Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 483

Search results for: batch digester

483 Kinetic Modeling Study and Scale-Up of Niogas Generation Using Garden Grass and Cattle Dung as Feedstock

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Hilary Rutto

Abstract:

In this study we investigate the use of a laboratory batch digester to derive kinetic parameters for anaerobic digestion of garden grass and cattle dung. Laboratory experimental data from a 5 liter batch digester operating at mesophilic temperature of 32 C is used to derive parameters for Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. These fitted kinetics are further used to predict the scale-up parameters of a batch digester using DynoChem modeling and scale-up software. The scale-up model results are compared with performance data from 20 liter, 50 liter, and 200 liter batch digesters. Michaelis-Menten kinetic model shows to be a very good and easy to use model for kinetic parameter fitting on DynoChem and can accurately predict scale-up performance of 20 liter and 50 liter batch reactor based on parameters fitted on a 5 liter batch reactor.

Keywords: Biogas, kinetics, DynoChem Scale-up, Michaelis-Menten

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482 Modelling the Anaerobic Digestion of Esparto Paper Industry Wastewater Effluent in a Batch Digester Using IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1)

Authors: Boubaker Fezzani, Ridha Ben Cheikh, Tarek Rouissi

Abstract:

In this work the original ADM1, implemented in the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink, was modified and adapted and applied to reproduce the experimental results of the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of Esperto paper industry wastewater in a batch digester. The data set from lab-scale experiment runs were used to calibrate and validate the model. The simulations’ results indicated that the modified ADM1 was able to predict reasonably well the steady state results of gas flows, methane and carbon dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) observed with all influents concentrations.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, mathematical modelling, Simulation, ADM1, batch digester, esparto paper industry effluent, mesophilic temperature

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481 A Further Insight to Foaming in Anaerobic Digester

Authors: Ifeyinwa Rita Kanu, Thomas Aspray, Adebayo J. Adeloye

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As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has been futile at explaining explicitly the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the available knowledge on foam formation and relating it to anaerobic digester process and operating condition, this study presents a succinct and enhanced understanding of foaming in anaerobic digesters as well as introducing a simple and novel method to identify the onset of anaerobic digester foaming based on analysis of historical data from a field scale system.

Keywords: anaerobic digester, foaming, biogas, surfactant, wastewater

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480 Design and Construction of a Solar Mobile Anaerobic Digestor for Rural Communities

Authors: César M. Moreira, Marco A. Pazmiño-Hernández, Marco A. Pazmiño-Barreno, Kyle Griffin, Pratap Pullammanappallil

Abstract:

An anaerobic digestion system that was completely operated on solar power (both photovoltaic and solar thermal energy), and mounted on a trailer to make it mobile, was designed and constructed. A 55-gallon batch digester was placed within a chamber that was heated by hot water pumped through a radiator. Hot water was produced by a solar thermal collector and photovoltaic panels charged a battery which operated pumps for recirculating water. It was found that the temperature in the heating chamber was maintained above ambient temperature but it follows the same trend as ambient temperature. The temperature difference between the chamber and ambient values was not constant but varied with time of day. Advantageously, the temperature difference was highest during night and early morning and lowest near noon. In winter, when ambient temperature dipped to 2 °C during early morning hours, the chamber temperature did not drop below 10 °C. Model simulations showed that even if the digester is subjected to diurnal variations of temperature (as observed in winter of a subtropical region), about 63 % of the waste that would have been processed under constant digester temperature of 38 °C, can still be processed. The cost of the digester system without the trailer was $1,800.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, solar-mobile, rural communities, solar, hybrid

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479 Enhancement in Digester Efficiency and Numerical Analysis for Optimal Design Parameters of Biogas Plant Using Design of Experiment Approach

Authors: Rajneesh, Priyanka Singh

Abstract:

Biomass resources have been one of the main energy sources for mankind since the dawn of civilization. There is a vast scope to convert these energy sources into biogas which is a clean, low carbon technology for efficient management and conversion of fermentable organic wastes into a cheap and versatile fuel and bio/organic manure. Thus, in order to enhance the performance of anaerobic digester, an optimizing analysis of resultant parameters (organic dry matter (oDM) content, methane percentage, and biogas yield) has been done for a plug flow anaerobic digester having mesophilic conditions (20-40°C) with the wet fermentation process. Based on the analysis, correlations for oDM, methane percentage, and biogas yield are derived using multiple regression analysis. A statistical model is developed to correlate the operating variables using the design of experiment approach by selecting central composite design (CCD) of a response surface methodology. Results shown in the paper indicates that as the operating temperature increases the efficiency of digester gets improved provided that the pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) remains constant. Working in an optimized range of carbon-nitrogen ratio for the plug flow digester, the output parameters show a positive change with the variation of dry matter content (DM).

Keywords: biogas, digester efficiency, design of experiment, plug flow digester

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478 Process Development for the Conversion of Organic Waste into Valuable Products

Authors: Ife O. Bolaji

Abstract:

Environmental concerns arising from the use of fossil fuels has increased the interest in the development of renewable and sustainable sources of energy. This would minimize the dependence on fossil fuels and serve as future alternatives. Organic wastes contain carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, which can be utilised as carbon sources for the production of bio-based products. Cellulose is the most abundant natural biopolymer, being the main structural component of lignocellulosic materials. The aim of this project is to develop a biological process for the hydrolysis and fermentation of organic wastes into ethanol and organic acids. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are integrated in a single vessel using undefined mixed culture microorganisms. The anaerobic fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose was investigated in continuous and batch reactors at 25°C with an appropriate growth medium for cellulase formation, hydrolysis, and fermentation. The reactors were inoculated with soil (B1, C1, C3) or sludge from an anaerobic digester (B2, C2) and the breakdown of cellulose was monitored by measuring the production of ethanol, organic acids and the residual cellulose. The batch reactors B1 and B2 showed negligible microbial activity due to inhibition while the continuous reactors, C1, C2 and C3, exhibited little cellulose hydrolysis which was concealed by the cellulose accumulation in the reactor. At the end of the continuous operation, the reactors C1, C2 and C3 were operated under batch conditions. 48%, 34% and 42% cellulose had been fermented by day 88, 55 and 55 respectively of the batch fermentation. Acetic acid, ethanol, propionic acid and butyric acids were the main fermentation products in the reactors. A stable concentration of 0.6 g/l ethanol and 5 g/L acetic acid was maintained in C3 for several weeks due to reduced activity of methanogens caused by the decrease in pH. Thus far, the results have demonstrated that mixed microbial culture is capable of hydrolysing and fermenting cellulose under lenient conditions. The fermentation of cellulose has been found effective in a combination of continuous and batch processes.

Keywords: cellulose, hydrolysis, mixed culture, organic waste

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477 Investigation of Biogas from Slaughterhouse and Dairy Farm Waste

Authors: Saadelnour Abdueljabbar Adam

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Wastes from slaughterhouses in most towns in Sudan are often poorly managed and sometimes discharged into adjoining streams due to poor implementation of standards, thus causing environmental and public health hazards and also there is a large amount of manure from dairy farms. This paper presents a solution of organic waste from cow dairy farms and slaughterhouse. We present the findings of experimental investigation of biogas production using cow manure, blood and rumen content were mixed at three proportions :72.3%, 61%, 39% manure, 6%, 8.5%, 22% blood; and 21.7%, 30.5%, 39% rumen content in volume for bio-digester 1,2,3 respectively. This paper analyses the quantitative and qualitative composition of biogas: gas content, and the concentration of methane. The highest biogas output 0.116L/g dry matter from bio-digester1 together with a high-quality biogas of 85% methane Was from the mixture of cow manure with blood and rumen content were mixed at 72.3%manure, 6%blood and 21.7%rumen content which is useful for combustion and energy production. While bio-digester 2 and 3 gave 0.012L/g dry matter and 0.013L/g dry matter respectively with the weak concentration of methane (50%).

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bio-digester, blood, cow manure, rumen content

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476 Biogas Production from Zebra Manure and Winery Waste Co-Digestion

Authors: Wicleffe Musingarimi

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Currently, the rising energy demand as a result of an increase in the world’s population and the sustainable use of abundant natural resources are key issues facing many developed and developing countries including South Africa. Most of the energy to meet this growing demand comes from fossil fuel. Use of fossil fuels has led to environmental problems such air pollution, climate change, and acid rain. In addition, fossil fuels are facing continual depletion, which has led to the rise in oil prices, leading to the global economies melt down. Hence development of alternative clean and renewable energy source is a global priority. Renewable biomass from forest products, agricultural crops, and residues, as well as animal and municipal waste are promising alternatives. South Africa is one of the leading wine producers in the world; leading to a lot of winery waste (ww) being produced which can be used in anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. Biogas was produced from batch anaerobic digestion of zebra manure (zm) and batch anaerobic co-digestion of winery waste (ww) and zebra manure through water displacement. The batch digester with slurry of winery waste and zebra manure in the weight ratio of 1:2 was operated in a 1L container at 37°C for 30days. Co-digestion of winery waste and zebra manure produced higher amount of biogas as compared to zebra manure alone and winery waste alone. No biogas was produced by batch anaerobic digestion of winery waste alone. Chemical analysis of C/N ratio and total solids (TS) of zebra manure was 21.89 and 25.2 respectively. These values of C/N ratio and TS were quite high compared to values of other studied manures. Zebra manure also revealed unusually high concentration of Fe reaching 3600pm compared to other studies of manure. PCR with communal DNA of the digestate gave a positive hit for the presence of archaea species using standard archea primers; suggesting the presence of methanogens. Methanogens are key microbes in the production of biogas. Therefore, this study demonstrated the potential of zebra manure as an inoculum in the production of biogas.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, co-digestion, methanogens

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475 Repeated Batch Cultivation: A Novel Empty and Fill Strategy for the Enhanced Production of a Biodegradable Polymer, Polyhydroxy Alkanoate by Alcaligenes latus

Authors: Geeta Gahlawat, Ashok Kumar Srivastava

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In the present study, a simple drain and fill protocol strategy of repeated batch was adopted for enhancement in polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production using alcaligenes latus DSM 1124. Repeated batch strategy helped in increasing the longevity of otherwise decaying culture in the bioreactor by supplementing fresh substrates during each cycle of repeated-batch. The main advantages of repeated batch are its ease of operation, enhancement of culture stability towards contamination, minimization of pre-culture effects and maintenance of organism at high growth rates. The cultivation of A. latus was carried out in 7 L bioreactor containing 4 L optimized nutrient medium and a comparison with the batch mode fermentation was done to evaluate the performance of repeated batch in terms of PHAs accumulation and productivity. The statistically optimized medium recipe consisted of: 25 g/L Sucrose, 2.8 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 3.25 g/L KH2PO4, 3.25 g/L Na2HPO4, 0.2 g/L MgSO4, 1.5 mL/L trace element solution. In this strategy, 20% (v/v) of the culture broth was removed from the reactor and supplemented with an equal volume of fresh medium when sucrose concentration inside the reactor decreased below 8 g/L. The fermenter was operated for three repeated batch cycles and fresh nutrient feeding was done at 27 h, 48 h, and 60 h. Repeated batch operation resulted in a total biomass of 27.89 g/L and PHAs concentration 20.55 g/L at the end of 69 h which was a marked improvement as compared to batch cultivation (8.71 g/L biomass and 6.24 g/L PHAs). This strategy demonstrated 3.3 fold and 1.8 fold increase in PHAs concentration and volumetric productivity, respectively as compared to batch cultivation. Repeated batch cultivation strategy had also the benefit of avoiding non-productive time period required for cleaning, refilling and sterilization of bioreactor, thereby increasing the overall volumetric productivity and making the entire process cost-effective too.

Keywords: alcaligenes, biodegradation, polyhydroxyalkanoates, repeated batch

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474 Three-Stage Anaerobic Co-digestion of High-Solids Food Waste and Horse Manure

Authors: Kai-Chee Loh, Jingxin Zhang, Yen-Wah Tong

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Hydrolysis and acidogenesis are the rate-controlling steps in an anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Considering that the optimum conditions for each stage can be diverse diverse, the development of a multi-stage AD system is likely to the AD efficiency through individual optimization. In this research, we developed a highly integrate three-stage anaerobic digester (HM3) to combine the advantages of dry AD and wet AD for anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and horse manure. The digester design comprised mainly of three chambers - high-solids hydrolysis, high-solids acidogenesis and wet methanogensis. Through comparing the treatment performance with other two control digesters, HM3 presented 11.2 ~22.7% higher methane yield. The improved methane yield was mainly attributed to the functionalized partitioning in the integrated digester, which significantly accelerated the solubilization of solid organic matters and the formation of organic acids, as well as ammonia in the high-solids hydrolytic and acidogenic stage respectively. Additionally, HM3 also showed the highest volatile solids reduction rate among the three digesters. Real-time PCR and pyrosequencing analysis indicated that the abundance and biodiversity of microorganisms including bacteria and archaea in HM3 was much higher than that in the control reactors.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, high-solids, food waste and horse manure, microbial community

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473 Increase Daily Production Rate of Methane Through Pasteurization Cow Dung

Authors: Khalid Elbadawi Elshafea, Mahmoud Hassan Onsa

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This paper presents the results of the experiments to measure the impact of pasteurization cows dung on important parameter of anaerobic digestion (retention time) and measure the effect in daily production rate of biogas, were used local materials in these experiments, two experiments were carried out in two bio-digesters (1 and 2) (18.0 L), volume of the mixture 16.0-litre and the mass of dry matter in the mixture 4.0 Kg of cow dung. Pasteurization process has been conducted on the mixture into the digester 2, and put two digesters under room temperature. Digester (1) produced 268.5 liter of methane in period of 49 days with daily methane production rate 1.37L/Kg/day, and digester (2) produced 302.7-liter of methane in period of 26 days with daily methane production rate 2.91 L/Kg/day. This study concluded that the use of system pasteurization cows dung speed up hydrolysis in anaerobic process, because heat to certain temperature in certain time lead to speed up chemical reactions (transfer Protein to Amino acids, Carbohydrate to Sugars and Fat to Long chain fatty acids), this lead to reduce the retention time an therefore increase the daily methane production rate with 212%.

Keywords: methane, cow dung, daily production, pasteurization, increase

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472 Studies on Optimization of Batch Biosorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) from Wastewater Using Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Narasimhulu Korrapati

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The objective of this present study is to optimize the process parameters for batch biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions by Bacillus subtilis using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Batch biosorption studies were conducted under optimum pH, temperature, biomass concentration and contact time for the removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions using Bacillus subtilis. From the studies it is noticed that the maximum biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) was by Bacillus subtilis at optimum conditions of contact time of 30 minutes, pH of 4.0, biomass concentration of 2.0 mg/mL, the temperature of 32°C in batch biosorption studies. Predicted percent biosorption of the selected heavy metal ions by the design expert software is in agreement with experimental results of percent biosorption. The percent biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in batch studies is 80% and 78.4%, respectively.

Keywords: heavy metal ions, response surface methodology, biosorption, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
471 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Duckweed (Lemna gibba) and Waste Activated Sludge in Batch Mode

Authors: Rubia Gaur, Surindra Suthar

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The present study investigates the anaerobic co-digestion of duckweed (Lemna gibba) and waste activated sludge (WAS) of different proportions with acclimatized anaerobic granular sludge (AAGS) as inoculum in mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments were performed in 500 mL capacity reagent bottles at 300C temperature. Varied combinations of pre-treated duckweed biomass with constant volume of anaerobic inoculum (AAGS - 100 mL) and waste activated sludge (WAS - 22.5 mL) were devised into five batch tests. The highest methane generation was observed with batch study, T4. The Gompertz model fits well on the experimental data of the batch study, T4. The values of correlation coefficient were achieved relatively higher (R2 ≥ 0.99). The co-digestion without pre-treatment of both duckweed and WAS shows poor generation of methane gas.

Keywords: aquatic weed, biogas, biomass, Gompertz equation, waste activated sludge

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470 Producing Sustained Renewable Energy and Removing Organic Pollutants from Distillery Wastewater using Consortium of Sludge Microbes

Authors: Anubha Kaushik, Raman Preet

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Distillery wastewater in the form of spent wash is a complex and strong industrial effluent, with high load of organic pollutants that may deplete dissolved oxygen on being discharged into aquatic systems and contaminate groundwater by leaching of pollutants, while untreated spent wash disposed on land acidifies the soil. Stringent legislative measures have therefore been framed in different countries for discharge standards of distillery effluent. Utilising the organic pollutants present in various types of wastes as food by mixed microbial populations is emerging as an eco-friendly approach in the recent years, in which complex organic matter is converted into simpler forms, and simultaneously useful gases are produced as renewable and clean energy sources. In the present study, wastewater from a rice bran based distillery has been used as the substrate in a dark fermenter, and native microbial consortium from the digester sludge has been used as the inoculum to treat the wastewater and produce hydrogen. After optimising the operational conditions in batch reactors, sequential batch mode and continuous flow stirred tank reactors were used to study the best operational conditions for enhanced and sustained hydrogen production and removal of pollutants. Since the rate of hydrogen production by the microbial consortium during dark fermentation is influenced by concentration of organic matter, pH and temperature, these operational conditions were optimised in batch mode studies. Maximum hydrogen production rate (347.87ml/L/d) was attained in 32h dark fermentation while a good proportion of COD also got removed from the wastewater. Slightly acidic initial pH seemed to favor biohydrogen production. In continuous stirred tank reactor, high H2 production from distillery wastewater was obtained from a relatively shorter substrate retention time (SRT) of 48h and a moderate organic loading rate (OLR) of 172 g/l/d COD.

Keywords: distillery wastewater, hydrogen, microbial consortium, organic pollution, sludge

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469 Multi-Subpopulation Genetic Algorithm with Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Textile Batch Dyeing Scheduling Problem

Authors: Nhat-To Huynh, Chen-Fu Chien

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Textile batch dyeing scheduling problem is complicated which includes batch formation, batch assignment on machines, batch sequencing with sequence-dependent setup time. Most manufacturers schedule their orders manually that are time consuming and inefficient. More power methods are needed to improve the solution. Motivated by the real needs, this study aims to propose approaches in which genetic algorithm is developed with multi-subpopulation and hybridised with estimation of distribution algorithm to solve the constructed problem for minimising the makespan. A heuristic algorithm is designed and embedded into the proposed algorithms to improve the ability to get out of the local optima. In addition, an empirical study is conducted in a textile company in Taiwan to validate the proposed approaches. The results have showed that proposed approaches are more efficient than simulated annealing algorithm.

Keywords: estimation of distribution algorithm, genetic algorithm, multi-subpopulation, scheduling, textile dyeing

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468 High Productivity Fed-Batch Process for Biosurfactant Production for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications

Authors: G. A. Amin, A. D. Al-Talhi

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The bacterium B. subtilis produced surfactin in conventional batch culture as a growth associated product and a growth rate (0.4 h-1). A fed-batch process was developed and the fermentative substrate and other nutrients were fed on hourly basis and according to the growth rate of the bacterium. Conversion of different quantities of Maldex-15 into surfactin was investigated in five different fermentation runs. In all runs, most of Maldex-15 was consumed and converted into surfactin and cell biomass with appreciable efficiencies. The best results were obtained with fermentation run supplied with 200 g Maldex-15. Up to 35.4 g.l-1 of surfactin and cell biomass of 30.2 g.l-1 were achieved in 12 hrs. Also, markedly substrate yield of 0.269 g/g and volumetric reactor productivity of 2.61 g.1-1.h-1 were obtained confirming the establishment of a cost effective commercial surfactin production.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, biosurfactant, exponentially fed-batch fermentation, surfactin

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467 Ergosterol Biosynthesis: Non-Conventional Method for Improving Process

Authors: Madalina Postaru, Alexandra Tucaliuc, Dan Cascaval, Anca Irina Galaction

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Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is the precursor of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), known as provitamin D2 as it is converted under UV radiation to this vitamin. The natural sources of ergosterol are mainly the yeasts (Saccharomyces sp., Candida sp.), but it can be also found in fungus (Claviceps sp.) or plants (orchids). As ergosterol is mainly accumulated in yeast cell membranes, especially in free form in the plasma-membrane, and the chemical synthesis of ergosterol does not represent an efficient method for its production, this study aimed to analyze the influence of aeration efficiency on ergosterol production by S. cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch fermentations, by considering different levels of mixing intensity, aeration rate, and n-dodecane concentration. Our previous studies on ergosterol production by S. cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch fermentation systems indicated that the addition of n-dodecane led to the increase of almost 50% of this sterol concentration, the highest productivity being reached for the fed-batch process. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory stirred bioreactor, provided with computer-controlled and recorded parameters. In batch fermentation system, the study indicated that the oxygen mass transfer coefficient, kLa, is amplified for about 3 times by increasing the volumetric concentration of n-dodecane from 0 to 15%. Moreover, the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration by adding n-dodecane leads to the diminution for 3.5 times of the produced alcohol amount. In fed-batch fermentation process, the positive influence of hydrocarbon on oxygen transfer rate is amplified mainly at its higher concentration level, as the result of the increased yeasts cells amount. Thus, by varying n-dodecane concentration from 0 to 15% vol., the kLa value increase becomes more important than for the batch fermentation, being of 4 times

Keywords: ergosterol, yeast fermentation, n-dodecane, oxygen-vector

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466 A Study on the Treatment of Municipal Waste Water Using Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Bhaven N. Tandel, Athira Rajeev

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Sequencing batch reactor process is a suspended growth process operating under non-steady state conditions which utilizes a fill and draw reactor with complete mixing during the batch reaction step (after filling) and where the subsequent steps of aeration and clarification occur in the same tank. All sequencing batch reactor systems have five steps in common, which are carried out in sequence as follows, (1) fill (2) react (3) settle (sedimentation/clarification) (4) draw (decant) and (5) idle. The study was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor of dimensions 44cmx30cmx70cm with a working volume of 40 L. Mechanical stirrer of 100 rpm was used to provide continuous mixing in the react period and oxygen was supplied by fish tank aerators. The duration of a complete cycle of sequencing batch reactor was 8 hours. The cycle period was divided into different phases in sequence as follows-0.25 hours fill phase, 6 hours react period, 1 hour settling phase, 0.5 hours decant period and 0.25 hours idle phase. The study consisted of two runs, run 1 and run 2. Run 1 consisted of 6 hours aerobic react period and run 2 consisted of 3 hours aerobic react period followed by 3 hours anoxic react period. The influent wastewater used for the study had COD, BOD, NH3-N and TKN concentrations of 308.03±48.94 mg/L, 100.36±22.05 mg/L, 14.12±1.18 mg/L, and 24.72±2.21 mg/L respectively. Run 1 had an average COD removal efficiency of 41.28%, BOD removal efficiency of 56.25%, NH3-N removal efficiency of 86.19% and TKN removal efficiency of 54.4%. Run 2 had an average COD removal efficiency of 63.19%, BOD removal efficiency of 73.85%, NH3-N removal efficiency of 90.74% and TKN removal efficiency of 65.25%. It was observed that run 2 gave better performance than run 1 in the removal of COD, BOD and TKN.

Keywords: municipal waste water, aerobic, anoxic, sequencing batch reactor

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465 Evaluating the Process of Biofuel Generation from Grass

Authors: Karan Bhandari

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Almost quarter region of Indian terrain is covered by grasslands. Grass being a low maintenance perennial crop is in abundance. Farmers are well acquainted with its nature, yield and storage. The aim of this paper is to study and identify the applicability of grass as a source of bio fuel. Anaerobic break down is a well-recognized technology. This process is vital for harnessing bio fuel from grass. Grass is a lignocellulosic material which is fibrous and can readily cause problems with parts in motion. Further, it also has a tendency to float. This paper also deals with the ideal digester configuration for biogas generation from grass. Intensive analysis of the literature is studied on the optimum production of grass storage in accordance with bio digester specifications. Subsequent to this two different digester systems were designed, fabricated, analyzed. The first setup was a double stage wet continuous arrangement usually known as a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). The next was a double stage, double phase system implementing Sequentially Fed Leach Beds using an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (SLBR-UASB). The above methodologies were carried for the same feedstock acquired from the same field. Examination of grass silage was undertaken using Biomethane Potential values. The outcomes portrayed that the Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor system produced about 450 liters of methane per Kg of volatile solids, at a detention period of 48 days. The second method involving Leach Beds produced about 340 liters of methane per Kg of volatile solids with a detention period of 28 days. The results showcased that CSTR when designed exclusively for grass proved to be extremely efficient in methane production. The SLBR-UASB has significant potential to allow for lower detention times with significant levels of methane production. This technology has immense future for research and development in India in terms utilizing of grass crop as a non-conventional source of fuel.

Keywords: biomethane potential values, bio digester specifications, continuously stirred tank reactor, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket

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464 Analysis of Efficiency Production of Grass Black Jelly (Mesona palustris) in Double Scale

Authors: Irvan Adhin Cholilie, Susinggih Wijana, Yusron Sugiarto

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The aim of this research is to compare the results of black grass jelly produced using laboratory scale and double scale. In this research, the production from the laboratory scale is using ingredients of 1 kg black grass jelly added with 5 liters of water, while the double scale is using 5 kg black grass jelly and 75 liters of water. The results of organoleptic tests performed by 30 panelists (general) to the sample gels of grass black powder produced from both of laboratory and double scale are not different significantly in color, odor, flavor, and texture. Proximate test results conducted in both of grass black jelly powder produced in laboratory scale and double scale also have no significant differences in all parameters. Grass black jelly powder from double scale contains water, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and yield in the amount of 12,25 %; 43,7 %; 5,89 %; and 16,28 % respectively. The results of the energy efficiency analysis by boiling, draining, evaporation, drying, and milling processes are 85,11 %; 76,97 %; 99,64 %; 99,99% and 99,39% respectively. The utility needs including water needs for each batch amounted 0.1 m3 and cost Rp 220,5 per batch, the electricity needs for each batch is 20.01 kWh and cost Rp 18569.28 per batch, and LPG needs for each batch is 30 kg costed Rp 234,000.00 so that the total cost spent for the process is Rp 252,789.78 .

Keywords: black grass jelly, powder, mass balance, energy balance, cost

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463 Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time

Authors: Ali W. Alattabi, Khalid S. Hashim, Hassnen M. Jafer, Ali Alzeyadi

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This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.

Keywords: ammonia-nitrogen, retention time, nitrate, nitrite, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics

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462 High Titer Cellulosic Ethanol Production Achieved by Fed-Batch Prehydrolysis Simultaneous Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Sulfite Pretreated Softwood

Authors: Chengyu Dong, Shao-Yuan Leu

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Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can reduce our reliance on fossil fuel, mitigate climate change, and stimulate rural economic development. The relative low ethanol production (60 g/L) limits the economic viable of lignocellulose-based biorefinery. The ethanol production can be increased up to 80 g/L by removing nearly all the non-cellulosic materials, while the capital of the pretreatment process increased significantly. In this study, a fed-batch prehydrolysis simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process (PSSF) was designed to converse the sulfite pretreated softwood (~30% residual lignin) to high concentrations of ethanol (80 g/L). The liquefaction time of hydrolysis process was shortened down to 24 h by employing the fed-batch strategy. Washing out the spent liquor with water could eliminate the inhibition of the pretreatment spent liquor. However, the ethanol yield of lignocellulose was reduced as the fermentable sugars were also lost during the process. Fed-batch prehydrolyzing the while slurry (i.e. liquid plus solid fraction) pretreated softwood for 24 h followed by simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process at 28 °C can generate 80 g/L ethanol production. Fed-batch strategy is very effectively to eliminate the “solid effect” of the high gravity saccharification, so concentrating the cellulose to nearly 90% by the pretreatment process is not a necessary step to get high ethanol production. Detoxification of the pretreatment spent liquor caused the loss of sugar and reduced the ethanol yield consequently. The tolerance of yeast to inhibitors was better at 28 °C, therefore, reducing the temperature of the following fermentation process is a simple and valid method to produce high ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulosic ethanol, sulfite pretreatment, Fed batch PSSF, temperature

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461 Comparative Study for Biodiesel Production Using a Batch and a Semi-Continuous Flow Reactor

Authors: S. S. L. Andrade, E. A. Souza, L. C. L. Santos, C. Moraes, A. K. C. L. Lobato

Abstract:

Biodiesel may be produced through transesterification reaction (or alcoholysis), that is the transformation of a long chain fatty acid in an alkyl ester. This reaction can occur in the presence of acid catalysts, alkali, or enzyme. Currently, for industrial processes, biodiesel is produced by alkaline route. The alkali most commonly used in these processes is hydroxides and methoxides of sodium and potassium. In this work, biodiesel production was conducted in two different systems. The first consisted of a batch reactor operating with a traditional washing system and the second consisted of a semi-continuous flow reactor operating with a membrane separation system. Potassium hydroxides was used as catalyst at a concentration of 1% by weight, the molar ratio oil/alcohol was 1/9 and temperature of 55 °C. Tests were performed using soybeans and palm oil and the ester conversion results were compared for both systems. It can be seen that the results for both oils are similar when using the batch reator or the semi-continuous flow reactor. The use of the semi-continuous flow reactor allows the removal of the formed products. Thus, in the case of a reversible reaction, with the removal of reaction products, the concentration of the reagents becomes higher and the equilibrium reaction is shifted towards the formation of more products. The higher conversion to ester with soybean and palm oil using the batch reactor was approximately 98%. In contrast, it was observed a conversion of 99% when using the same operating condition on a semi-continuous flow reactor.

Keywords: biodiesel, batch reactor, semi-continuous flow reactor, transesterification

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460 Small Scale Batch Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straw

Authors: V. H. Nguyen, A. Castalone, C. Jamieson, M. Gummert

Abstract:

Rice straw is an abundant biomass resource in Asian countries that can be used for bioenergy. In continuously flooded rice fields, it can be removed without reducing the levels of soil organic matter. One suitable bioenergy technology is anaerobic digestion (AD), but it needs to be further verified using rice straw as a feedstock. For this study, a batch AD system was developed using rice straw and cow dung. It is low cost, farm scale, with the batch capacity ranging from 5 kg to 200 kg of straw mixed with 10% of cow dung. The net energy balance obtained was from 3000 to 4000 MJ per ton of straw input at 15-18% moisture content. Net output energy obtained from biogas and digestate ranged from 4000 to 5000 MJ per ton of straw. This indicates AD as a potential solution for converting rice straw from a waste to a clean fuel, reducing the environmental footprint caused by current disposal practices.

Keywords: rice straw, anaerobic digestion, biogas, bioenergy

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459 Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol Using Vacuum Fractionation Technique

Authors: Weeraya Samnuknit, Apichat Boontawan

Abstract:

A vacuum fractionation technique was introduced to remove ethanol from fermentation broth. The effect of initial glucose and ethanol concentrations were investigated for specific productivity. The inhibitory ethanol concentration was observed at 100 g/L. In order to increase the fermentation performance, the ethanol product was removed as soon as it is produced. The broth was boiled at 35°C by reducing the pressure to 65 mBar. The ethanol/water vapor was fractionated for up to 90 wt% before leaving the column. Ethanol concentration in the broth was kept lower than 25 g/L, thus minimized the product inhibition effect to the yeast cells. For batch extractive fermentation, a high substrate utilization rate was obtained at 26.6 g/L.h and most of glucose was consumed within 21 h. For repeated-batch extractive fermentation, addition of glucose was carried out up to 9 times and ethanol was produced more than 8-fold higher than batch fermentation.

Keywords: ethanol, extractive fermentation, product inhibition, vacuum fractionation

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458 Hybrid Fermentation System for Improvement of Ergosterol Biosynthesis

Authors: Alexandra Tucaliuc, Alexandra C. Blaga, Anca I. Galaction, Lenuta Kloetzer, Dan Cascaval

Abstract:

Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol), also known as provitamin D2, is the precursor of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), because it is converted under UV radiation to this vitamin. The natural sources of ergosterol are mainly the yeasts (Saccharomyces sp., Candida sp.), but it can be also found in fungus (Claviceps sp.) or plants (orchids). In the yeasts cells, ergosterol is accumulated in membranes, especially in free form in the plasma membrane, but also as esters with fatty acids in membrane lipids. The chemical synthesis of ergosterol does not represent an efficient method for its production, in these circumstances, the most attractive alternative for producing ergosterol at larger-scale remains the aerobic fermentation using S. cerevisiae on glucose or by-products from agriculture of food industry as substrates, in batch or fed-batch operating systems. The aim of this work is to analyze comparatively the influence of aeration efficiency on ergosterol production by S. cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch fermentations, by considering different levels of mixing intensity, aeration rate, and n-dodecane concentration. The effects of the studied factors are quantitatively described by means of the mathematical correlations proposed for each of the two fermentation systems, valid both for the absence and presence of oxygen-vector inside the broth. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory stirred bioreactor, provided with computer-controlled and recorded parameters. n-Dodecane was used as oxygen-vector and the ergosterol content inside the yeasts cells has been considered at the fermentation moment related to the maximum concentration of ergosterol, 9 hrs for batch process and 20 hrs for fed-batch one. Ergosterol biosynthesis is strongly dependent on the dissolved oxygen concentration. The hydrocarbon concentration exhibits a significant influence on ergosterol production mainly by accelerating the oxygen transfer rate. Regardless of n-dodecane addition, by maintaining the glucose concentration at a constant level in the fed-batch process, the amount of ergosterol accumulated into the yeasts cells has been almost tripled. In the presence of hydrocarbon, the ergosterol concentration increased by over 50%. The value of oxygen-vector concentration corresponding to the maximum level of ergosterol depends mainly on biomass concentration, due to its negative influences on broth viscosity and interfacial phenomena of air bubbles blockage through the adsorption of hydrocarbon droplets–yeast cells associations. Therefore, for the batch process, the maximum ergosterol amount was reached for 5% vol. n-dodecane, while for the fed-batch process for 10% vol. hydrocarbon.

Keywords: bioreactors, ergosterol, fermentation, oxygen-vector

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457 Pharmaceutical Scale up for Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: A. Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

Scale-up is defined as the process of increasing batch size. Scale-up of a process viewed as a procedure for applying the same process to different output volumes. There is a subtle difference between these two definitions: batch size enlargement does not always translate into a size increase of the processing volume. In mixing applications, scale-up is indeed concerned with increasing the linear dimensions from the laboratory to the plant size. On the other hand, processes exist (e.g., tableting) where the term ‘scale-up’ simply means enlarging the output by increasing the speed. To complete the picture, one should point out special procedures where an increase of the scale is counterproductive and ‘scale-down’ is required to improve the quality of the product. In moving from Research and Development (R&D) to production scale, it is sometimes essential to have an intermediate batch scale. This is achieved at the so-called pilot scale, which is defined as the manufacturing of drug product by a procedure fully representative of and simulating that used for full manufacturing scale. This scale also makes it possible to produce enough products for clinical testing and to manufacture samples for marketing. However, inserting an intermediate step between R&D and production scales does not, in itself, guarantee a smooth transition. A well-defined process may generate a perfect product both in the laboratory and the pilot plant and then fail quality assurance tests in production.

Keywords: scale up, research, size, batch

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456 Studies of Reduction Metal Impurity in Residual Melt by Czochralski Method

Authors: Jaemin Kim, Ilsun Pang, Yongrae Cho, Kwanghun Kim, Sungsun Baik

Abstract:

Manufacturing cost reduction is becoming more important due to excessive oversupply of Single crystalline ingot in recent solar market. Many companies are carrying out extensive research to grow more than one Single crystalline ingot in one batch to reduce manufacturing cost. However what most companies are finding difficult in this process is the effect on ingot due to increasing levels of impurities. Every ingot leaves a certain amount of melt after it is fully grown. This is the impurity that lowers the ingot quality. This impurity increase in the batch after second, third and more are grown subsequently in one batch. In order to solve this problem, the experiment to remove the residual melt in high temperature of hot zone was performed and succeeded. Theoretical average metal concentration of second ingot by new method was calculated and compared to it by conventional method.

Keywords: single crystal, solar cell, metal impurity, Ingot

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455 Bleaching Liquor Recovery of Batch-Wise and Continuous Method

Authors: Sidra Saleemi, Arsalan Khan, Urooj Baig, Tahir Jamil

Abstract:

In this research, it was examined that some residual amount of bleaching chemicals left in the liquor, this amount is more in Batch-wise process as compared to continuous process. These chemicals can be recovered and reused for bleaching by adding more quantity of fresh bleaching chemicals and water, this quantity will be required to balance the recipe for fabric. This liquor is recovered and samples were bleached with different modified recipe of liquor for both processes i.e. Batch-wise and continuous process. Every time good results were achieved with negligible variation in the quality parameter between the fabric bleached with fresh liquor and the fabric bleached with Recovered Liquor. Additionally, samples were dyed, and found that dyeing can be done easily on samples bleached with recover liquor.

Keywords: bleaching process, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, liquor recovery

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454 Evaluation of Liquid Fermentation Strategies to Obtain a Biofertilizer Based on Rhizobium sp.

Authors: Andres Diaz Garcia, Ana Maria Ceballos Rojas, Duvan Albeiro Millan Montano

Abstract:

This paper describes the initial technological development stages in the area of liquid fermentation required to reach the quantities of biomass of the biofertilizer microorganism Rhizobium sp. strain B02, for the application of the unitary stages downstream at laboratory scale. In the first stage, the adjustment and standardization of the fermentation process in conventional batch mode were carried out. In the second stage, various fed-batch and continuous fermentation strategies were evaluated in 10L-bioreactor in order to optimize the yields in concentration (Colony Forming Units/ml•h) and biomass (g/l•h), to make feasible the application of unit operations downstream of process. The growth kinetics, the evolution of dissolved oxygen and the pH profile generated in each of the strategies were monitored and used to make sequential adjustments. Once the fermentation was finished, the final concentration and viability of the obtained biomass were determined and performance parameters were calculated with the purpose of select the optimal operating conditions that significantly improved the baseline results. Under the conditions adjusted and standardized in batch mode, concentrations of 6.67E9 CFU/ml were reached after 27 hours of fermentation and a subsequent noticeable decrease was observed associated with a basification of the culture medium. By applying fed-batch and continuous strategies, significant increases in yields were achieved, but with similar concentration levels, which involved the design of several production scenarios based on the availability of equipment usage time and volume of required batch.

Keywords: biofertilizer, liquid fermentation, Rhizobium sp., standardization of processes

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