Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: secular

72 A Comparative Analysis on the Perspectives of Secular and Non-Secular Male Groups on Female Masturbation

Authors: Marc Angelo C. Balon, Maxine Joy A. Yongoyong

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Female masturbation has been an age-old controversy. In fact, it is not widely talked about specifically in the Philippines since the Filipino culture still preserves the space for conservativeness. Although, considering the numerous and emerging studies on female masturbation, this study will focus on the perspectives of secular and non-secular male groups with regard to female masturbation. The objectives of this study is to identify the perceptions of these male groups and their taking on considering women who masturbate as their sexual partner, as a sexual object, and as a life partner and lastly, to have a comparative analysis of the perceptions of these male groups drawing out their sense of meaning on the masturbation of women. The researchers made use of purposive sampling technique and interview guide questionnaire. The secular male group were psychology students while the non-secular male group was drawn from a Catholic Church seminary in Tagaytay City, Cavite. Results showed that the secular male group had scientific perspectives such as exploring the genitals, contradicting moral perspectives on masturbation as a regular practice, while the non-secular male groups had theological perspectives in accordance with the fundamental moral theology, moral perspectives and perspectives on masturbation as a regular practice. Moreover, men who came from the non-secular group highly believe that masturbation is immoral. Otherwise, men who came from the secular group noted that masturbation is primary physiological need.

Keywords: secular, non-secular, masturbation, comparative analysis

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71 Debate, Discontent and National Identity in a Secular State

Authors: Man Bahadur Shahu

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The secularism is a controversial, debatable and misinterpreted issue since its endorsement in the 2007 constitution in Nepal. The unprecedented acts have been seen favoring and disfavoring against the secularism within the public domain—which creates the fallacies and suspicions in the rationalization and modernization process. This paper highlights three important points: first, the secularization suddenly ruptures the silence and institutional decline of religion within the state. Second, state effort on secularism simultaneously fosters the state neutrality and state separation from religious institutions that amplify the recognition of all religious groups through the equal treatment in their festivity, rituals, and practices. Third, no state would completely secular because of their deep-rooted mindset and disposition with their own religious faiths and beliefs that largely enhance intergroup conflict, dispute, riot and turbulence in post-secular period in the name of proselytizing and conversion.

Keywords: conflict, proselytizing, religion, secular

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70 Variation in Orbital Elements of Mars and Jupiter Due to the Sun Oblateness by Using Secular Theory

Authors: Avaneesh Vaishwar, Badam Singh Kushvah, Devi Prasad Mishra

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We studied the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter for a time span of 200 thousand years by using secular theory. Here we took Sun oblateness into account and considered the first two zonal gravity constants (J2 and J4) for showing the effect of Sun oblateness on the orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter. We found that in both cases (with and without Sun oblateness) the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter is periodic moreover in case of the Sun oblateness, the period of variation in orbital elements is decreasing for both the planets.

Keywords: lagrange's planetary equation, orbital elements, planetary system, secular theory

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69 Shifting Paradigms of Culture: Rise of Secular Sensibility in Indian Literature

Authors: Nidhi Chouhan

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Burgeoning demand of ‘Secularism’ has shaken the pillars of cultural studies in the contemporary literature. The perplexity of the culturally estranged term ‘secular’ gives rise to temporal ideologies across the world. Hence, it is high time to scan this concept in the context of Indian lifestyle which is a blend of assimilated cultures woven in multiple religious fabrics. The infliction of such secular taste is depicted in literary productions like ‘Satanic Verses’ and ‘An Area of Darkness’. The paper conceptually makes a cross-cultural analysis of anti-religious Indian literary texts, assessing its revitalization in current times. Further, this paper studies the increasing popularity of secular sensibility in the contemporary times. The mushrooming elements of secularism such as abstraction, spirituality, liberation, individualism give rise to a seemingly newer idea i.e. ‘Plurality’ making the literature highly hybrid. This approach has been used to study Indian modernity reflected in its literature. Seminal works of stalwarts are used to understand the consequence of this cultural synthesis. Conclusively, this theoretical research inspects the efficiency of secular culture, intertwined with internal coherence and throws light on the plurality of texts in Indian literature.

Keywords: culture, indian, literature, plurality, secular, secularism

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68 Buddhism and Society: The History and Contribution of Buddhist Education in Taiwan

Authors: Meilee Shen

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Buddhist monks and nuns have changed within the dynamic culture of Taiwan that they find themselves in. The diverse cultures, economic development, and advanced educational levels of the island are all part of this. Buddhist education has become an interesting aspect in the history of Taiwanese Buddhism. In recent years, Buddhists in Taiwan have made significant contributions to both academic and religious studies. This paper will focus on the following questions: What is Buddhist education? How does a Buddhist education change monastic role in Taiwanese Buddhism? Finally, how has Buddhist education benefited Taiwanese society? Research indicates that Buddhist education in Taiwan possesses four features: 1. Master teaching disciple: Buddhist masters teach monastic rules to monastic disciples only. 2. Monastic education: It is mainly focused on Buddhist doctrines and sangha rules. 3. From Buddhist education to secular education: Buddhist studies were introduced into secular educational environments that were the beginning for outsiders to study Buddhism. It also opened a door to recruit young college students to enter the monastery. 4. Academic Buddhist training: Buddhist monks and nuns have begun to study at secular colleges in various programs besides Buddhist studies. In recent years, Buddhist colleges and secular universities’ religious studies programs have begun to admit overseas students due to the low birth-rate in Taiwan. Therefore, the relationship between Buddhism and Taiwanese society is dynamic.

Keywords: Buddhist college and university in Taiwan, Buddhist education, institutionalization in Taiwanese Buddhism, monastic and secular education, Taiwanese Buddhist monks and nuns

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67 Religion and the Constitutional Regulation

Authors: Valbona Metaj

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The relationship between the state and the religion is different based on the fact that how powerful is the religion faith in a state and of the influences that affected the views of the constitution drafters according to the constitutional system they were based to draft their constitution. This paper aims at providing, through a comparative methodology, how it is regulated by the constitution the relationship between the state and the religion. The object of this study are the constitutions of Italy as a nation with catholic religious tradition, Greece as a nation with orthodox religion tradition, and Turkey as a nation which represents Muslim religion, while Albania as a nation known for its religious plurality. In particular, the analysis will be focused on the secular or religious principle provided in the constitution of each respective state. This comparative overview intends to discern which of the states analyzed is more tolerant and fully respects the freedom of religion. It results that most of the states subject of this study, despite their religious tradition have chosen the secular principle in their constitutions, but the religious freedom is differently guaranteed.

Keywords: constitution, religion, religious freedom, secular

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66 Challenges of Integrating Islamic Education with Contemporary Secular System in Igaland, Kogi State Of Nigeria

Authors: Yunusa Odiba

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Islam, from its root is a divine religion and it does not exercise anything except within the scope of its divinity-its culture, tradition morality, and the like. The damage done to the legacies, traditions, culture, morality, viability, continued existence and relevance of the Islamic religious way of life by the prevalent western secular education system in the Muslim world has become a thing of interest to many scholars especially, the Muslim scholars, hence, advocating the integration of Islamic education with the western circular educational system. The aim is to produce a new generation of dedicated Muslims whose education has prepared them for the challenges of contemporary materialistic circulation alongside real Islamic knowledge. This paper, however, examines the process of integrating Islamic schools with the contemporary western based schools that would under-take the unification which should function as basic organ of Muslim ideological revivalism, cultural retention, identity formation, socio-economic development, and scientific and ecological inventiveness.

Keywords: challenges, integrating, Islamic education, secular system, Igalaland

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65 Enhancing National Integrity through Teaching Secular Perspectives in Medieval Indian History Curricula: A Secular Paradigms

Authors: Deepak Deshpande, Vikas Minchekar

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Day by day in modern India communal forces became stronger and stronger. Each and every caste group trying to show their strength through massive marches. Such kind of marches or ralliesruinous national integrity in India. To test this assumption present investigation has been carried out. This research was undertaken by using survey techniques. The study has been carried out in two phases. In the first stage, the students’ attitudes were collected while in the second phase the views of the members of the historical association were collected. The social dominance orientation scale and sources of social dominance inventory have been administered on 200 college students belonging to Maratha caste. Analyzed data revealed ahigh level of social dominance in Maratha caste students. Approximately, 80 percent students have reported that they have learned such dominance from the medieval history. The other sources disappear very less prominent. These results and present Indian social situation have been communicated with the members of the historical association of India. The majority members of this association agreed with this reality. The consensus also received on that Maratha caste person experiencing dominance due to the misinterpretation of the King Shivaji Empire; synchronize by politicians. The survey monkey app was used through electronic mail to collect the views on ‘The attitude towards the modification of curricula questionnaire’. The maximum number of members of the historical association agreed to employ to teach the medieval Indian history accordingly the secular perspectives.

Keywords: social dominance orientation, secular perceptive, national integrity, Maratha caste and medieval Indian history

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64 Mindfulness in a Secular Age: Framing and Contextualising the Conversation in the Irish Context

Authors: Thomas P. Carroll

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The phenomenon of mindfulness has become ever more popular in an increasingly pluralist Western society. Mindfulness practice has penetrated secular contexts that would otherwise be closed to religious influence, including state schools, hospitals, and commerce. The contemporary understanding of mindfulness has its origins in Buddhist meditation. However, since Jon Kabat-Zinn’s pioneering work in Mindfulness-Based Interventions, the concept has developed and sometimes mutated into various forms of practice which are disembedded from their original spiritual philosophy. This project will explore the spiritual climate within which mindfulness is currently flourishing through dialogue with three interlocutors. The first interlocutor is the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor whose seminal work, ‘A Secular Age’, outlines three distinct modes of secularity. Taylor examines how the conditions of belief have changed and how the self seeks meaning in an age where belief in the divine is no longer axiomatic. The next interlocutor is Czech theologian and psychotherapist Tomáš Halík who offers a unique perspective of a Catholic who belongs to a section of society outnumbered by secular counterparts, with a theological hermeneutic best described as 'Den Fremden verstehen- understanding the stranger'. Finally, Irish theologian Michael Paul Gallagher offers a theological perspective on how the Christian faith can be translated into dialogue with Irish secular culture, as well as addressing the crisis of imagination and culture rather than the crisis of faith in Ireland. These interlocutors will illustrate that there are sometimes striking differences in how to interpret the religious signs of the times. However, these approaches also reveal significant similarities in how they address and explore the meaning of religious belief and experience today. In this way, themes will emerge that will help to frame the conversation about mindfulness in the West. These themes will include; the failure of the secularization thesis to pass, the growth of a diverse marketplace of religions and beliefs and the growth of a demographic who identify as spiritual but not religious. Such research is paramount in enabling a richer dialogue between Christian faith and mindfulness in a fragmented, postmodern Western context.

Keywords: culture, mindfulness, secularism, spirituality

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63 Comparison of Constitutional Systems in Religious and Secular States (Iran and Turkey as Role Models)

Authors: Eman Muhammad Rashwan

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The identity of the state in many Middle East countries today, between secularity and religiousness, is an important and controversial question. Specially after the sweeping repels in number of countries that put Islamic parties in power. In this paper two role model states in this respect, are under examination to answer the question of how their identity that was expressed in their constitutions influenced the allocation of power between different state authorities. In the beginning both the criteria used to define the two concepts of secularity and religiousness, and the reason why these two states are particularly chosen for comparison, are explained. The situation in Turkey is firstly indicated. The constitutional system shows that power is divided between parliament, cabinet and the president. The first two authorities have the most significant powers, and generally, the system in Turkey is similar to many other secular states in the world. But when the research moves to the system in Iran, the importance of comparison starts to appear. In this section, the nature of Islamic Shi’a of Iran Republic is discussed, and also its influence on the main and unique authorities of this religious state, which don`t only include the president and council of ministers, but also The Supreme Leader and The Council of Guardians. This paper doesn`t aim to favor a one system over another, and doesn`t discuss the influences of the two systems on the social or economic situation in the two model states. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of excluding, and applying religion in respect to allocation of power in constitutions.

Keywords: comparative law, constitutional systems, secular states, religious states

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62 Secularism and Political Inclusion: Turkey in the 2000s

Authors: Edgar Sar

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For more than a decade, secularism’s compatibility with religion has been called into question. Particularly, secular states’ exclusionary practices were raised to prove that secularism is not necessary for democracy. Meanwhile, with the debut of Turkey’s Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2002, Turkish state’s approach to religion has gradually changed. It is argued in that presentation that this change has led Turkey to a process of de-secularization, which refers to a considerable regress in state’s inclusionary and pluralist credentials. In this regard, this study both reflects on the relationship between secularism and democracy within the context of Turkish experience and analyses the consequences of the process of de-secularization of state in Turkey. To analyze Turkish state’s changing approach to religion and measure the de-secularization of the state, the connection between state and religion will be examined in three levels: ends, institutions, and law and policies. The presentation will indicate that Turkish state’s connection with religion in all three levels significantly weakened its secular credentials, which at the same time risked state’s commitment to neutrality, freedom of conscience and equality. In this regard, the change in Turkish state’s approach to religion throughout the 2000s, which this study refers to as the process of the de-secularization of the state, also brought about a process of de-democratization for Turkey.

Keywords: AKP, political inclusion, secularism, Turkey

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61 Socio Economic Impact and Status of the Islamic Perspective of Veil

Authors: Shagufta Jahangir, Nadeemullah, Yaqoob, Raisa Jahangir

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The Persian language word ‘Purdah’ and in Arabic ‘Hajab’ is used for veil. Veil has been used by women for being escaped from men. In one way or the other veil has been continuously used in ancient as well as modern civilizations by women. Developed nations have blamed the use of veil an obstacle in the process of development. Therefore, modern nations have struggled to get rid of the use of veil. They argue that it is a sign of slavery for women and it is an obstacle in the path of development. The modern secular Muslims considered veil as the biggest obstacle for social and economic development. It makes a woman helpless, as being zanjir in her feet. It has become an obstacle in the process of development for women. It is also considered as a tool for segregation among men and women. The so called Muslims of the modern era are trying to introduce changes in religion by imitation the modern nations of the world. In particular ways for Muslim woman use of veil in Islam is must. It is a right provided her by religion. It provides her strength. In the Holy Quran word ‘Hajab’ is used 5 times. Islam is against domination and forceful practice of veil, as a part of teaching of Islam it is being adopted by women as a protection. This article aims at: (1) historical background of veil (2) Its existence in civilizations, (3) Meaning and interpretation of veil in Islamic context, (4) Economic impact of it on women (5) Discussion on its practice in Islamic (eastern) and other (European) circles and conclusions followed by concerted bibliography.

Keywords: veil, economic development, civilizations, obstacle, secular Muslims, segregation

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60 Islamization of Knowledge with Special Reference to Mohd Kamal Hassan's Perspective

Authors: Abdul Latheef O. Mavukkandy

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Islamization of knowledge (IOK) is an intellectual movement emerged in the middle of 1970s to address the threats by modern western civilizational onslaughts. This paper analyzes the discourse of Islamization of knowledge with special reference to the views of Kamal Hassan who prefers an alternative term called 'Islamicization'. First of all the theoretical and practical outlines of IOK movement were presented by Ismail Raji al-Faruqi in his book 'Islamization of Knowledge; General Principles and Work Plan' in 1982. He identified that the educational system in the Muslim world accounted for the decline of Muslim Ummah through de-Islamization and demoralization. So, the need for IOK was an academic challenge to reconstruct the Ummah. Kamal Hassan kept just different view from Ismail Raji al-Faruqi and Muhammed Naquib al-Attas that he coined the terms 'Relevantization and Contextualization'. So, he wanted the 'Islamization of Islamic Revealed Knowledge'. So, he used Islamization of Human Knowledge (IOHK) instead of IOK. As part of this movement, the IOK identified that the textbooks used in Muslim educational institutions systematically keep the students estranged from Islam and its heritage. Furthermore, the modern secular knowledge develops secular attitude devoid of Islamic moral philosophy and the sense of mission in life. Based upon the content analysis of some of the sources, this study found that Islamization of Knowledge is an important movement in Islamic world, but the IOK project is not practicable completely because of the lack of trained teachers and resources. Although, the project resulted in the foundation of some universities and publishing more works, journals and doctoral thesis on different dimensions of Islamization of Knowledge.

Keywords: Islamization, Islamicization, releventization, human knowledge

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59 A Secular Advent: A Video-Ethnographic Study of the Preparations for Christmas in Swedish Preschools

Authors: Tunde Puskas, Anita Andersson

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In Swedish early childhood education research, the issues related to religious identifications and practices have often been marginalized or relegated either to the realm of diversity and multiculturalism or to the realm of national traditions. This paper is part of a research project about whether religion is considered as part of Swedish cultural heritage in Swedish preschools. Our aim in this paper is to explore how a Swedish preschool balance between keeping the education non-confessional and at the same time introducing the traditions associated with advent and Christmas. Christmas was chosen because of the religious background of the holiday and because it is a tradition widely celebrated in Swedish preschools. In Swedish education system, the concept of freedom of religion is understood in the sense that education is declared to be non-confessional. Nevertheless, as the major state holidays in Sweden are tied to Lutheran Christian traditions, and according to the curriculum preschool educators, are given the task to pass on a cultural heritage, defined in terms of values, traditions, history, language, and knowledge, it is the preschool teams or individual preschool teachers who determine whether and to what extent religious considerations are/ought to be seen as part of the cultural heritage the preschool passes on. The data consists of ten video taped observations from two preschools. The video data was transcribed and the transcripts were thereafter analysed through content analysis. In the analysis, we draw on the concept of banal religiosity that has helped us to draw attention to the workings of religious considerations that are so familiar that they rarely are noticed as religious and on Ninian Smart’s theory on the dimensions of religion. The analysis shows that what the adults actually do with religion fulfils six of seven dimensions common to religious traditions as outlined by Smart. At the same time, Christmas is performed as a lived tradition within which the commercial and religious rituals intersect and result in a banal, national religiosity.

Keywords: secular advent, banal religiosity, dimensions of religion, rites

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58 Star Images Constructed Based on Kramer vs. Kramer

Authors: Huailei Wen

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The Kramers vs. Kramers (1979) is a film that comprehensively examines the role and status of women under the traditional secular vision, where women have become subordinate to the patriarchal society and family. Through the construction of the protagonist Joanna's dissatisfaction with the social and ethical status quo, her struggle to subvert the existing status of women, and her return to her own self, the story comprehensively reflects the difficult journey of women, represented by Joanna, to subvert the stereotypes and return to their own selves in the specific historical context of the time, revealing the self-value of Joanna's phenomenon to modern women.

Keywords: star image, feminism, Kramers vs. Kramers, Hollywood

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57 'Sit Down, Breathe, and Feel What?' Bringing a Contemplative Intervention into a Public Urban Middle School

Authors: Lunthita M. Duthely, John T. Avella, John Ganapati Coleman

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For as many as one in three adolescents living in the United States, the adolescent years is a period of low well-being and mental health challenges—from depressive symptoms to mild to moderate psychological diagnoses. Longitudinal population health studies demonstrated that these challenges persist in young adulthood, and beyond. The positive psychology (PS) approach is a more preventative approach to well-being, which contrasts the traditional, deficits approach to curing mental illness. The research among adult populations formed the basis for PS studies among adolescents. The empirical evidence for the effectiveness of PS interventions exists for both adult and youth populations. Positive Psychology interventions target individuals’ strengths, such as hope and optimism, and positive emotions, such as gratitude. Positive psychology interventions such as increasing gratitude, proved effective in many outcomes among youth, including psychological, social, and academically-related outcomes. Although gratitude-inducing studies have been conducted for the past decade in the United States, few studies have been conducted among samples of urban youth, particularly youth of diverse cultural backgrounds. For nearly two decades, the secular practice of meditation has been tested among adults and more recently among youth, focused mostly among clinical samples. The field of Contemplative Sciences explores practices such as Hatha Yoga, Tai Chi, and Meditation, as preventative practices among children and adolescents. A more recent initiative is to explore Contemplative Practices in the school environment. Contemplative Practices yield a variety of positive outcomes, including academic, social, psychological, physiological, and neurological changes among children and adolescents. Again, few studies were conducted among adolescents of diverse cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this doctoral dissertation research study was to test a gratitude-meditation intervention among middle school students attending a public charter school, located in an urban region of Metropolitan Miami. The objective of this presentation is to summarize the challenges and success of bringing a positive psychology and meditation intervention into an urban middle school. Also, the most recent findings on positive psychology and meditation interventions conducted in school environments will be presented as well.

Keywords: adolescents, contemplative intervention, gratitude, secular meditation, positive psychology, school engagement, Sri Chinmoy

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56 Images of Spiritism in Brazilian Catholic Discourse (1889-1937)

Authors: Frantisek Kalenda

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With the ultimate triumph of the republican movement in 1889 in Brazil and adoption of constitution promoting religious freedom, formerly dominant Roman Catholic Church entered a long period of struggle to recover its lost position, fighting both liberal and secular character of the new regime and rising competition on the “market of faith”. Spiritism in its originally Brazilian form proved to be one if its key adversaries during the First (1889-1930) and Second Republic (1930-1937), provoking significant attempt within official Church to discredit and destroy the movement. This paper explores this effort through Catholic portrayal of Spiritism in its official media, focusing, on the creation of stereotypes and both theological and “scientific” arguments used against it. Its core is based on primary sources’ analysis, mainly influential A Ordem and Mensageiro da Fé.

Keywords: Catholic Church, media, other, spiritism, stereotype

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55 Keeping Education Non-Confessional While Teaching Children about Religion

Authors: Tünde Puskás, Anita Andersson

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This study is part of a research project about whether religion is considered as part of Swedish cultural heritage in Swedish preschools. Our aim in this paper is to explore how a Swedish preschool balance between keeping the education non-confessional and at the same time teaching children about a particular tradition, Easter.The paper explores how in a Swedish preschool with a religious profile teachers balance between keeping education non-confessional and teaching about a tradition with religious roots. The point of departure for the theoretical frame of our study is that practical considerations in pedagogical situations are inherently dilemmatic. The dilemmas that are of interest for our study evolve around formalized, intellectual ideologies, such us multiculturalism and secularism that have an impact on everyday practice. Educational dilemmas may also arise in the intersections of the formalized ideology of non-confessionalism, prescribed in policy documents and the common sense understandings of what is included in what is understood as Swedish cultural heritage. In this paper, religion is treated as a human worldview that, similarly to secular ideologies, can be understood as a system of thought. We make use of Ninian Smart's theoretical framework according to which in modern Western world religious and secular ideologies, as human worldviews, can be studied from the same analytical framework. In order to be able to study the distinctive character of human worldviews Smart introduced a multi-dimensional model within which the different dimensions interact with each other in various ways and to different degrees. The data for this paper is drawn from fieldwork carried out in 2015-2016 in the form of video ethnography. The empirical material chosen consists of a video recording of a specific activity during which the preschool group took part in an Easter play performed in the local church. The analysis shows that the policy of non-confessionalism together with the idea that teaching covering religious issues must be purely informational leads in everyday practice to dilemmas about what is considered religious. At the same time what the adults actually do with religion fulfills six of seven dimensions common to religious traditions as outlined by Smart. What we can also conclude from the analysis is that whether it is religion or a cultural tradition that is thought through the performance the children watched in the church depends on how the concept of religion is defined. The analysis shows that the characters of the performance themselves understood religion as the doctrine of Jesus' resurrection from the dead. This narrow understanding of religion enabled them indirectly to teach about the traditions and narratives surrounding Easter while avoiding teaching religion as a belief system.

Keywords: non-confessional education, preschool, religion, tradition

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54 Psychometric Validation of Czech Version of Spiritual Needs Assessment for Patients: The First Part of Research

Authors: Lucie Mrackova, Helena Kisvetrova

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Spirituality is an integral part of human life. In a secular environment, spiritual needs are often overlooked, especially in acute nursing care. Spiritual needs assessment for patients (SNAP), which also exists in the Czech version (SNAP-CZ), can be used for objective evaluation. The aim of this study was to measure the psychometric properties of SNAP-CZ and to find correlations between SNAP-CZ and sociodemographic and clinical variables. A cross-sectional study with tools assessing spiritual needs (SNAP-CZ), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI), depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI), pain (Visual Analogue Scale; VAS), self-sufficiency (Barthel Index; BI); cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Test; MoCa) and selected socio-demographic data was performed. The psychometric properties of SNAP-CZ were tested using factor analysis, reliability and validity tests, and correlations between the questionnaire and sociodemographic data and clinical variables. Internal consistency was established with Cronbach’s alfa for the overall score, respective domains, and individual items. Reliability was assessed by test-retest by Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Data for correlation analysis were processed according to Pearson's correlation coefficient. The study included 172 trauma patients (the mean age = 40.6 ± 12.1 years) who experienced polytrauma or severe monotrauma. There were a total of 106 (61.6%) male subjects, 140 (81.4%) respondents identified themselves as non-believers. The full-scale Cronbach's alpha was 0.907. The test-retest showed the reliability of the individual domains in the range of 0.924 to 0.960 ICC. Factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution (psychosocial needs (alfa = 0.788), spiritual needs (alfa = 0.886) and religious needs (alfa = 0.841)). Correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that the domain of psychosocial needs significantly correlated only with gender (r = 0.178, p = 0.020). Males had a statistically significant lower average value in this domain (mean = 12.5) compared to females (mean = 13.8). The domain of spiritual needs significantly correlated with gender (r = 0.199, p = 0.009), social status (r = 0.156, p = 0.043), faith (r = -0.250, p = 0.001), anxiety (r = 0.194, p = 0.011) and depression (r = 0.155, p = 0.044). The domain of religious needs significantly correlated with age (r = 0,208, p = 0,007), education (r = -0,161, p = 0,035), faith (r = -0,575, p < 0,0001) and depression (r = 0,179, p = 0,019). Overall, the whole SNAP scale significantly correlated with gender (r = 0.219, p = 0.004), social status (r = 0.175, p = 0.023), faith (r = -0.334, p <0.0001), anxiety (r = 0.177, p = 0.022) and depression (r = 0.173, p = 0.025). The results of this study corroborate the reliability of the SNAP-CZ and support its future use in the nursing care of trauma patients in a secular society. Acknowledgment: The study was supported by grant nr. IGA_FZV_2020_003.

Keywords: acute nursing care, assessment of spiritual needs, patient, psychometric validation, spirituality

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53 A Narrative of Monks: Culture Heroes in Songkhla Province

Authors: Kuntalee Vaitayavanich

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This study aimed to look into roles of culture heroes of monks in Buddhism in Songkhla province during the last 50 years. Qualitative study, in-depth interviews, participatory observation and non-participatory observation were employed for this study. The results of the study indicated that culture heroes in Songkhla province would act as the followings. 1) For secular matters, monks would do something beneficial to the community. 2) For religious matters, monks would behave to follow Buddhism discipline strictly and unambitiously. At the same time, monks would not neglect to teach Buddhists to give respect to Lord Buddha by doing meditation and praying. However, when some of those culture heroes passed away, villagers in the community would show gratitude and appreciation by arranging a religious death anniversary ceremony, having icon, or having narrative to recognize those, continuously.

Keywords: narrative of monks, culture heroes, Songkhla province, social sustainability

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52 International Conference on Islam and Democracy – Religion and Political Stability in Indonesia

Authors: Mariel Encar H. Uy, Paula Marie G. Pacle

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The purpose of this research is to present a Single Country Comparative Contextual Description Study of Strong Islamic Influences in Relation to the Politics of Republic of Indonesia. This paper recognizes that even the coalition of secular and moderate Islamic parties protect the minority rights of all the constituents, Islam is still the dominant religion among the other recognized religions in Indonesia (Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism). In this study, it will also detail the involvement on the religions’ beliefs and techniques; participation of political actors, depending on what religion they belong and adhere to; the tensions whenever the government interferes with Islamists and other religions; the government’s solution or public policies implemented to maintain peace and order of Indonesia. This paper will develop a conceptual framework to describe how the Religion and Political Stability is interdependent with each other.

Keywords: diversity of religion in indonesia, secularization in Indonesia, motivations of political actors, voter turnouts based on religion

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51 Genealogy of a Building: Tarikhaneh

Authors: Mohadeseh Salari Sardari

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As Muslims conquered Iran, their first impression was to show their power over others. They needed mosques for their multiple needs like prayer, tax collecting, law-making, hearing of law cases, and most important of all, as a seat of government. Sometimes they did not have time to build mosques and only began to build them after years of ruling. Many religious buildings with pre-Islamic past survived in Iran, most of the fire temples in cities were destroyed or changed radically, but some deserted temples outside of cities survived, and based on these surviving buildings, we can trace changes in fire temples inside cities and discover how they were adapted and expanded to be mosques. In addition, there are some other buildings with doubts about their date of construction. These buildings might be transitional buildings between two different historical eras or might be an old building with a slight change. One of these interesting buildings is Tarikhaneh, a small, simple yet striking building. By tracing Tarikhaneh’s roots in other buildings like fire temples and secular buildings existed before Arab invasion, it can be better understood how the original form of Tatikhaneh was.

Keywords: iranian architecture, early mosques, fire temples, adaptation and reuse

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50 Islamic Finance in Tunisia: Reality and Development

Authors: Amira Kaddour, Hedia Teraoui, Khmayes Bougatef

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the major causes of the underdevelopment of Islamic finance in Tunisia. Indeed, it’s surprising to note that Zitouna bank established in May 2010 is the first Islamic Tunisian bank although 99% of Tunisians are Muslim and Islam is the religion of the State according to the Constitution. So we rely in our paper on the opinions of number of professors of finance and economics as educated people to prove or reject our hypothesis that the underdevelopment of Islamic finance in Tunisia can be explained by the ignorance of its main principles and advantages. Ours findings reveal that this branch of finance is still largely unknown, not only from public but also from professionals. The results obtained surprisingly show that this insignificance of Islamic banking cannot be explained by the fact that Tunisia has been governed since its independence by a secular left-wing party. Indeed, only 3% of respondents believe that legislation and regulation in Tunisia represent an obstacle to the development of Islamic finance. Moreover, respondents are not very optimistic about the future role of Islamic financing.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic insurance (takaful), Islamic law (shariah), usury (riba)

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49 Religious Insurgency in Nigeria: A Bane to National Unity

Authors: Ayoola Adediran Amos

Abstract:

Nigeria as a secular state that is characterized with various religions namely: Christianity, Islam and African Religion. Each of the religion adherents often claim that their religion is the only means of gaining eternity while others who do not belong to their sect may not be opportuned. Religious doctrine within those religious sects is another source of insurgency which serves as a threat to the unity of Nigeria. Similarly, Boko Haram Religious group has become a threat to the unity of the country in which its root has both political and religious undertones. Primary and secondary sources of collecting data were used. Historical method allowed enquiry into the past events and improvement to the current experience. Both published and unpublished theses were used. Interview was also conducted as part of the secondary sources. It was observed that all aspects of the system in Nigeria were affected with this scourge of religious unrest. i.e. education, political, economic and a host of others. Finally, it was recommended that religious leaders should be given adequate orientation on the needs not to preach against other religious groups. Government of Nigeria should not give priority to one religion at the expense of others.

Keywords: insurgency, national unity, religious, threat

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48 Comparison of Mean Monthly Soil Temperature at (5 and 30 cm) Depths at Compton Experimental Site, West Midlands (UK), between 1976-2008

Authors: Aminu Mansur

Abstract:

A comparison of soil temperature at (5 and 30 cm) depths at a research site over the period (1976-2008) was analyzed. Based on the statistical analysis of the database of (12,045) days of individual soil temperature measurements in sandy-loam of the (salwick series) soils, the mean soil temperature revealed a statistically significant increase of about -1.1 to 10.9°C at 5 cm depth in 1976 compared to 2008. Similarly, soil temperature at 30 cm depth increased by -0.1 to 2.1°C in 2008 compared to 1976. Although, rapid increase in soil temperature at all depths was observed during that period, but a thorough assessment of these conditions suggested that the soil temperature at 5 cm depth are progressively increasing over time. A typical example of those increases in soil temperature was provided for agriculture where Miscanthus (elephant) plant that grows within the study area is adversely affected by the mean soil temperature increase. The study concluded that these observations contribute to the growing mass of evidence of global warming and knowledge on secular trends. Therefore, there was statistically significant increase in soil temperature at Compton Experimental Site between 1976-2008.

Keywords: soil temperature, warming trend, environment science, climate and atmospheric sciences

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47 Rapid Method for Low Level 90Sr Determination in Seawater by Liquid Extraction Technique

Authors: S. Visetpotjanakit, N. Nakkaew

Abstract:

Determination of low level 90Sr in seawater has been widely developed for the purpose of environmental monitoring and radiological research because 90Sr is one of the most hazardous radionuclides released from atmospheric during the testing of nuclear weapons, waste discharge from the generation nuclear energy and nuclear accident occurring at power plants. A liquid extraction technique using bis-2-etylhexyl-phosphoric acid to separate and purify yttrium followed by Cherenkov counting using a liquid scintillation counter to determine 90Y in secular equilibrium to 90Sr was developed to monitor 90Sr in the Asia Pacific Ocean. The analytical performance was validated for the accuracy, precision, and trueness criteria. Sr-90 determination in seawater using various low concentrations in a range of 0.01 – 1 Bq/L of 30 liters spiked seawater samples and 0.5 liters of IAEA-RML-2015-01 proficiency test sample was performed for statistical evaluation. The results had a relative bias in the range from 3.41% to 12.28%, which is below accepted relative bias of ± 25% and passed the criteria confirming that our analytical approach for determination of low levels of 90Sr in seawater was acceptable. Moreover, the approach is economical, non-laborious and fast.

Keywords: proficiency test, radiation monitoring, seawater, strontium determination

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46 Exploring the Prevailing Unfairness in Muslim Marriage and Divorce Laws in Singapore's Dual Court System

Authors: J. Jayaletchmi

Abstract:

In seeking to manage a multiracial and multi-religious society, Singapore provides a unique solution – a dual court system whereby a common law system co-exists with a Syariah law system that administers Syariah law for the Muslim population. In this respect, Singapore seems to provide a feasible example of legal pluralism to countries grappling with a burgeoning Muslim population. However, problems have arisen regarding this peaceful coexistence of secular and religious laws that seek to balance the rights of women and religious freedom. Singapore’s interpretation of Syariah law in the context of marriage and divorce has resulted in certain inequalities for Muslim women, which are exemplified in light of the Women’s Charter, a landmark piece of legislation which provides the legal basis for equity between husband and wife, but excludes Muslims from its ambit. The success of Singapore’s dual court system has largely been at the expense of Muslim women’s rights, and, as a result, the Muslim community as a whole has begun trailing behind the progressive society it forms a part of. This paper explores the prevailing unfairness of rules governing Muslim marriage and divorce in Singapore, and puts forth bold reforms.

Keywords: legal pluralism, Singapore, Syariah law, women’s rights

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45 The Expanding Role of Islamic Law in the Current Indonesian Legal Reform

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim, Saufa Ata Taqiyya

Abstract:

In many Muslim countries, secularization has successfully reduced the role of Islamic law as a formal legal source during this last century. The most obvious fact was the reform of Daulah Utsmaniyah to be Secular Republic of Turkey. Religion is strictly separated from the state authorities in many countries today. But these last decades in Indonesia, a remarkable fact is apparent. Islamic law has expanded its role in Indonesian legal system, especially in districts regulations. In Aceh province, as a case in point, shariah has been the basic source of law in all regulations. There are more provinces in Indonesia which adopted Islamic law as a formal legal source by the end of 2014. Different from some other countries which clearly stipulates the status of Islam in formal ways, Indonesian constitution formally does not render any recognition for Islam to be the formal religion of the state. But in this Muslim majority country, Islamic law takes a place in democratic way, namely on the basis of the voice of majority. This paper will analyze how this reality increases significantly since what so called by Indonesian reformation era (end of nineties). Some causes will be identified regarding this tendency of expansion of role. Some lessons learned also will be recommended as the concluding remarks by the end of the paper.

Keywords: Islamic law, Indonesia, legal reform, Syariah local regulation

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44 The Emerging Post-Islamism and the Politics of Pakistan’s Jamaat-i-Islami in the Contemporary Muslim World

Authors: Shahzada Gulfam

Abstract:

Islamism was considered as a new phenomenon in Muslim World to revolt against static Religious Traditionalists and the Imperialists. Islamist political parties viewed the establishment of an Islamic state within the limits of Sharia’h as their destination. The Islamists movements like Ikhwan-ul Muslimun, Jamaat-i-Islami etc. did appear with revolutionary agenda but were contained by military forces and the secular modernists of Muslim World. The Muslim rulers, historically could not respect the democratic and moral norms and equally emerged as dictators in democracies, military rule as well as in monarchies. The Arab Spring did not follow the Islamists agenda but gathered the common masses against the corrupt rulers to have a just democratic political system. The Islamic State and Sharia’h were not their immediate targets but the achievement of moral norms in Muslim societies and eradication of dictatorial rule were the basic aims. This phenomenon is named as post-Islamism. The political struggle of PAT (Pakistan Awami Tehreek) and the PTI (Pakistan Tehreek-i-Insaf) has been following the footsteps of Arab Spring and can be noted as the extension of Arab Spring in Muslim World. The results of this struggle would define the fate of Post-Islamism in Pakistan. Has Jamaat-i-Islami got the potential to reform its agenda accordingly? This paper intends to study the Jamaat’s struggle and tries to predict Jamaat’s role in post-Islamism scenario. There is a clear distinction between the people of religion and the people following the popular materialistic westernized value system. This division is also evident in political parties. Pakistan has been ruled mostly by the secular parties and rulers. The inability to establish Islamic system by replacing the imperial system has created militancy and revolt which requires the establishment of a sound model Islamic based system in the country. The political parties of Pakistan could not device a modernize agenda, equally acceptable in modernized world and addressing the prevailing issues and also having the indigenous religious and cultural roots. The inability of Jamaat-i-Islami Pakistan to transform its agenda accordingly to serve the post-Islamism has made it irrelevant in Pakistan’s politics. Once Jamaat leaves behind its hard position as an Islamist party and accepts the post-Islamism as beginning to create its idealized state and society, it can pursue its agenda gradually. The phenomenon of post-Islamism does not make Islamists irrelevant but invites them to listen to the priorities of masses rather than insisting on the agenda of their respective ideologues to be followed for all times. The ruling Muslim democrats and military dictators of Pakistan have been following unfair means to sustain their political power which gave rise to space for the new political parties to emerge and organize agitation successfully in Pakistani Politics. Jamaat-i-Islami could not fill that space to be an agent of Post-Islamism and could not break their chains which had been tying them to the prevailing failed democracy of Pakistan. Post-Islamists are the addressers of the rulers corruption and are struggling for reforms in system. Jamaat due to its ideological compulsions could not transform its agenda accordingly. The new scenario indicates that the Post-Islamism which emerged in Arab World can be taken as first step to establish democracy and justice in state and society and then the establishment of Islamic law and the establishment of an Islamic state should have been the next targets. This gradual agenda would have delivered public support to the Jamaat which deserved that but PTI & PAT have cashed this opportunity in Pakistani politics by strengthening their respective vote banks.

Keywords: arab spring, islamic state, islamic political parties, muslim world, post-islamism

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43 Natural Radionuclides and Doses Assessment in Soil Samples from Agbara Industrial Estate, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayorinde B. Ogunremi, Kehinde A. Adewoyin, Adebamwo Adebayo

Abstract:

Record of radionuclide concentration in an environment is essential to ensure human safety due to exposure to ionizing radiation. This study aimed at assessing the radionuclide concentration and doses from soil samples in the study area. Twenty soil samples were collected and dried in the oven at 110°C to remove the moisture, pulverized, and sieved. 200 g of each of the samples were sealed in cylindrical sample holders; they were left for four weeks to attain secular equilibrium between ²²⁶Ra and its decay daughters, after which the sample was analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry. After the well-guided procedure for the calibrations, the analysis of the samples was carried out using a well-calibrated NaI (TI) and well-shielded detector coupled to a computer resident quantum MCA2100 R Multichannel analyzer for 36,000 s. The mean activity concentrations of ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, and ²³²Th obtained were calculated to be 272.37 ± 33.58, 10.97 ± 3.24, 9.39 ± 2.27 Bqkg-1 respectively. The average absorbed dose obtained was 22.10 nGy/h. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) was estimated to be 43.27 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) were below the recommended values, which are 420, 33, and 45 for ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, and ²³²Th, respectively. Considering the results, we conclude thus, the radiation level within the estate poses no significant health risk on dwellers and workers.

Keywords: absorbed, effective, multichannel, radionuclide

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