Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1725

Search results for: class A biosolids

1725 Categorization of Biosolids, a Vital Biological Resource for Sustainable Agriculture

Authors: Susmita Sharma, Pankaj Pathak


Biosolids are by-products of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment process. The generation of the biosolids is increasing at an alarming rate due to the implementation of strict environmental legislation to improve the quality of discharges from wastewater treatment plant. As such, proper management and safe disposal of sewage sludge have become a worldwide topic of research. Biosolids, rich in organic matter and essential micro and macronutrients; can be used as a soil conditioner, to cut fertilizer costs and create favorable conditions for vegetation. However, it also contains pathogens and heavy metals which are undesirable as they are harmful to both humans and the environment. Therefore, for safe utilization of biosolids for land application purposes, categorization of the contaminant and pathogen is mandatory. In this context, biosolids collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Maharashtra are utilized to determine its physical, chemical and microbiological attributes. This study would ascertain, if the use of these materials from the specific site, are suitable for agriculture. Further, efforts have also been made to present the internationally acceptable legal standards and guidelines for biosolids management or application.

Keywords: biosolids, sewage, heavy metal, sustainable agriculture

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1724 The Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion at 45⁰C

Authors: Nuruol S. Mohd, Safia Ahmed, Rumana Riffat, Baoqiang Li


Anaerobic digestion at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures have been widely studied and evaluated by numerous researchers. Limited extensive research has been conducted on anaerobic digestion in the intermediate zone of 45°C, mainly due to the notion that limited microbial activity occurs within this zone. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the performance and the capability of anaerobic digestion at 45°C in producing class A biosolids, in comparison to a mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion system operated at 35°C and 55°C, respectively. In addition to that, the investigation on the possible inhibition factors affecting the performance of the digestion system at this temperature will be conducted as well. The 45°C anaerobic digestion systems were not able to achieve comparable methane yield and high-quality effluent compared to the mesophilic system, even though the systems produced biogas with about 62-67% methane. The 45°C digesters suffered from high acetate accumulation, but sufficient buffering capacity was observed as the pH, alkalinity and volatile fatty acids (VFA)-to-alkalinity ratio were within recommended values. The accumulation of acetate observed in 45°C systems were presumably due to the high temperature which contributed to high hydrolysis rate. Consequently, it produced a large amount of toxic salts that combined with the substrate making them not readily available to be consumed by methanogens. Acetate accumulation, even though contributed to 52 to 71% reduction in acetate degradation process, could not be considered as completely inhibitory. Additionally, at 45°C, no ammonia inhibition was observed and the digesters were able to achieve volatile solids (VS) reduction of 47.94±4.17%. The pathogen counts were less than 1,000 MPN/g total solids, thus, producing Class A biosolids.

Keywords: 45°C anaerobic digestion, acetate accumulation, class A biosolids, salt toxicity

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1723 Assessment of Bisphenol A and 17 α-Ethinyl Estradiol Bioavailability in Soils Treated with Biosolids

Authors: I. Ahumada, L. Ascar, C. Pedraza, J. Montecino


It has been found that the addition of biosolids to soil is beneficial to soil health, enriching soil with essential nutrient elements. Although this sludge has properties that allow for the improvement of the physical features and productivity of agricultural and forest soils and the recovery of degraded soils, they also contain trace elements, organic trace and pathogens that can cause damage to the environment. The application of these biosolids to land without the total reclamation and the treated wastewater can transfer these compounds into terrestrial and aquatic environments, giving rise to potential accumulation in plants. The general aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of bisphenol A (BPA), and 17 α-ethynyl estradiol (EE2) in a soil-biosolid system using wheat (Triticum aestivum) plant assays and a predictive extraction method using a solution of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to determine if it is a reliable surrogate for this bioassay. Two soils were obtained from the central region of Chile (Lo Prado and Chicauma). Biosolids were obtained from a regional wastewater treatment plant. The soils were amended with biosolids at 90 Mg ha-1. Soils treated with biosolids, spiked with 10 mgkg-1 of the EE2 and 15 mgkg-1 and 30 mgkg-1of BPA were also included. The BPA, and EE2 concentration were determined in biosolids, soils and plant samples through ultrasound assisted extraction, solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry determination (GC/MS). The bioavailable fraction found of each one of soils cultivated with wheat plants was compared with results obtained through a cyclodextrin biosimulator method. The total concentration found in biosolid from a treatment plant was 0.150 ± 0.064 mgkg-1 and 12.8±2.9 mgkg-1 of EE2 and BPA respectively. BPA and EE2 bioavailability is affected by the organic matter content and the physical and chemical properties of the soil. The bioavailability response of both compounds in the two soils varied with the EE2 and BPA concentration. It was observed in the case of EE2, the bioavailability in wheat plant crops contained higher concentrations in the roots than in the shoots. The concentration of EE2 increased with increasing biosolids rate. On the other hand, for BPA, a higher concentration was found in the shoot than the roots of the plants. The predictive capability the HPCD extraction was assessed using a simple linear correlation test, for both compounds in wheat plants. The correlation coefficients for the EE2 obtained from the HPCD extraction with those obtained from the wheat plants were r= 0.99 and p-value ≤ 0.05. On the other hand, in the case of BPA a correlation was not found. Therefore, the methodology was validated with respect to wheat plants bioassays, only in the EE2 case. Acknowledgments: The authors thank FONDECYT 1150502.

Keywords: emerging compounds, bioavailability, biosolids, endocrine disruptors

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1722 Influence of the Nature of Plants on Drainage, Purification Performance and Quality of Biosolids on Faecal Sludge Planted Drying Beds in Sub-Saharan Climate Conditions

Authors: El Hadji Mamadou Sonko, Mbaye Mbéguéré, Cheikh Diop, Linda Strande


In new approaches that are being developed for the treatment of sludge, the valorization of by-product is increasingly encouraged. In this perspective, Echinochloa pyramidalis has been successfully tested in Cameroon. Echinochloa pyramidalis is an efficient forage plant in the treatment of faecal sludge. It provides high removal rates and biosolids of high agronomic value. Thus in order to advise the use of this plant in planted drying beds in Senegal its comparison with the plants long been used in the field deserves to be carried out. That is the aim of this study showing the influence of the nature of the plants on the drainage, the purifying performances and the quality of the biosolids. Echinochloa pyramidalis, Typha australis, and Phragmites australis are the three macrophytes used in this study. The drainage properties of the beds were monitored through the frequency of clogging, the percentage of recovered leachate and the dryness of the accumulated sludge. The development of plants was followed through the measurement of the density. The purification performances were evaluated from the incoming raw sludge flows and the outflows of leachate for parameters such as Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Volatile Solids (TVS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Ammonia (NH₄⁺), Nitrate (NO₃⁻), Total Phosphorus (TP), Orthophosphorus (PO₄³⁻) and Ascaris eggs. The quality of the biosolids accumulated on the beds was measured after 3 months of maturation for parameters such as dryness, C/N ratio NH₄⁺/NO₃⁻ ratio, ammonia, Ascaris eggs. The results have shown that the recovered leachate volume is about 40.4%; 45.6% and 47.3%; the dryness about 41.7%; 38.7% and 28.7%, and clogging frequencies about 6.7%; 8.2% and 14.2% on average for the beds planted with Echinochloa pyramidalis, Typha australis and Phragmites australis respectively. The plants of Echinochloa pyramidalis (198.6 plants/m²) and Phragmites australis (138 plants/m²) have higher densities than Typha australis (90.3 plants/m²). The nature of the plants has no influence on the purification performance with reduction percentages around 80% or more for all the parameters followed whatever the nature of the plants. However, the concentrations of these various leachate pollutants are above the limit values of the Senegalese standard NS 05-061 for the release into the environment. The biosolids harvested after 3 months of maturation are all mature with C/N ratios around 10 for all the macrophytes. The NH₄⁺/NO₃⁻ ratio is lower than 1 except for the biosolids originating from the Echinochloa pyramidalis beds. The ammonia is also less than 0.4 g/kg except for biosolids from Typha australis beds. Biosolids are also rich in mineral elements. Their concentrations of Ascaris eggs are higher than the WHO recommendations despite a percentage of inactivation around 80%. These biosolids must be stored for an additional time or composted. From these results, the use of Echinochloa pyramidalis as the main macrophyte can be recommended in the various drying beds planted in sub-Saharan climate conditions.

Keywords: faecal sludge, nature of plants, quality of biosolids, treatment performances

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1721 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal


Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure

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1720 Zinc Sorption by Six Agricultural Soils Amended with Municipal Biosolids

Authors: Antoine Karam, Lotfi Khiari, Bruno Breton, Alfred Jaouich


Anthropogenic sources of zinc (Zn), including industrial emissions and effluents, Zn–rich fertilizer materials and pesticides containing Zn, can contribute to increasing the concentration of soluble Zn at levels toxic to plants in acid sandy soils. The application of municipal sewage sludge or biosolids (MBS) which contain metal immobilizing agents on coarse-textured soils could improve the metal sorption capacity of the low-CEC soils. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the sorption of Zn in surface samples (0-15 cm) of six Quebec (Canada) soils amended with MBS (pH 6.9) from Val d’Or (Quebec, Canada). Soil samples amended with increasing amounts (0 to 20%) of MBS were equilibrated with various amounts of Zn as ZnCl2 in 0.01 M CaCl2 for 48 hours at room temperature. Sorbed Zn was calculated from the difference between the initial and final Zn concentration in solution. Zn sorption data conformed to the linear form of Freundlich equation. The amount of sorbed Zn increased considerably with increasing MBS rate. Analysis of variance revealed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.001) of soil texture and MBS rate on the amount of sorbed Zn. The average values of the Zn-sorption capacity of MBS-amended coarse-textured soils were lower than those of MBS-amended fine textured soils. The two sandy soils (86-99% sand) amended with MBS retained 2- to 5-fold Zn than those without MBS (control). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients between the Zn sorption isotherm parameter, i.e. the Freundlich sorption isotherm (KF), and commonly measured physical and chemical entities were obtained. Among all the soil properties measured, soil pH gave the best significant correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.001) for soils receiving 0, 5 and 10% MBS. Furthermore, KF values were positively correlated with soil clay content, exchangeable basic cations (Ca, Mg or K), CEC and clay content to CEC ratio. From these results, it can be concluded that (i) municipal biosolids provide sorption sites that have a strong affinity for Zn, (ii) both soil texture, especially clay content, and soil pH are the main factors controlling anthropogenic Zn sorption in the municipal biosolids-amended soils, and (iii) the effect of municipal biosolids on Zn sorption will be more pronounced for a sandy soil than for a clay soil.

Keywords: metal, recycling, sewage sludge, trace element

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1719 Growing Evaluation Process in Chamaedorea Linearis with Humus from Biosolids of the Wastewater Treatment Plant, Nueva Granada Military University Cajica

Authors: J. Gonzalez, P. Jimenez, C. Isaza


Palms have different characteristics that make them vulnerable; that is the case of the Chamaedorea linearis, with the presence of solitary stems of small diameter and medium leaves, culturally harvested, and in religious festivities used. Additionally, they present a weak apical meristem as the only emergency point, slow development and growth, and an affectation due to the high rate of deforestation in Colombia. Propagation of this species can improve the pressure on wild populations and help their survival in the environment. In this study was used in 177 plants biosolids humus from the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), located at the UMNG Campus Cajica (Cundinamarca, Colombia). The experiment used a control and two treatments with 10% and 20% of humus. During the process, the variables evaluated were number of leaves, percentage of chlorophyll, stem length, and estimated leaf area. The data set were taking during 14 weeks before the reproductive maturity, evidencing that the most representative development of the palms was in the treatment of 20%, plants in this treatment presented major number of leaves, larger stems, a high quantity of chlorophyll, and was a first treatment that present pinnate leaves them represent an important point in maturity process. The research gives an opportunity to improve times of growth in another species of palms and plants (Product result from INV ING 2986 UMNG).

Keywords: biosolids, humus, growth, palms, wastewater treatment plant, WWTP

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1718 Empirical Investigation for the Correlation between Object-Oriented Class Lack of Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal


The design of the internal relationships among object-oriented class members (i.e., attributes and methods) and the external relationships among classes affects the overall quality of the object-oriented software. The degree of relatedness among class members is referred to as class cohesion and the degree to which a class is related to other classes is called class coupling. Well designed classes are expected to exhibit high cohesion and low coupling values. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the relation between class cohesion and coupling. In the empirical study, five lack-of-cohesion metrics and eight coupling metrics are considered. The empirical study results show that class cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation highly depends on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: class cohesion measure, class coupling measure, object-oriented class, software quality

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1717 Linguistic Codes: Food as a Class Indicator

Authors: Elena Valeryevna Pozhidaeva


This linguistic case study is based on an interaction between the social position and foodways. In every culture there is a social hierarchical system in which there can be means to express and to identify the social status of a person. Food serves as a class indicator. The British being a verbal nation use the words as a preferred medium for signalling and recognising the social status. The linguistic analysis reflects a symbolic hierarchy determined by social groups in the UK. The linguistic class indicators of a British hierarchical system are detectable directly – in speech acts. They are articulated in every aspect of a national identity’s life from preferences of the food and the choice to call it to the names of the meals. The linguistic class indicators can as well be detected indirectly – through symbolic meaning or via the choice of the mealtime, its class (e.g the classes of tea or marmalade), the place to buy food (the class of the supermarket) and consume it (the places for eating out and the frequency of such practices). Under analysis of this study are not only food items and their names but also such categories as cutlery as a class indicator and the act of eating together as a practice of social significance and a class indicator. Current social changes and economic developments are considered and their influence on the class indicators appearance and transformation.

Keywords: linguistic, class, social indicator, English, food class

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1716 From User's Requirements to UML Class Diagram

Authors: Zeineb Ben Azzouz, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem Karaa


The automated extraction of UML class diagram from natural language requirements is a highly challenging task. Many approaches, frameworks and tools have been presented in this field. Nonetheless, the experiments of these tools have shown that there is no approach that can work best all the time. In this context, we propose a new accurate approach to facilitate the automatic mapping from textual requirements to UML class diagram. Our new approach integrates the best properties of statistical Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to reduce ambiguity when analysing natural language requirements text. In addition, our approach follows the best practices defined by conceptual modelling experts to determine some patterns indispensable for the extraction of basic elements and concepts of the class diagram. Once the relevant information of class diagram is captured, a XMI document is generated and imported with a CASE tool to build the corresponding UML class diagram.

Keywords: class diagram, user’s requirements, XMI, software engineering

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1715 Applications for Accounting of Inherited Object-Oriented Class Members

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal


A class in an Object-Oriented (OO) system is the basic unit of design, and it encapsulates a set of attributes and methods. In OO systems, instead of redefining the attributes and methods that are included in other classes, a class can inherit these attributes and methods and only implement its unique attributes and methods, which results in reducing code redundancy and improving code testability and maintainability. Such mechanism is called Class Inheritance. However, some software engineering applications may require accounting for all the inherited class members (i.e., attributes and methods). This paper explains how to account for inherited class members and discusses the software engineering applications that require such consideration.

Keywords: class flattening, external quality attribute, inheritance, internal quality attribute, object-oriented design

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1714 Women Domestic Violence in Nepalese Society: A Case Study of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski

Authors: Rajani Bogati, Gopini Pathak


Women living in husband’s home (second home) after getting married is a common culture in Nepalese society. Most of the marriages are arranged between the mutual understandings of their parents as per their cultural practice. Culturally, arranged marriage system protects women in the society. Even though, women domestic violence is also still alive in the society. It depends upon the family class, ethnicity, caste, religion etc. Lower class (poor) family always try to get marriage from the higher class (rich) family of girl and also try to send their girl in higher class family. This study analysis the freedom of women of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski district on the base of the family class of girl where she born (First home). 88% women are getting more respect in their second home if their family class of first home and second homes are same. They feel more comfortable and freedom in their second home. 79% of Women are suffering from domestic violence while the marriage between the boys from higher class and the girls from lower class. But less than 10% women are getting distress from violence if the marriage is accompanied between the girls from higher class and the boys from lower class. Less domestic violence is seem where the both families are educated, even though they are from different class. This study recommends that the society should be educated first to reduce women domestic violence.

Keywords: arranged marriage, women, family class, domestic violence

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1713 Suitability of Class F Flyash for Construction Industry: An Indian Scenario

Authors: M. N. Akhtar, J. N. Akhtar


The present study evaluates the properties of class F fly ash as a replacement of natural materials in civil engineering construction industry. The low-lime flash similar to class F is the prime variety generated in India, although it has significantly smaller volumes of high-lime fly ash as compared to class C. The chemical and physical characterization of the sample is carried out with the number of experimental approaches in order to investigate all relevant features present in the samples. For chemical analysis, elementary quantitative results from point analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used to identify the element images of different fractions. The physical properties found very close to the range of common soils. Furthermore, the fly ash-based bricks were prepared by the same sample of class F fly ash and the results of compressive strength similar to that of Standard Clay Brick Grade 1 available in the local market of India.

Keywords: fly ash, class F, class C, chemical, physical, SEM, EDS

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1712 Degree of Approximation of Functions by Product Means

Authors: Hare Krishna Nigam


In this paper, for the first time, (E,q)(C,2) product summability method is introduced and two quite new results on degree of approximation of the function f belonging to Lip (alpha,r)class and W(L(r), xi(t)) class by (E,q)(C,2) product means of Fourier series, has been obtained.

Keywords: Degree of approximation, (E, q)(C, 2) means, Fourier series, Lebesgue integral, Lip (alpha, r)class, W(L(r), xi(t))class of functions

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1711 Mechanical Properties of Class F Fly Ash Blended Concrete Incorporation with Natural Admixture

Authors: T. S. Ramesh Babu, D. Neeraja


This research work revealed that effect of Natural admixture (NAD) on Conventional Concrete (CC) and Class F Fly Ash(FA) blended concrete. Broiler hen egg white albumen and yellow yolk were used as Natural Admixture. Cement was replaced by Class F fly ash at various levels of 0%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% by its mass and NAD was added to concrete at different replacement dosages of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.00% by its volume to water content and liquid to binder ratio was maintained at 0.5. For all replacement levels of FA and NAD, the mechanical properties viz unit weight, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of CC and Class F fly ash (FA) were studied at 7, 28, 56 and 112 days. From the results, it was concluded that 0.25% of NAD dosage was considered as optimum dosage for both CC and class F fly ash blended concrete. The studies revealed that 35% Class F fly ash blended concrete mix is concluded as optimum mix and 55% Class F fly ash blended concrete mix is concluded as economical mix with 0.25% NAD dosage.

Keywords: Class F fly ash, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, natural admixture, splitting tensile strength, unit weight

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1710 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia


This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ~72% PAE and output power of > 39 dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5 GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The load- and source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: power amplifier (PA), high power, class-J and class-E, high efficiency

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1709 The Role of Middle Class in Forming of Consumption Habits of Market Institutions among Kazakh Households in Transition Period

Authors: Daurenbek Kuleimenov, Elmira Otar


Market institutions extension within transit societies contributes to constituting the new type of middle class and households livelihood strategies. The middle class households as an example of prosperity in many cases encourage the ordinary ones to do the same economic actions. Therefore, practices of using market institutions by middle class households in transit societies, which are mostly characterized by huge influence of traditional attitudes, can carry habitual features for the whole society. Market institutions consumption habit of the middle class households makes them trendsetters of economic habits of other households while adapting to the market economy. Moreover different social-economic positions of households lead them to different consuming results such as worsening or improving household economy due to indebtedness.

Keywords: middle class, households, market institutions, transition

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1708 Promoting Critical Thinking in a Robotics Class

Authors: Ian D. Walker


This paper describes the creation and teaching of an undergraduate course aimed at promoting critical thinking among the students in the course. The class, Robots in Business and Society, taught at Clemson University, is open to all undergraduate students of any discipline. It is taught as part of Clemson’s online class program and is structured to promote critical thinking via a series of interactive discussion boards and assignments. Critical thinking is measured via pre- and post-testing using a benchmark standardized test. The paper will detail the class organization, and describe and discuss the results and lessons learned with respect to improvement of student critical thinking from three offerings of the class.

Keywords: critical thinking, pedagogy, robotics, undergraduate teaching

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1707 Effects of Social Media on Class Layers in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Al-Sanaa


Class has always been a vital distinguishing factor among people within any society. Clear borders between social layers; such as royals, nobles, aristocrats, the bourgeoisie, and working class; have been minimized and blurred due to the advent of social media. Unprecedented access to information has played a significant role in teaching different individuals about the nature of other social layers, hence, allowing for imitation and integration. This study aims to fill the void in research conducted on such topic. The research explores how social media may be slowly but surely dissolving apparent and rigid borderlines of social class. In order to present an overview of the topic, the study surveys individuals in Kuwait to measure how using social media changed their views and style of social class. It also draws a framework through which implications and suggestions for future research may be discussed to better serve the advancement of human communication.

Keywords: class, communication, Kuwait, social media

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1706 The Construction of Research-Oriented/Practice-Oriented Engineering Testing and Measurement Technology Course under the Condition of New Technology

Authors: He Lingsong, Wang Junfeng, Tan Qiong, Xu Jiang


The paper describes efforts on reconstruction methods of engineering testing and measurement technology course by applying new techniques and applications. Firstly, flipped classroom was introduced. In-class time was used for in-depth discussions and interactions while theory concept teaching was done by self-study course outside of class. Secondly, two hands-on practices of technique applications, including the program design of MATLAB Signal Analysis and the measurement application of Arduino sensor, have been covered in class. Class was transformed from an instructor-centered teaching process into an active student-centered learning process, consisting of the pre-class massive open online course (MOOC), in-class discussion and after-class practice. The third is to change sole written homework to the research-oriented application practice assignments, so as to enhance the breadth and depth of the course.

Keywords: testing and measurement, flipped classroom, MOOC, research-oriented learning, practice-oriented learning

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1705 The Relation Between Social Class, Race Homophily and Mental Health Outcomes of Black College Students

Authors: Omari W. Keeles


Attention to social class and race processes could illuminate within- group differences in Black students' experiences that help explain variation in adjustment. Of interest is how social class relates to development of intragroup connections with other Black students on campus in ways that promote or inhibit well-being. The present study’s findings suggest that students from lower class backgrounds may be more restrictive or limited in opportunities around their intragroup friendship networks than more affluent students. Furthermore, Black social relationship networks were related to positive mental health adjustment important to healthy psychological functioning and development.

Keywords: black students, social class, homophily, psychological adjustment

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1704 Certain Results of a New Class of Meromorphic Multivalent Functions Involving Ruscheweyh Derivative

Authors: Kassim A. Jassim


In the present paper, we introduce and discuss a new class Kp(λ,α) of meromorphic multivalent functions in the punctured unit disk U*={z∈¢:0<|z|<1} defined by Ruscheweyh derivative. We obtain some sufficient conditions for the functions belonging to the class Kp(λ,α).

Keywords: meromorphic multivalent function, Ruscheweyh derivative, hadamard product

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1703 One-Class Support Vector Machine for Sentiment Analysis of Movie Review Documents

Authors: Chothmal, Basant Agarwal


Sentiment analysis means to classify a given review document into positive or negative polar document. Sentiment analysis research has been increased tremendously in recent times due to its large number of applications in the industry and academia. Sentiment analysis models can be used to determine the opinion of the user towards any entity or product. E-commerce companies can use sentiment analysis model to improve their products on the basis of users’ opinion. In this paper, we propose a new One-class Support Vector Machine (One-class SVM) based sentiment analysis model for movie review documents. In the proposed approach, we initially extract features from one class of documents, and further test the given documents with the one-class SVM model if a given new test document lies in the model or it is an outlier. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed sentiment analysis model.

Keywords: feature selection methods, machine learning, NB, one-class SVM, sentiment analysis, support vector machine

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1702 Semi-Supervised Outlier Detection Using a Generative and Adversary Framework

Authors: Jindong Gu, Matthias Schubert, Volker Tresp


In many outlier detection tasks, only training data belonging to one class, i.e., the positive class, is available. The task is then to predict a new data point as belonging either to the positive class or to the negative class, in which case the data point is considered an outlier. For this task, we propose a novel corrupted Generative Adversarial Network (CorGAN). In the adversarial process of training CorGAN, the Generator generates outlier samples for the negative class, and the Discriminator is trained to distinguish the positive training data from the generated negative data. The proposed framework is evaluated using an image dataset and a real-world network intrusion dataset. Our outlier-detection method achieves state-of-the-art performance on both tasks.

Keywords: one-class classification, outlier detection, generative adversary networks, semi-supervised learning

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1701 Class Size Effects on Reading Achievement in Europe: Evidence from Progress in International Reading Literacy Study

Authors: Ting Shen, Spyros Konstantopoulos


During the past three decades, class size effects have been a focal debate in education. The idea of having smaller class is enormously popular among parents, teachers and policy makers. The rationale of its popularity is that small classroom could provide a better learning environment in which there would be more teacher-pupil interaction and more individualized instruction. This early stage benefits would also have a long-term positive effect. It is a common belief that reducing class size may result in increases in student achievement. However, the empirical evidence about class-size effects from experimental or quasi-experimental studies has been mixed overall. This study sheds more light on whether class size reduction impacts reading achievement in eight European countries: Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. We examine class size effects on reading achievement using national probability samples of fourth graders. All eight European countries had participated in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) in 2001, 2006 and 2011. Methodologically, the quasi-experimental method of instrumental variables (IV) has been utilized to facilitate causal inference of class size effects. Overall, the results indicate that class size effects on reading achievement are not significant across countries and years. However, class size effects are evident in Romania where reducing class size increases reading achievement. In contrast, in Germany, increasing class size seems to increase reading achievement. In future work, it would be valuable to evaluate differential class size effects for minority or economically disadvantaged student groups or low- and high-achievers. Replication studies with different samples and in various settings would also be informative. Future research should continue examining class size effects in different age groups and countries using rich international databases.

Keywords: class size, reading achievement, instrumental variables, PIRLS

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1700 Class-Size and Instructional Materials as Correlates of Pupils Learning and Academic Achievement in Primary School

Authors: Aanuoluwapo Olusola Adesanya, Adesina Joseph


This paper examined the class-size and instructional materials as correlates of pupils learning and academic achievement in primary school. The population of the study comprised 198 primary school pupils in three selected schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and were analysed with the use of multiple regression and ANOVA to analysed the correlation between class-size, instructional materials (independent variables) and learning achievement (dependent variable). The findings revealed that schools having an average class-size of 30 and below with use of instructional materials obtained better results than schools having more than 30 and above. The main score were higher in the school in schools having 30 and below than schools with 30 and above. It was therefore recommended that government, stakeholders and NGOs should provide more classrooms and supply of adequate instructional materials in all primary schools in the state to cater for small class-size.

Keywords: class-size, instructional materials, learning, academic achievement

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1699 A Generalized Family of Estimators for Estimation of Unknown Population Variance in Simple Random Sampling

Authors: Saba Riaz, Syed A. Hussain


This paper is addressing the estimation method of the unknown population variance of the variable of interest. A new generalized class of estimators of the finite population variance has been suggested using the auxiliary information. To improve the precision of the proposed class, known population variance of the auxiliary variable has been used. Mathematical expressions for the biases and the asymptotic variances of the suggested class are derived under large sample approximation. Theoretical and numerical comparisons are made to investigate the performances of the proposed class of estimators. The empirical study reveals that the suggested class of estimators performs better than the usual estimator, classical ratio estimator, classical product estimator and classical linear regression estimator. It has also been found that the suggested class of estimators is also more efficient than some recently published estimators.

Keywords: study variable, auxiliary variable, finite population variance, bias, asymptotic variance, percent relative efficiency

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1698 Measuring Multi-Class Linear Classifier for Image Classification

Authors: Fatma Susilawati Mohamad, Azizah Abdul Manaf, Fadhillah Ahmad, Zarina Mohamad, Wan Suryani Wan Awang


A simple and robust multi-class linear classifier is proposed and implemented. For a pair of classes of the linear boundary, a collection of segments of hyper planes created as perpendicular bisectors of line segments linking centroids of the classes or part of classes. Nearest Neighbor and Linear Discriminant Analysis are compared in the experiments to see the performances of each classifier in discriminating ripeness of oil palm. This paper proposes a multi-class linear classifier using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) for image identification. Result proves that LDA is well capable in separating multi-class features for ripeness identification.

Keywords: multi-class, linear classifier, nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis

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1697 Case of an Engineering Design Class in Architectural Engineering

Authors: Myunghoun Jang


Most engineering colleges in South Korea have engineering design classes in order to develop and enhance a student's creativity and problem-solving ability. Many cases about engineering design class are shown in journals and magazines, but a case lasting many years is few. The engineering design class in the Department of Architectural Engineering, Jeju National University was open in 2009 and continues to this year. 3-5 teams in every year set up their problems found their solutions and produced good results. Three of the results obtained patents. The class also provides students with opportunities to improve communication skill because they have many discussions in solving their problems.

Keywords: engineering design, architectural engineering, team-based learning, construction safety

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1696 Knowledge Representation and Inconsistency Reasoning of Class Diagram Maintenance in Big Data

Authors: Chi-Lun Liu


Requirements modeling and analysis are important in successful information systems' maintenance. Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagrams are useful standards for modeling information systems. To our best knowledge, there is a lack of a systems development methodology described by the organism metaphor. The core concept of this metaphor is adaptation. Using the knowledge representation and reasoning approach and ontologies to adopt new requirements are emergent in recent years. This paper proposes an organic methodology which is based on constructivism theory. This methodology is a knowledge representation and reasoning approach to analyze new requirements in the class diagrams maintenance. The process and rules in the proposed methodology automatically analyze inconsistencies in the class diagram. In the big data era, developing an automatic tool based on the proposed methodology to analyze large amounts of class diagram data is an important research topic in the future.

Keywords: knowledge representation, reasoning, ontology, class diagram, software engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 126