Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3510

Search results for: metal organic frameworks

3510 Temperature Effects on CO₂ Intake of MIL-101 and ZIF-301

Authors: M. Ba-Shammakh


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for CO₂ capture and they have high adsorption capacity towards CO₂. In this study, two different metal organic frameworks (i.e. MIL-101 and ZIF-301) were tested for different flue gases that have different CO₂ fractions. In addition, the effect of temperature was investigated for MIL-101 and ZIF-301. The results show that MIL-101 performs well for pure CO₂ stream while its intake decreases dramatically for other flue gases that have variable CO₂ fraction ranging from 5 to 15 %. The second material (ZIF-301) showed a better result in all flue gases and higher CO₂ intake compared to MIL-101 even at high temperature.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs), MIL-101, ZIF-301

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3509 Nanoscale Metal-Organic Framework Coated Carbon Nitride Nanosheet for Combination Cancer Therapy

Authors: Rui Chen, Jinfeng Zhang, Chun-Sing Lee


In the past couple of decades, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have been highlighted as promising delivery platforms for biomedical applications, which combine many potent features such as high loading capacity, progressive biodegradability and low cytotoxicity. While NMOF has been extensively used as carriers for drugs of different modalities, so far there is no report on exploiting the advantages of NMOF for combination therapy. Herein, we prepared core-shell nanoparticles, where each nanoparticle contains a single graphitic-phase carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheet encapsulated by a zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) shell. The g-C3N4 nanosheets are effective visible-light photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). When hosting DOX (doxorubicin), the as-synthesized core-shell nanoparticles could realize combinational photo-chemo therapy and provide dual-color fluorescence imaging. Therefore, we expect NMOFs-based core-shell nanoparticles could provide a new way to achieve much-enhanced cancer therapy.

Keywords: carbon nitride, combination therapy, drug delivery, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks

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3508 Microporous 3D Aluminium Metal-Organic Frameworks in Chitosan Based Mixed Matrix Membrane for Ethanol/Water Separation

Authors: Madhan Vinu, Yue-Chun Jiang, Yi-Feng Lin, Chia-Her Lin


An effective approach to enhance the ethanol/water pervaporation of mixed matrix membranes prepared from three microporous aluminium based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Al(OH)(BPDC)] (DUT-5), [Al(OH)(NDC)] (DUT-4) and [Al(OH)(BzPDC)] (CAU-8) have been synthesized by employing solvothermal reactions. Interestingly, all Al-MOFs showed attractive surface area with microporous 12.3, 10.2 and 8.0 Å for DUT-5, DUT-4 and CAU-8 MOFs which are confirmed through N₂ gas sorption measurements. All the microporous compounds are highly stable as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis and temperature-dependent powder X-ray diffraction measurements. Furthermore, the synthesized microporous MOF particles of DUT-5, DUT-4, and CAU-8 were successfully incorporated into biological chitosan (CS) membranes to form [email protected], [email protected], and [email protected] membranes. The different MOF loadings such as 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 wt% in CS networks have been prepared, and the same were used to separate mixtures of water and ethanol at 25ºC in the pervaporation process. In particular, when 0.15 wt% of DUT-5 was loaded, [email protected] membrane displayed excellent permeability and selectivity in ethanol/water separation than that of the previous literature. These CS based membranes separation through functionalized microporous MOFs reveals the key governing factors that are essential for designing novel MOF membranes for bioethanol purification.

Keywords: metal-organic framework, microporous materials, separation, chitosan membranes

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3507 Layer by Layer Coating of Zinc Oxide/Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposite on Ceramic Support for Solvent/Solvent Separation Using Pervaporation Method

Authors: S. A. A. Nabeela Nasreen, S. Sundarrajan, S. A. Syed Nizar, Seeram Ramakrishna


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable interest due to its diverse pore size tunability, fascinating topologies and extensive uses in fields such as catalysis, membrane separation, chemical sensing, etc. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a class of MOF with porous crystals containing extended three-dimensional structures of tetrahedral metal ions (e.g., Zn) bridged by Imidazolate (Im). Selected ZIFs are used to separate solvent/solvent mixtures. A layer by layer formation of the nanocomposite of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZIF on a ceramic support using a solvothermal method was engaged and tested for target solvent/solvent separation. Metal oxide layer was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM to confirm the smooth and continuous coating for the separation process. The chemical composition of ZIF films was studied by using X-Ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The obtained ceramic tube with metal oxide and ZIF layer coating were tested for its packing density, thickness, distribution of seed layers and variation of permeation rate of solvent mixture (isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Pervaporation technique was used for the separation to achieve a high permeation rate with separation ratio of > 99.5% of the solvent mixture.

Keywords: metal oxide, membrane, pervaporation, solvothermal, ZIF

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3506 Study of Lanthanoide Organic Frameworks Properties and Synthesis: Multicomponent Ligands

Authors: Ayla Roberta Galaco, Juliana Fonseca De Lima, Osvaldo Antonio Serra


Coordination polymers, also known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or lanthanoide organic frameworks (LOFs) have been reported due of their promising applications in gas storage, separation, catalysis, luminescence, magnetism, drug delivery, and so on. As a type of organic–inorganic hybrid materials, the properties of coordination polymers could be chosen by deliberately selecting the organic and inorganic components. LOFs have received considerable attention because of their properties such as porosity, luminescence, and magnetism. Methods such as solvothermal synthesis are important as a strategy to control the structural and morphological properties as well as the composition of the target compounds. In this work the first solvothermal synthesis was employed to obtain the compound [Y0.4,Yb0.4,Er0.2(dmf)(for)(H2O)(tft)], by using terephthalic acid (tft) and oxalic acid, decomposed in formate (for), as ligands; Yttrium, Ytterbium and, Erbium as metal centers, in DMF and water for 4 days under 160 °C. The semi-rigid terephthalic acid (dicarboxylic) coordinates with Ln3+ ions and also is possible to form a polyfunctional bridge. On the other hand, oxalate anion has no high-energy vibrational groups, which benefits the excitation of Yb3+ in upconversion process. It was observed that the compounds with water molecules in the coordination sphere of the lanthanoide ions cause lower crystalline properties and change the structure of the LOF (1D, 2D, 3D). In the FTIR, the bands at 1589 and 1500 cm-1 correspond to the asymmetric stretching vibration of –COO. The band at 1383 cm-1 is assigned to the symmetric stretching vibration of –COO. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals an infinite 3D coordination framework that crystalizes in space group P21/c. The other three products, [TR(chel)(ofd)0,5(H2O)2], where TR= Eu3+, Y3, and Yb3+/Er3+ were obtained by using 1, 2-phenylenedioxydiacetic acid (ofd) and chelidonic acid (chel) as organic ligands. Thermal analysis shows that the lanthanoide organic frameworks do not collapse at temperatures below 250 °C. By the polycrystalline X-ray diffraction patterns (PXRD) it was observed that the compounds with Eu3+, Y3+, and Yb3+/Er3+ ions are isostructural. From PXRD patterns, high crystallinity can be noticed for the complexes. The final products were characterized by single X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an effective method to investigate crystalline properties of synthesized materials. The solid crystal obtained in the synthesis show peaks at 2θ < 10°, indicating the MOF formation. The chemical composition of LOFs was also confirmed by EDS.

Keywords: isostructural, lanthanoids, lanthanoids organic frameworks (LOFs), metal organic frameworks (MOFs), thermogravimetry, X-Ray diffraction

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3505 Mixed Matrix Membranes Based on [M₂(DOBDC)] (M = Mg, Co, Ni) and Polydimethylsiloxane for CO₂/N₂ Separation

Authors: Hyunuk Kim, Yang No Yun, Muhammad Sohail, Jong-Ho Moon, Young Cheol Park


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are emerging absorbents assembled from metal ions and organic ligands, have attracted attention for their permanent porosity and design of tunable pore size. These microporous materials showed interesting properties for CO₂ storage and separation. In particular, MOFs with high surface area and open metal sites showed the remarkable adsorption capacity and selectivity for CO₂. [Mg₂ (DOBDC)] (DOBDC = 2,5-dioxidobenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate) (MOF-74 or CPO-27) is a well-known absorbent showing an exceptionally high CO₂ sorption capacity at low partial pressure and room temperature. In this work, we synthesized [M₂(DOBDC)(DMF)₂] (M = Mg, Co, Ni) and determined their single-crystal structures by X-ray crystallography. The removal of coordinated guest molecules generates Lewis acidic sites and showed high CO₂ adsorption affinity. Both CO₂ adsorption capacity and surface area are much higher than reported values in literature. To fabricate MMMs, microcrystalline [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF)₂] was synthesized by microwave reaction and dispersed in PDMS solution. The MMMs with a various amount of [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF) ₂] in PDMS were fabricated by a solution casting method. [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF)₂]@PDMS membrane showed higher CO2 permeability and CO₂/N₂ selectivity than those of PDMS. Therefore, we believe that MMMs combining polymer and MOFs provide new materials for CO₂ separation technology.

Keywords: metal-organic frameworks, mixed matrix membrane, CO2/N2 separation, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

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3504 Adsorption of Dyes and Iodine: Reaching Outstanding Kinetics with CuII-Based Metal–Organic Nanoballs

Authors: Eder Amayuelas, Begoña Bazán, M. Karmele Urtiaga, Gotzone Barandika, María I. Arriortua


Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have attracted great interest in recent years, taking a lead role in the field of catalysis, drug delivery, sensors and absorption. In the past decade, promising results have been reported specifically in the field of adsorption, based on the topology and chemical features of this type of porous material. Thus, its application in industry and environment for the adsorption of pollutants is presented as a response to an increasingly important need. In this area, organic dyes are nowadays widely used in many industries including medicine, textile, leather, printing and plastics. The consequence of this fact is that dyes are present as emerging pollutants in soils and water where they remain for long periods of time due to their high stability, with a potential risk of toxicity in wildlife and in humans. On the other hand, the presence of iodine in soils, water and gas as a nuclear activity pollutant product or its extended use as a germicide is still a problem in many countries, which indicates the imperative need for its removal. In this context, this work presents the characterization as an adsorbent of the activated compound α[email protected] obtained from the already reported [Cu₂₄(m-BDC)₂₄(DMF)₂₀(H₂O)₄]•24DMF•40H₂O ([email protected]), where m-BDC is the 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic ligand and DMF is N,N′-dimethylformamide. The structure of [email protected] consists of Cu24 clusters arranged in such a way that 12 paddle-wheels are connected through m-BDC ligands. The clusters exhibit an internal cavity where crystallization molecules of DMF and water are located. Adsorption of dyes and iodine as pollutant examples has been carried out, focusing attention on the kinetics of the rapid process.

Keywords: adsorption, organic dyes, iodine, metal organic frameworks

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3503 Designing Metal Organic Frameworks for Sustainable CO₂ Utilization

Authors: Matthew E. Potter, Daniel J. Stewart, Lindsay M. Armstrong, Pier J. A. Sazio, Robert R. Raja


Rising CO₂ levels in the atmosphere means that CO₂ is a highly desirable feedstock. This requires specific catalysts to be designed to activate this inert molecule, combining a catalytic site tailored for CO₂ transformations with a support that can readily adsorb CO₂. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are regularly used as CO₂ sorbents. The organic nature of the linker molecules, connecting the metal nodes, offers many post-synthesis modifications to introduce catalytic active sites into the frameworks. However, the metal nodes may be coordinatively unsaturated, allowing them to bind to organic moieties. Imidazoles have shown promise catalyzing the formation of cyclic carbonates from epoxides with CO₂. Typically, this synthesis route employs toxic reagents such as phosgene, liberating HCl. Therefore an alternative route with CO₂ is highly appealing. In this work we design active sites for CO₂ activation, by tethering substituted-imidazole organocatalytic species to the available Cr3+ metal nodes of a Cr-MIL-101 MOF, for the first time, to create a tailored species for carbon capture utilization applications. Our tailored design strategy combining a CO₂ sorbent, Cr-MIL-101, with an anchored imidazole results in a highly active and selective multifunctional catalyst, achieving turnover frequencies of over 750 hr-1. These findings demonstrate the synergy between the MOF framework and imidazoles for CO₂ utilization applications. Further, the effect of substrate variation has been explored yielding mechanistic insights into this process. Through characterization, we show that the structural and compositional integrity of the Cr-MIL-101 has been preserved on functionalizing the imidazoles. Further, we show the binding of the imidazoles to the Cr3+ metal nodes. This can be seen through our EPR study, where the distortion of the Cr3+ on binding to the imidazole shows the CO₂ binding site is close to the active imidazole. This has a synergistic effect, improving catalytic performance. We believe the combination of MOF support and organocatalyst allows many possibilities to generate new multifunctional catalysts for CO₂ utilisation. In conclusion, we have validated our design procedure, combining a known CO₂ sorbent, with an active imidazole species to create a unique tailored multifunctional catalyst for CO₂ utilization. This species achieves high activity and selectivity for the formation of cyclic carbonates and offers a sustainable alternative to traditional synthesis methods. This work represents a unique design strategy for CO₂ utilization while offering exciting possibilities for further work in characterization, computational modelling, and post-synthesis modification.

Keywords: carbonate, catalysis, MOF, utilisation

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3502 Selective Guest Accommodation in Zn(II) Bimetallic: Organic Coordination Frameworks

Authors: Bukunola K. Oguntade, Gareth M. Watkins


The synthesis and characterization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is an area of coordination chemistry which has grown rapidly in recent years. Worldwide there has been growing concerns about future energy supplies, and its environmental impacts. A good number of MOFs have been tested for the adsorption of small molecules in the vapour phase. An important issue for potential applications of MOFs for gas adsorption and storage materials is the stability of their structure upon sorption. Therefore, study on the thermal stability of MOFs upon adsorption is important. The incorporation of two or more transition metals in a coordination polymer is a current challenge for designed synthesis. This work focused on the synthesis, characterization and small molecule adsorption properties of three microporous (one zinc monometal and two bimetallics) complexes involving Cu(II), Zn(II) and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid using the ambient precipitation and solvothermal method. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron microscopy, Thermogravimetry analysis and X-ray Powder diffraction. The N2-adsorption Isotherm showed the complexes to be of TYPE III in reference to IUPAC classification, with very small pores only capable for small molecule sorption. All the synthesized compounds were observed to contain water as guest. Investigations of their inclusion properties for small molecules in the vapour phase showed water and methanol as the only possible inclusion candidates with 10.25H2O in the monometal complex [Zn4(H2B4C)2.5(OH)3(H2O)]·10H2O but not reusable after a complete structural collapse. The ambient precipitation bimetallic; [(CuZnB4C(H2O)2]·5H2O, was found to be reusable and recoverable from structure collapse after adsorption of 5.75H2O. In addition, Solvo-[CuZnB4C(H2O)2.5]·2H2O obtained from solvothermal method show two cycles of rehydration with 1.75H2O and 0.75MeOH inclusion while structure remains unaltered upon dehydration and adsorption.

Keywords: adsorption, characterization, copper, metal -organic frameworks, zinc

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3501 Ionic Liquids as Substrates for Metal-Organic Framework Synthesis

Authors: Julian Mehler, Marcus Fischer, Martin Hartmann, Peter S. Schulz


During the last two decades, the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has gained ever increasing attention. Based on their pore size and shape as well as host-guest interactions, they are of interest for numerous fields related to porous materials, like catalysis and gas separation. Usually, MOF-synthesis takes place in an organic solvent between room temperature and approximately 220 °C, with mixtures of polyfunctional organic linker molecules and metal precursors as substrates. Reaction temperatures above the boiling point of the solvent, i.e. solvothermal reactions, are run in autoclaves or sealed glass vessels under autogenous pressures. A relatively new approach for the synthesis of MOFs is the so-called ionothermal synthesis route. It applies an ionic liquid as a solvent, which can serve as a structure-directing template and/or a charge-compensating agent in the final coordination polymer structure. Furthermore, this method often allows for less harsh reaction conditions than the solvothermal route. Here a variation of the ionothermal approach is reported, where the ionic liquid also serves as an organic linker source. By using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium terephthalates ([EMIM][Hbdc] and [EMIM]₂[bdc]), the one-step synthesis of MIL-53(Al)/Boehemite composites with interesting features is possible. The resulting material is already formed at moderate temperatures (90-130 °C) and is stabilized in the usually unfavored ht-phase. Additionally, in contrast to already published procedures for MIL-53(Al) synthesis, no further activation at high temperatures is mandatory. A full characterization of this novel composite material is provided, including XRD, SS-NMR, El-Al., SEM as well as sorption measurements and its interesting features are compared to MIL-53(Al) samples produced by the classical solvothermal route. Furthermore, the syntheses of the applied ionic liquids and salts is discussed. The influence of the degree of ionicity of the linker source [EMIM]x[H(2-x)bdc] on the crystal structure and the achievable synthesis temperature are investigated and give insight into the role of the IL during synthesis. Aside from the synthesis of MIL-53 from EMIM terephthalates, the use of the phosphonium cation in this approach is discussed as well. Additionally, the employment of ILs in the preparation of other MOFs is presented briefly. This includes the ZIF-4 framework from the respective imidazolate ILs and chiral camphorate based frameworks from their imidazolium precursors.

Keywords: ionic liquids, ionothermal synthesis, material synthesis, MIL-53, MOFs

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3500 Development of Metal-Organic Frameworks-Type Hybrid Functionalized Materials for Selective Uranium Extraction

Authors: Damien Rinsant, Eugen Andreiadis, Michael Carboni, Daniel Meyer


Different types of materials have been developed for the solid/liquid uranium extraction processes, such as functionalized organic polymers, hybrid silica or inorganic adsorbents. In general, these materials exhibit a moderate affinity for uranyl ions and poor selectivity against impurities like iron, vanadium or molybdenum. Moreover, the structural organization deficiency of these materials generates ion diffusion issues inside the material. Therefore, the aim of our study is to developed efficient and organized materials, stable in the acid media encountered in uranium extraction processes. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are hybrid crystalline materials consisting of an inorganic part (cluster or metal ions) and tailored organic linkers connected via coordination bonds. These hierarchical materials have exceptional surface area, thermal stability and a large variety of tunable structures. However, due to the reversibility of constitutive coordination bonds, MOFs have moderate stability in strongly complexing or acidic media. Only few of them are known to be stable in aqueous media and only one example is described in strong acidic media. However, these conditions are very often encountered in the environmental pollution remediation of mine wastewaters. To tackle the challenge of developing MOFs adapted for uranium extraction from acid mine waters, we have investigated the stability of several materials. To ensure a good stability we have synthetized and characterized different materials based on highly coordinated metal clusters, such as LnOFs and Zirconium based materials. Among the latter, the UiO family shows a great stability in sulfuric acid media even in the presence of 1.4 M sodium sulfate at pH 2. However, the stability in phosphoric media is reduced due to the high affinity between zirconium and phosphate ligand. Based on these results, we have developed a tertiary amine functionalized MOF denoted UiO-68-NMe2 particularly adapted for the extraction of anionic uranyl (VI) sulfate complexes mainly present in the acid mine solutions. The adsorption capacity of the material has been determined upon varying total sulfate concentration, contact time and uranium concentration. The extraction tests put in evidence different phenomena due to the complexity of the extraction media and the interaction between the MOF and sulfate anion. Finally, the extraction mechanisms and the interaction between uranyl and the MOF structure have been investigated. The functionalized material UiO-68-NMe2 has been characterized in the presence and absence of uranium by FT-IR, UV and Raman techniques. Moreover, the stability of the protonated amino functionalized MOF has been evaluated. The synthesis, characterization and evaluation of this type of hybrid material, particularly adapted for uranium extraction in sulfuric acid media by an anionic exchange mechanism, paved the way for the development of metal organic frameworks functionalized by different other chelating motifs, such as bifunctional ligands showing an enhanced affinity and selectivity for uranium in acid and complexing media. Work in this direction is currently in progress.

Keywords: extraction, MOF, ligand, uranium

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3499 The Effect of Metal-Organic Framework Pore Size to Hydrogen Generation of Ammonia Borane via Nanoconfinement

Authors: Jing-Yang Chung, Chi-Wei Liao, Jing Li, Bor Kae Chang, Cheng-Yu Wang


Chemical hydride ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) draws attentions to hydrogen energy researches for its high theoretical gravimetrical capacity (19.6 wt%). Nevertheless, the elevated AB decomposition temperatures (Td) and unwanted byproducts are main hurdles in practical application. It was reported that the byproducts and Td can be reduced with nanoconfinement technique, in which AB molecules are confined in porous materials, such as porous carbon, zeolite, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), etc. Although nanoconfinement empirically shows effectiveness on hydrogen generation temperature reduction in AB, the theoretical mechanism is debatable. Low Td was reported in [email protected] (Zn4O(BDC)3, BDC = benzenedicarboxylate), where Zn atoms form closed metal clusters secondary building unit (SBU) with no exposed active sites. Other than nanosized hydride, it was also observed that catalyst addition facilitates AB decomposition in the composite of Li-catalyzed carbon CMK-3, MOF JUC-32-Y with exposed Y3+, etc. It is believed that nanosized AB is critical for lowering Td, while active sites eliminate byproducts. Nonetheless, some researchers claimed that it is the catalytic sites that are the critical factor to reduce Td, instead of the hydride size. The group physically ground AB with ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazolate frameworks, (Zn(2-methylimidazolate)2)), and found similar reduced Td phenomenon, even though AB molecules were not ‘confined’ or forming nanoparticles by physical hand grinding. It shows the catalytic reaction, not nanoconfinement, leads to AB dehydrogenation promotion. In this research, we explored the possible criteria of hydrogen production temperature from nanoconfined AB in MOFs with different pore sizes and active sites. MOFs with metal SBU such as Zn (IRMOF), Zr (UiO), and Al (MIL-53), accompanying with various organic ligands (BDC and BPDC; BPDC = biphenyldicarboxylate) were modified with AB. Excess MOFs were used for AB size constrained in micropores estimated by revisiting Horvath-Kawazoe model. AB dissolved in methanol was added to MOFs crystalline with MOF pore volume to AB ratio 4:1, and the slurry was dried under vacuum to collect [email protected] powders. With TPD-MS (temperature programmed desorption with mass spectroscopy), we observed Td was reduced with smaller MOF pores. For example, it was reduced from 100°C to 64°C when MOF micropore ~1 nm, while ~90°C with pore size up to 5 nm. The behavior of Td as a function of AB crystalline radius obeys thermodynamics when the Gibbs free energy of AB decomposition is zero, and no obvious correlation with metal type was observed. In conclusion, we discovered Td of AB is proportional to the reciprocal of MOF pore size, possibly stronger than the effect of active sites.

Keywords: ammonia borane, chemical hydride, metal-organic framework, nanoconfinement

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3498 Iron-Metal-Organic Frameworks: Potential Application as Theranostics for Inhalable Therapy of Tuberculosis

Authors: Gabriela Wyszogrodzka, Przemyslaw Dorozynski, Barbara Gil, Maciej Strzempek, Bartosz Marszalek, Piotr Kulinowski, Wladyslaw Piotr Weglarz, Elzbieta Menaszek


MOFs (Metal-Organic Frameworks) belong to a new group of porous materials with a hybrid organic-inorganic construction. Their structure is a network consisting of metal cations or clusters (acting as metallic centers, nodes) and the organic linkers between nodes. The interest in MOFs is primarily associated with the use of their well-developed surface and large porous. Possibility to build MOFs of biocompatible components let to use them as potential drug carriers. Furthermore, forming MOFs structure from cations possessing paramagnetic properties (e.g. iron cations) allows to use them as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) contrast agents. The concept of formation of particles that combine the ability to transfer active substance with imaging properties has been called theranostic (from words combination therapy and diagnostics). By building MOF structure from iron cations it is possible to use them as theranostic agents and monitoring the distribution of the active substance after administration in real time. In the study iron-MOF: Fe-MIL-101-NH2 was chosen, consisting of iron cluster in nodes of the structure and amino-terephthalic acid as a linker. The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of applying Fe-MIL-101-NH2 as inhalable theranostic particulate system for the first-line anti-tuberculosis antibiotic – isoniazid. The drug content incorporated into Fe-MIL-101-NH2 was evaluated by dissolution study using spectrophotometric method. Results showed isoniazid encapsulation efficiency – ca. 12.5% wt. Possibility of Fe-MIL-101-NH2 application as the MRI contrast agent was demonstrated by magnetic resonance tomography. FeMIL-101-NH2 effectively shortening T1 and T2 relaxation times (increasing R1 and R2 relaxation rates) linearly with the concentrations of suspended material. Images obtained using multi-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence revealed possibility to use FeMIL-101-NH2 as positive and negative contrasts depending on applied repetition time. MOFs micronization via ultrasound was evaluated by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, FTIR, SEM imaging and did not influence their crystal shape and size. Ultrasonication let to break the aggregates and achieve very homogeneously looking SEM images. MOFs cytotoxicity was evaluated in in vitro test with a highly sensitive resazurin based reagent PrestoBlue™ on L929 fibroblast cell line. After 24h no inhibition of cell proliferation was observed. All results proved potential possibility of application of ironMOFs as an isoniazid carrier and as MRI contrast agent in inhalatory treatment of tuberculosis. Acknowledgments: Authors gratefully acknowledge the National Science Center Poland for providing financial support, grant no 2014/15/B/ST5/04498.

Keywords: imaging agents, metal-organic frameworks, theranostics, tuberculosis

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3497 Speciation and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Greenhouse Soils

Authors: Bulent Topcuoglu


Repeated amendments of organic matter and intensive use of fertilizers, metal-enriched chemicals and biocides may cause soil and environmental pollution in greenhouses. Specially, the impact of heavy metal pollution of soils on food metal content and underground water quality has become a public concern. Due to potential toxicity of heavy metals to human life and environment, determining the chemical form of heavy metals in greenhouse soils is an important approach of chemical characterization and can provide useful information on its mobility and bioavailability. A sequential extraction procedure was used to estimate the availability of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr) in greenhouse soils of Antalya Aksu. Zn was predominantly associated with Fe-Mn oxide fraction, major portion of Cd associated with carbonate and organic matter fraction, a major portion of (>65 %) Ni and Cr were largely associated with Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions and Pb was largely associated with organic matter and Fe-Mn oxide fractions. Results of the present study suggest that the mobility and bioavailability of metals probably increase in the following order: Cr < Pb < Ni < Cd < Zn. Among the elements studied, Zn and Cd appeared to be the most readily soluble and potentially bioavailable metals and these metals may carry a potential risk for metal transfer in food chain and contamination to ground water.

Keywords: metal speciation, metal mobility, greenhouse soils, biosystems engineering

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3496 A Near Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study on Platinum Nanoparticles Supported on Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

Authors: Reza Vakili, Xiaolei Fan, Alex Walton


The first near ambient pressure (NAP)-XPS study of CO oxidation over Pt nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into Zr-based UiO (UiO for Universitetet i Oslo) MOFs was carried out. For this purpose, the MOF-based Catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation ([email protected]) and linker design ([email protected]) methods along with [email protected]₂ as the control catalyst. Firstly, the as-synthesized catalysts were reduced in situ prior to the operando XPS analysis. The existence of Pt(II) species was proved in UiO-67 by observing Pt 4f core level peaks at a high binding energy of 72.6 ± 0.1 eV. However, by heating the [email protected] catalyst in situ to 200 °C under vacuum, the higher BE components disappear, leaving only the metallic Pt 4f doublet, confirming the formation of Pt NPs. The complete reduction of [email protected] is achieved at 250 °C and 1 mbar H₂. To understand the chemical state of Pt NPs in UiO-67 during catalytic turnover, we analyzed the Pt 4f region using operando NAP-XPS in the temperature-programmed measurements (100-260 °C) with reference to [email protected]₂ catalyst. CO conversion during NAP-XPS experiments with the stoichiometric mixture shows that [email protected] has a better CO turnover frequency (TOF, 0.066 s⁻¹ at 260 °C) than the other two (ca. 0.055 s⁻¹). Pt 4f peaks only show one chemical species present at all temperatures, but the core level BE shifts change as a function of reaction temperature, i.e., Pt 4f peak from 71.8 eV at T < 200 °C to 71.2 eV at T > 200 °C. As this higher BE state of 71.8 eV was not observed after in situ reductions of the catalysts and only once the CO/O₂ mixture was introduced, we attribute it to the surface saturation of Pt NPs with adsorbed CO. In general, the quantitative analysis of Pt 4f data from the operando NAP-XPS experiments shows that the surface chemistry of the Pt active phase in the two [email protected] catalysts is the same, comparable to that of [email protected]₂. The observed difference in the catalytic activity can be attributed to the particle sizes of Pt NPs, as well as the dispersion of active phase in the support, which are different in the three catalysts.

Keywords: CO oxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, MOFs, Metal Organic Frameworks, NAP-XPS, Near Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

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3495 Quantum Sieving for Hydrogen Isotope Separation

Authors: Hyunchul Oh


One of the challenges in modern separation science and technology is the separation of hydrogen isotopes mixtures since D2 and H2 consist of almost identical size, shape and thermodynamic properties. Recently, quantum sieving of isotopes by confinement in narrow space has been proposed as an alternative technique. Despite many theoretical suggestions, however, it has been difficult to discover a feasible microporous material up to now. Among various porous materials, the novel class of microporous framework materials (COFs, ZIFs and MOFs) is considered as a promising material class for isotope sieving due to ultra-high porosity and uniform pore size which can be tailored. Hence, we investigate experimentally the fundamental correlation between D2/H2 molar ratio and pore size at optimized operating conditions by using different ultramicroporous frameworks. The D2/H2 molar ratio is strongly depending on pore size, pressure and temperature. An experimentally determined optimum pore diameter for quantum sieving lies between 3.0 and 3.4 Å which can be an important guideline for designing and developing feasible microporous frameworks for isotope separation. Afterwards, we report a novel strategy for efficient hydrogen isotope separation at technologically relevant operating pressure through the development of quantum sieving exploited by the pore aperture engineering. The strategy involves installation of flexible components in the pores of the framework to tune the pore surface.

Keywords: gas adsorption, hydrogen isotope, metal organic frameworks(MOFs), quantum sieving

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3494 Efficient Mercury Sorbent: Activated Carbon and Metal Organic Framework Hybrid

Authors: Yongseok Hong, Kurt Louis Solis


In the present study, a hybrid sorbent using the metal organic framework (MOF), UiO-66, and powdered activated carbon (pAC) is synthesized to remove cationic and anionic metals simultaneously. UiO-66 is an octahedron-shaped MOF with a Zr₆O₄(OH)₄ metal node and 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDC) organic linker. Zr-based MOFs are attractive for trace element remediation in wastewaters, because Zr is relatively non-toxic as compared to other classes of MOF and, therefore, it will not cause secondary pollution. Most remediation studies with UiO-66 target anions such as fluoride, but trace element oxyanions such as arsenic, selenium, and antimony have also been investigated. There have also been studies involving mercury removal by UiO-66 derivatives, however these require post-synthetic modifications or have lower effective surface areas. Activated carbon is known for being a readily available, well-studied, effective adsorbent for metal contaminants. Solvothermal method was employed to prepare hybrid sorbent from UiO66 and activated carbon, which could be used to remove mercury and selenium simultaneously. The hybrid sorbent was characterized using FSEM-EDS, FT-IR, XRD, and TGA. The results showed that UiO66 and activated carbon are successfully composited. From BET studies, the hybrid sorbent has a SBET of 1051 m² g⁻¹. Adsorption studies were performed, where the hybrid showed maximum adsorption of 204.63 mg g⁻¹ and 168 mg g⁻¹ for Hg (II) and selenite, respectively, and follows the Langmuir model for both species. Kinetics studies have revealed that the Hg uptake of the hybrid is pseudo-2nd order and has rate constant of 5.6E-05 g mg⁻¹ min⁻¹ and the selenite uptake follows the simplified Elovich model with α = 2.99 mg g⁻¹ min⁻¹, β = 0.032 g mg⁻¹.

Keywords: adsorption, flue gas wastewater, mercury, selenite, metal organic framework

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3493 In Silico Design of Organometallic Complexes as Potential Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Z. Kovačević, Lidija R. Jevrić, Stela Jokić


The complexes of transition metals with various organic ligands have been extensively studied as models of some important pharmaceutical molecules. It was found that biological properties of different substituted organic molecules are improved when they are complexed by different metals. Therefore, it is of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry to explore the assembly of functional organic ligands with metal ion and to investigate the relationship between the structure and property. In the present work, we have bioassayed the antibacterial potency of benzimidazoles and their metal salts (Cu or Zn) against yeast Sarcina lutea. In order to validate our in vitro study, we performed in silico studies using molecular docking software. The investigated compounds and their metal complexes (Cu, Zn) showed good to moderate inhibitory activity against Sarcina lutea. In silico docking studies of the synthesized compounds suggested that complexed benzimidazoles have a greater binding affinity and improved antibacterial activity in comparison with non-complexed ligands. These results are part of the CMST COST Action No. 1105 "Functional metal complexes that bind to biomolecules".

Keywords: organometallic complexes, benzimidazoles, chemometric design, Sarcina lutea

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3492 Adsorption Mechanism of Heavy Metals and Organic Pesticide on Industrial Construction and Demolition Waste and Its Runoff Behaviors

Authors: Sheng Huang, Xin Zhao, Xiaofeng Gao, Tao Zhou, Shijin Dai, Youcai Zhao


Adsorption of heavy metal pollutants (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu) and organic pesticide (phorate, dithiophosphate diethyl, triethyl phosphorothioate), along with their multi-contamination on the surface of industrial construction & demolition waste (C&D waste) was investigated. Brick powder was selected as the appropriate waste while its maximum equilibrium adsorption amount of heavy metal under single controlled contamination matrix reached 5.41, 0.81, 0.45, 1.13 and 0.97 mg/g, respectively. Effects of pH and spiking dose of ICDW was also investigated. Equilibrium adsorption amount of organic pesticide varied from 0.02 to 0.97 mg/g, which was negatively correlated to the size distribution and hydrophilism. Existence of organic pesticide on surface of ICDW caused various effects on the heavy metal adsorption, mainly due to combination of metal ions and the floccule formation along with wrapping behaviors by pesticide pollutants. Adsorption of Zn was sharply decreased from 7.1 to 0.15 mg/g compared with clean ICDW and phorate contaminated ICDW, while that of Pb, Cr and Cd experienced an increase- then decrease procedure. On the other hand, runoff of pesticide contaminants was investigated under 25 mm/h simulated rainfall. Results showed that the cumulative runoff amount fitted well with curve obtained from a power function, of which r2=0.95 and 0.91 for 1DAA (1 day between contamination and runoff) and 7DAA, respectively. This study helps provide evaluation of industrial construction and demolition waste contamination into aquatic systems.

Keywords: adsorption mechanism, industrial construction waste, metals, pesticide, runoff

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3491 The Influence of Ligands Molecular Structure on the Antibacterial Activity of Some Metal Complexes

Authors: Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Lidija R. Jevrić, Strahinja Z. Kovačević


In last decade, metal-organic complexes have captured intensive attention because of their wide range of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancerous, antimicrobial and antiHIV. Therefore, it is of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry to explore the assembly of functional organic ligands with metal ion and to investigate the relationship between the structure and property. In view of our studies, we reasoned that benzimidazoles complexed to metal ions could act as a potent antibacterial agents. Thus, we have bioassayed the inhibitory potency of benzimidazoles and their metal salts (Co or Ni) against Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli. In order to validate our in vitro study, we performed in silico studies using molecular docking software’s. The investigated compounds and their metal complexes (Co, Ni) showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. In silico docking studies of the synthesized compounds suggested that complexed benzimidazoles have a greater binding affinity and enhanced antibacterial activity in comparison with noncomplexed ligands. In view of their enhanced inhibitory properties we propose that the studied complexes can be used as potential pharmaceuticals. This study is financially supported by COST action CM1306 and the project No. 114-451-347/2015-02, financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina.

Keywords: benzimidazoles, complexes, antibacterial, Escherichia coli, metal

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3490 Atmospheric CO2 Capture via Temperature/Vacuum Swing Adsorption in SIFSIX-3-Ni

Authors: Eleni Tsalaporta, Sebastien Vaesen, James M. D. MacElroy, Wolfgang Schmitt


Carbon dioxide capture has attracted the attention of many governments, industries and scientists over the last few decades, due to the rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 composition, with several studies being conducted in this area over the last few years. In many of these studies, CO2 capture in complex Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) cycles has been associated with high energy consumption despite the promising capture performance of such processes. The purpose of this study is the economic capture of atmospheric carbon dioxide for its transformation into a clean type of energy. A single column Temperature /Vacuum Swing Adsorption (TSA/VSA) process is proposed as an alternative option to multi column Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) processes. The proposed adsorbent is SIFSIX-3-Ni, a newly developed MOF (Metal Organic Framework), with extended CO2 selectivity and capacity. There are three stages involved in this paper: (i) SIFSIX-3-Ni is synthesized and pelletized and its physical and chemical properties are examined before and after the pelletization process, (ii) experiments are designed and undertaken for the estimation of the diffusion and adsorption parameters and limitations for CO2 undergoing capture from the air; and (iii) the CO2 adsorption capacity and dynamical characteristics of SIFSIX-3-Ni are investigated both experimentally and mathematically by employing a single column TSA/VSA, for the capture of atmospheric CO2. This work is further supported by a technical-economical study for the estimation of the investment cost and the energy consumption of the single column TSA/VSA process. The simulations are performed using gProms.

Keywords: carbon dioxide capture, temperature/vacuum swing adsorption, metal organic frameworks, SIFSIX-3-Ni

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3489 Organic Contaminant Degradation Using H₂O₂ Activated Biochar with Enhanced Persistent Free Radicals

Authors: Kalyani Mer


Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) is one of the most efficient and commonly used oxidants in in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants. In the present study, we investigated the activation of H₂O₂ by heavy metal (nickel and lead metal ions) loaded biochar for phenol degradation in an aqueous solution (concentration = 100 mg/L). It was found that H₂O₂ can be effectively activated by biochar, which produces hydroxyl (•OH) radicals owing to an increase in the formation of persistent free radicals (PFRs) on biochar surface. Ultrasound treated (30s duration) biochar, chemically activated by 30% phosphoric acid and functionalized by diethanolamine (DEA) was used for the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It was found that modified biochar could remove almost 60% of nickel in eight hours; however, for lead, the removal efficiency reached up to 95% for the same time duration. The heavy metal loaded biochar was further used for the degradation of phenol in the absence and presence of H₂O₂ (20 mM), within 4 hours of reaction time. The removal efficiency values for phenol in the presence of H₂O₂ were 80.3% and 61.9%, respectively, by modified biochar loaded with nickel and lead metal ions. These results suggested that the biochar loaded with nickel exhibits a better removal capacity towards phenol than the lead loaded biochar when used in H₂O₂ based oxidation systems. Meanwhile, control experiments were set in the absence of any activating biochar, and the removal efficiency was found to be 19.1% when only H₂O₂ was added in the reaction solution. Overall, the proposed approach serves a dual purpose of using biochar for heavy metal ion removal and treatment of organic contaminants by further using the metal loaded biochar for H₂O₂ activation in ISCO processes.

Keywords: biochar, ultrasound, heavy metals, in-situ chemical oxidation, chemical activation

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3488 The Batch Method Approach for Adsorption Mechanism Processes of Some Selected Heavy Metal Ions and Methylene Blue by Using Chemically Modified Luffa Cylindrica

Authors: Akanimo Emene, Mark D. Ogden, Robert Edyvean


Adsorption is a low cost, efficient and economically viable wastewater treatment process. Utilization of this treatment process has not been fully applied due to the complex and not fully understood nature of the adsorption system. To optimize its process is to choose a sufficient adsorbent and to study further the experimental parameters that influence the adsorption design system. Chemically modified adsorbent, Luffa cylindrica, was used to adsorb heavy metal ions and an organic pollutant, methylene blue, from aqueous environmental solution at varying experimental conditions. Experimental factors, adsorption time, initial metal ion or organic pollutant concentration, ionic strength, and pH of solution were studied. The experimental data were analyzed with kinetic and isotherm models. The antagonistic effect of the methylene and some heavy metal ions were recorded. An understanding of the use of this treated Luffa cylindrica for the removal of these toxic substances will establish and improve the commercial application of the adsorption process in treatment of contaminated waters.

Keywords: adsorption, heavy metal ions, Luffa cylindrica, wastewater treatment

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3487 NiO-CeO2 Nano-Catalyst for the Removal of Priority Organic Pollutants from Wastewater through Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation at Mild Conditions

Authors: Anushree, Chhaya Sharma, Satish Kumar


Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is normally carried out at elevated temperature and pressure. This work investigates the potential of NiO-CeO2 nano-catalyst in CWAO of paper industry wastewater under milder operating conditions of 90 °C and 1 atm. The NiO-CeO2 nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), before and after use, in order to study any crystallographic change during experiment. The extent of metal-leaching from the catalyst was determined using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The catalytic activity of nano-catalysts was studied in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halides (AOX) and chlorophenolics (CHPs) removal. Interestingly, mixed oxide catalysts exhibited higher activity than the corresponding single-metal oxides. The maximum removal efficiency was achieved with Ce40Ni60 catalyst. The results indicate that the CWAO process is efficient in removing the priority organic pollutants from wastewater, as it exhibited up to 59% TOC, 55% AOX, and 54 % CHPs removal.

Keywords: catalysis, nano-materials, NiO-CeO2, paper mill, wastewater, wet air oxidation

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3486 Influence of Pseudomonas japonica on Growth and Metal Tolerance of Celosia cristata L.

Authors: Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Ameena Iqbal, Muhammad Aqib Hassan Ali Khan, Ismat Nawaz, Sohail Yousaf, Mazhar Iqbal


Heavy metals are one of the priority pollutants as they pose serious health and environmental threats. They can be removed by various physiochemical methods but are costly and responsible for additional environmental problems. Bioremediation that exploits plants and their associated microbes have been referred as cost effective and environmental friendly technique. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential of Celosia cristata and effects of bacteria, Pseudomonas japonica, and organic amendment moss/compost on tolerating/accumulating heavy metals. Two weeks old seedlings were transferred to soil in pots, and after four weeks they were inoculated with bacterial strain, while after growth of six weeks they were watered with a metal containing synthetic wastewater and were harvested after a growth period of nine weeks. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters and metal content of plants were measured. The results showed highest plant growth and biomass production in case of organic amendments while highest metal uptake has been found in non-amended pots. Positive controls have shown highest Pb uptake of 2900 mg/kg DW, while P. japonica amended pots have shown highest Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu uptake of 963.53, 1481.17, 1022.01 and 602.17 mg/kg DW, respectively. In conclusion organic amendments have strong impacts on growth enhancement while P. japonica enhances metal translocation and accumulation to aerial parts with little significant involvement in plant growth.

Keywords: ornamental plants, plant microbe interaction, amendments, bacteria

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3485 Bio-Electrochemical Process Coupled with MnO2 Nanowires for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: A. Giwa, S. M. Jung, W. Fang, J. Kong, S. W. Hasan


MnO2 nanowires were developed as filtration media for wastewater treatment that uniquely combines several advantages. The resulting material demonstrated strong capability to remove the pollution of heavy metal ions and organic contents in water. In addition, the manufacture process of such material is practical and economical. In this work, MnO2 nanowires were integrated with the state-of-art bio-electrochemical system for wastewater treatment, to overcome problems currently encountered with organic, inorganic, heavy metal, and microbe removal, and to minimize the unit footprint (land/space occupation) at low cost. Results showed that coupling the bio-electrochemical with MnO2 resulted in very encouraging results with higher removal efficiencies of such pollutants.

Keywords: bio-electrochemical, nanowires, novel, wastewater

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3484 Adsorption of Pb(II) with MOF [Co2(Btec)(Bipy)(DMF)2]N in Aqueous Solution

Authors: E. Gil, A. Zepeda, J. Rivera, C. Ben-Youssef, S. Rincón


Water pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems. Multiple methods have been proposed for the removal of Pb(II) from contaminated water. Among these, adsorption processes have shown to be more efficient, cheaper and easier to handle with respect to other treatment methods. However, research for adsorbents with high adsorption capacities is still necessary. For this purpose, we proposed in this work the study of metal-organic Framework [Co2(btec)(bipy)(DMF)2]n (MOF-Co) as adsorbent material of Pb (II) in aqueous media. MOF-Co was synthesized by a simple method. Firstly 4, 4’ dipyridyl, 1,2,4,5 benzenetetracarboxylic acid, cobalt (II) and nitrate hexahydrate were first mixed each one in N,N dimethylformamide (DMF) and then, mixed in a reactor altogether. The obtained solution was heated at 363 K in a muffle during 68 h to complete the synthesis. It was washed and dried, obtaining MOF-Co as the final product. MOF-Co was characterized before and after the adsorption process by Fourier transforms infrared spectra (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Pb(II) in aqueous media was detected by Absorption Atomic Spectroscopy (AA). In order to evaluate the adsorption process in the presence of Pb(II) in aqueous media, the experiments were realized in flask of 100 ml the work volume at 200 rpm, with different MOF-Co quantities (0.0125 and 0.025 g), pH (2-6), contact time (0.5-6 h) and temperature (298,308 and 318 K). The kinetic adsorption was represented by pseudo-second order model, which suggests that the adsorption took place through chemisorption or chemical adsorption. The best adsorption results were obtained at pH 5. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET equilibrium isotherms models were used to study the adsorption of Pb(II) with 0.0125 g of MOF-Co, in the presence of different concentration of Pb(II) (20-200 mg/L, 100 mL, pH 5) with 4 h of reaction. The correlation coefficients (R2) of the different models show that the Langmuir model is better than Freundlich and BET model with R2=0.97 and a maximum adsorption capacity of 833 mg/g. Therefore, the Langmuir model can be used to best describe the Pb(II) adsorption in monolayer behavior on the MOF-Co. This value is the highest when compared to other materials such as the graphene/activated carbon composite (217 mg/g), biomass fly ashes (96.8 mg/g), PVA/PAA gel (194.99 mg/g) and MOF with Ag12 nanoparticles (120 mg/g).

Keywords: adsorption, heavy metals, metal-organic frameworks, Pb(II)

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3483 Thermally Stable Crystalline Triazine-Based Organic Polymeric Nanodendrites for Mercury(2+) Ion Sensing

Authors: Dimitra Das, Anuradha Mitra, Kalyan Kumar Chattopadhyay


Organic polymers, constructed from light elements like carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and boron atoms, are the emergent class of non-toxic, metal-free, environmental benign advanced materials. Covalent triazine-based polymers with a functional triazine group are significant class of organic materials due to their remarkable stability arising out of strong covalent bonds. They can conventionally form hydrogen bonds, favour π–π contacts, and they were recently revealed to be involved in interesting anion–π interactions. The present work mainly focuses upon the development of a single-crystalline, highly cross-linked triazine-based nitrogen-rich organic polymer with nanodendritic morphology and significant thermal stability. The polymer has been synthesized through hydrothermal treatment of melamine and ethylene glycol resulting in cross-polymerization via condensation-polymerization reaction. The crystal structure of the polymer has been evaluated by employing Rietveld whole profile fitting method. The polymer has been found to be composed of monoclinic melamine having space group P21/a. A detailed insight into the chemical structure of the as synthesized polymer has been elucidated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic analysis. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic (XPS) analysis has also been carried out for further understanding of the different types of linkages required to create the backbone of the polymer. The unique rod-like morphology of the triazine based polymer has been revealed from the images obtained from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Interestingly, this polymer has been found to selectively detect mercury (Hg²⁺) ions at an extremely low concentration through fluorescent quenching with detection limit as low as 0.03 ppb. The high toxicity of mercury ions (Hg²⁺) arise from its strong affinity towards the sulphur atoms of biological building blocks. Even a trace quantity of this metal is dangerous for human health. Furthermore, owing to its small ionic radius and high solvation energy, Hg²⁺ ions remain encapsulated by water molecules making its detection a challenging task. There are some existing reports on fluorescent-based heavy metal ion sensors using covalent organic frameworks (COFs) but reports on mercury sensing using triazine based polymers are rather undeveloped. Thus, the importance of ultra-trace detection of Hg²⁺ ions with high level of selectivity and sensitivity has contemporary significance. A plausible sensing phenomenon by the polymer has been proposed to understand the applicability of the material as a potential sensor. The impressive sensitivity of the polymer sample towards Hg²⁺ is the very first report in the field of highly crystalline triazine based polymers (without the introduction of any sulphur groups or functionalization) towards mercury ion detection through photoluminescence quenching technique. This crystalline metal-free organic polymer being cheap, non-toxic and scalable has current relevance and could be a promising candidate for Hg²⁺ ion sensing at commercial level.

Keywords: fluorescence quenching , mercury ion sensing, single-crystalline, triazine-based polymer

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3482 Synthesis and Properties of Nanosized Mixed Oxide Systems for Environmental Protection

Authors: I. Yordanova, H. Kolev, S. Todorova, Z. Cherkezova-Zheleva


Catalysis plays a key role in solving many environmental problems by establishing efficient catalytic systems for environmental protection and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from industry. Volatile organic compounds are major air pollutants. There are several ways to dispose of emissions like - adsorption, condensation, absorption, bio-filtration, thermal, catalytic, plasma and ultraviolet oxidation. The catalytic oxidation has more advantages over other methods. For example - lower energy consumption; the concentration of the organic contaminant may be low or may vary within wide limits. Catalysts for complete oxidation of VOCs can be classified into three categories: noble metal, metal oxides or supported metal oxides and mixture of noble metals and metal oxides. Most of the catalysts for the complete catalytic oxidation are based on Pt, Pd, Rh or a combination thereof. The oxides of the transition metal are one of the alternatives to noble metal catalysts for these reactions. They are less active at low temperatures, but at higher - their activity is similar. The properties of the catalyst depend on the distribution of the active phase, the medium type of the pre-treatment, the interaction between the active phase and the support and the interaction between the active phase and the reaction medium. Supported mono-component Mn and bi-component Mn-Co systems are examined in present study. The samples are prepared using co-precipitation method. SiO2 (Aerosil) is used as a support. The studied samples were precipitated by NH4OH. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, TPR and tested in the catalytic reaction of complete oxidation of n-hexane, propane, methanol, ethanol and propanol.

Keywords: catalytic oxidation, Co-Mn oxide, oxidation of hydrocarbons and alcohols, environmental protection

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3481 Microstructural and Transport Properties of La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 Thin Films Obtained by Metal-Organic Deposition

Authors: K. Daoudi, Z. Othmen, S. El Helali, M.Oueslati, M. Oumezzine


La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 thin films have been epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (001) single-crystal substrates by metal organic deposition process. The structural and micro structural properties of the obtained films have been investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission microscopy observations on cross-sections techniques. We noted a close dependence of the crystallinity on the used substrate and the film thickness. By increasing the annealing temperature to 1000ºC and the film thickness to 100 nm, the electrical resistivity was decreased by several orders of magnitude. The film resistivity reaches approximately 3~4 x10-4 Ω.cm in a wide interval of temperature 77-320 K, making this material a promising candidate for a variety of applications.

Keywords: cobaltite, thin films, epitaxial growth, MOD, TEM

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