Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2999

Search results for: metal removal

2999 Biochar as a Strong Adsorbent for Multiple-Metal Removal from Contaminated Water

Authors: Eman H. El-Gamal, Mai E. Khedr, Randa Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad


In the past few years, biochar - a highly carbon-rich material produced from agro-wastes by pyrolysis process - was used as an effective adsorbent for heavy metals removal from polluted water. In this study, different types of biochar (rice straw 'RSB', corn cob 'CCB', and Jatropha shell 'JSB' were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of heavy metals removal from multiple-metal solutions (Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cd). Kinetics modeling has been examined to illustrate potential adsorption mechanisms. The results showed that the potential removal of metal is dependent on the metal and biochar types. The adsorption capacity of the biochars followed the order: RSB > JSB > CCB. In general, RSB and JSB biochars presented high potential removal of heavy metals from polluted water, which was higher than 90 and 80% after 2 hrs of contact time for all metals, respectively. According to the kinetics data, the pseudo-second-order model was agreed strongly with Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cd adsorption onto the biochars (R2 ≥ 0.97), indicating the dominance of specific adsorption process, i.e., chemisorption. In conclusion, this study revealed that RSB and JSB biochar have the potential to be a strong adsorbent for multiple-metal removal from wastewater.

Keywords: adsorption, biochar, chemisorption, polluted water

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2998 Bioelectrochemical System: An Alternative Technology for Metal Removal from Industrial Wastewater and Factors Affecting Its Efficiency

Authors: A. G. More


Bioelectrochemical system (BES) is an alternative technology for chromium Cr (VI) removal from industrial wastewater to overcome the existing drawbacks of high chemical and energy consumption by conventional metal removal technologies. A well developed anaerobic sludge was developed in laboratory and used in the batch study of BES at different Cr (VI) concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 50 mg/L) with different COD concentrations (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/L). Sodium acetate was used as carbon source, whereas Cr (VI) contaminated synthetic wastewater was prepared and added to the cathode chamber. Initially, operating conditions for the BES experiments were optimized. During the study, optimum cathode pH of 2, whereas optimum HRT of 72 hr was obtained. During the study, cathode pH 2 ± 0.1 showed maximum chromium removal efficicency (CRE) of 88.36 ± 8.16% as compared to other pH (1-7) in the cathode chamber. Maximum CRE obtained was 85.93 ± 9.62% at 40°C within the temperature range of 25°C to 45°C. Conducting the BES experiments at optimized operating conditions, CRE of 90.2 %, 93.7 %, 83.75 % and 74.6 % were obtained at cathodic Cr concentration of 10, 20, 50, and 50 mg/L, respectively. BES is a sustainable, energy efficient technology which can be suitably used for metal removal from industrial wastewater.

Keywords: bioelectrochemical system, metal removal, microorganisms, pH and temperature, substrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2997 Parameters Affecting the Removal of Copper and Cobalt from Aqueous Solution onto Clinoptilolite by Ion-Exchange Process

Authors: John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto


Ion exchange is one of the methods used to remove heavy metal such as copper and cobalt from wastewaters. Parameters affecting the ion-exchange of copper and cobalt aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite are the objectives of this study. Synthetic solutions were prepared with the concentration of 0.02M, 0.06M and 0.1M. The cobalt solution was maintained to 0.02M while varying the copper solution to the above stated concentrations. The clinoptilolite was activated with HCl and H2SO4 for removal efficiency. The pHs of the solutions were found to be acidic hence enhancing the copper and cobalt removal. The natural clinoptilolite performance was also found to be lower compared to the HCl and H2SO4 activated one for the copper removal ranging from 68% to 78% of Cu2+ uptake with the natural clinoptilolite to 66% to 51% with HCl and H2SO4 respectively. It was found that the activated clinoptilolite removed more copper and cobalt than the natural one and found that the electronegativity of the metal plays a role in the metal removal and the clinoptilolite selectivity.

Keywords: clinoptilolite, cobalt and copper, ion-exchange, mass dosage, pH

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2996 A Review on the Mechanism Removal of Pesticides and Heavy Metal from Agricultural Runoff in Treatment Train

Authors: N. A. Ahmad Zubairi, H. Takaijudin, K. W. Yusof


Pesticides have been used widely over the world in agriculture to protect from pests and reduce crop losses. However, it affects the environment with toxic chemicals. Exceed of toxic constituents in the ecosystem will result in bad side effects. The hydrological cycle is related to the existence of pesticides and heavy metal which it can penetrate through varieties of sources into the soil or water bodies, especially runoff. Therefore, proper mechanisms of pesticide and heavy metal removal should be studied to improve the quality of ecosystem free or reduce from unwanted substances. This paper reviews the use of treatment train and its mechanisms to minimize pesticides and heavy metal from agricultural runoff. Organochlorine (OCL) is a common pesticide that was found in the agricultural runoff. OCL is one of the toxic chemicals that can disturb the ecosystem such as inhibiting plants' growth and harm human health by having symptoms as asthma, active cancer cell, vomit, diarrhea, etc. Thus, this unwanted contaminant gives disadvantages to the environment and needs treatment system. Hence, treatment train by bioretention system is suitable because removal efficiency achieves until 90% of pesticide removal with selected vegetated plant and additive.

Keywords: pesticides, heavy metal, agricultural runoff, bioretention, mechanism removal, treatment train

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2995 Synthesis of NiO and ZnO Nanoparticles and Charactiration for the Eradication of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater

Authors: Sadia Ata, Anila Tabassum, Samina ghafoor, Ijaz ul Mohsin, Azam Muktar


Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, in wastewater are considered as the serious environmental problem. Among these heavy metals, Lead or Pb (II) is the most toxic heavy metal. Exposure to lead causes damage of nervous system, mental retardation, renal kidney disease, anemia and cancer in human beings. Adsorption is the most widely used method to remove metal ions based on the physical interaction between metal ions and sorbents. With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized materials are proved to be effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater due to their unique structural properties. The present work mainly focuses on the synthesis of NiO and ZnO nanoparticles for the removal of Lead ions, their preparation, characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, along with adsorption isotherm model and adsorption kinetics to understand the adsorption procedure.

Keywords: heavy metal, adsorption isotherms, nanoparticles, wastewater

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2994 Hybrid Nano Material of Ground Egg Shells with Metal Oxide for Lead Removal

Authors: A. Threepanich, S. Youngme, P. Praipipat


Although ground egg shells had the ability to eliminate lead in water, their efficiency may decrease in a case of contaminating of other cations such as Na⁺, Ca²⁺ in the water. The development of ground egg shells may solve this problem in which metal oxides are a good choice for this case since they have the ability to remove any heavy metals including lead in the water. Therefore, this study attempts to use this advantage for improving ground egg shells for the specific lead removal efficiency in the water. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique was used for the chemical element contents analysis of ground egg shells (GES) and ground egg shells with metal oxide (GESM), and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) technique was used to examine the material sizes. The batch test studies were designed to investigate the factor effects on dose (5, 10, 15 grams), pH (5, 7, 9), and settling time (1, 3, 5 hours) for the lead removal efficiency in the water. The XRF analysis results showed GES contained calcium (Ca) 91.41% and Silicon (Si) 4.03% and GESM contained calcium (Ca) 91.41%, Silicon (Si) 4.03%, and Iron (Fe) 3.05%. TEM results confirmed the sizes of GES and GESM in the range of 1-20 nm. The batch test studies showed the best optimum conditions for the lead removal in the water of GES and GESM in dose, pH, and settling time were 10 grams, pH 9, 5 hours and 5 grams, pH 9, 3 hours, respectively. The competing ions (Na⁺ and Ca²⁺) study reported GESM had the higher % lead removal efficiency than GES at 90% and 60%, respectively. Therefore, this result can confirm that adding of metal oxide to ground egg shells helps to improve the lead removal efficiency in the water.

Keywords: nano material, ground egg shells, metal oxide, lead

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2993 Functionalized Nanoparticles as Sorbents for Removal of Toxic Species

Authors: Jerina Majeed, Jayshree Ramkumar, S. Chandramouleeswaran, A. K. Tyagi


Removal of various toxic species from aqueous streams is of great importance. Sorption is one of the important remediation procedures as it involves the use of cheap and easily available materials. Also the advantage of regeneration of the sorbent involves the possibility of using novel sorbents. Nanosorbents are very important as the removal is based on the surface phenomena and this is greatly affected by surface charge and area. Functionalization has been very important to bring about the removal of metal ions with greater selectivity.

Keywords: mercury, lead, thiol functionalization, ZnO NPs

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2992 Heavy Metal Removal by Green Microalgae Biofilms from Industrial Wastewater

Authors: B. N. Makhanya, S. F. Ndulini, M. S. Mthembu


Heavy metals are hazardous pollutants present in both industrial and domestic wastewater. They are usually disposed directly into natural streams, and when left untreated, they are a major cause of natural degradation and diseases. This study aimed to determine the ability of microalgae to remove heavy metals from coal mine wastewater. The green algae were grown and used for heavy metal removal in a laboratory bench. The physicochemical parameters and heavy metal removal were determined at 24 hours intervals for 5 days. The highest removal efficiencies were found to be 85%, 95%, and 99%, for Fe, Zn, and Cd, respectively. Copper and aluminium both had 100%. The results also indicated that the correlation between physicochemical parameters and all heavy metals were ranging from (0.50 ≤ r ≤ 0.85) for temperature, which indicated moderate positive to a strong positive correlation, pH had a very weak negative to a very weak positive correlation (-0.27 ≤ r ≤ 0.11), and chemical oxygen demand had a fair positive to a very strong positive correlation (0.69 ≤ r ≤ 0.98). The paired t-test indicated the removal of heavy metals to be statistically significant (0.007 ≥ p ≥ 0.000). Therefore, results showed that the microalgae used in the study were capable of removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater using possible mechanisms such as binding and absorption. Compared to the currently used technology for wastewater treatment, the microalgae may be the alternative to industrial wastewater treatment.

Keywords: heavy metals, industrial wastewater, microalgae, physiochemical parameters

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2991 Organic Contaminant Degradation Using H₂O₂ Activated Biochar with Enhanced Persistent Free Radicals

Authors: Kalyani Mer


Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) is one of the most efficient and commonly used oxidants in in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants. In the present study, we investigated the activation of H₂O₂ by heavy metal (nickel and lead metal ions) loaded biochar for phenol degradation in an aqueous solution (concentration = 100 mg/L). It was found that H₂O₂ can be effectively activated by biochar, which produces hydroxyl (•OH) radicals owing to an increase in the formation of persistent free radicals (PFRs) on biochar surface. Ultrasound treated (30s duration) biochar, chemically activated by 30% phosphoric acid and functionalized by diethanolamine (DEA) was used for the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It was found that modified biochar could remove almost 60% of nickel in eight hours; however, for lead, the removal efficiency reached up to 95% for the same time duration. The heavy metal loaded biochar was further used for the degradation of phenol in the absence and presence of H₂O₂ (20 mM), within 4 hours of reaction time. The removal efficiency values for phenol in the presence of H₂O₂ were 80.3% and 61.9%, respectively, by modified biochar loaded with nickel and lead metal ions. These results suggested that the biochar loaded with nickel exhibits a better removal capacity towards phenol than the lead loaded biochar when used in H₂O₂ based oxidation systems. Meanwhile, control experiments were set in the absence of any activating biochar, and the removal efficiency was found to be 19.1% when only H₂O₂ was added in the reaction solution. Overall, the proposed approach serves a dual purpose of using biochar for heavy metal ion removal and treatment of organic contaminants by further using the metal loaded biochar for H₂O₂ activation in ISCO processes.

Keywords: biochar, ultrasound, heavy metals, in-situ chemical oxidation, chemical activation

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2990 A Review of Recent Studies on Advanced Technologies for Water Treatment

Authors: Deniz Sahin


Growing concern for the presence and contamination of heavy metals in our water supplies has steadily increased over the last few years. A number of specialized technologies including precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange, cementation, electrochemical operations, have been developed for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. However, these technologies have many limitations in the application, such as high cost, low separation efficiency, Recently, numerous approaches have been investigated to overcome these difficulties and membrane filtration, advanced oxidation technologies (AOPs), and UV irradiation etc. are sufficiently developed to be considered as alternative treatments. Many factors come into play when selecting wastewater treatment technology, such as type of wastewater, operating conditions, economics etc. This study describes these various treatment technologies employed for heavy metal removal. Advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are also compared to highlight their current limitations and future research needs. For example, we investigated the applicability of the ultrafiltration technology for treating of heavy metal ions (e.g., Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II)) from synthetic wastewater solutions. Results shown that complete removal of metal ions, could be achieved.

Keywords: heavy metal, treatment methodologies, water, water treatment

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2989 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai


This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.

Keywords: heavy metal, wastewater, bioaccumulation, biosorption

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2988 Utilization of Fishbone for the Removal of Nickel Ions from Aqueous Media

Authors: Bukunola A.Oguntade, Abdul- Azeez A. Oderinde


Fishbone is a type of waste generated from food and food processing industries. Fishbone wastes are usually treated as the source of organic matter for the by-production. It is a rich source of hydroxyapatite (HAP). In this study, the adsorption behavior of fishbone was examined in a batch system as an economically viable adsorbent for the removal of Ni⁺² ions from aqueous solution. The powdered fishbone was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron microscope (SEM). The study investigated the influence of adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration on the removal of Nickel (II) ions at room temperature. The batch kinetics study showed that the optimum adsorption of Ni(II) was 98% at pH 7, metal ion concentration of 30 mg/L. The results obtained from the experimental work showed that fishbone can be used as an adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

Keywords: adsorption, aqueous media, fishbone, kinetic study

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2987 Studies of Heavy Metal Ions Removal Efficiency in the Presence of Anionic Surfactant Using Ion Exchangers

Authors: Anna Wolowicz, Katarzyna Staszak, Zbigniew Hubicki


Nowadays heavy metal ions as well as surfactants are widely used throughout the world due to their useful properties. The consequence of such widespread use is their significant production. On the other hand, the increasing demand for surfactants and heavy metal ions results in production of large amounts of wastewaters which are discharged to the environment from mining, metal plating, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, fertilizer, paper, pesticide and electronic industries, pigments producing, petroleum refining and from autocatalyst, fibers, food, polymer industries etc. Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable in the environment, cable of accumulation in living organisms and organs, toxic and carcinogenic. On the other hand, not only heavy metal ions but also surfactants affect the purity of water and soils. Some of surfactants are also toxic, harmful and dangerous because they are able to penetrate into surface waters causing foaming, blocked diffusion of oxygen from the atmosphere and act as emulsifiers of hydrophobic substances and increase solubility of many the dangerous pollutants. Among surfactants the anionic ones dominate and their share in the global production of surfactants is around 50 ÷ 60%. Due to the negative impact of heavy metals and surfactants on aquatic ecosystems and living organisms, removal and monitoring of their concentration in the environment is extremely important. Surfactants and heavy metal ions removal can be achieved by different biological and physicochemical methods. The adsorption as well as the ion-exchange methods play here a significant role. The aim of this study was heavy metal ions removal from aqueous solutions using different types of ion exchangers in the presence of anionic surfactants. Preliminary studies of copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cobalt(II) removal from acidic solutions using ion exchangers (Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220, Lewatit MonoPlus SR 7, Purolite A 400 TL, Purolite A 830, Purolite S 984, Dowex PSR 2, Dowex PSR3, Lewatit AF-5) allowed to select the most effective ones for the above mentioned sorbates and then to checking their removal efficiency in the presence of anionic surfactants. As it was found out Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220 of the chelating type, show the highest sorption capacities for copper(II) ions in comparison with the other ion exchangers under discussion, e.g. 9.98 mg/g (0.1 M HCl); 9.12 mg/g (6 M HCl). Moreover, cobalt(II) removal efficiency was the highest in 0.1 M HCl using also Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220 (6.9 mg/g) similar to zinc(II) (9.1 mg/g) and nickiel(II) (6.2 mg/g). As the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used and surfactant parameters such as viscosity (η), density (ρ) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) were obtained: η = 1.13 ± 0,01 mPa·s; ρ = 999.76 mg/cm3; CMC = 2.26 g/cm3. The studies of copper(II) removal from acidic solutions in the presence of SDS of different concentration show negligible effects on copper(II) removal efficiency. The sorption capacity of Cu(II) from 0.1 M acidic solution of 500 mg/L initial concentration was equal to 46.8 mg/g whereas in the presence of SDS 45.3 mg/g (0.1 mg SDS/L), 47.1 mg/g (0.5 mg SDS/L), 46.6 mg/g (1 mg SDS/L).

Keywords: anionic surfactant, heavy metal ions, ion exchanger, removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
2986 Polymerization: An Alternative Technology for Heavy Metal Removal

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud


In this paper, the adsorption performance of a novel environmental friendly material, calcium alginate gel beads as a non-conventional technique for the successful removal of copper ions from aqueous solution are reported on. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity and process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosages, initial metal ion concentrations, stirring rates and contact times. It was observed that the optimum pH for maximum copper ions adsorption was at pH 5.0. For all contact times, an increase in copper ions concentration resulted in decrease in the percent of copper ions removal. Langmuir and Freundlich's isothermal models were used to describe the experimental adsorption. Adsorbent was characterization using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Keywords: adsorption, alginate polymer, isothermal models, equilibrium

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
2985 Removal of Heavy Metals Pb, Zn and Cu from Sludge Waste of Paper Industries Using Biosurfactant

Authors: Nurul Hidayati


Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as metals. Sludge waste of paper industries as toxic and hazardous material from specific source contains Pb, Zn, and Cu metal from waste soluble ink. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. Soil washing is among the methods available to remove heavy metal from sediments. The purpose of this research is to study effectiveness of biosurfactant with concentration = CMC for the removal of heavy metals, lead, zinc and copper in batch washing test under four different biosurfactant production by microbial origin. Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3K, Acinetobacter sp, and Actinobacillus sp was grown on mineral salt medium that had been already added with 2% concentration of molasses that it is a low cost application. The samples were kept in a shaker 120 rpm at room temperature for 3 days. Supernatants and sediments of sludge were separated by using a centrifuge and samples from supernatants were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The highest removal of Pb was up to 14,04% by Acinetobacter sp. Biosurfactant of Pseudomonas putida T1(8) have the highest removal for Zn and Cu up to 6,5% and 2,01% respectively. Biosurfactants have a role for removal process of the metals, including wetting, contact of biosurfactant to the surface of the sediments and detachment of the metals from the sediment. Biosurfactant has proven its ability as a washing agent in heavy metals removal from sediments, but more research is needed to optimize the process of removal heavy metals.

Keywords: biosurfactant, removal of heavy metals, sludge waste, paper industries

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2984 Covalent Binding of Cysteine to a Sol-Gel Material for Cadmium Biosorption from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Claudiu Marcu, Cristina Paul, Adelina Andelescu, Corneliu Mircea Davidescu, Francisc Péter


Heavy metal pollution has become a more serious environmental problem in the last several decades as a result of its toxicity and insusceptibility to the environment. Methods for removing metal ions from aqueous solution mainly consist of physical, chemical and biochemical procedures. Biosorption is defined as the removal of metal or metalloid species, compounds and particulates from solution by a biological material. Biosorption represents a very attractive method for the removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous effluents because it uses the ability of various biomass to bind the metal ions without the risk of releasing other toxic chemical compounds into the environment. The problem with using biomass or living cells as biosorbents is that their regeneration/reuse is often either impossible or very laborious. One of the most common chelating group found in biosorbents is the thiol group in cysteine. Therefore, we immobilized cysteine using covalent binding using glutaraldehyde as a linker on a synthetic sol-gel support obtained using 3-amino-propyl-trimetoxysilane and trimetoxysilane as precursors. The obtained adsorbents were used for removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions and the removal capacity was investigated in relation to the composition of the sol-gel hybrid composite, the loading of the biomolecule and the physical parameters of the biosorption process. In the same conditions, the bare sol-gel support without cysteine had no Cd removal effect, while the adsorbent with cysteine had an adsorption capacity up to 25.8 mg Cd/g adsorbent at pH 2.0 and 119 mg Cd/g adsorbent at pH 6.6, depending on cadmium concentration and adsorption conditions. We used atomic adsorption spectrometry to assess the cadmium concentration in the samples after the biosorbtion process. The parameters for the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms where calculated from plotting the results of the adsorption experiments. The results for cysteine immobilization show a good loading capacity of the sol-gel support which indicates it could be used to immobilize metal binding proteins and by doing so boosting the heavy metal adsorption capacity of the biosorbent.

Keywords: biosorbtion, cadmium, cysteine covalent binding, sol-gel

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2983 Synergistic Sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) onto Sweet Potato Vine from Binary Mixtures Cr(VI)-Cu(II)

Authors: Chang Liu, Nuria Fiol, Isabel Villaescusa, Jordi Poch


Over the last decades, biosorption has been an alternative to costly wastewaters treatment for metal removal. Most of the literature on metal biosorption was devoted to studying of single metal ions but nowadays studies on multi-components biosorption are booming. Hexavalent chromium is usually found in mixtures with divalent metal ions in industries wastewaters. However, studies on the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and divalent metals are hardly found and the cooperative or competitive mechanism governing each metal ions sorption is still unclear. In this work, simultaneous sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from their binary mixtures by using sweet potato vine (SPV) was investigated. Sweet potato is one of the four major grain crops in China. Each year about 2000 tons of SPV are generated as by-products. SPV could be a low-cost biosorbent for metal ions due to its rich in cellulose and lignin. In this work, the sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from their binary mixtures solutions was studied by using SPV sorbent. Equilibrium studies were carried out in binary mixtures in which Cr(VI) and Cu(II) concentration was both varied between 0.1 mM and 0.3 mM, Cr(VI) and Cu(II) single solutions were also prepared as comparison. All the experiments were performed at pH 3±0.05 under 30±2°C for 7 days to make sure sorption achieved equilibrium. Results showed that (i) chromium was partially (10.93%-42.04%) eliminated under studied conditions through reduction and sorption of hexavalent and trivalent forms. The presence of Cu(II) exerts a synergistic effect on the overall sorption process in all the cases of the 0.1-0.3 mM binary mixtures concentration range. (ii) Cr(VI) removal by SPV is favoured by the presence of Cu(II) in solution, because more protons needed for Cr(VI) reduction are available due to Cu(II)-proton competition; however sorption of the formed Cr(III) is unfavoured as a result of the competition between Cr(III) and Cu(II) for protons and sorbent active sites. (iii) Copper was partially (9.26%-13.91%) sorbed onto SPV under studied conditions. The presence of Cr(VI) in binary mixtures also exerts a synergistic effect on the Cu(II) removal in all the cases of the 0.1-0.3 mM binary mixtures concentration range. The results of the present work indicate that sweet potato vine can be successfully employed for the simultaneously removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in binary mixtures, taking advantage of the synergistic effect provoked by one of the metal ion to each other, even though the acquisition of higher removal yields has to be further investigated. Acknowledgements—This work has been financially supported by Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of PRC (Anhui15), Education Department of Anhui Province (KJ2016A270) and Anhui Normal University (2015rcpy33, 2014bsqdjj53).

Keywords: sweet potato vine, chromium reduction, divalent metal, synergistic sorption

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2982 NiO-CeO2 Nano-Catalyst for the Removal of Priority Organic Pollutants from Wastewater through Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation at Mild Conditions

Authors: Anushree, Chhaya Sharma, Satish Kumar


Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is normally carried out at elevated temperature and pressure. This work investigates the potential of NiO-CeO2 nano-catalyst in CWAO of paper industry wastewater under milder operating conditions of 90 °C and 1 atm. The NiO-CeO2 nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), before and after use, in order to study any crystallographic change during experiment. The extent of metal-leaching from the catalyst was determined using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The catalytic activity of nano-catalysts was studied in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halides (AOX) and chlorophenolics (CHPs) removal. Interestingly, mixed oxide catalysts exhibited higher activity than the corresponding single-metal oxides. The maximum removal efficiency was achieved with Ce40Ni60 catalyst. The results indicate that the CWAO process is efficient in removing the priority organic pollutants from wastewater, as it exhibited up to 59% TOC, 55% AOX, and 54 % CHPs removal.

Keywords: catalysis, nano-materials, NiO-CeO2, paper mill, wastewater, wet air oxidation

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2981 Removal Efficiency of Some Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution on Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: Gehan El-Sayed Sharaf El-Deen


In this study, super paramagnetic iron-oxide nano- materials (SPMIN) were investigated for removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solution. The magnetic nanoparticles of 12 nm were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Batch experiments carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of metal ions, the dosage of SPMIN, desorption,pH value of solutions. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH dependent, which made the nanoparticles selectively adsorb these three metals from wastewater. Maximum sorption for all the studies cations obtained at the first half hour and reached equilibrium at one hour. The adsorption data of heavy metals studied were well fitted with the Langmuir isotherm and the equilibrium data show the percent removal of Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ were 96.5%, 80% and 75%, respectively. Desorption studies in acidic medium indicate that Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ were removed by 89%, 2% and 18% from the first cycle. Regeneration studies indicated that SPMIN nanoparticles undergoing successive adsorption–desorption processes for Zn2+ ions retained original metal removal capacity. The results revealed that the most prominent advantage of the prepared SPMIN adsorbent consisted in their separation convenience compared to the other adsorbents and SPMIN has high efficiency for removal the investigated metals from aqueous solution.

Keywords: heavy metals, magnetic nanoparticles, removal efficiency, Batch technique

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2980 Structural and Ion Exchange Studies of Terpolymer Resin Derived from 4, 4'-Biphenol-4,4'-Oxydianiline-Formaldehyde

Authors: Pawan P. Kalbende, Anil B. Zade


A novel terpolymer resin has been synthesized by condensation polymerization reaction of 4,4’-biphenol and 4,4’-oxydianiline with formaldehyde in presence of 2M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. Composition of resin was determined on the basis of their elemental analysis and further characterized by UV-Visible, infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to confine the most probable structure of synthesized terpolymer. Newly synthesized terpolymer was proved to be a selective chelating ion-exchanger for certain metal ions and were studied for Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions using their metal nitrate solutions. A batch equilibrium method was employed to study the selectivity of metal ions uptake involving the measurements of the distribution of a given metal ion between the terpolymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range, shaking time and in media of different electrolytes at different ionic strengths. Distribution ratios of metal ions were found to be increased by rising pH of the solutions. Hence, it can be used to recover certain metal ions from waste water for the purpose of purification of water and removal of iron from boiler water.

Keywords: terpolymers, ion-exchangers, distribution ratio, metal ion uptake

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2979 Bio-Electrochemical Process Coupled with MnO2 Nanowires for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: A. Giwa, S. M. Jung, W. Fang, J. Kong, S. W. Hasan


MnO2 nanowires were developed as filtration media for wastewater treatment that uniquely combines several advantages. The resulting material demonstrated strong capability to remove the pollution of heavy metal ions and organic contents in water. In addition, the manufacture process of such material is practical and economical. In this work, MnO2 nanowires were integrated with the state-of-art bio-electrochemical system for wastewater treatment, to overcome problems currently encountered with organic, inorganic, heavy metal, and microbe removal, and to minimize the unit footprint (land/space occupation) at low cost. Results showed that coupling the bio-electrochemical with MnO2 resulted in very encouraging results with higher removal efficiencies of such pollutants.

Keywords: bio-electrochemical, nanowires, novel, wastewater

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2978 Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Ana M. Guzman, Claudia M. Rodriguez, Pedro F. B. Brandao, Elianna Castillo


Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogenic metal to which humans are exposed mainly due to its presence in the food chain. Lactic acid bacteria have the capability to bind cadmium and thus the potential to be used as probiotics to treat this metal toxicity in the human body. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of native lactic acid bacteria, isolated from Colombian fermented cocoa, to remove cadmium from aqueous solutions. An initial screening was made with the Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1055 type strain, and Cd was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Lb. plantarum JCM 1055 was grown in ½ MRS medium to follow growth kinetics during 32 h at 37 °C, by measuring optical density at 600 nm. Washed cells, grown for 18 h, were adjusted to obtain dry biomass concentrations of 1.5 g/L and 0.5 g/L for removal assays in 10 mL of Cd(NO₃)₂ solution with final concentrations of 10 mg/Kg or 1.0 mg/Kg. The assays were performed at two different pH values (2.0 and 5.0), and results showed better adsorption abilities at higher pH. After incubation for 1 h at 37 °C and 150 rpm, the removal percentages for 10 mg/Kg Cd with 1.5 g/L and 0.5 g/L biomass concentration at pH 5.0 were, respectively, 71% and 50%, while the efficiency was 9.15 and 4.52 mg Cd/g dry biomass, respectively. For the assay with 1.0 mg/Kg Cd at pH 5.0, the removal was 100% and 98%, respectively for the same biomass concentrations, and the efficiency was 1.63 and 0.56 mg Cd/g dry biomass, respectively. These results suggest the efficiency of Lactobacillus strains to remove cadmium and their potential to be used as probiotics to treat cadmium toxicity and reduce its accumulation in the human body.

Keywords: cadmium removal, fermented cocoa, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics

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2977 Removal of Toxic Ni++ Ions from Wastewater by Nano-Bentonite

Authors: A. M. Ahmed, Mona A. Darwish


Removal of Ni++ ions from aqueous solution by sorption ontoNano-bentonite was investigated. Experiments were carried out as a function amount of Nano-bentonite, pH, concentration of metal, constant time, agitation speed and temperature. The adsorption parameter of metal ions followed the Langmuir Freundlich adsorption isotherm were applied to analyze adsorption data. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Thermodynamics parameters e.g.ΔG*, ΔS °and ΔH ° of adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Langmuir and Freundich adsorption isotherm models were applied to analyze adsorption data and both were found to be applicable to the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters, e.g., ∆G °, ∆S ° and ∆H ° of the on-going adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. Finally, it can be seen that Bentonite was found to be more effective for the removal of Ni (II) same with some experimental conditions.

Keywords: waste water, nickel, bentonite, adsorption

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2976 The Influence of Clayey Pellet Size on Adsorption Efficiency of Metal Ions Removal from Waste Printing Developer

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua, Oros B. Ivana, Kecić S. Vesna


The adsorption efficiency of fired clayey pellets of 5 and 8 mm diameter size for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions removal from a waste printing developer was studied. In order to investigate the influence of contact time, adsorbent mass and pellet size on the adsorption efficiency the batch mode was carried out. Faster uptake of copper ions was obtained with the fired clay pellets of 5 mm diameter size within 30 minutes. The pellets of 8 mm diameter size showed the higher equilibrium time (60 to 75 minutes) for copper and zinc ions. The results pointed out that adsorption efficiency increases with the increase of adsorbent mass. The maximal efficiency is different for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions due to the pellet size. Therefore, the fired clay pellets of 5 mm diameter size present an effective adsorbent for Cu(II) ions removal (adsorption efficiency is 63.6%), whereas the fired clay pellets of 8 mm diameter size are the best alternative for Zn(II) ions removal (adsorption efficiency is 92.8%) from a waste printing developer.

Keywords: adsorption efficiency, clayey pellet, metal ions, waste printing developer

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2975 ED Machining of Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu, Ajay Batish, Sanjeev Kumar


This paper reports the optimal process conditions for machining of three different types of metal matrix composites (MMCs): 65vol%SiC/A356.2; 10vol%SiC-5vol%quartz/Al and 30vol%SiC/A359 using PMEDM process. Metal removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), surface roughness (SR) and surface integrity (SI) were evaluated after each trial and contributing process parameters were identified. The four responses were then collectively optimized using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and optimal process conditions were identified for each type of MMCS. The density of reinforced particles shields the matrix material from spark energy hence the high MRR and SR was observed with lowest reinforced particle. TWR was highest with Cu-Gr electrode due to disintegration of the weakly bonded particles in the composite electrode. Each workpiece was examined for surface integrity and ranked as per severity of surface defects observed and their rankings were used for arriving at the most optimal process settings for each workpiece.

Keywords: metal matrix composites (MMCS), metal removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), surface integrity (SI), tool wear rate (TWR), technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS)

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2974 Coagulation-flocculation Process with Metal Salts, Synthetic Polymers and Biopolymers for the Removal of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) from Wastewater

Authors: Andrew Hargreaves, Peter Vale, Jonathan Whelan, Carlos Constantino, Gabriela Dotro, Pablo Campo


As a consequence of their potential to cause harm, there are strong regulatory drivers that require metals to be removed as part of the wastewater treatment process. Bioavailability-based standards have recently been specified for copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) and are expected to reduce acceptable metal concentrations. In order to comply with these standards, wastewater treatment works may require new treatment types to enhance metal removal and it is, therefore, important to examine potential treatment options. A substantial proportion of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in effluent is adsorbed to and/or complexed with macromolecules (eg. proteins, polysaccharides, aminosugars etc.) that are present in the colloidal size fraction. Therefore, technologies such as coagulation-flocculation (CF) that are capable of removing colloidal particles have good potential to enhance metals removal from wastewater. The present study investigated the effectiveness of CF at removing trace metals from humus effluent using the following coagulants; ferric chloride (FeCl3), the synthetic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI), and the biopolymers chitosan and Tanfloc. Effluent samples were collected from a trickling filter treatment works operating in the UK. Using jar tests, the influence of coagulant dosage and the velocity and time of the slow mixing stage were studied. Chitosan and PEI had a limited effect on the removal of trace metals (<35%). FeCl3 removed 48% Cu, 56% Pb and 41% Zn at the recommended dose of 0.10 mg/L. At the recommended dose of 0.25 mg/L Tanfloc removed 77% Cu, 68% Pb, 18% Ni and 42% Zn. The dominant mechanism for particle removal by FeCl3 was enmeshment in the precipitates (i.e. sweep flocculation) whereas, for Tanfloc, inter-particle bridging was the dominant removal mechanism. Overall, FeCl3 and Tanfloc were found to be most effective at removing trace metals from wastewater.

Keywords: coagulation-flocculation, jar test, trace metals, wastewater

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2973 Application of Nanoparticles on Surface of Commercial Carbon-Based Adsorbent for Removal of Contaminants from Water

Authors: Ahmad Kayvani Fard, Gordon Mckay, Muataz Hussien


Adsorption/sorption is believed to be one of the optimal processes for the removal of heavy metals from water due to its low operational and capital cost as well as its high removal efficiency. Different materials have been reported in literature as adsorbent for heavy metal removal in waste water such as natural sorbents, organic polymers (synthetic) and mineral materials (inorganic). The selection of adsorbents and development of new functional materials that can achieve good removal of heavy metals from water is an important practice and depends on many factors, such as the availability of the material, cost of material, and material safety and etc. In this study we reported the synthesis of doped Activated carbon and Carbon nanotube (CNT) with different loading of metal oxide nanoparticles such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles and their application in removal of heavy metals, hydrocarbon, and organics from waste water. Commercial AC and CNT with different loadings of mentioned nanoparticle were prepared and effect of pH, adsorbent dosage, sorption kinetic, and concentration effects are studied and optimum condition for removal of heavy metals from water is reported. The prepared composite sorbent is characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption technique, and Zeta potential. The composite materials showed higher removal efficiency and superior adsorption capacity compared to commercially available carbon based adsorbent. The specific surface area of AC increased by 50% reaching up to 2000 m2/g while the CNT specific surface area of CNT increased by more than 8 times reaching value of 890 m2/g. The increased surface area is one of the key parameters along with surface charge of the material determining the removal efficiency and removal efficiency. Moreover, the surface charge density of the impregnated CNT and AC have enhanced significantly where can benefit the adsorption process. The nanoparticles also enhance the catalytic activity of material and reduce the agglomeration and aggregation of material which provides more active site for adsorbing the contaminant from water. Some of the results for treating wastewater includes 100% removal of BTEX, arsenic, strontium, barium, phenolic compounds, and oil from water. The results obtained are promising for the use of AC and CNT loaded with metal oxide nanoparticle in treatment and pretreatment of waste water and produced water before desalination process. Adsorption can be very efficient with low energy consumption and economic feasibility.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, activated carbon, adsorption, heavy metal, water treatment

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2972 Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution by Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration Using Unmodified Starch as Biopolymer

Authors: Nurul Huda Baharuddin, Nik Meriam Nik Sulaiman, Mohammed Kheireddine Aroua


The effects of pH, polymer concentration, and metal ions feed concentration for four selected heavy metals Zn (II), Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were tested by using Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration (PEUF). An alternative biopolymer namely unmodified starch is proposed as a binding reagent in consequences, as compared to commonly used water-soluble polymers namely polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) in the removal of selected four heavy metal ions. The speciation species profiles of four selected complexes ions namely Zn (II), Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI) and the present of hydroxides ions (OH-) in variously charged ions were investigated by available software at certain pH range. In corresponds to identify the potential of complexation behavior between metal ion-polymers, potentiometric titration studies were obtained at first before carried out experimental works. Experimental works were done using ultrafiltration systems obtained by laboratory ultrafiltration bench scale equipped with 10 kDa polysulfone hollow fiber membrane. Throughout the laboratory works, the rejection coefficient and permeate flux were found to be significantly affected by the main operating parameter, namely the effects of pH, polymer composition and metal ions concentrations. The interaction of complexation between two binding polymers namely unmodified starch and PEG were occurred due to physical attraction of metal ions to the polymer on the molecular surface with high possibility of chemical occurrence. However, these selected metal ions are mainly complexes by polymer functional groups whenever there is interaction with PEI polymer. For study of single metal ions solutions, Zn (II) ions' rejections approaching over 90% were obtained at pH 7 for each tested polymer. This behavior was similar to Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI); where the rejections were obtained at lower acidic pH and increased at neutral pH of 7. Different behavior was found by Cr (VI) ions where a high rejection was only achieved at acidic pH region with PEI. Polymer concentration and metal ions concentration are found to have a significant effect on rejections. For mixed metal ion solutions, the behavior of metal ion rejections was similar to single metal ion solutions for investigation on the effects of pH. Rejection values were high at pH 7 for Zn (II) pH 7 for Zn (II) and Cr (III) ions, corresponding to higher rejections with unmodified starch. Pb (II) ions obtained high rejections when tested with PEG whenever carried out in mixed metal ion solutions. High Cr (VI) ions' rejection was found with PEI in single and mixed metal ions solutions at neutral pH range. The influence of starch’s granule structure towards the rejections of these four selected metal ions is found to be attracted in a non-ionic manner. No significant effects on permeate flux were obtained when tested at different pH ranges, polymer concentrations and metal ions feed either by single or mixtures metal ions solutions. Canizares Model was employed as the theoretical model to predict permeate flux and metal ions retention on the study of heavy metal ions removal.

Keywords: polyethyleneimine, polyethylene glycol, polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration, unmodified starch

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2971 Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Low Cost Adsorbents

Authors: Azam Tabatabaee, Fereshteh Dastgoshadeh, Akram Tabatabaee


This paper describes the use of by-products as adsorbents for removing heavy metals from aqueous effluent solutions. Products of almond skin, walnut shell, saw dust, rice bran and egg shell were evaluated as metal ion adsorbents in aqueous solutions. A comparative study was done with commercial adsorbents like ion exchange resins and activated carbon too. Batch experiments were investigated to determine the affinity of all of biomasses for, Cd(ΙΙ), Cr(ΙΙΙ), Ni(ΙΙ), and Pb(ΙΙ) metal ions at pH 5. The rate of metal ion removal in the synthetic wastewater by the biomass was evaluated by measuring final concentration of synthetic wastewater. At a concentration of metal ion (50 mg/L), egg shell adsorbed high levels (98.6 – 99.7%) of Pb(ΙΙ) and Cr(ΙΙΙ) and walnut shell adsorbed high levels (35.3 – 65.4%) of Ni(ΙΙ) and Cd(ΙΙ). In this study, it has been shown that by-products were excellent adsorbents for removal of toxic ions from wastewater with efficiency comparable to commercially available adsorbents, but at a reduced cost. Also statistical studies using Independent Sample t Test and ANOVA Oneway for statistical comparison between various elements adsorption showed that there isn’t a significant difference in some elements adsorption percentage by by-products and commercial adsorbents.

Keywords: adsorbents, heavy metals, commercial adsorbents, wastewater, by-products

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2970 Chromium (VI) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ion Exchange Processing Using Eichrom 1-X4, Lewatit Monoplus M800 and Lewatit A8071 Resins: Batch Ion Exchange Modeling

Authors: Havva Tutar Kahraman, Erol Pehlivan


In recent years, environmental pollution by wastewater rises very critically. Effluents discharged from various industries cause this challenge. Different type of pollutants such as organic compounds, oxyanions, and heavy metal ions create this threat for human bodies and all other living things. However, heavy metals are considered one of the main pollutant groups of wastewater. Therefore, this case creates a great need to apply and enhance the water treatment technologies. Among adopted treatment technologies, adsorption process is one of the methods, which is gaining more and more attention because of its easy operations, the simplicity of design and versatility. Ion exchange process is one of the preferred methods for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It has found widespread application in water remediation technologies, during the past several decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to the removal of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), from aqueous solutions. Cr(VI) is considered as a well-known highly toxic metal which modifies the DNA transcription process and causes important chromosomic aberrations. The treatment and removal of this heavy metal have received great attention to maintaining its allowed legal standards. The purpose of the present paper is an attempt to investigate some aspects of the use of three anion exchange resins: Eichrom 1-X4, Lewatit Monoplus M800 and Lewatit A8071. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of these three commercial resins in the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The chromium solutions used in the experiments were synthetic solutions. The parameters that affect the adsorption, solution pH, adsorbent concentration, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were performed at room temperature. High adsorption rates of metal ions for the three resins were reported at the onset, and then plateau values were gradually reached within 60 min. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) adsorption was found as 3.0 for these three resins. The adsorption decreases with the increase in pH for three anion exchangers. The suitability of Freundlich, Langmuir and Scatchard models were investigated for Cr(VI)-resin equilibrium. Results, obtained in this study, demonstrate excellent comparability between three anion exchange resins indicating that Eichrom 1-X4 is more effective and showing highest adsorption capacity for the removal of Cr(VI) ions. Investigated anion exchange resins in this study can be used for the efficient removal of chromium from water and wastewater.

Keywords: adsorption, anion exchange resin, chromium, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 185