Search results for: overseas chinese
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1094

Search results for: overseas chinese

1094 Study on the Overseas Dissemination and Acceptance of the English Translation of YU Hua’s to Live

Authors: Luo Xi

Abstract:

Taking the English translation of Yu Hua's To Live as an example, this paper makes a quantitative description and qualitative analysis of its overseas dissemination and acceptance from the perspective of the actual audience -- readers. It is found that the English translation of To Live has been widely disseminated and accepted overseas. The book has been well received overseas. With the English version of To Live, overseas readers have an in-depth understanding of Chinese history, politics, and culture. At the same time, the work shows the admirable qualities of Chinese people. It also conveys the core human values. And thus, overseas readers have gained a deeper understanding of life and are spiritually inspired. From the perspective of readers, this paper studies the successful overseas dissemination of the English translation of Yu Hua's To Live to provide a reference for the further overseas dissemination of Chinese culture.

Keywords: to live, english translation, overseas dissemination and acceptance, readers’ comments

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1093 Protection of Chinese Enterprises’ Overseas Investments Under Bilateral Investment Treaties Under the Belt and Road Initiative

Authors: Bo Sun, Ni Zhong

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Bilateral investment treaties have played a role in the construction of the Belt and Road, providing institutional protection for Chinese companies' overseas investments. However, such treaties between China and countries along the Belt and Road were signed in the 1980s and 1990s, and their provisions are outdated and insufficiently detailed to provide adequate legal protection for Chinese investors when they initiate investment arbitration against host countries. By studying cases involving China in international investment arbitration, this paper suggests that China should pay attention to further clarifying the identity of "investors", the scope of disputes that can be submitted to arbitration, and the concept of "indirect expropriation" when updating bilateral investment treaties in the future, in order to reduce the risk of losing cases for Chinese investors.

Keywords: belt and road, bilateral investment agreement, investment arbitration, indirect expropriation

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1092 Investigating Chinese Students' Engagement with Teacher Feedback: Multiple Case Studies in a UK University

Authors: Fangfei Li

Abstract:

This research was conducted to explore how Chinese overseas students, who rarely received teacher feedback during their undergraduate studies in China, engaged in a different feedback provision context in the UK universities. In particular, this research provides some insights into Chinese students’ perspectives on how they made sense of the teacher feedback they obtained and how they took it on board in their assignments. Research questions in this study are 1) What are Chinese overseas students’ perceptions of teacher feedback on courses in UK higher education? 2) How do they respond to the teacher feedback they obtained? 3) What factors might influence their engagement with teacher feedback? Multiple case studies of five Chinese overseas students in a UK university have been carried out to address the research questions. The main data collection instruments are various types of semi-structured interviews, consisting of background interviews, scenario-based activities, stimulated recall sessions and retrospective interviews. Research findings indicate that student engagement with teacher feedback is a complex learning process incorporating several stages: from initial teacher input to ultimate transformational learning. Apart from students interpreting teachers’ comments/suggestions by themselves, students’ understandings of and responses to teacher feedback could also be influenced by pre-submission guidance, peer discussion, use of exemplars and post-submission discussion with teachers. These are key factors influencing students to make use of teacher feedback. Findings also reveal that the level of students’ reflections on tutor feedback influences the quality of their assignments and even their future learning. To sum up, this paper will discuss the current concepts of teacher feedback in existing studies and research findings of this study from which reconceptualization of teacher feedback has occurred.

Keywords: Chinese students, student engagement, teacher feedback, the UK higher education

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1091 Cai Guo-Qiang: A Chinese Artist at the Cutting-Edge of Global Art

Authors: Marta Blavia

Abstract:

Magiciens de la terre, organized in 1989 by the Centre Pompidou, became 'the first worldwide exhibition of contemporary art' by presenting artists from Western and non-Western countries, including three Chinese artists. For the first time, West turned its eyes to other countries not as exotic sources of inspiration, but as places where contemporary art was also being created. One year later, Chine: demain pour hier was inaugurated as the first Chinese avant-garde group-exhibition in Occident. Among the artists included was Cai Guo-Qiang who, like many other Chinese artists, had left his home country in the eighties in pursuit of greater creative freedom. By exploring artistic non-Western perspectives, both landmark exhibitions questioned the predominance of the Eurocentric vision in the construction of history art. But more than anything else, these exhibitions laid the groundwork for the rise of the so-called phenomenon 'global contemporary art'. All the same time, 1989 also was a turning point in Chinese art history. Because of the Tiananmen student protests, The Chinese government undertook a series of measures to cut down any kind of avant-garde artistic activity after a decade of a relative openness. During the eighties, and especially after the Tiananmen crackdown, some important artists began to leave China to move overseas such as Xu Bing and Ai Weiwei (USA); Chen Zhen and Huang Yong Ping (France); or Cai Guo-Qiang (Japan). After emigrating abroad, Chinese overseas artists began to develop projects in accordance with their new environments and audiences as well as to appear in numerous international exhibitions. With their creations, that moved freely between a variety of Eastern and Western art sources, these artists were crucial agents in the emergence of global contemporary art. As other Chinese artists overseas, Cai Guo-Qiang’s career took off during the 1990s and early 2000s right at the same moment in which Western art world started to look beyond itself. Little by little, he developed a very personal artistic language that redefines Chinese ideas, symbols, and traditional materials in a new world order marked by globalization. Cai Guo-Qiang participated in many of the exhibitions that contributed to shape global contemporary art: Encountering the Others (1992); the 45th Venice Biennale (1993); Inside Out: New Chinese Art (1997), or the 48th Venice Biennale (1999), where he recreated the Chinese monumental social realist work Rent Collection Courtyard that earned him the Golden Lion Award. By examining the different stages of Cai Guo-Qiang’s artistic path as well as the transnational dimensions of his creations, this paper aims at offering a comprehensive survey on the construction of the discourse of global contemporary art.

Keywords: Cai Guo-Qiang, Chinese artists overseas, emergence global art, transnational art

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1090 China's New "Pivots" in the Indian Ocean: Towards "String of Pearls" Strategy 2.0

Authors: Mike Chia-Yu Huang

Abstract:

China’s port facility construction projects in the Indian Ocean (IO) region, Gwadar Port and Djibouti Port projects in particular, have led to a heated debate among both Chinese and Western strategists over whether the country has literally been carrying out its “string of pearls” strategy, an alleged Chinese plan to challenge America’s military predominance in South Asia. Even though the Chinese government repeatedly denied the existence of such a strategy and highlighted the civilian/commercial nature of its port projects, it has significantly enhanced its strategic cooperation with littoral countries in the IO region since the “One Belt One Road” initiative was introduced by Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013. Whether China does have a plan to expand its sphere of military influence westward concerns the balance of power in the IO region. If the answer is positive, the security environment there will be changed drastically. This paper argues that rather than simply copying the U.S. model of developing overseas military bases along the IO periphery, Beijing has been deliberating a more sophisticated plan for its physical presence there: creating a new set of “overseas strategic pivots.” These “pivots,” semi-military and semi-commercial in nature, are designed to help Beijing sustain its anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden and serve as forward stations for the transportation of China’s imported energy and merchandise. They can support the Chinese Navy’s operations overseas but are not supposed to undertake face-to-face combat missions. This upgraded Chinese scheme can be identified as “string of pearls” strategy 2.0. Moreover, it is expected to help China deepen its roots in the IO region, implying that Beijing has to a large extent scratched its old diplomatic philosophy which highlighted the merits of non-interference and nonalignment. While a full-scale maritime confrontation between China and the U.S.-India security alliance is unlikely to be witnessed in the near future, an ambitious Chinese plan to step into the global maritime domain has been evidently shown.

Keywords: Chinese navy, Djibouti, Gwadar, Indian Ocean, string of pearls strategy

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1089 Research on the Planning Spatial Mode of China's Overseas Industrial Park

Authors: Sidong Zhao, Xingping Wang

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Recently, the government of China has provided strong support the developments of overseas industrial parks. The global distribution of China overseas industrial parks has gradually moved from the 'sparks of fire' to the 'prairie fires.' The support and distribution have promoted developing overseas industrial parks to a strategy of constructing a China's new open economic system and a typical representative of the 'Chinese wisdom' and the 'China's plans' that China has contributed to the globalization of the new era under the initiative of the Belt and Road. As the industrial parks are the basis of 'work/employment', a basic function of a city (Athens Constitution), planning for developments of industrial parks has become a long-term focus of urban planning. Based on the research of the planning and the analysis of the present developments of some typical China overseas industrial parks, we found some interesting rules: First, large numbers of the China overseas industrial parks are located in less developed countries. These industrial parks have become significant drives of the developments of the host cities and even the regions in those countries, especially in investment, employment and paid tax fee for the local, etc. so, the planning and development of overseas industrial parks have received extensive attention. Second, there are some problems in the small part of the overseas Park, such as the planning of the park not following the planning of the host city and lack of implementation of the park planning, etc. These problems have led to the difficulties of the implementation of the planning and the sustainable developments of the parks. Third, a unique pattern of space development has been formed. in the dimension of the patterns of regional spatial distribution, there are five characteristics - along with the coast, along the river, along with the main traffic lines and hubs, along with the central urban area and along the connections of regions economic. In the dimension of the spatial relationships between the industrial park and the city, there is a growing and evolving trend as 'separation – integration - union'. In the dimension of spatial mode of the industrial parks, there are different patterns of development, such as a specialized industrial park, complex industrial park, characteristic town and new urban area of industry, etc. From the perspective of the trends of the developments and spatial modes, in the future, the planning of China overseas industrial parks should emphasize the idea of 'building a city based on the industrial park'. In other words, it's making the developments of China overseas industrial parks move from 'driven by policy' to 'driven by the functions of the city', accelerating forming the system of China overseas industrial parks and integrating the industrial parks and the cities.

Keywords: overseas industrial park, spatial mode, planning, China

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1088 Introduction, Establishment, and Transformation: An Initial Exploration of the Cultural Shifts and Influence of Fa Yi Chong De, Yi-Kuan-Tao in Malaysian Chinese Community

Authors: Lim Pey Huan

Abstract:

Yi-Kuan-Tao has been developing in Malaysia for nearly 60 years. It was initially introduced from mainland China and later from Taiwan starting from the 1970s. Yi-Kuan-Tao was considered a 'new religion' for the local Chinese community in Malaysia in its early stages, as Chinese immigrants primarily practiced Taoism, Buddhism, Christianity, or Catholicism upon settling in the region. The overseas propagation and development of Yi-Kuan-Tao today primarily occur through Taiwanese temples, which began spreading abroad as early as 1949. Particularly since the 1970s, with the rapid economic growth of Taiwan, various branches of Taiwanese Yi-Kuan-Tao have gained economic strength to propagate abroad, further expanding the influence of Yi-Kuan-Tao overseas. Southeast Asia is the region out from Taiwan where the propagation and development of Yi-Kuan-Tao are fastest and most concentrated. With approximately over 6 million Chinese inhabitants, Malaysia's pursuit of traditional Chinese culture has led to a flourishing interest in Yi-Kuan-Tao, particularly its advocacy of the unity of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, with an emphasis on promoting Confucian thought. Moreover, Taiwan's rapid economic development since the 1970s has enabled Yi-Kuan-Tao to allocate significant human and financial resources for external propagation efforts. Additionally, Malaysia's government has adopted a relatively tolerant policy towards religion since that time, further fostering the flourishing development of Yi-Kuan-Tao in Malaysia. Furthermore, this thesis aims to strengthen the lineage and continuity of the Yi-Kuan-Tao tradition, particularly the branch of Fa Yi Chong De, through the perspective of Heavenly Mandate (天命). By examining the different origins and ethnic backgrounds, it investigates how the Malaysian Chinese community has experienced different changes through the cultural baptism of religion, thus delving into the religious influence of Yi-Kuan-Tao. Given that the Fa Yi Chong De Academy in Taiwan is currently in an active development and construction phase, academic works related to Yi-Kuan-Tao will lay a more solid academic foundation for the future establishment of the academy.

Keywords: initial exploration, cultural shifts, Yi-Kuan-Tao, Malaysian Chinese community

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1087 The Social Impact of Religion on New Immigrants: A Case Study of Christianity Among Chinese Immigrants in New Zealand

Authors: Ziwen Wang

Abstract:

There are close links between religion and migration. As newcomers to a foreign nation, new immigrants endured many pressures and challenges. Religion can be an important part of a migrant’s personal identity, and religious communities can offer valued connections and relationships. During the migration process, religion can undergo significant changes as migrants travel across geographical and cultural gaps and as they face new opportunities or new constraints. For those migrants who are not religious, during this unsettling time, people might become sensitive to the "sacredness", accepting its guidance, and occasionally contemplating religious conversion. This research examines the role of faith and the church in supporting new Chinese immigrants from the perspective of the social function of Christianity, utilizing Chinese immigrants in New Zealand as a case study. Through participant observation in four Chinese churches and over seventy semi-structured interviews, this research illustrates how religion has provided them with a haven and how the church provides indispensable material, spiritual, and informational resources essential for their adaptation to life in New Zealand.

Keywords: migration and religion, overseas chinese, religious capital, christianity

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1086 The Effect of Motivation of Chinese Tourists to Visit North Korea on Their Revisit Intention: Focused on the Tourists with the Experience of Visiting North Korea

Authors: Kim Jin-OK, Lee Jin-Eui, Han Seung-Hoon, Kim Nam-Jo

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This study aimed to analyze the effect of the motivation of Chinese tourists to visit North Korea on their decision making process. Chinese tourists account for a considerable portion of foreign tourists in the world, while North Korea is the favorite tourist attraction of Chinese tourists. The motivation to visit North Korea was divided into three factors: the redness, which is the modern cultural heritage of Communism based on the red tourism accounting for the significant portion of domestic tourism, the novelty of the special environment of North Korean society, and the convenience of tour to North Korea in terms of geographical distance and policy of China. Red tourism refers to visiting the places of revolutionary events, monuments, artifacts and the residences of previous communist leaders, and other places related to the past Chinese Communist Party. As a revolutionary tourism, red tourism has recently been taking place in the old communist countries to recall their memories on the revolutionary places in China, as well as in North Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Russia, Bulgaria, Cuba, etc. In order to examine the effect of the segmented motivations on the revisit intention of Chinese tourists who have experienced a tour to North Korea, this study employed the model of goal-directed behavior, a model developed by adding a variable of emotion to the theory of planned behavior, which has a strong explanatory power on the decision making process of people in social science. For achieving the aim of the study, the data was collected through the survey in Dandong, China against Chinese tourists who have visited North Korea. The results of this study found that not only the novelty of North Korea, but also the redness, which accounts for the largest proportion in the domestic tourism, are significantly affecting overseas tour of Chinese tourists at this time point where overseas tour of Chinese tourists continue to increase. The results, therefore, suggest that the old communist countries, including those in Asia, need an emotional promotion strategy that stimulates nostalgia by focusing on the redness of the modern cultural heritage of Communism to attract Chinese tourists.

Keywords: model of goal-directed behavior, modern cultural heritage, North Korea, red tourism

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1085 Investigating Chinese Students' Perceptions of and Responses to Teacher Feedback: Multiple Case Studies in a UK University

Authors: Fangfei Li

Abstract:

Studies on teacher feedback have produced a wide range of findings in aspects of characteristics of good feedback, factors influencing the quality of feedback and teachers’ perspectives on teacher feedback. However, perspectives from students on how they perceive and respond to teacher feedback are still under scrutiny. Especially for Chinese overseas students who come from a feedback-sparse educational context in China, they might have different experiences when engaging with teacher feedback in the UK Higher Education. Therefore, the research aims to investigate and shed some new light on how Chinese students engage with teacher feedback in the UK higher education and how teacher feedback could enhance their learning. Research questions of this study are 1) What are Chinese overseas students’ perceptions of teacher feedback in courses of the UK higher education? 2) How do they respond to the teacher feedback they obtained? 3) What factors might influence their’ engagement with teacher feedback? Qualitative case studies of five Chinese postgraduate students in a UK university have been conducted by employing various types of interviews, such as background interviews, scenario-based interviews, stimulated recall interviews and retrospective interviews to address the research inquiries. Data collection lasted seven months, covering two phases – the pre-sessional language programme and the first semester of the Master’s degree programme. Research findings until now indicate that some factors, such as tutors’ handwriting, implicit instruction and value comments, influence students understanding and internalizing tutor feedback. Except for difficulties in understanding tutor feedback, students’ responses to tutor feedback are also influenced by quantity and quality of tutor-student communication, time constraints and trust to tutor feedback, etc. Findings also reveal that tutor feedback is able to improve students’ learning in aspects of promoting reflection on professional knowledge, promoting students’ communication with peers and tutors, increasing problem awareness and writing with the reader in mind. This paper will mainly introduce the research topic, the methodological procedure and research findings gained until now.

Keywords: Chinese students, students’ perceptions, teacher feedback, the UK higher education

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1084 Fatherhood and Migration among Chinese Returnees in Hong Kong: A Literature Review

Authors: Lucille Lok-Sun Ngan

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There are significant gaps in both the migration and family literatures regarding the gendered parenting of Chinese migrants. Evidence from the literature informs us that the child-focused parenting style of the West has altered, with positive consequences, parent–child relationships in migrant families. In particular, second-generation migrants have developed hybrid identities distinct from those of their overseas-born parents and the locals. On returning to their place of origin, they may undergo yet another process of change in values, and in behaviour, in order to adapt to the local culture. As migration changes values, personality and practice at personal, interpersonal and familial levels, the cross-cultural experiences of returnees inevitably affect their own fatherhood journeys in their country of origin. This paper reviews current literature on fatherhood and migration and identifies the gaps and limitations that pertain to understanding the paternal experiences of Chinese return migrants.

Keywords: Chinese returnees, cross-cultural experiences, fatherhood, hybridity, migration

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1083 Innovative Pictogram Chinese Characters Representation

Authors: J. H. Low, S. H. Hew, C. O. Wong

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This paper proposes an innovative approach to represent the pictogram Chinese characters. The advantage of this representation is using an extraordinary to represent the pictogram Chinese character. This extraordinary representation is created accordingly to the original pictogram Chinese characters revolution. The purpose of this innovative creation is to assistant the learner learning Chinese as second language (SCL) in Chinese language learning specifically on memorize Chinese characters. Commonly, the SCL will give up and frustrate easily while memorize the Chinese characters by rote. So, our innovative representation is able to help on memorize the Chinese character by the help of visually storytelling. This innovative representation enhances the Chinese language learning experience of SCL.

Keywords: Chinese e-learning, innovative Chinese character representation, knowledge management, language learning

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1082 Thailand and Sino-Japanese Relations in the Early Twentieth Century

Authors: Mizuno Norihito

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This study attempts to examine Japanese views of Thailand primarily in the 1920s and 1930s through the analysis of documents published by the Office of Governor-General of Taiwan (Taiwan Sotokufu) and its affiliated organizations. Japan regarded Taiwan, under its control since 1895, as a foothold to making inroads into the South, and The governor-general office was active in investigations and intelligence gathering in Southeast Asia, as well as the southern part of the Chinese continent. Documents published by the governor-general office and its related organizations, especially those in a couple of decades following the First World War, reveal that the Japanese paid attention to the presence of the-Thai-Chinese during the time period. It would not be surprising that the desiring to penetrating into the Thai market, as well as the markets of the rest of Southeast Asia, the Japanese could not ignore the presence of the Thai-Chinese because of their local economic influences. The increased Japanese concern about the Thai-Chinese toward the end of the 1920s and throughout the 1930s was, moreover, intertwined with the increased tension between China and Japan. In other words, Thailand, as well as the rest of Southeast Asia, became another arena of Sino-Japanese confrontation. The rise of nationalism against Japan in China infected the Thai-Chinese communities and threatened Japanese economic activities in the country. However, the Japanese simultaneously found out that Thai-Chinese concert with anti-Japanese in China did not necessarily match their business interests and that the Thai government’s efforts to assimilate the Thai-Chinese into the Thais society and strategic approach to Japan in the late 1930s hampered their anti-Japanese actions.

Keywords: Japanese-Thai Relations, Sino-Japanese relations, Thai Chinese, Overseas Japanese

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1081 Cultural Understanding in Chinese Language Education for Foreigners: A Quest for Better Integration

Authors: Linhan Sun

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With the gradual strengthening of China's economic development, more and more people around the world are learning Chinese due to economic and trade needs, which has also promoted the research related to Chinese language education for foreigners. Because the Chinese language system is different from the Western language system, learning Chinese is not easy for many learners. In addition, language learning cannot be separated from the learning and understanding of culture. How to integrate cultural learning into the curriculum of Chinese language education for foreigners is the focus of this study. Through a semi-structured in-depth interview method, 15 foreigners who have studied or are studying Chinese participated in this study. This study found that cultural learning and Chinese as a foreign language are relatively disconnected. In other words, learners were able to acquire a certain degree of knowledge of the Chinese language through textbooks or courses but did not gain a deeper understanding of Chinese culture.

Keywords: Chinese language education, Chinese culture, qualitative methods, intercultural communication

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1080 Teacher Agency in Localizing Textbooks for International Chinese Language Teaching: A Case of Minsk State Linguistic University

Authors: Min Bao

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The teacher is at the core of the three fundamental factors in international Chinese language teaching, the other two being the textbook and the method. Professional development of the teacher comprises a self-renewing process that is characterized by knowledge impartment and self-reflection, in which individual agency plays a significant role. Agency makes a positive contribution to teachers’ teaching practice and their life-long learning. This study, taking Chinese teaching and learning in Minsk State Linguistic University of Belarus as an example, attempts to understand agency by investigating the teacher’s strategic adaptation of textbooks to meet local needs. Firstly, through in-depth interviews, teachers’ comments on textbooks are collected and analyzed to disclose their strategies of adapting and localizing textbooks. Then, drawing on the theory of 'The chordal triad of agency', the paper reveals the process in which teacher agency is exercised as well as its rationale. The results verify the theory, that is, given its temporal relationality, teacher agency is constructed through a combination of experiences, purposes and aims, and context, i.e., projectivity, iteration and practice-evaluation as mentioned in the theory. Evidence also suggests that the three dimensions effect differently; It is usually one or two dimensions that are of greater effects on the construction of teacher agency. Finally, the paper provides four specific insights to teacher development in international Chinese language teaching: 1) when recruiting teachers, priority be given on candidates majoring in Chinese language or international Chinese language teaching; 2) measures be taken to assure educational quality of the two said majors at various levels; 3) pre-service teacher training program be tailored for improved quality, and 4) management of overseas Confucius Institutions be enhanced.

Keywords: international Chinese language teaching, teacher agency, textbooks, localization

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1079 A Comparative Study of Corporate Cultural Values in Mergers and Acquisitions

Authors: Renzhong Peng, Weiping Wu

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Based on the framework of Hofstede’s cultural dimension, this study conducted a comparative study on the similarities and differences between national cultures and corporate cultural values, analyzed and interpreted the reasons why Chinese overseas Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) cultural integration results in the success or failure. The findings of this study indicate that in the process of M&A, the corporate cultural values from Chinese and western corporations are proved to be quite different as a result of their diversities of national cultures, and the strategies for the integration of cultural corporate values are of vital importance and can determine the effects of the M&A, which can be referential to managers who intend to have the idea of M&A and those who have cultural integration in the process of M&A.

Keywords: comparative study, cultural integration, corporate cultural values, Mergers and Acquisitions

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1078 An Exploratory Study of Chinese Paper-Cut Art in Household Product Design

Authors: Ruining Wu, Na Song

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Paper-cut, as one of the Chinese traditional folk decoration art, has become a unique visual aesthetic characteristics of the Chinese nation in the long-term evolution of cultural symbols. Chinese paper-cut art is the treasure-house for product design in natural resources. This paper first analyzed Chinese folk art of historical origin, cultural background, cultural values, aesthetic value, style features of Chinese paper cut art, then analyzed the design thought and design cases of paper-cut art application in different areas, such as clothing design, logo design and product design areas. Through the research of Chinese paper-cut art culture and design elements, this paper aims to build a household product design concept of Chinese traditional culture.

Keywords: paper-cut art, culture, household products, design

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1077 Digital Development of Cultural Heritage: Construction of Traditional Chinese Pattern Database

Authors: Shaojian Li

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The traditional Chinese patterns, as an integral part of Chinese culture, possess unique values in history, culture, and art. However, with the passage of time and societal changes, many of these traditional patterns are at risk of being lost, damaged, or forgotten. To undertake the digital preservation and protection of these traditional patterns, this paper will collect and organize images of traditional Chinese patterns. It will provide exhaustive and comprehensive semantic annotations, creating a resource library of traditional Chinese pattern images. This will support the digital preservation and application of traditional Chinese patterns.

Keywords: digitization of cultural heritage, traditional Chinese patterns, digital humanities, database construction

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1076 Commodification of the Chinese Language: Investigating Language Ideology in the Chinese Complementary Schools’ Online Discourse

Authors: Yuying Liu

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Despite the increasing popularity of Chinese and the recognition of the growing commodifying ideology of Chinese language in many contexts (Liu and Gao, 2020; Guo, Shin and Shen 2020), the ideological orientations of the Chinese diaspora community towards the Chinese language remain under-researched. This research contributes seeks to bridge this gap by investigating the micro-level language ideologies embedded in the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. Informed by Ruíz’s (1984) metaphorical representations of language, 11 Chinese complementary schools’ websites were analysed as discursive texts that signal the language policy and ideology to prospective learners and parents were analysed. The results of the analysis suggest that a move from a portrayal of Chinese as linked to student heritage identity, to the commodification of linguistic and cultural diversity, is evident. It denotes the growing commodifying ideology among the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. The changing profile of the complementary school, from serving an ethnical community to teaching Chinese as a foreign language for the wider community, indicates the possibility of creating the a positive synergy between the Complementary school and the mainstream education. This study contributes to the wider discussions of language ideology and language planning, with regards to modern language learning and heritage language maintenance.

Keywords: the Chinese language;, Chinese as heritage language, Chinese as foreign language, Chinese community schools

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1075 Understanding the ‘Third Gender’: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Being a Leftover Woman among Chinese Female Ph.D. Students

Authors: Qian Wang

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In recent years, a growing number of Chinese women choose to pursue Ph.D. education. Except for the male and female, women with PhD degrees are stigmatized as the ‘third gender’ in Chinese society. People, especially most men, believe that female PhD students challenge the traditional image and gender role of Chinese women. This gender stereotype causes a range of difficulties in finding partners in marriage market for Chinese female PhD students. In this study, the author conducted in-depth interviews with 15 participants who are currently doing their PhD studies in Chinese universities to explore their perceptions of being leftover women on the basis of their experience. All the participants are single. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, this study found that the ‘leftover women’ phenomenon among Chinese female PhD students is the result of the contradictions generated between Chinese patriarchal society and them. Although Chinese female PhD students is an attention-attracting group, the studies about them are very limited in China. This study could not only contribute to the understanding of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon and the ‘leftover women’ studies in China, but also, in practical level, could give some guidance for governments to resolve the social problems of female PhD students.

Keywords: Chinese female Ph.D. students, the ‘leftover women’, the Chinese patriarchal society, gender role, Chinese culture

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1074 The Soviet Union-Style of Urban Planning in China: Historical Review and Enlightenment from the Output Mode of Contemporary Cooperative Parks

Authors: Yifeng Shi, Xingping Wang

Abstract:

The Soviet Union-style of urban planning has produced a broad and profound influence on China’s urban planning system. The study on extendibility and development experience of Soviet planning in China helps to change the current embarrassing situation 'one-hand planning practice, second-hand planning theory', and also beneficial to facilitate the establishment of China's domestic urban planning theory from the planning source, especially the overseas cooperation parks rich in 'Chinese characteristics'. In practice, as the world’s major infrastructure country, China is exporting to the world especially countries along 'the Belt and Road' a development model featuring cooperation parks as Chinese characteristics. This is of great significance to evaluate and summarize the experiences of Soviet Union-style of planning for China's development objectively and rationally, from removing ideological factors and extracting positive factors to carry them forward in overseas cooperation parks. This article briefly reviews the Soviet influence on urban planning after the founding of China and divided the influences stages into 'guidance, internalization and absorption, selective learning, decline' four periods. The impact includes production-oriented planning and planning concepts continue to be implemented, the establishment of the regional planning, master planning, detailed planning of the basic framework of urban planning, and homogenized cellular structure of the space, as well as planning techniques, professional training, planning techniques and so on. China and even most socialist countries now still carry such planning genes. At present, in the process of implementing 'the Belt and Road' strategy, the planning and construction of China’s overseas cooperation parks generally encounter many problems as lack of strategic planning and systematic planning, lack of top-level design, uncoordinated planning and layout in parks, and redundant construction in some areas. After sublating the planning genes of the Soviet Union-style of urban planning for the development of the socialist countries, especially the industrial planning system, this paper puts forward some views as follows to realize the overseas output and development of China's planning model and technology. Firstly the future development of overseas cooperation park should be from a rational planning point of view. Secondly the government should not only rigidly and equitably allocate the resources of the parks but also closely integrate the national economic plans or economic development strategies. Lastly management department should frame the threshold of development rationally, give full play to the pragmatic planning style in accordance with the local land system and planning system. It has an important guiding and reference role for the development of China's overseas cooperation park under the 'go global' strategy, after objectively evaluating the impact of the Soviet Union-style urban planning and absorbing the beneficial components on China. However, we should also recognize that the cooperation parks and the urban industrial system behind it are only part of urban development. More attention should be payed on the design of the local and the general rules of urban development to take the lead effect of cooperation parks suitable. Foundation item: Under the auspices of the Specific Plan for Strategic International Cooperation in Scientific and Technological Innovation, the National Key Research and Development Plan 'Research Cooperation and Exemplary Application in Planning of Development of Overseas Industrial Parks' (No 2016YFE0201000).

Keywords: China cooperative parks, history of urban planning, output mode, The Soviet Union

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1073 Driving Mechanism of Urban Sprawl in Chinese Context from the Perspective of Domestic and Overseas Comparison

Authors: Tingke Wu, Yaping Huang

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Many cities in China have been experiencing serious urban sprawl since the 1980s, which pose great challenges to a country with scare cultivated land and huge population. Because of different social and economic context and development stage, driving forces of urban sprawl in China are quite different from developed countries. Therefore, it is of great importance to probe into urban sprawl driving mechanism in Chinese context. By a comparison study of the background and features of urban sprawl between China and developed countries, this research establishes an analytical framework for sprawl dynamic mechanism in China. By literature review and analyzing data from national statistical yearbook, it then probes into the driving mechanism and the primary cause of urban sprawl. The results suggest that population increase, economic growth, traffic and information technology development lead to rapid expansion of urban space; defects of land institution and lack of effective guidance give rise to low efficiency of urban land use. Moreover, urban sprawl is ultimately attributed to imperfections of policy and institution. On this basis, this research puts forward several sprawl control strategies in Chinese context.

Keywords: China, driving forces, driving mechanism, land institution, urban expansion, urban sprawl

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1072 Language Learning Strategies of Chinese Students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand

Authors: Gunniga Anugkakul, Suwaree Yordchim

Abstract:

The objectives were to study language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by Chinese students, and the frequency of LLSs they used, and examine the relationship between the use of LLSs and gender. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford was administered to thirty-six Chinese students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Three useful findings were found on the use of LLSs reported by Chinese students. First, Chinese students used overall LLSs at a high level. Second, among the six strategy groups, Chinese students employed compensation strategy most frequently and memory strategy least frequently. Third, the research results also revealed that gender had significant effect on Chinese Student’s use of overall LLSs.

Keywords: English language, language learning strategy, Chinese students, compensation strategy

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1071 Wh-Movement in Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from Magnitude Estimation

Authors: Dong-Bo Hsu

Abstract:

Universal Grammar (UG) claims that the constraints that are derived from this should operate in language users’ L2 grammars. This study investigated this hypothesis on knowledge of Subjacency and resumptive pronoun usage among Chinese learners of English. Chinese fulfills two requirements to examine the existence of UG, i.e., Subjacency does not operate in Chinese and resumptive pronouns in English are very different from those in Chinese and second L2 input undermines the knowledge of Subjacency. The results indicated that Chinese learners of English demonstrated a nearly identical pattern as English native speakers do but the resumptive pronoun in the embedding clauses. This may be explained in terms of the case that Chinese speakers’ usage of pronouns is not influenced by the number of embedding clauses. Chinese learners of English have full access to knowledge endowed by UG but their processing of English sentences may be different from native speakers as a general slow rate for processing in their L2 English.

Keywords: universal grammar, Chinese, English, wh-questions, resumption

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1070 From Tionghoa to Tjina: Historical Tracing on the Identity Politics in Demonization of Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia

Authors: Michael J. Kristiono

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This paper attempts to investigate the reasons behind the negative sentiments directed towards Chinese Indonesians from International Relations (IR) perspective. By tracing back the treatment of the New Order government towards ethnic Chinese, it was found that such demonization initially happened due to two politically motivated reasons. Firstly, as part of de-Soekarnoization done by the New Order, the Chinese were outcast because Chinese identity does not conform to the 'Indonesian identity', which was in essence, the Javanese identity. Secondly, the condition reflected the change in Indonesian foreign policy which drifted apart from People’s Republic of China (PRC) as the latter was suspected to be involved in September 30 Movement. Then, this paper argues that due to those reasons, coupled by blatant maltreatment from the New Order Government, Chinese Indonesians were constructed as the Others, that is, as non-Indonesians. Such construct has been deeply embedded such that reconciliation attempts done by the Reformation Era government were not sufficient enough to stop ethnic discrimination towards Chinese Indonesians from happening even until the present.

Keywords: Chinese Indonesians, ethnic discrimination, identity, New Order

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1069 Communication Experience and the Perception of Media Richness among Parents Working Overseas and Their Children Left-behind in the Philippines

Authors: Dennis Caasi

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This study analyzed four knowledge-building elements of channel expansion theory namely: communication media, communication content, communication partner, and communication influence vis-à- vis media richness dimensions among parents working overseas and their left-behind children in the Philippines. Results reveal that both parents and children consumed four out of six mediated communications tested in this research, spent one to four days a week connecting, between 30 minutes to 3 hours per engagement, and media consumption is dependent on the message content and media literacy of parents. Family, academic, household, and health were the common communication topics and parents dictate which channel to use. All six medium tested received high ratings based on the media richness constructs.

Keywords: channel expansion theory, computer-mediated communication, media richness theory, overseas Filipino worker

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1068 Stop Consonants in Chinese and Slovak: Contrastive Analysis by Using Praat

Authors: Maria Istvanova

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The acquisition of the correct pronunciation in Chinese is closely linked to the initial phase of the study. Based on the contrastive analysis, we determine the differences in the pronunciation of stop consonants in Chinese and Slovak taking into consideration the place and manner of articulation to gain a better understanding of the students' main difficulties in the process of acquiring correct pronunciation of Chinese stop consonants. We employ the software Praat for the analysis of the recorded samples with an emphasis on the pronunciation of the students with a varying command of Chinese. The comparison of the VOT length for the individual consonants in the students' pronunciation and the pronunciation of the native speaker exposes the differences between the correct pronunciation and the deviant pronunciation of the students.

Keywords: Chinese, contrastive analysis, Praat, pronunciation, Slovak.

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1067 A Study of Chinese-specific Terms in Government Work Report(2017-2019) from the Perspective of Relevance Theory

Authors: Shi Jiaxin

Abstract:

The Government Work Report is an essential form of document in the government of the People’s Republic of China. It covers all aspects of Chinese society and reflects China’s development strategy and trend. There are countless special terms in Government Work Report. Only by understanding Chinese-specific terms can we understand the content of the Government Work Report. Only by accurately translating the Chinese-specific terms can people come from all across the world know the Chinese government work report and understand China. Relevance theory is a popular theory of cognitive pragmatics. Relevance Translation Theory, which is closely related to Relevance Theory, has crucial and major guiding significance for the translation of Chinese-specific. Through studying Relevance Theory and researching the translation techniques, strategies and applications in the process of translating Chinese-specific terms from the perspective of Relevance Theory, we can understand the meaning and connotation of Chinese-specific terms, then solve various problems in the process of C-E translation, and strengthen our translation ability.

Keywords: government work report, Chinese-specific terms, relevance theory, translation

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1066 Comparative Study of Affricate Initial Consonants in Chinese and Slovak

Authors: Maria Istvanova

Abstract:

The purpose of the comparative study of the affricate consonants in Chinese and Slovak is to increase the awareness of the main distinguishing features between these two languages taking into consideration this particular group of consonants. This study determines the main difficulties of the Slovak learners in the process of acquiring correct pronunciation of affricate initial consonants in Chinese based on the understanding of the distinguishing features of Chinese and Slovak affricates in combination with the experimental measuring of VOT values. The software tool Praat is used for the analysis of the recorded language samples. The language samples contain recordings of a Chinese native speaker and Slovak students of Chinese with different language proficiency levels. Based on the results of the analysis in Praat, the study identifies erroneous pronunciation and provide clarification of its cause.

Keywords: Chinese, comparative study, initial consonants, pronunciation, Slovak

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1065 Living or Surviving in an Intercultural Context: A Study on Transformative Learning of UK Students in China and Chinese Students in the UK

Authors: Yiran Wang

Abstract:

As international education continues to expand countries providing such opportunities not only benefit but also face challenges. For traditional destinations, including the United States and the United Kingdom, the number of international students has been falling. At the same time emerging economies, such as China, are witnessing a rapid increase in the number of international students enrolled in their universities. China is, therefore, beginning to play an important role in the competitive global market for higher education. This study analyses and compares the experiences of international students in the UK and China using Transformative Learning theory. While there is an extensive literature on both international higher education and also Transformative Learning theory there are currently three contributions this study makes. First, this research applies the theory to two international student groups: UK students in Chinese universities and Chinese students in UK universities.Second, this study includes a focus on the intercultural learning of Chinese doctoral students in the UK filling a gap in current research. Finally, this investigation has extended the very limited number of current research projects on UK students in China. It is generally acknowledged that international students will experience various challenges when they are in a culturally different context. Little research has focused on how, why, and why not learners are transformed through exposure to their new environment. This study applies Transformative Learning theory to address two research questions: first, do UK international students in Chinese universities and Chinese international students in UK universities experience transformational learning in/during their overseas studies? Second, what factors foster or impede international students’ experience of transformative learning? To answer the above questions, semi-structured interviews were used to investigate international students’ academic and social experiences. Based on the insights provided by Mezirow,Taylor,and previous studies on international students, this study argues that international students’ intercultural experience is a complex process.Transformation can occur in various ways and social and personal perspectives underpin the transformative learning of the students studied. Contributing factors include culture shock, educational conventions,the student’s motivation, expectations, personality, gender and previous work experience.The results reflect the significance of differences in teaching styles in the UK and China and the impact this can have on the student teaching and learning process when they move to a new university.

Keywords: intercultural learning, international higher education, transformative learning, UK and Chinese international students

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