shift the blame, bolstering, minimization, and uncertainty reduction. The results of using these strategies appeared after the crisis. That was the numbers of new students, who registered for the examination to get into this school in the later years, have remained the same.

Keywords: school, crisis management, violence, image repair strategies, uncertainty, burn

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937 Distance Learning and Modern Challenges of Education Management in Georgia

Authors: Giorgi Gaganidze, Eter Kharaishvili

Abstract:

The atypical crisis has created new challenges in the education system. Globally, including in Georgia, traditional methods of managing the education system have appeared particularly vulnerable. In addition, new opportunities for the introduction of innovative management of learning processes have emerged. The aim of the research is to identify the main challenges in the field of education management in the distance learning process in Georgia and to develop recommendations on the opportunities for the introduction of innovative management. The paper substantiates the relevance of the research, in particular, it notes that in Georgia, as in many countries, distance learning in higher education institutions became particularly crucial during the Covid-19 pandemic. What is more, theoretical and practical aspects of distance learning are less proven, and a number of problems have been identified in the field of education management in Georgia. The article justifies the need to study the challenges of distance learning for the formation of a sustainable education management system. Within the bibliographic research, there are grouped the opinions of researchers on the modern problems of distance learning and education management in the article. Based on scientific papers, the expectations formed about distance learning are studied, and the main focus is on the existing problems of education management during the atypical crisis. The article discusses the forms and opportunities of distance learning in different countries, evaluates different approaches and challenges to distance learning, and justifies the role of education management in effective distance learning. The paper uses various theoretical-methodological tools of research, including desk research on the research topic; Data selection-grouping, problem identification is carried out by analysis, synthesis, sampling, induction, and other methods;SWOT analysis is used to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of distance education and management; The level of student satisfaction with distance learning is determined through the Population-based / Census-based approach; The results of the research are processed by SPSS program. Quantitative research and semi-structured interviews with relevant focus groups were conducted to identify working directions for innovative management of distance learning and education. Research has shown that the demand for distance education is growing in Georgia, but the need to introduce innovative education management remains a particular challenge. Conclusions have been made on the introduction of innovative education management, and the relevant recommendations have been developed.

Keywords: distance learning, management challenges, education management, innovative management

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936 Managing Company's Reputation during Crisis: An Analysis of Croatia Airlines' Crisis Response Strategy to the Labor Unions' Strike Announcement

Authors: M. Polic, N. Cesarec Salopek

Abstract:

When it comes to crisis, no company, notwithstanding its financial success, power or reputation is immune to the new environment and circumstances emerging from it. The main challenge company faces with during a crisis is to protect its most valuable intangible asset reputation. Crisis has the serious potential to disrupt company’s everyday operations and damage its reputation extremely fast, especially if the company did not anticipate threats that may cause a crisis. Therefore, when a crisis happens, company must directly respond to it, whilst an effective crisis communication can limit consequences arising from the crisis, protect and repair the reputational damage caused to the company. Since every crisis is unique, each one of it requires different crisis response strategy. In July 2018, airline labor unions threatened Croatia Airlines, the state owned flag carrier of Croatia, to hold a strike that would be called into question regular flights and affect more than 7.600 passengers per day. This study explores the differences between crisis response strategies that Croatia Airlines, the state owned flag carrier of Croatia and airline labor unions used during the crisis period within the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) by analyzing the content of formal communication tools used by Croatia Airlines and airline labor unions. Moreover, this study shows how Croatia Airlines successfully managed to communicate to the general public the threat that airline labor unions imposed on it and how was it received by the Croatian media. By using the qualitative and quantitative content analysis, the study will reveal the frames that dominated in the media articles during the crisis period. The greatest significance of this study is that it will provide the deeper insight into how transparent and consistent communication, the one that Croatia Airlines used before and during the crisis period, contributed to the decision of the competent court (Zagreb County Court) which prohibited labor unions strike in August 2018.

Keywords: crisis communication, crisis response strategy, Croatia Airlines, labor union, reputation management, situational crisis communication theory, strike

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935 An Empirical Examination of the Determinant of the Financial CEOs’ Compensation for the Post-Financial Crisis Period

Authors: Eunsup Daniel Shim, Jooh Lee

Abstract:

The US financial crisis of 2008 and subsequent Global Financial Crisis were considered by many economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. As a results, Dodd-Frank Act has passed and aims '(1) to promote the financial stability of the United States by improving accountability and transparency in the financial system, to end "too big to fail", (2) to protect the American taxpayer by ending bailouts, (3) to protect consumers from abusive financial services practices, and for other purposes.' The enactment of Dodd-Frank Act, in part, intended to significantly influence accountability on executive compensation especially for the financial institutions. This paper empirically investigates the changes in Financial CEOs’ compensation since the Financial Crisis of 2008. Our findings show that in the post- Financial Crisis period financial leverage is significant factor influencing the CEOs’ total compensation. In addition market based performance such as stock price and market-to-book ratio shows significant positive relationship with CEO compensation. This change can be interpreted an attempt to reduce opportunistic behavior of top executives after the financial crisis and the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act.

Keywords: financial CEO compensation, firm performance, financial crisis of 2008, dodd-frank act

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934 Banks' Financial Performance in Pakistan from 2012-2015

Authors: Saima Akbar

Abstract:

The global financial crisis severely and adversely impacted the Pakistanis’ financial setups with far-reaching consequences for its victims. This study aimed to analyze the various determinants of the banks’ financial performance in Pakistan. The stepwise multiple regression analysis and pre-post analysis were carried out in this regard by using SPSS ver 22. The study found that the assets quality is the most influential determinant of return over assets followed by bank size and solvency. Advances, liquidity, investments, and size have positive while poor assets quality and deposits have a negative impact on the return over assets. The comparison of the pre-crisis and post-crisis coefficient values of the independent variables revealed that the global financial crisis had exerted a significant impact on the relative ability of the financial performance determinants to explain variations in return over assets.

Keywords: pre-crisis, post-crisis, coefficient values, determinants

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933 From Economic Crisis to Environmental Sustainability: The Case of Greece

Authors: Marula Tsagkari

Abstract:

Greece finds itself in challenging times, facing a severe economic slowdown since 2009. Despite the fact that Greece is in the epicenter of the global interest, to the best of our knowledge there is no extend research on how the crisis has affected the Greek environment (directly and indirectly), the past years. Thus, the present study aims to fill the aforementioned research gap by examining a number of environmental indicators related with air emissions, waste, water and energy. Our results indicate that the crisis affected the Greek environment in both positive and negative ways. For Greece, the main challenge is to recover from the present economic recession as soon as possible, but not at any cost to the environment. In this context, this research unfolds the interrelation between the economic and the environmental crisis and suggests a sustainable restructuring of the Greek economy.

Keywords: Greece, economic crisis, environmental policy, environmental indicators

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932 Predicting Indonesia External Debt Crisis: An Artificial Neural Network Approach

Authors: Riznaldi Akbar

Abstract:

In this study, we compared the performance of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model with back-propagation algorithm in correctly predicting in-sample and out-of-sample external debt crisis in Indonesia. We found that exchange rate, foreign reserves, and exports are the major determinants to experiencing external debt crisis. The ANN in-sample performance provides relatively superior results. The ANN model is able to classify correctly crisis of 89.12 per cent with reasonably low false alarms of 7.01 per cent. In out-of-sample, the prediction performance fairly deteriorates compared to their in-sample performances. It could be explained as the ANN model tends to over-fit the data in the in-sample, but it could not fit the out-of-sample very well. The 10-fold cross-validation has been used to improve the out-of-sample prediction accuracy. The results also offer policy implications. The out-of-sample performance could be very sensitive to the size of the samples, as it could yield a higher total misclassification error and lower prediction accuracy. The ANN model could be used to identify past crisis episodes with some accuracy, but predicting crisis outside the estimation sample is much more challenging because of the presence of uncertainty.

Keywords: debt crisis, external debt, artificial neural network, ANN

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