Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 117

Search results for: supplements

117 Factors Determining Selection of Essential Nutrition Supplements

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim

Abstract:

There are numerous nutritional supplements, such as multivitamins and nutrition drinks, in the market today. Many of these supplements are expensive and tend to be driven commercially by business decisions and big marketing budgets. Many of the costs are ultimately borne by the end user in the quest for keeping to a healthy lifestyle. This paper proposes a system with a list of ten determinants to gauge how to decide the value of various supplements. It suggests variables such as composition, safety, efficacy and bioavailability, as well as several other considerations. These guidelines can help to tackle many of the issues that people of all ages face in the way that they receive essential nutrients. The system also aims to promote and improve the safety and choice of foods and supplements. In so doing, the system aims to promote the individual’s or population’s control over their own health and reduce the growing health care burden on the society.

Keywords: choice of foods and supplements, essential nutrients, nutritional supplements, system safety

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116 A Literature Review on Nutritional Supplements for the Treatment of Obesity

Authors: Monika Nuffer, Wesley Nuffer

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The problem of obesity is one that continues to be faced in the United States health care system and across the developing world. Prescription medications are available, but are often very expensive with minimal insurance coverage. The over-the-counter diet aid industry is a robust one, selling billions of dollars in products every year. It is important for clinicians to understand the myriad of different nutritional supplements marketed for obesity, and to weigh the evidence behind these products. This manuscript outlines the most commonly used nutritional supplements currently marketed for weight loss, reviewing the evidence with a focus on the efficacy and safety of these products.

Keywords: obesity, weight loss, herbal products, nutritional supplements

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115 HPLC-UV Screening of Legal (Caffeine and Yohimbine) and Illegal (Ephedrine and Sibutramine) Substances from Weight Loss Dietary Supplements for Athletes

Authors: Amelia Tero-Vescan, Camil-Eugen Vari, Laura Ciulea, Cristina Filip, Silvia Imre

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A HPLC –UV method for the identification of ephedrine (EPH), sibutramine (SB), yohimbine (Y) and caffeine (CF) was developed. Separation was performed on a Kromasil 100-RP8, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 mm column equipped with a precolumn Kromasil RP 8. Mobile phase was a gradient of 80-35 % sodium dihydrogen phosphate pH=5 with NH4OH and acetonitrile over 15 minutes time of analysis. Based on the responses of 113 athletes about dietary supplements (DS) consumed for "fat burning" and weight loss which have a legal status in Romania, 28 supplements have been selected and investigated for their content in CF, Y, legal substances, and SB, EPH (prohibited substances in DS). The method allows quantitative determination of the four substances in a short analysis time and with minimum cost. The presence of SB and EPH in the analyzed DS was not detected while the content in CF and Y considering the dosage recommended by the manufacturer does not affect the health of the consumers. DS labeling (plant extracts with CF and Y content) allows manufacturers to avoid declaring correct and exact amounts per pharmaceutical form (pure CF or equivalent and Y, respectively).

Keywords: dietary supplements, sibutramine, ephedrine, yohimbine, caffeine, HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
114 Nutritional Supplement Usage among Disabled Athletes

Authors: Aylin Hasbay Büyükkaragöz, Zehra Büyüktuncer, Tuğçe Nur Balcı, Nevin Ergun

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Purpose: Nutritional supplement usage is widespread among athletes all over the world. However, the usage among disabled athletes is not well-known. This study aimed to evaluate dietary supplement use in disabled athletes, their motivation for consuming supplements, sources of information, and their side effect. Methods: A total of 75 Turkish National Team's disabled athletes (38 female, 37 male) from 5 sport branches (soccer, weight lifting, shooting, table tennis and basketball), aged 13- 55 years, were participated in the study. Nutritional supplement usage was inquired using a questionnaire by a dietitian at their preparation camps. Results: A total of 22.7% of the athletes (18.4% and 27% of, respectively females and males) used some type of dietary supplements. Protein (35.3%), amino acid (29.4%), carnitine (29.4%), creatine (23.5%) and glucosamine (23.5%) were mostly preferred nutritional supplements by all athletes. The most common supplements use was obtained among weightlifters (71.4%), followed by the athletes of soccer (23.5%), table tennis (15.4%), and basketball (6.7%). No nutritional supplement usage was observed among shooters. Total of 41.2% consumers declared more than one reason for taking nutritional supplements. The main motivation for supplement usage was improving athletic performance (63.5%). Other reasons were weight loss, weight gain, muscle development, health protection and nutritional support. Athletes were more likely to get recommendation about nutritional supplement usage from team coaches (48.9%). Of 35.6% athletes reported that they made their own decision about using supplements. Other information sources were health professional, family member, friend and sale manager of sport retail store. Only 3 of 17 athletes reported side effects which were increased urine output, weight gain, loss of appetite and intestinal gas. Conclusions: Nutritional supplement usage was not common among disabled athletes. However, getting information from incompetent sources is disquieting. Considering their health problems, accurate information from competent sources should be provided to disabled athletes. Moreover, long term effects of nutritional supplements among disabled athletes should be examined in further studies.

Keywords: disabled athletes, ergogenic aid, nutritional supplement, vitamin supplementation

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113 New Applications of Essential Oils: Edible Packaging Material for Food Supplements

Authors: Roxana Gheorghita, Gheorghe Gutt

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Environmental pollution due to non-degradation of packaging from the food and pharmaceutical industry is reaching increasingly alarming levels. The packaging used for food supplements is usually composed of successive layers of synthetic materials, conventional, glue, and paint. The situation is becoming more and more problematic as the population, according to statistics, uses food supplements more and more often. The solution can be represented by edible packaging, completely biodegradable, and compostable. The tested materials were obtained from biopolymers, agar, carrageenan, and alginate, in well-established quantities and plasticized with glycerol. Rosemary, thyme, and oregano essential oils have been added in varying proportions. The obtained films are completely water-soluble in hot liquids (with a temperature of about 80° C) and can be consumed with the product contained. The films were glossy, pleasant to the touch, thin (thicknesses between 32.8 and 52.8 μm), transparent, and with a pleasant smell, specific to the added essential oil. Tested for microbial evaluation, none of the films indicated the presence of E. coli, S. aureus, enterobacteria, coliform bacteria, yeasts, or molds. This aspect can also be helped by the low values of the water activity index (located between 0.546 and 0.576). The mechanical properties indicated that the material became more resistant with the addition of essential oil, the best values being recorded by the addition of oregano. The results obtained indicate the possibility of using biopolymer-based films with the addition of rosemary, thyme, and oregano essential oil, for wrapping food supplements, thus replacing conventional packaging, multilayer, impossible to sort and recycle.

Keywords: edible films, food supplements, oregano, rosemary, thyme

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112 An Effect of Organic Supplements on Stimulating Growth of Vanda and Mokara Seedlings in Tissue Culture

Authors: Kullanart Obsuwan, Chockpisit Thepsithar

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This study aimed to investigate effect of different organic supplements on growth of Vanda and Mokara seedlings. Vanda and Mokara seedlings approximately 0.2 and 0.3 cm. in height were sub-cultured onto VW supplemented with 150 ml/L coconut water, 100 g/L potato extract, 100 g/L ‘Gros Michel’ banana (AAA group) and 100 g/L ‘Namwa’ banana (ABB group). The explants were sub-cultured onto the same medium every month for 3 months. The best medium increased stem height to 0.52 and 0.44 Cm. in Vanda and Mokara respectively was supplemented with coconut water. The maximum fresh weight of Vanda (0.59 g) was found on medium supplemented with ‘Gros Michel’ banana while Mokara cultured on medium supplemented with Potato extract had the maximum fresh weight (0.27 g) and number of roots (5.20 roots/shoot) statistically different (p≤ 0.05) to other treatments. However, Vanda cultured on medium supplemented with ‘Namwa’ banana had the maximum number of roots (3.80 roots/shoot). Our results suggested that growth of different orchid genera was responded diversely to different organic supplements.

Keywords: orchid, in vitro propagation, fresh weight, plant height

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111 Study on the Neurotransmitters and Digestion of Amino Acids Affecting Psychological Chemical Imbalance

Authors: Yoonah Lee, Richard Kyung

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With technological advances in the computational biomedical field, the ability to measure neurotransmitters’ chemical imbalances that affect depression and anxiety has been established. By comparing the thermodynamics stability of amino acid supplements, such as glutamine, tyrosine, phe-nylalanine, and methionine, this research analyzes mood-regulating neurotransmitters, amino acid supplements, and antipsychotic substances (ie. Reserpine molecule and CRF complexes) in relation to depression and anxiety and suggests alternative complexes that are low in energy to act as more efficient treatments for mood disorders. To determine a molecule’s thermodynamic stability, this research examines the molecular energy using Avogadro, a software for building virtual molecules and calculating optimized geometry using GAFF (General Amber Force Field) and UFF (Universal Force Field). The molecules, built using Avogadro, is analyzed using their theoretical values and atomic properties.

Keywords: amino acids, anxiety, depression, neurotransmitters

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110 Influence of Organic Supplements on Shoot Multiplication Efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba

Authors: T. Punjansing, M. Nakkuntod, S. Homchan, P. Inthima, A. Kongbangkerd

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The influence of organic supplements on growth and multiplication efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba seedlings was investigated. 12 week-old seedlings were cultured on half-strength semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 8 g/L agar and various concentrations of coconut water (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mL/L) combined with potato extract (0, 25 and 50 g/L) and the pH was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving. The cultures were then kept under constant photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) at 25 ± 2 °C for 12 weeks. The highest number of shoots (3.0 shoots/explant) was obtained when cultured on the medium added with 50 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract whereas the highest number of leaves (5.9 leaves/explant) and roots (6.1 roots/explant) could receive on the medium supplemented with 150 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract. with 150 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract. Additionally, plantlets of P. tankervilleae var. alba were transferred to grow into seven different substrates i.e. soil, sand, coconut husk chip, soil-sand mix (1: 1), soil-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1), sand-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1) and soil-sand-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1: 1) for four weeks. The results found that acclimatized plants showed 100% of survivals when sand, coconut husk chip and sand-coconut husk chip mix are used as substrates. The number of leaves induced by sand-coconut husk chip mix was significantly higher than that planted in other substrates (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, no significant difference in new shoot formation among these substrates was observed (P < 0.05). This precursory developing protocol was likely to be applied for more large scale of plant production as well as conservation of germplasm of this orchid species.

Keywords: organic supplements, acclimatization, Phaius tankervilleae var. alba, orchid

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109 Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 Enhanced Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Puree

Authors: So Yae Koh, YeonWoo Song, Ji-Yeon Ryu, Jeong Yong Moon, Somi Kim Cho

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Blueberry, a perennial shrub, is one of the most popular fruits due to its flavor and strong free radical scavenging properties. In this study, the blueberry puree was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 and the antioxidant activities of fermentation products were examined. Various conditions with different supplements (5% sucrose or 10% skim milk) were evaluated for fermentation efficiency and the effects on antioxidant properties. The viable cell count of lactic acid bacteria, pH, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents were measured after 7 days of fermentation. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical scavenging activities were highly enhanced compared to non-fermented blueberry puree after fermentation. Interestingly, the antioxidant activities were greatly increased in the fermentation of blueberry puree alone without supplements. The present results indicate that the blueberry puree fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants and these findings will facilitate the utilization of blueberry as a resource for food additive.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, blueberry, lactobacillus plantarum CK10, fermentation

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108 Insights on the Halal Status of Antineoplastic and Immunomodulating Agents and Nutritional and Dietary Supplements in Malaysia

Authors: Suraiya Abdul Rahman, Perasna M. Varma, Amrahi Buang, Zhari Ismail, Wan Rosalina W. Rosli, Ahmad Rashidi M. Tahir

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Background: Muslims has the obligation to ensure that everything they consume including medicines should be halal. With the growing demands for halal medicines in October 2012, Malaysia has launched the world's first Halal pharmaceutical standards called Malaysian Standard MS 2424:2012 Halal Pharmaceuticals-General Guidelines to serve as a basic requirement for halal pharmaceuticals in Malaysia. However, the biggest challenge faced by pharmaceutical companies to comply is finding the origin or source of the ingredients and determine their halal status. Aim: This study aims to determine the halal status of the antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents, and nutritional and dietary supplements by analysing the origin of their active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and excipients to provide an insight on the common source and halal status of pharmaceutical ingredients and an indication on adjustment required in order to be halal compliance. Method: The ingredients of each product available in a government hospital in central of Malaysia and their sources were determined from the product package leaflets, information obtained from manufacturer, reliable websites and standard pharmaceutical references. The ingredients were categorised as halal, musbooh or haram based on the definition set in MS2424. Results: There were 162 medications included in the study where 123 (76%) were under the antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents group, while 39 (24%) were nutritional and dietary supplements. In terms of the medication halal status, the proportion of halal, musbooh and haram were 40.1% (n=65), 58.6% (n=95) and 1.2% (n=2) respectively. With regards to the API, there were 89 (52%) different active ingredient identified for antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents with the proportion of 89.9% (n=80) halal and 10.1% (n=9) were mushbooh. There were 83 (48%) active ingredient from the nutritional and dietary supplements group with proportion of halal and masbooh were 89.2% (n=74) and 10.8% (n=9) respectively. No haram APIs were identified in all therapeutic classes. There were a total of 176 excipients identified from the products ranges. It was found that majority of excipients are halal with the proportion of halal, masbooh and haram were at 82.4% (n=145), 17% (n=30) and 0.6% (n=1) respectively. With regards of the sources of the excipeints, most of masbooh excipients (76.7%, n = 23) were classified as masbooh because they have multiple possible origin which consist of animals, plant or others. The remaining 13.3% and 10% were classified as masbooh due to their ethanol and land animal origin respectively. The one haram excipient was gelatine of bovine-porcine origin. Masbooh ingredients found in this research were glycerol, tallow, lactose, polysorbate, dibasic sodium phosphate, stearic acid and magnesium stearate. Ethanol, gelatine, glycerol and magnesium stearate were the most common ingredients classified as mushbooh. Conclusion: This study shows that most API and excipients are halal. However the majority of the medicines in these products categories are mushbooh due to certain excipients only, which could be replaced with halal alternative excipients. This insight should encourage the pharmaceutical products manufacturers to go for halal certification to meet the increasing demand for Halal certified medications for the benefit of mankind.

Keywords: antineoplastic and immunomodulation agents, halal pharmaceutical, MS2424, nutritional and dietary supplements

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107 High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography (HPTLC) Analysis of Multi-Ingredient Traditional Chinese Medicine Supplement

Authors: Martin Cai, Khadijah B. Hashim, Leng Leo, Edmund F. Tian

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Analysis of traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) supplements has always been a laborious task, particularly in the case of multi‐ingredient formulations. Traditionally, herbal extracts are analysed using one or few markers compounds. In the recent years, however, pharmaceutical companies are introducing health supplements of TCM active ingredients to cater to the needs of consumers in the fast-paced society in this age. As such, new problems arise in the aspects of composition identification as well as quality analysis. In most cases of products or supplements formulated with multiple TCM herbs, the chemical composition, and nature of each raw material differs greatly from the others in the formulation. This results in a requirement for individual analytical processes in order to identify the marker compounds in the various botanicals. Thin-layer Chromatography (TLC) is a simple, cost effective, yet well-regarded method for the analysis of natural products, both as a Pharmacopeia-approved method for identification and authentication of herbs, and a great analytical tool for the discovery of chemical compositions in herbal extracts. Recent technical advances introduced High-Performance TLC (HPTLC) where, with the help of automated equipment and improvements on the chromatographic materials, both the quality and reproducibility are greatly improved, allowing for highly standardised analysis with greater details. Here we report an industrial consultancy project with ONI Global Pte Ltd for the analysis of LAC Liver Protector, a TCM formulation aimed at improving liver health. The aim of this study was to identify 4 key components of the supplement using HPTLC, following protocols derived from Chinese Pharmacopeia standards. By comparing the TLC profiles of the supplement to the extracts of the herbs reported in the label, this project proposes a simple and cost-effective analysis of the presence of the 4 marker compounds in the multi‐ingredient formulation by using 4 different HPTLC methods. With the increasing trend of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) bringing natural products and health supplements into the market, it is crucial that the qualities of both raw materials and end products be well-assured for the protection of consumers. With the technology of HPTLC, science can be incorporated to help SMEs with their quality control, thereby ensuring product quality.

Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine supplement, high performance thin layer chromatography, active ingredients, product quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
106 Consumption of Animal and Vegetable Protein on Muscle Power in Road Cyclists from 18 to 20 Years in Bogota, Colombia

Authors: Oscar Rubiano, Oscar Ortiz, Natalia Morales, Lida Alfonso, Johana Alvarado, Adriana Gutierrez, Daniel Botero

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Athletes who usually use protein supplements, are those who practice strength and power sports, whose goal is to achieve a large muscle mass. However, it has also been explored in sports or endurance activities such as cycling, and where despite requiring high power, prominent muscle development can impede good competitive performance due to the determinant of body mass for good performance of the athlete body. This research shows, the effect with protein supplements establishes a protein - muscle mass ratio, although in a lesser proportion the relationship between protein types and muscle power. Thus, we intend to explore as a first approximation, the behavior of muscle power in lower limbs after the intake of two protein supplements from different sources. The aim of the study was to describe the behavior of muscle power in lower limbs after the consumption of animal protein (AP) and vegetable protein (VP) in four route cyclists from 18 to 20 years of the Bogota cycling league. The methodological design of this study is quantitative, with a non-probabilistic sampling, based on a pre-experimental model. The jumping power was evaluated before and after the intervention by means of the squat jump test (SJ), Counter movement jump (CMJ) and Abalacov (AB). Cyclists consumed a drink with whey protein and a soy isolate after training four times a week for three months. The amount of protein in each cyclist, was calculated according to body weight (0.5 g / kg of muscle mass). The results show that subjects who consumed PV improved muscle strength and landing strength. In contrast, the power and landing force decreased for subjects who consumed PA. For the group that consumed PV, the increase was positive at 164.26 watts, 135.70 watts and 33.96 watts for the AB, SJ and CMJ jumps respectively. While for PA, the differences of the medians were negative at -32.29 watts, -82.79 watts and -143.86 watts for the AB, SJ and CMJ jumps respectively. The differences of the medians in the AB jump were positive for both the PV (121.61 Newton) and PA (454.34 Newton) cases, however, the difference was greater for PA. For the SJ jump, the difference for the PA cases was 371.52 Newton, while for the PV cases the difference was negative -448.56 Newton, so the difference was greater in the SJ jump for PA. In jump CMJ, the differences of the medians were negative for the cases of PA and PV, being -7.05 for PA and - 958.2 for PV. So the difference was greater for PA. The conclusion of this study shows that serum protein supplementation showed no improvement in muscle power in the lower limbs of the cyclists studied, which could suggest that whey protein does not have a beneficial effect on performance in terms of power, either, showed an impact on body composition. In contrast, supplementation with soy isolate showed positive effects on muscle power, body.

Keywords: animal protein (AP), muscle power, supplements, vegetable protein (VP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
105 The Effect of Fish and Krill Oil on Warfarin Control

Authors: Rebecca Pryce, Nijole Bernaitis, Andrew K. Davey, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie

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Background: Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant widely used in the prevention of strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Regular monitoring of Internationalised Normalised Ratio (INR) is required to ensure therapeutic benefit with time in therapeutic range (TTR) used to measure warfarin control. A number of factors influence TTR including diet, concurrent illness, and drug interactions. Extensive literature exists regarding the effect of conventional medicines on warfarin control, but documented interactions relating to complementary medicines are limited. It has been postulated that fish oil and krill oil supplementation may affect warfarin due to their association with bleeding events. However, to date little is known as to whether fish and krill oil significantly alter the incidence of bleeding with warfarin or impact on warfarin control. Aim:To assess the influence of fish oil and krill oil supplementation on warfarin control in AF and DVT patients by determining the influence of these supplements on TTR and bleeding events. Methods:A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted utilising patient information from a large private pathology practice in Queensland. AF and DVT patients receiving warfarin management by the pathology practice were identified and their TTR calculated using the Rosendaal method. Concurrent medications were analysed and patients taking no other interacting medicines were identified and divided according to users of fish oil and krill oil supplements and those taking no supplements. Study variables included TTR and the incidence of bleeding with exclusion criteria being less than 30 days of treatment with warfarin. Subject characteristics were reported as the mean and standard deviation for continuous data and number and percentages for nominal or categorical data. Data was analysed using GraphPad InStat Version 3 with a p value of <0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Results:Of the 2081 patients assessed for inclusion into this study, a total of 573 warfarin users met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 416 (72.6%) patients were AF patients and 157 (27.4%) DVT patients and overall there were 316 (55.1%) male and 257 (44.9%) female patients. 145 patients were included in the fish oil/krill oil group (supplement) and 428 were included in the control group. The mean TTR of supplement users was 86.9% and for the control group 84.7% with no significant difference between these groups. Control patients experienced 1.6 times the number of minor bleeds per person compared to supplement patients and 1.2 times the number of major bleeds per person. However, this was not statistically significant nor was the comparison between thrombotic events. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between supplement and control patients in terms of mean TTR, the number of bleeds and thrombotic events. Fish oil and krill oil supplements when used concurrently with warfarin do not significantly affect warfarin control as measured by TTR and bleeding incidence.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, deep vein thormbosis, fish oil, krill oil, warfarin

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104 Determination of Hydrolisis Condition in the Extraction of Fatty Acids from Pinchagua's (Opisthonema libertate) Heads, a By-Product of Sardine Industry

Authors: Belen Carrillo, Mauricio Mosquera

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Fatty acids are bioactive compounds widely used as nutritional supplements in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Bluefish such as sardines have a large variety of these fatty acids in their composition. The objective of this project is to extract these compounds from fishing wastes, to do this, heads of known species as Pinchagua (Opistonema libertate) were used. The conducted study represents a simplified alternative for obtaining and simultaneous saponification of oil through basic hydrolysis, which separates lipids from protein and saponifies sample all the same time to isolate the fatty acid accurately through salts formation. To do these different concentrations of sodium hydroxide were used, it was demonstrated at a concentration of 1 M the highest yield of saponified oil recovery corresponding a value of 3,64% was obtained. Subsequently, the saponified oil was subjected to an acid hydrolysis in which fatty acids were isolated. Different sulfuric acid concentrations and temperatures for the process were tested. Thus, it was shown that the great fatty acids variety were obtained at a 60 °C temperature and sulfuric acid concentration of 50% v/v. Among the obtained compounds the presence of acids such as palmitic, lauric, caproic and myristic are highlighted. Applications of this type of elements are varied and widely used in the nutritional supplements development. Thus, the described methodology proposes a simple mechanism in the revaluation of fishing industry wastes that allow directly generate high added value elements.

Keywords: fatty acids, hydrolysis, Pinchagua, saponification

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103 Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Omega-3 Fish-Oil Supplements: Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Early-Stage Tumors

Authors: Corina Muscurel, Irina Stoian, Laura Gaman, Valeriu Atanasiu

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Chronic inflammation predisposes cells to neoplastic transformation and is associated with angiogenesis. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) give rise to anti-inflammatory metabolites and decrease some inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of n-3 PUFAs intake on patients with tumors in early-stage (without regional or distant metastasis). There were two groups of patients: one group with colon tumors and one group with lung tumors. All patients took for 60 days daily supplements from fish-oil containing 600 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 400 mg docosahexaenoic acid. The plasma markers were evaluated before and after PUFAs intake: ceruloplasmin (using p-phenylenediamine oxidase method), plasma total thiol groups (using dithiobis-nitrobenzoic acid method) and CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen using electrochemiluminescent immunoassay). The results reflect ceruloplasmin decrease (p < 0.05), plasma total thiol groups increase (not statistically significant) and CEA decrease (p < 0.05) after n-3 PUFAs intake. Conclusions: n-3 PUFAs intake is favorable in premalignant lesions or in early tumor stage and dietary fish-oil has anti-inflammatory effects and can contribute to reduce cancer progression.

Keywords: cancer, fish-oil, inflammation, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

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102 Nutraceuticals of Chemical Synthesis: Special Glycans as Prebiotics for the Holobiont

Authors: M. Menapace

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Introduction: Herbal remedies express the idea of natural products used as pharmacotherapy or supplementation in case of need. Whether they are obtained directly by plants or synthesised chemically, prebiotics are considered nutraceuticals of natural origin, i.e., products made available for health reasons and self-medication. Methods: A literature review has been performed by screening manuscripts with prebiotics as herbal nutraceuticals (including chemically synthesized compounds, such as human milk oligosaccharides [HMO]) and evaluating the chemical structure of fibers in diverse food sources (principally herbals). Results: An examination of recent literature led to the fundamental concept of the holobiont as key in understanding the importance of prebiotics for the nonhost part of the metaorganism (microbiota) called a human being. This multispecies entity requires prebiotic fibers to avoid a state of disequilibrium (dysbiosis) that fosters diseases. Conclusions: Numerous human-derived glycans (special oligosaccharides that mimic in structure and function not only blood type antigens but also herbal fibers) have been identified as essential for the maintenance of the equilibrium (eubiosis) within the human holobiont in the modern age. These products are planned to be used not just as additions to baby milk formulas but as food supplements for the health of adults. In the context of alternative medicine, human-derived glycan-based supplements may represent the next step on the road to complete well-being.

Keywords: glycans, herbal remedy, prebiotics, food supplement

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101 An Effect of Organic Supplements on Stimulating Growth of Dendrobium Protocorms and Seedlings

Authors: Sunthari Tharapan, Chockpisit Thepsithar, Kullanart Obsuwan

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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of various organic supplements on growth and development of Dendrobium discolor’s protocorms and seedlings growth of Dendrobium Judy Rutz. Protocorms of Dendrobium discolor with 2.0 cm. in diameter and seedlings of Dendrobium Judy Rutz at the same size (0.5 cm. height) were sub-cultured on Hyponex medium supplemented with cow milk (CM), soy milk (SM), potato extract (PE) and peptone (P) for 2 months. The protocorms were developed to seedlings in all treatments after cultured for 2 months. However, the best results were found on Hyponex medium supplemented with P was the best in which the maximum fresh and dry weight and maximum shoot height were obtained in this treatment statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) to other treatments. Moreover, Hyponex medium supplemented with P also stimulated the maximum mean number of 5.7 shoots per explant which also showed statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) when compared to other treatments. The results of growth of Dendrobium Judy Rutz seedlings indicated the medium supplemented with 100 mL/L PE enhanced the maximum fresh and dry weigh per explants with significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) in fresh weight from other treatments including the control medium without any organic supplementation. However, the dry weight was not significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from medium supplemented with SM and P. There was multiple shoots induction in all media with or without organic supplementation ranging from 2.6 to 3 shoots per explants. The maximum shoot height was also obtained in the seedlings cultured on medium supplemented with PE while the longest root length was found in medium supplemented with SM.

Keywords: fresh weight, in vitro propagation, orchid, plant height

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100 Infrared Spectroscopy Fingerprinting of Herbal Products- Application of the Hypericum perforatum L. Supplements

Authors: Elena Iacob, Marie-Louise Ionescu, Elena Ionescu, Carmen Elena Tebrencu, Oana Teodora Ciuperca

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Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is an advanced technique frequently used to authenticate both raw materials and final products using their specific fingerprints and to determine plant extracts biomarkers based on their functional groups. In recent years the market for Hypericum has grown rapidly and also has grown the cases of adultery/replacement, especially for Hypericum perforatum L.specie. Presence/absence of same biomarkers provides preliminary identification of Hypericum species in safe use in the manufacture of food supplements. The main objective of the work was to characterize the main biomarkers of Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) and identify this species in herbal food supplements after specific FT-IR fingerprint. An experimental program has been designed in order to test: (1) raw material (St. John's wort); (2)intermediate raw materials (St. John's wort dry extract ); (3) the finished products: tablets based on powders, on extracts, on powder and extract, hydroalcoholic solution from herbal mixture based on St. John's wort. The analyze using FTIR infrared spectroscopy were obtained raw materials, intermediates and finished products spectra, respectively absorption bands corresponding and similar with aliphatic and aromatic structures; examination was done individually and through comparison between Hypericum perforatum L. plant species and finished product The tests were done in correlation with phytochemical markers for authenticating the specie Hypericum perforatum L.: hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, isoquercetin, luteolin, apigenin, hypericin, hyperforin, chlorogenic acid. Samples were analyzed using a Shimatzu FTIR spectrometer and the infrared spectrum of each sample was recorded in the MIR region, from 4000 to 1000 cm-1 and then the fingerprint region was selected for data analysis. The following functional groups were identified -stretching vibrations suggests existing groups in the compounds of interest (flavones–rutin, hyperoside, polyphenolcarboxilic acids - chlorogenic acid, naphtodianthrones- hypericin): oxidril groups (OH) free alcohol type: rutin, hyperoside, chlorogenic acid; C = O bond from structures with free carbonyl groups of aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic, ester: hypericin; C = O structure with the free carbonyl of the aldehyde groups, ketone, carboxylic acid, esteric/C = O free bonds present in chlorogenic acid; C = C bonds of the aromatic ring (condensed aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds) present in all compounds of interest; OH phenolic groups: present in all compounds of interest, C-O-C groups from glycoside structures: rutin, hyperoside, chlorogenic acid. The experimental results show that: (I)The six fingerprint region analysis indicated the presence of specific functional groups: (1) 1000 - 1130 cm-1 (C-O–C of glycoside structures); (2) 1200-1380 cm-1 (carbonyl C-O or O-H phenolic); (3) 1400-1450 cm-1 (C=C aromatic); (4) 1600- 1730 cm-1 (C=O carbonyl); (5) 2850 - 2930 cm-1 (–CH3, -CH2-, =CH-); (6) 338-3920 cm-1 (OH free alcohol type); (II)Comparative FT-IR spectral analysis indicate the authenticity of the finished products ( tablets) in terms of Hypericum perforatum L. content; (III)The infrared spectroscopy is an adequate technique for identification and authentication of the medicinal herbs , intermediate raw material and in the food supplements less in the form of solutions where the results are not conclusive.

Keywords: Authentication, FT-IR fingerprint, Herbal supplements, Hypericum perforatum L.

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99 Factors Associated with Weight Loss Maintenance after an Intervention Program

Authors: Filipa Cortez, Vanessa Pereira

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Introduction: The main challenge of obesity treatment is long-term weight loss maintenance. The 3 phases method is a weight loss program that combines a low carb and moderately high-protein diet, food supplements and a weekly one-to-one consultation with a certified nutritionist. Sustained weight control is the ultimate goal of phase 3. Success criterion was the minimum loss of 10% of initial weight and its maintenance after 12 months. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance after 12 months at the end of 3 phases method. Methods: The study included 199 subjects that achieved their weight loss goal (phase 3). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were obtained at the baseline and every week until the end of the program. Therapeutic adherence was measured weekly on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. Subjects were considered in compliance with nutritional recommendation and supplementation when their classification was ≥ 4. After 12 months of the method, the current weight and number of previous weight-loss attempts were collected by telephone interview. The statistical significance was assumed at p-values < 0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS TM software v.21. Results: 65.3% of subjects met the success criterion. The factors which displayed a significant weight loss maintenance prediction were: greater initial percentage weight loss (OR=1.44) during the weight loss intervention and a higher number of consultations in phase 3 (OR=1.10). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the percentage weight loss during the weight loss intervention and the number of consultations in phase 3 may facilitate maintenance of weight loss after the 3 phases method.

Keywords: obesity, weight maintenance, low-carbohydrate diet, dietary supplements

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
98 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo

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The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
97 Combined Aerobic-Resistance Exercise Training and Broccoli Supplementation on Plasma Decitin-1 and Insulin Resistance in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Ayoub Saeidi, Nikoo Khosravi, Hanieh Nohbaradar, Seyedeh Parya Barzanjeh, Hassane Zouhal

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Exercise training and herbs supplement represent have role in the treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is unclear combined effects of exercise training and herbs supplements on diabetic risk markers. This study aimed to determine the effect of 12 weeks of combined exercise and broccoli supplementation on decitin-1 and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes. Forty-four type 2 diabetes men (age, 48.52 ± 4.36) were randomly allocated to training -supplement (TS, n = 11), training- placebo (TP, n = 11), supplement (S, n = 11) and control- placebo (CP, n = 11) groups. The combined exercise program included 12 weeks, three sessions per week, that each session contained 45 minutes of resistance training with intensity 60-70% of one maximal repetition and 30 minutes aerobic training (running) with intensity 60-70% of maximum heart rate. In addition supplement groups consumed 10 grams of Broccoli per day for 12 weeks. Plasma Decitin-1, HOMA-IR, Insulin, glucose and body composition were assessed before and after training. Plasma Dectin-1, HOMA-IR, glucose and BMI significantly decreased in TS, TP and S groups compared with CP group (P < .05). In addition Insulin and skeletal muscles mass showed significant increase in TS and TP groups compared with S and CP groups (P < .05). It is concluded that both combined exercise training (aerobic-resistance) or broccoli supplement can improve plasma Decitin-1 and insulin resistance in two diabetic patients however combine of exercise training and broccoli supplement have more effective on these markers.

Keywords: broccoli supplements, combined training, decitin-1, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes

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96 Distributing Complementary Food Supplement - Yingyangbao Reducing the Anemia in Young Children in a County of Sichuan Province after Wenchuan Earthquake

Authors: Lijuan Wang, Junsheng Huo, Jing Sun, Wenxian Li, Jian Huang, Lin Ling, Yiping Zhou, Chengyu Huang, Jifang Hu

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Backgrounds and Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of highly nutrient-dense complementary food supplement-Yingyangbao, at the time of 3 months after Wenchuan earthquake, on the anemia of young children in a county in Sichuan province. Methods: The young children aged 6-23 months in the county were fed one sachet Yingyangbao per day. Yingyangbao were distributed for 15 months for free. The children entering 6 months age would be included. The length, weight and hemoglobin of the children aged 6-29 months were assessed at baseline (n=257) and Yingyangbao intervention for 6 (n=218) and 15 months (n=253) by cluster sampling. Growth status has not been described in the paper. The analysis was conducted based on 6-11, 12-17, 18-23 and 24-29 months. Results: It showed that the hemoglobin concentration in each group among the 4 groups increased by 4.9, 6.4, 8.0, 9.5 g/L after 6 months and 12.7, 11.4, 16.7, 15.7 g/L after 15 months compared to the baseline, respectively. The total anemia prevalence in each group was significantly lower after 6 and 15 months than the baseline (P<0.001), except the 6-11 months group after 6 months because of fewer Yingyangbao consumption. Total moderate anemia rate decreased from 18.3% to 5.5% after 6 months, and kept decreasing to 0.8% after another 9 months. The hemoglobin concentration was significantly correlated with the amount of Yingyangbao consumption(P<0.001) The anemia rate was significantly different based on the Yingyangbao compliance (P<0.001). Conclusion: It was concluded that Yingyangbao which contains quality protein, vitamins and micronutrients intervened 15 months could be effective for the improvement of anemia of young children. The study provides the support that the application of the complementary food supplements to reduce the anemia of young children in the emergency of natural disaster.

Keywords: young children, anemia, nutrition intervention, complementary food supplements, Yingyangbao

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95 Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Health Product E-Commerce Market in Singapore

Authors: Andrew Green, Jiaming Liu, Kellathur Srinivasan, Raymond Chua

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Introduction: The size of Singapore’s online health product (HP) market (e-commerce) is largely unknown. However, it is recognized that a large majority comes from overseas and thus, unregulated. As buying HP from unauthorized sources significantly compromises public health safety, understanding e-commerce users’ demographics and their perceptions on online HP purchasing becomes a pivotal first step to form a basis for recommendations in Singapore’s pharmacovigilance efforts. Objective: To assess the prevalence of online HP purchasing behaviour among Singaporean e-commerce users. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study targeting Singaporean e-commerce users recruited from various local websites and online forums. Participants were not randomized into study arms but instead stratified by random sampling method based on participants’ age. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to explore participants' demographics, online HP purchasing behaviour, knowledge and attitude. The association of different variables with online HP purchasing behaviour was analysed using logistic regression statistics. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of HP e-commerce users in Singapore (%) and variables that contribute to the prevalence (adjusted prevalent ratio). Results: The study recruited 372 complete and valid responses. The prevalence of online HP consumers among e-commerce users in Singapore is estimated to be 55.9% (1.7 million consumers). Online purchasing of complementary HP (46.9%) was the most prevalent, followed by medical devices (21.6%) and Western medicine (20.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that age is an independent variable that correlates with the likelihood of buying HP online. The prevalence of HP e-commerce users is highest in the 35-44 age group (64.1%) and lowest among the 16-24 age group (36.4%). The most bought HP through the internet are vitamins and minerals (21.5%), non-herbal (15.9%), herbal (13.9%), weight loss (8.7%) and sports (8.4%) supplements. While the top 3 products are distributed equally between the genders, there is a skew towards female respondents (12.4% in females vs. 4.9% in males) for weight loss supplements and towards males (13.2% in males vs. 3.7% in females) for sports supplements. Even though online consumers are in the younger age brackets, our study found that up to 72.0% of HP bought online are bought for others (buyer’s family and/or friends). Multivariate analysis showed a statistically significant association between purchasing HP through online means and the perceptions that 'internet is safe' (adjusted Prevalence Ratio=1.15, CI 1.03-1.28), 'buying HP online is time saving' (PR=1.17, CI 1.01-1.36), and 'recognition of HP brand' (PR=1.21 CI 1.06-1.40). Conclusions: This study has provided prevalence data for online HP market in Singapore, and has allowed the country’s regulatory body to formulate a targeted pharmacovigilance approach to this growing problem.

Keywords: e-commerce, pharmaceuticals, pharmacovigilance, Singapore

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
94 The Control of Type 2 Diabetes with Specific References to Dietary Factors

Authors: Reham Algheshairy

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The purpose of this research study is to identify the beneficial effects of Nigella sativa seeds, cherries and Ajwah dates on blood glucose levels among people with type 2 diabetes in the KSA population and healthy people in the UK. My hypothesis questions whether or not people with type 2 diabetes can lead a healthier life using these dietary supplements.

Keywords: diabetes type 2, cherry, nigella seeds, Ajwa date

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
93 Corporate Governance in Higher Education: A South African Perspective

Authors: Corlia van der Walt, Michele K. Havenga

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The study considers corporate governance regulation and practice in South African higher education institutions and makes recommendations for the improvement of current governance practices in this sector. The development of corporate governance principles and practices in South Africa, culminating in the King IV Report on Corporate Governance which was launched in November 2016, is discussed. King IV enjoys international recognition as a progressive corporate governance instrument. It was necessitated by the fundamental changes in business and society nationally and globally, as well as by the significant changes to South African company law introduced by new legislation. Corporate governance and the corporate form are narrowly associated, but there is general recognition that the principles of ethical and effective leadership are not restricted to corporations. Thus King IV was drafted with the express aim that it should apply to all organisations, regardless of their form of incorporation, and the report includes specific sector supplements in support of this aspiration. The South African higher education sector has of late been under intense scrutiny, and a few universities have been placed under administration because of poor governance practices. Universities have also been severely impacted by the consequences of what is generally known as ‘#FeesmustFall’, a student led protest movement initially aimed against the increase of fees at public universities, but which rapidly expanded to also include other concerns. It was clearly necessary to revisit corporate governance policy and practice in the sector. The review of the current higher education governance regime in light of the King IV recommendations, lessons from company law regarding the entrenchment and enforcement of corporate governance principles, and a comparison of higher education governance practices in selected other jurisdictions led to recommendations for the improvement of governance practices in South African higher education. It is further suggested that a sector supplement for higher education institutions may provide additional clarity. Some of the recommendations may be of comparative value for international higher education governance.

Keywords: committees, corporate governance, ethical leadership, higher education institutions, integrated reporting, King IV, sector supplements, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
92 Effective and Innovative Health Promotion Interventions for Promoting Life-Long Opportunities through Better Health and Nutrition Beginning from Early Childhood

Authors: Nadeesha Sewwandi, Dilini Shashikala, Rajarathnam Kanapathy, Shivakumaran Viyasan, Saman Kumara, Duminda Guruge

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Introduction: Nutrition is fundamental for good health and development during the early years of life. This study describes how rural community does interventions for improving the nutrition and health of children less than 5 year ages using health promotion approach and this study was conducted with children society and mothers groups in a rural village called Welankulama in Sri Lanka. Methodology: The details got from Public Health Midwife in this village showed there were malnourished children under 5 years age. So, we discussed this problem with the children society, mothers groups and identified the determinants with them. Then they wanted to address some of the determinants that they prioritized from their discussions. ‘Evening school’ was a new place to this village to do collective feeding for small children. ‘Mobile library’ was another new concept in this village and nutrition books, evidence collection were there to read for villagers. Mothers marked the foods given to their kids in a book called ‘Nutrition book’. And also mothers tend to mark the level of eating foods to motivate their children in a ‘Hapana calendar’. Results: In terms of results, malnourished children under 5 years age got reduced and the number of children having illnesses got reduced. Marking nutrition book and ‘Hapana calendar’ were become as trend among mothers. Apart from the above, there was good improvement of physical, social and emotional wellbeing of children. Children who received early stimulation with nutrition supplements had better outcomes than children who only received nutrition supplements, thereby amplifying the impact of nutrition. Conclusion: Health promotion interventions are helped to change nutritional behaviors of early childhood in rural community and it makes children healthier and better able to learn.

Keywords: early childhood, nutrition, determinants, health promotion process

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91 Development of a Plant-Based Dietary Supplement to Address Critical Micronutrient Needs of Women of Child-Bearing Age in Europe

Authors: Sara D. Garduno-Diaz, Ramona Milcheva, Chanyu Xu

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Women’s reproductive stages (pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and lactation) represent a time of higher micronutrient needs. With a healthy food selection as the first path of choice to cover these increased needs, tandem micronutrient supplementation is often required. Because pregnancy and lactation should be treated with care, all supplements consumed should be of quality ingredients and manufactured through controlled processes. This work describes the process followed for the development of plant-based multiple micronutrient supplements aimed at addressing the growing demand for natural ingredients of non-animal origin. A list of key nutrients for inclusion was prioritized, followed by the identification and selection of qualified raw ingredient providers. Nutrient absorption into the food matrix was carried out through natural processes. The outcome is a new line of products meeting the set criteria of being gluten and lactose-free, suitable for vegans/vegetarians, and without artificial conservatives. In addition, each product provides the consumer with 10 vitamins, 6 inorganic nutrients, 1 source of essential fatty acids, and 1 source of phytonutrients each (maca, moringa, and chlorella). Each raw material, as well as the final product, was submitted to microbiological control three-fold (in-house and external). The final micronutrient mix was then tested for human factor contamination, pesticides, total aerobic microbial count, total yeast count, and total mold count. The product was created with the aim of meeting product standards for the European Union, as well as specific requirements for the German market in the food and pharma fields. The results presented here reach the point of introduction of the newly developed product to the market, with acceptability and effectiveness results to be published at a later date.

Keywords: fertility, lactation, organic, pregnancy, vegetarian

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
90 Impact of Two Herbal Seeds Supplementation on Growth Performance and Some Biochemical Blood and Tissue Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Hamada A. Ahmed, Kadry M. Sadek, Ayman E. Taha

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The effects of basil and/or chamomile seed supplementation on the growth of Hubbard broiler chicks were evaluated. The antioxidant effects of these supplements were also assessed. One hundred and twenty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (group 1) was fed a basal diet (BD) without supplementation. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the BD supplemented with 10g basil, 10g chamomile, and 5g basil plus 5g chamomile per kg of food, respectively. Basil supplementation alone or in combination with chamomile non-significantly (P≥0.05) increased final body weight (3.2% and 0.3%, respectively) and weight gain (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively) over the experimental period. Chamomile supplementation alone non-significantly (P≥0.05) reduced final body weight and weight gain over the experimental period by 1.7% and 1.7%, respectively. In comparison to the control group, herbal seed supplementation reduced feed intake and improved the feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. In general, basil seed supplementation stimulated chicken growth and improved the feed efficiency more effectively than chamomile seed supplementation. The antioxidant activities of basil and/or chamomile supplementation were examined in the thymus, bursa, and spleen. In chickens that received supplements, the level of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Supplementation of basil and/or chamomile did not affect blood protein levels, but had lipid-lowering effects as evidenced by reduced serum levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In conclusion, supplementation of basil and/or chamomile improved growth parameters in broiler chicks and had antioxidant and blood lipid-lowering effects. These beneficial effects of basil and/or chamomile supplementation resulted in economically viable production of high-quality white meat containing no harmful residues.

Keywords: herbal additives, basil, chamomile, broiler, growth performance, antioxidant

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
89 A Study of the Effects of Temperatures and Optimum pH on the Specific Methane Production of Perennial Ryegrass during Anaerobic Digestion Process under a Discontinuous Daily Feeding Condition

Authors: Uchenna Egwu, Paul Jonathan Sallis

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Perennial ryegrass is an abundant renewable lignocellulosic biofuel feedstock for biomethane production through anaerobic digestion (AD). In this study, six anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) were set up in three pairs. Each pair of the CSTRs was then used to study the effects of operating temperatures – psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic, and optimum pH on the specific methane production (SMP) of the ryegrass during AD under discontinuous daily feeding conditions. The reactors were fed at an organic loading rate (OLR) ranging from 1-1.5 kgVS.L⁻¹d⁻¹ and hydraulic residence time, HRT=20 days for 140 days. The pH of the digesters was maintained at the range of 6.8-7.2 using 1 M NH₄HCO₃ solution, but this was replaced with biomass ash-extracts from day 105-140. The results obtained showed that the mean SMP of ryegrass measured between HRT 3 and 4 were 318.4, 425.4 and 335 N L CH₄ kg⁻¹VS.d⁻¹ for the psychrophilic (25 ± 2°C), mesophilic (40 ± 1°C) and thermophilic (60 ± 1°C) temperatures respectively. It was also observed that the buffering ability of the reactors increased with operating temperature, probably due to an increase in the solubility of ammonium bicarbonate (NH₄HCO₃) with temperature. The reactors also achieved a mean VS destruction of 61.9, 68.5 and 63.5%, respectively, which signifies that the mesophilic reactors achieved the highest specific methane production (SMP), while the psychrophilic reactors achieved the lowest. None of the reactors attained steady-state condition due to the discontinuous daily feeding times, and therefore, such feeding practice may not be the most effective for maximum biogas production over long periods of time. The addition of NH₄HCO₃ as supplement provided a good buffering condition in these AD digesters, but the digesters failed in the long run due to inhibition from the accumulation of free ammonia, which later led to decrease in pH, acidification, and souring of the digesters. However, the addition of biomass ash extracts was shown to potentially revive failed AD reactors by providing an adequate buffering and essential trace nutrient supplements necessary for optimal bacterial growth.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, discontinuous feeding, perennial ryegrass, specific methane production, supplements, temperature

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88 Effect of High Dose of Vitamin C in Reduction Serum Uric Acid: a Comparative Study between Hyperuricemic and Gouty Patients in Jeddah

Authors: Firas S. Azzeh

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Background: Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development. Hyperuricemia is commonly detected in subjects with abnormal purine metabolism. Prolonged hyperuricemia is an important risk factor for damaged joint and often associated with gout. Objectives: To compare the effect of high dose of vitamin C supplements on uric acid treatment between hyperuricemic and gouty patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as well as finding out the effect of vitamin C on serum creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Subjects and Methods: This comparative study started on April 2013 and lasted tells March 2014. A convenience sample of 30 adults was recruited in this study from Doctor Abdulrahman Taha Bakhsh Hospital in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Eligible persons were assigned into two study groups; hyperuricemic (n=15) and gouty (n=15) groups. Subjects have been accepted for participating in the study after completing the consent form. Each participant consumed 500 mg/day vitamin C chew able tablets. All participants have been followed-up for 2 months. Twelve hours fasting blood samples have been collected 3 times from each participant during the study period; at the beginning before and retested after each month of the study period. Uric acid, serum creatinine and GFR were measured. Results: For gouty group, uric acid increased insignificantly after 2 months by about +0.3 mg/dl. On the other hand, hyperuricemic group showed decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in uric acid after 2 months of study period by about -0.78 mg/dl. Serum creatinine level insignificantly decreased for all participants during the study period, which leaded to insignificant increase in GFR for all participants. Conclusion: Supplementation with 500 mg/day vitamin C for 2 months significantly reduced serum uric acid for hyperuricemic patients and insignificantly increased serum uric acid for gouty patients. The ineffectiveness of vitamin C supplements on patients with established gout could be related to a number of potential reasons.

Keywords: vitamin c, Hyperuricemia, gout, creatinine, GFR

Procedia PDF Downloads 295