Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1989

Search results for: labor migration employment

1989 Circular Labour Migration and Its Consequences in Georgia

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze

Abstract:

Introduction: The paper will argue that labor migration is the most important problem Georgia faces today. The structure of labor migration by age and gender of Georgia is analyzed. The main driving factors of circular labor migration during the last ten years are identified. While studying migration, it is necessary to discuss the interconnection of economic, social, and demographic features, also taking into consideration the policy of state regulations in terms of education and professional training. Methodology: Different research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical, such as selection, grouping, observation, trend, and qualitative research methods, namely; analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison ones. Main Findings: Labour migrants are filling the labor market as a low salary worker. The main positive feedback of migration from developing countries is poverty eradication, but this process is accompanied by problems, such as 'Brain Drain'. The country loses an important part of its intellectual potential, and it is invested by households or state itself. Conclusions: Labor migration is characterized to be temporary, but socio-economic problems of the country often push the labor migration in the direction of longterm and illegal migration. Countries with developed economies try to stricter migration policy and fight illegal migration with different methods; circular migration helps solve this problem. Conclusions and recommendations are included about circular labor migration consequences in Georgia and its influence on the reduction of unemployment level.

Keywords: migration, circular labor migration, labor migration employment, unemployment

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
1988 Problems of Youth Employment in Agricultural Sector of Georgia and Causes of Migration

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, M. Lobzhanidze, N. Damenia, N. Sagareishvili

Abstract:

The article substantiates that youth employment in Georgia, especially in the agricultural sector, is an acute socio-economic problem. The paper analyzes the indicators of youth employment and unemployment rates by age and gender in the agriculture sector. Research revealed that over the past decade, the unemployment rate in rural areas has decreased; however, the problem of unemployment is more sensitive than in the city in this field. The article established youth unemployment rates in rural areas; it assesses labor and educational migration causes. Based on the survey, there are proposed findings and recommendations of the agricultural sector about improving youth employment, reducing unemployment rate, reaching migration processes optimization.

Keywords: youth employment, the agricultural sector, unemployment rate, youth migration, agricultural education

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
1987 Towards Inclusive Learning Society: Learning for Work in the Swedish Context

Authors: Irina Rönnqvist

Abstract:

The world is constantly changing; therefore previous views or cultural patterns and programs formed by the “old world” cannot be suitable for solving actual problems. Indeed, reformation of an education system is unlikely to be effective without understanding of the processes that emerge in the field of employment. There is a problem in overcoming of the negative trends that determine imbalance of needs of the qualified work force and preparation of professionals by an education system. At the contemporary stage of economics the processes occurring in the field of labor and employment reproduce the picture of economic development of the country that cannot be imagined without the factor of labor mobility (e.g. migration). On the one hand, adult education has a significant impact on multifaceted development of economy. On the other hand, Sweden has one of the world's most generous asylum reception systems and the most liberal labor migration policy among the OECD countries. This effect affects the increased productivity. The focus of this essay is on problems of education and employment concerning social inclusion of migrants in working life in Sweden.

Keywords: migration, adaptation, formal learning, informal learning, Sweden

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1986 Employment Discrimination on Civil Servant Recruitment

Authors: Li Lei, Jia Jidong

Abstract:

Employment right is linked to the people’s livelihood in our society. As a most important and representative part in the labor market, the employment of public servants is always taking much attention. But the discrimination in the employment of public servants has always existed and, to become a controversy in our society. The paper try to discuss this problem from four parts as follows: First, the employment of public servants has a representative status in our labor market. The second part is about the discrimination in the employment of public servants. The third part is about the right of equality and its significance. The last part is to analysis the legal predicament about discrimination in the employment of public servants in China.

Keywords: discrimination, employment of public servants, right of labor, law

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1985 Employment Problems of Graduands Graduated Form Vocational High Schools

Authors: Refik Uyanöz, Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to show the employing ability of vocational students. And also, the employment problems of these students are emphasized in this study.The rapid development in technology and information and increased qualified labor is widely affects labor market. On the other hand, labor market will look for educated, qualified, talented and young people. Because of this reason, qualified staff should be educated at vocational high schools. Vocational high schools are one of the best institutions to educate qualified staff. In this research, the conditions of vocational high schools are studied. The difference between the employment policies and current employment problems are researched.

Keywords: vocational high school, employment, employment problems, vocational students

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
1984 Traditional Factors of States’ Economic Growth: Modern Patterns, Values and Limitations

Authors: Denis Ushakov

Abstract:

Fast growing international migration as a factor of labor globalization now is one of the most important trends of world economy and determinant of social-political transformations. Study of fundamental economical reasons for international migration is relevant due to their prognostic, predictable and normative potential, which can be used in conditions of global economic non-stability. This paper analyzes role of natural-resources, financial and labor factors in economic growth of the modern states; studies relationships between stimulating role of natural resources, finance and labor with levels of modern countries’ economy development. Based on achieved results, findings about fundamental reasons of international migration; transformation of labor factor’s role in providing an economical progress of the states; efficiency of positive impact of manufacturing factors (domestic and attracted from international markets) were offered.

Keywords: international migration, migrant, labor productivity, economy efficiency of migration, migration policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1983 The Role of the Returned Migration in the Regional Economic Growth

Authors: Jessica Ordoñez, Francisco Ochoa, Pascual García

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between return migration in Ecuador and economic growth. The improvement of macroeconomic conditions in Latin America, starting in 2012, makes the region a new migratory destination, in both senses in north-south and south-south flows. Current studies highlight only the role of the entrepreneurial migrant in generating employment and economic growth in the region. Nevertheless, it has not been considered that not all migrants are entrepreneurs and that not all entrepreneurs contribute to economic growth. This research compares the socioeconomic and labor characteristics of migrant returnees working as freelancers in Ecuador. The principal aim is to demystify the role of migrant entrepreneurs in regional growth and to identify socioeconomic characteristics that can enhance growth. A panel econometric model was used, which is part of the information from labor and macroeconomic surveys.

Keywords: economic growth, entrepreneur, migration, returned migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
1982 Effectiveness of European Active Labor Market Policies

Authors: Marwa Sahnoun, Chokri Abdennadher

Abstract:

This article comes, very timely, to look at the effectiveness of active labor market policies (ALMP) in improving labor market outcomes. Using panel data estimates for 19 European countries during the period 2000-2012, this article showed the role of institutional factors, especially the role of employment policies implementation based on three variables: the allocation of resources for the implementation of policies, continuity and timing in the implementation of policies to capture their effectiveness on the labor market. Empirical results shows favor effect of training, employment incentives, sheltered employment and rehabilitation and direct job creation on the entire population employment growth. Results shows also that start-up incentives seems to be more effective in increasing employment than other types of policies. Importantly, two aspects are important in terms of implementation: public expenditure on program administration, e.g. (PES) watches the most favorable aspect and the continuity of policies implemented.

Keywords: active labor market policies, implementation, public expenditure on program administration, start-up incentives, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
1981 The Nexus between Migration and Human Security: The Case of Ethiopian Female Migration to Sudan

Authors: Anwar Hassen Tsega

Abstract:

International labor migration is an integral part of the modern globalized world. However, the phenomenon has its roots in some earlier periods in human history. This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of female migration in Africa. In the past, African women migrants were only spouses or dependent family members. But as modernity swept most African societies, with rising unemployment rates, there is evidence everywhere in Africa that women labor migration is a growing phenomenon that deserves to be understood in the context of human security research. This work explores these issues further, focusing on the experience of Ethiopian women labor migrants to Sudan. The migration of Ethiopian people to Sudan is historical; nevertheless, labor migration mainly started since the discovery and subsequent exploration of oil in the Sudan. While the paper is concerned with the human security aspect of the migrant workers, we need to be certain that the migration process will provide with a decent wage, good working conditions, the necessary social security coverage, and labor protection as a whole. However, migration to Sudan is not always safe and female migrants become subject to violence at the hands of brokers, employers and migration officials. For this matter, the paper argued that identifying the vulnerable stages and major problem facing female migrant workers at various stages of migration is a prerequisite to combat the problem and secure the lives of the migrant workers. The major problems female migrants face include extra degrees of gender-based violence, underpayment, various forms of abuse like verbal, physical and sexual and other forms of torture which include beating and slaps. This peculiar situation could be attributed to the fact that most of these women are irregular migrants and fall under the category of unskilled and/or illiterate migrants.

Keywords: Ethiopia, human security, labor migration, Sudan

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1980 The Determinants of Female Participation to the Labour Force in Turkey

Authors: Zeynep Karacor, Rahime Hulya Ozturk

Abstract:

Located in developing countries but with the successful performance in recent years have shown in emerging economies , the labor factor has undoubtedly an important place in Turkish economy. The theorists have emphasized the importance of labor and human capital factors for many years. The importance of human capital is emerging in the process of determining the labor force participation rate. It is relatively easy to employ qualified labor force but employment of unskilled labor is particularly difficult. Another factor affecting the gender differences are employment opportunities in the labor force. In our country, the employment conditions of men and women differ. Factors causing these differentials are inherent job requirements, the social structure of society, women's point of view, working hours, working conditions. Crisis in our country in recent years have significantly affect the labor force participation rates. In particular, women's labor force participation rates have shown a decrease in crisis.In crisis female laborforce leave their job and go their home. It is the sole provider of social perception of men so in crisis period it is considered that woman lost their job. In the first part of this study the current situation in the world of female participation in the labor force in Turkey will examine. In the second part of the study literature will be examined. In the third and last part of the study factors of determinants of female labor force participation rate analysis will done by Granger Causality Analysis.

Keywords: female labour force, employment, labor force, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1979 The Labor Participation-Fertility Trade-Off: Exploring Fecundity and Its Consequences to Women's Employment in the Philippines

Authors: Ariane C. Lim, Daphne Ashley L. Sze, Kenneth S. Santos

Abstract:

As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child-rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.

Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundity

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
1978 The Socio-Economic Consequences of Educational Migration for Georgia

Authors: Eteri Kharaishvili, Marina Chavleishvili, Manana Lobzhanidze, Nino Grigolia

Abstract:

The article analyzes Georgia's involvement in global migration processes, assessing migration research and policy regulatory documents. The socio-economic situation of young people has been studied in the paper, their employment and unemployment levels are analyzed, reasons for migration of youth are revealed, the impact of migration on the socio-economic development of the country is substantiated. Youth demand on education is also assessed, problems in the education sector are identified, educational migration indicators are analyzed according to the internationalization process of this sector. Based on the analysis of the motivations of young people in Georgia, orientation of values and the aspects conditioning life strategies the factors affecting educational migration are determined and the results of the positive and negative impact of educational migration on the socio-economic development of the country are substantiated. The importance of efficient management of educational migration for Georgia in getting closer to the EU and achieving inclusive economic grow this substantiated. Recommendations for efficient management of the process of Georgian citizens’ learning and acquiring experience, as well as the internationalization of education sector and educational migration, are drawn.

Keywords: educational migration, migration management, migration of youth, socio-economic results of educational migration, youth employment

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1977 The Youth Employment Peculiarities in Post-Soviet Georgia

Authors: M. Lobzhanidze, N. Damenia

Abstract:

The article analyzes the current structural changes in the economy of Georgia, liberalization and integration processes of the economy. In accordance with this analysis, the peculiarities and the problems of youth employment are revealed. In the paper, the Georgian labor market and its contradictions are studied. Based on the analysis of materials, the socio-economic losses caused by the long-term and mass unemployment of young people are revealed, the objective and subjective circumstances of getting higher education are studied. The youth employment and unemployment rates are analyzed. Based on the research, the factors that increase unemployment are identified. According to the analysis of the youth employment, it has appeared that the unemployment share in the number of economically active population has increased in the younger age group. It demonstrates the high requirements of the labour market in terms of the quality of the workforce. Also, it is highlighted that young people are exposed to a highly paid job. The following research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical (selection, grouping, observation, trend, etc.) and qualitative research (in-depth interview), as well as analysis, induction and comparison methods. The article presents the data by the National Statistics Office of Georgia and the Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia, policy documents of the Parliament of Georgia, scientific papers by Georgian and foreign scientists, analytical reports, publications and EU research materials on similar issues. The work estimates the students and graduates employment problems existing in the state development strategy and priorities. The measures to overcome the challenges are defined. The article describes the mechanisms of state regulation of youth employment and the ways of improving this regulatory base. As for major findings, it should be highlighted that the main problems are: lack of experience and incompatibility of youth qualification with the requirements of the labor market. Accordingly, it is concluded that the unemployment rate of young people in Georgia is increasing.

Keywords: migration of youth, youth employment, migration management, youth employment and unemployment

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1976 The Labor Participation–Fertility Trade-off: The Case of the Philippines

Authors: Daphne Ashley Sze, Kenneth Santos, Ariane Gabrielle Lim

Abstract:

As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.

Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundity

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
1975 Role of MGNREGA(s) in Seasonal Labour Migration: Micro Evidence from Telangana State, India

Authors: Vijay Korra

Abstract:

The main focus of this paper is to examine the performance, outcomes and impacts of MGNREGA Scheme in particular on migrant beneficiary households. This article is based on a field survey carried out in 2010 in three randomly selected villages in Mahabubnagar district of Telangana State, India. It was found that majority of the job card holders are only able to get employment/work between 30-60 days and receive wages maximum between Rs.60 to 70 per day wherein wage discrimination was prevalent in line with gender. It concludes by saying that the government sponsored employment programme has indeed given rural poor a sense of hope about livelihood security through guaranteed employment. On the other hand, the scheme is defected in providing full employment days, wages, and thus unable to prevent the working class from migrating to cities/towns in search of employment mainly due to malpractices involved in the implementation of the scheme.

Keywords: MGNREGA(s), labour, employment, wages, livelihood, seasonal migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
1974 Social Inclusion of Rural Elderly Left Behind by Internal Labor Migration: A Case Study in a Chinese Rural Village in Anhui Province

Authors: Lei Liu

Abstract:

Since the famous opening up and reform strategy of China, lots of migrants have flowed from rural areas to urban areas. In this paper, the author investigates the rural elderly left behind, which are defined aged people left alone at home while their adult children have to migrant outside. This phenomenon is a quite general and serious social problem that cannot be ignored, accompanied by the process of urbanization and regional transferring of rural labor. The Chinese internal migration not only exerts great influence to China’s economy and urbanization but also obviously reduces the labor and care to rural aged people. Contrary to assumptions in some migration and aging studies, which show the inevitable negative effects of migration upon the old age care, the author highlights unique features in their daily strategies of house holding to integrate into society with the analysis of the conception of social inclusion. Through life history interviews with elderly left behind in one rural village, this article sheds light on three different factors of social inclusion, namely, economic inclusion, social identity and political inclusion and shows its necessaries to fully understand the status of the social wellbeing of rural elderly left behind.

Keywords: labor migration, elderly left behind, social inclusion, rural China

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1973 Immigration and Gender Equality – An Analysis of the Labor Market Characteristics of Turkish Migrants Living in Germany

Authors: C. Asarkaya, S. Z. Siretioglu Girgin

Abstract:

Turkish migrants constitute the largest group among people with migration background living in Germany. Turkish women’s labor market participation is of significant importance for their social and economic integration to the German society. This paper thus aims to investigate their labor market positions. Turkish migrant women participate less in the labor market compared to men, and are responsible for most of the housework, child care, and elderly care. This is due to their traditional roles in the family, educational level, insufficient knowledge of German language, and insufficient professional experience. We strongly recommend that wide-reaching integration policies for women are formulated, so as to encourage participation of not only migrant women but also their husbands, fathers and/or brothers, and natives.

Keywords: empowerment, Germany, labor market, migration, Turkish, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
1972 Temporal Migration and Community Development in Rural Indonesia

Authors: Gunawan Prayitno, Kakuya Matshusima, Kiyoshi Kobayashi

Abstract:

Indonesia’s rural regions are characterized by wide-spread poverty, under-employment, and surplus of low-skilled labor. The aim of this paper is to empirically prove the effect of social ties (strong and weak tie) as social capital construct on households’ migration decision in the case of developing country (Indonesia). The methodology incorporated indicators of observe variables (four demographic attributes data: income, occupation, education, and family members) and indicators of latent variables (ties to neighbors, ties to community and sense of place) provided by responses to survey questions to aid in estimating the model. Using structural equation model that we employed in Mplus program, the result of our study shows that ties to community positively have a significant impact to the decision of respondents (migrate or not). Besides, education as observed variable directly influences the migration decisions. It seems that higher level of education have impact on migration decision. Our current model so far could explain the relation between social capital and migration decision choice.

Keywords: migration, ties to community, ties to neighbors, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1971 Combating and Preventing Unemployment in Sweden

Authors: Beata Wentura-Dudek

Abstract:

In Sweden the needs of the labor market are regularly monitored. Test results and forecasts translate directly into the education system in this country, which is largely a state system. Sweden is one of the first countries in Europe that has used active labor market policies. It is realized that there is an active unemployment which includes a wide range of activities that can be divided into three groups: Active forms of influencing the creation of new jobs, active forms that affect the labor supply and active forms for people with disabilities. Most of the funding is allocated there for subsidized employment and training. Research conducted in Sweden shows that active forms of counteracting unemployment focused on the long-term unemployed can significantly raise the level of employment in this group.

Keywords: Sweden, research conducted in Sweden, labour market, labour market policies, unemployment, active forms of influencing the creation of new jobs, active forms of counteracting unemployment, employment, subsidized employment education

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1970 Political Deprivations, Political Risk and the Extent of Skilled Labor Migration from Pakistan: Finding of a Time-Series Analysis

Authors: Syed Toqueer Akhter, Hussain Hamid

Abstract:

Over the last few decades an upward trend has been observed in the case of labor migration from Pakistan. The emigrants are not just economically motivated and in search of a safe living environment towards more developed countries in Europe, North America and Middle East. The opportunity cost of migration comes in the form of brain drain that is the loss of qualified and skilled human capital. Throughout the history of Pakistan, situations of political instability have emerged ranging from violation of political rights, political disappearances to political assassinations. Providing security to the citizens is a major issue faced in Pakistan due to increase in crime and terrorist activities. The aim of the study is to test the impact of political instability, appearing in the form of political terror, violation of political rights and civil liberty on skilled migration of labor. Three proxies are used to measure the political instability; political terror scale (based on a scale of 1-5, the political terror and violence that a country encounters in a particular year), political rights (a rating of 1-7, that describes political rights as the ability for the people to participate without restraint in political process) and civil liberty (a rating of 1-7, civil liberty is defined as the freedom of expression and rights without government intervention). Using time series data from 1980-2011, the distributed lag models were used for estimation because migration is not a onetime process, previous events and migration can lead to more migration. Our research clearly shows that political instability appearing in the form of political terror, political rights and civil liberty all appeared significant in explaining the extent of skilled migration of Pakistan.

Keywords: skilled labor migration, political terror, political rights, civil liberty, distributed lag model

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
1969 Academic Mobility and International Migration: Challenges and Opportunities for African Skilled Immigrants in Sweden

Authors: Anne Kubai

Abstract:

Since the Lisbon Summit in 2007, discussion and dialogue on ways of enhancing collaboration between Africa and the EU on the issues of migration, mobility and employment has intensified. The Africa-EU Partnership on migration, mobility and employment aims to provide far-reaching responses on migration and employment challenges; and facilitate mobility of people in Africa and the EU. However, since the outcomes of the proposed policies depend on the political interests and institutional capacities of both the EU and African states that are involved, the results have so far been uncoordinated and scattered. Also, many European countries have eased their entry regulations with regard to highly skilled migrants, and there is need to explore the implications of such changes. Therefore, this contribution will address the following questions: How has the progression of migration and border management in the Nordic countries, particularly Sweden, affected the flow and mobility of highly skilled migrants from Africa? What is the possible impact of the changes in receiving countries (such as introduction of tuition fees and more stringent admission regulations for foreign students in Sweden) on skilled migration and mobility? How can highly skilled immigrants be a source of research knowledge between international and local institutions and researchers both in sending and receiving countries?

Keywords: academic mobility, skilled, African, knowledge, research, migrants, Sweden

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
1968 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri

Abstract:

Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: data quality, Georgia, methodology, migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1967 Impact of Foreign Migration on Innovation in Thailand

Authors: Siriwan Saksiriruthai

Abstract:

This paper reviews and analyzes impact of foreign migration on innovation for Thailand. With the analysis of decades of industrial and economic development, Thailand has attracted investment by providing cheap labor and low cost of production. Foreign migrant substantially contribute to the development by supplying lower wages with low-skilled workers. However, it is revealed that foreign low-skilled labor influx has a negative effect on innovation. Firms concentrate on benefits from low cost of production and are not motivated to invest for innovation. Therefore, with the emerging of new economies where lower wage laborers are offered, Thailand has to promote innovation to maintain economic development sustainability.

Keywords: migration, innovation, Thailand, foreign

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
1966 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

Abstract:

The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: economic crisis, international migration, mobility, return migration, employement

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
1965 Gender Dimension of Migrations Influenced by Genocide and Feminicides around the Globe

Authors: Lejla Mušić

Abstract:

Gender dimension of migration analyzes the intersection in between the world statistics on male and female migrations, around the world, involving the questions of youth migrations. Comparative analyses of world migration statistics as methodology offer the insight into the position of women in labor market around world. There are different forms of youth debris in contemporary world. The main problems are illegal migration, feminization of poverty, kidnapping the girls in Nigeria, femicides in Juarez and Mexico. Illegal migrations involve forced labor, rape and prostitution. Transgender youth share ideas through the online media (anti-bullying videos) and develop their own styles such as anarcho-punk, rave, or rock. Therefore, the stronger gender equality laws and laws for protection of women on work should be enforced.

Keywords: hyperfeminisation, rape, gangs of girls, rent boys masculinities, Varoç in Istanbul, forced labor, rape and prostitution, illegal emigrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1964 Canada vs Australia: Regulating the Gig Economy

Authors: Fabian Flintoff

Abstract:

The nature of the workforce has changed radically over the last 50 years in terms of a wide range of factors, including its education levels, gender composition, and the status of workers. Despite extensive changes to the structure of the workforce, lawmakers and judges have shown a reluctance to reshape employment law. In particular, employment laws have not kept pace with the extensive use of flexible forms of employment, whether part-time, casual or agency employees. This paper focuses on recent attempts at legislative change in the state/provincial and federal jurisdictions in both Australia and Canada. Australian and Canadian employment laws share a common heritage and many similarities. However, there are significant differences in the way in which employment-based disputes are resolved. The Australian component of the paper considers the changes made by the Federal conservative Coalition government in 2021. The paper also reviews the proposals for change to regulating the gig economy made by the Canadian Federal government in the 2021 budget and the idea of a rebuttable presumption in favor of an employment relationship over a contract for services. The paper suggests that there are considerable institutional impediments to achieving pragmatic law reform that balances the interests of workers and employers. It concludes that there are strong interests in the legal and labor law community for continuing the status quo, despite the fact that it may negatively impact the most marginalized members of the workforce in Australia, Canada, and other jurisdictions.

Keywords: employment law, flexible employment, labor law, legislative reform

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1963 Sri Lanka-Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge

Abstract:

Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: migration, middle east, Sri Lanka, social sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
1962 A Rapid Assessment of the Impacts of COVID-19 on Overseas Labor Migration: Findings from Bangladesh

Authors: Vaiddehi Bansal, Ridhi Sahai, Kareem Kysia

Abstract:

Overseas labor migration is currently one of the most important contributors to the economy of Bangladesh and is a highly profitable form of labor for Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries. In 2019, 700,159 migrant workers from Bangladeshtraveled abroad for employment. GCC countries are a major destination for Bangladeshi migrant workers, with Saudi Arabia being the most common destination for Bangladeshi migrant workers since 2016. Despite the high rate of migration between these countries every year, the OLR industry remains complex and often leaves migrants susceptible to human trafficking, forced labor, and modern slavery. While the prevalence of forced labor among Bangladeshi migrants in GCC countries is still unknown, the IOM estimates international migrant workers comprise one fourth of the victims of forced labor. Moreover, the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic has exposed migrant workers to additional adverse situations, making them even more vulnerable to forced labor and health risks. This paper presents findings from a rapid assessment of the impacts of COVID-19 on OLR in Bangladesh, with an emphasis on the increased risk of forced labor among vulnerable migrant worker populations, particularly women.Rapid reviews are a useful approach to swiftly provide actionable evidence for informed decision-making during emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The research team conducted semi-structured key information interviews (KIIs) with a range of stakeholders, including government officials, local NGOs, international organizations, migration researchers, and formal and informal recruiting agencies, to obtain insights on the multi-facted impacts of COVID-19 on the OLR sector. The research team also conducted a comprehensive review of available resources, including media articles, blogs, policy briefs, reports, white papers, and other online content, to triangulate findings from the KIIs. After screening for inclusion criteria, a total of 110 grey literature documents were included in the review. A total of 31 KIIs were conducted, data from which was transcribed and translated from Bangla to English, andanalyzed using a detailed codebook. Findings indicate that there was limited reintegration support for returnee migrants. Facing increasing amounts of debt, financial insecurity, and social discrimination, returnee migrants, were extremely vulnerable to forced labor and exploitation. Growing financial debt and limited job opportunities in their home country will likely push migrants to resort to unsafe migration channels. Evidence suggests that women, who are primarily domestic works in GCC countries, were exposed to increased risk of forced labor and workplace violence. Due to stay-at-home measures, women migrant workers were tasked with additional housekeeping working and subjected to longer work hours, wage withholding, and physical abuse. In Bangladesh, returnee women migrant workers also faced an increased risk of domestic violence.

Keywords: forced labor, migration, gender, human trafficking

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
1961 The Rocketing Raise of Bride Price in the Rural China: Intimacy and Family Changes Brought by Rural Urban Migration

Authors: Lei Liu

Abstract:

This paper concerns on a special phenomenon of rocketing of bride’s price in rural China after the rural-urban labor migration nowadays. It provides a brief overview of three major prospective on marriage exchange, especially impose the local marriage market due to the post-migration economic environments. Then the author highlights on several factors that influence the rocketing raise of rural marriage gifts using both the primary data from census 2010 and the interviews from the field study, such as one-child policy and the unbalanced sex ratio with the familiar context parents used different strategies in raising their sons and daughters so as to best hold their own interests, causing inequality between females and males. Then this was broken by the independence of rural women and the phenomenon of cross-regional marriage after the free mobility of labor resource between rural areas and urban areas which gives women equal rights to choose their spouses together with some publicly policies that accelerate the decline of patriarchy. In the end, the author spells out a framework of migration influence on rural marriage for some theoretical and policy implications of the findings.

Keywords: rural-urban migration, gender stratification, rural China, bride price, marriage

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1960 Impact of COVID-19 on Study Migration

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has made significant changes in migration processes, notably changes in the study migration process. The constraints caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to changes in the studying process, which negatively affected its efficiency. The educational process has partially or completely shifted to distance learning; Both labor and study migration have increased significantly in the world. The employment and education market has become global and consequently, a number of challenges have arisen for employers, researchers, and businesses. The role of preparing qualified personnel in achieving high productivity is justified, the benefits for employers and employees are assessed on the one hand, and the role of study migration for the country’s development is examined on the other hand. Research methods. The research is based on methods of analysis and synthesis, quantitative and qualitative, groupings, relative and mean quantities, graphical representation, comparison, analysis and etc. In-depth interviews were conducted with experts to determine quantitative and qualitative indicators. Research findings. Factors affecting study migration are analysed in the paper and the environment that stimulates migration is explored. One of the driving forces of migration is considered to be the desire for receiving higher pay. Levels and indicators of study migration are studied by country. Comparative analysis has found that study migration rates are high in countries where the price of skilled labor is high. The productivity of individuals with low skills is low, which negatively affects the economic development of countries. It has been revealed that students leave the country to improve their skills during study migration. The process mentioned in the article is evaluated as a positive event for a developing country, as individuals are given the opportunity to share the technology of developed countries, gain knowledge, and then introduce it in their own country. The downside of study migration is the return of a small proportion of graduates from developed economies to their home countries. The article concludes that countries with emerging economies devote less resources to research and development, while this is a priority in developed countries, allowing highly skilled individuals to use their skills efficiently. The paper studies the national education system examines the level of competition in the education market and the indicators of educational migration. The level of competition in the education market and the indicators of educational migration are studied. The role of qualified personnel in achieving high productivity is substantiated, the benefits of employers and employees are assessed on the one hand, and the role of study migration in the development of the country is revealed on the other hand. The paper also analyzes the level of competition in the education and labor markets and identifies indicators of study migration. During the pandemic period, there was a great demand for the digital technologies. Open access to a variety of comprehensive platforms will significantly reduce study migration to other countries. As a forecast, it can be said that the intensity of the use of e-learning platforms will be increased significantly in the post-pandemic period. The paper analyzes the positive and negative effects of study migration on economic development, examines the challenges of study migration in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, suggests ways to avoid negative consequences, and develops recommendations for improving the study migration process in the post-pandemic period.

Keywords: study migration, COVID-19 pandemic, factors affecting migration, economic development, post-pandemic migration

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